The present study was aimed to evaluate the wound healing activity of extract of bark part of Mimusops elengi. It is well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines. On the basis of traditional use and literature references, this plant was selected for wound healing potential. A methanolic extract of bark parts of Mimusops elengi was examined for wound healing activity in the form of ointment in three types of wound models on mice: the excision, the incision and dead space wound model. The extract ointments showed considerable response in all the above said wound models as comparable to those of a standard drug Betadine ointment in terms of wound contracting ability, wound closure time, tensile strength and dry granuloma weight. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that Mimusops elengi bark extract exhibits significant wound healing
Mimusops elengi; Wound healing; Betadine; methanolic extract
The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2% w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use.
This study evaluated the wound healing potential of Spathodea campanulata stem bark in Sprague Dawley rats using the excision wound model. The methanol extract contained glycosides, flavonoids and tannins, and was relatively stable when stored at the room temperature for six (6) months. Solvent-free, semi-solid extract of S. campanulata was incorporated into an aqueous cream and applied (10 % w/w and 20 % w/w) on excision wounds of thirty two (32) rats. Cicatrin® cream was used as a standard wound healing agent. Prior to the remedial cream application, done later on twice daily, sixteen (16) rats had their wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus, while in the remaining sixteen the wounds were kept clean. The surface area of the excision wounds was monitored planimetrically every four (4) days until a complete wound closure or healing took place. Excision wounds treated with 20 % w/w Spathodea cream and Cicatrin® cream showed a rapid and comparable decrease (p > 0.05) in wound size. In uninfected wounds, both 20 % w/w Spathodea cream and Cicatrin® cream application resulted in ∼ 95 %-wound closure seen on Day 20, and a complete closure seen on Day 24. In infected wounds, both 20 % w/w Spathodea cream and Cicatrin® cream administration led to ∼ 91 %-wound closure on Day 24 and a complete wound contraction on Day 28. The results of this study justify the folkloric use of S. campanulata stem bark to the effect of wound treatment.
Spathodea campanulata; wound healing; excision wound model; Spathodea cream; Cicatrin® cream; wound contraction
Young shoots of Rubus species have been used for healing of wounds, infected insect bites and pimples in folk medicine for ages. In order to evaluate the wound healing activity of Rubus sanctus, four different extracts were prepared from the whole aerial parts of the plant by using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively. Incision wound healing model by using tensiometer on rats and excision model on mice were employed to assess the activity. Remarkable wound healing activity was observed with the ointment formulation of the methanol extract at 1% concentration on the mentioned models. The results of histopathological examination also supported the outcome of both incision and excision wound models. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with a reference ointment Madecassol. The experimental data confirmed the ethnobotanical usage of R. sanctus.
The preliminary phytochemical analysis of Limonia acidissima plant parts such as bark, leaf, rind, pulp and seed showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, glycosides, phenols, gum and mucilage, fixed oils and fats, resins and tannins. Among the five plant parts, pulp possessed high amount of protein and the carbohydrate content was more in seeds and rind is rich was amino acid. The methanolic extracts of L. acidissima plant parts were tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using disc diffusion method. The extracts from different parts showed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity.
Limonia acidissima; stomachic; astringent; diuretic; cardiotonic; carminative; bowel infections; antidote
Achillea species are widely used for diarrhea, abdominal pain, stomachache and healing of wounds in folk medicine. To evaluate the wound healing activity of the plant, extracts were prepared with different solvents; hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively from the roots of Achillea biebersteinii. Linear incision by using tensiometer and circular excision wound models were employed on mice and rats. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with the standard skin ointment Madecassol. The n-hexane extract treated groups of animals showed 84.2% contraction, which was close to contraction value of the reference drug Madecassol (100%). On the other hand the same extract on incision wound model demonstrated a significant increase (40.1%) in wound tensile strength as compared to other groups. The results of histoptological examination supported the outcome of linear incision and circular excision wound models as well. The experimental data demonstrated that A. biebersteinii displayed remarkable wound healing activity.
The efficacy of Centella asiatica for incision and burn wounds are not fully understood. Here, we report the wound healing activities of sequential hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and partial-thickness burn wound models in rats.
Male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into incision and burn wound groups. Each group was stratified into seven subgroups: (1) untreated; (2) NSS-; (3) Tween 20®- (vehicle control); (4) hexane extract-; (5) ethyl acetate extract-; (6) methanol extract-; and (7) aqueous extract-treated groups. The test substances were applied topically once daily. The tensile strength of the incision wound was measured on the seventh day after wound infliction. The general appearance and degree of wound healing of the burn wound were assessed on Days 3, 7, 10 and 14 after burn injury and prior to histopathological evaluation.
On the seventh day after wound infliction, the tensile strength of incision wound in all extract-treated groups was significantly higher than that of the vehicle control (Tween 20®), but comparable to the NSS-treated group. The degrees of healing in the burn wound with the four extracts were significantly higher than that of the control on Days 3, 10 and 14. Histopathological findings on Day 14 after burn injury revealed prominent fibrinoid necrosis and incomplete epithelialization in the control and untreated groups, whereas fully developed epithelialization and keratinization were observed in all extract-treated groups. Analysis by thin layer chromatography demonstrated that the phyto-constituents β-sitosterol, asiatic acid, and asiaticoside and madecassocide were present in the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively.
All extracts of Centella asiatica facilitate the wound healing process in both incision and burn wounds. Asiatic acid in the ethyl acetate extract seemed to be the most active component for healing the wound.
Centella asiatica; Wound healing; Incision wound; Burn wound; Asiatic acid; β-sitosterol; Asiaticoside; Madecassocide
Cephalotaxus spp. are known to possess various therapeutic potentials. Cephalotaxus griffithii, however, has not been evaluated for its biological potential. The reason may be the remoteness and inaccessibility of the habitat where it is distributed. The main aim of this study was to: (1) evaluate multiple biological potentials of stem bark of C. griffithii, and (2) identify solvent extract of stem bark of C. griffithii to find the one with the highest specific biological activity.
Dried powder of stem bark of C. griffithii was exhaustively extracted serially by soaking in petroleum ether, acetone and methanol to fractionate the chemical constituents into individual fractions or extracts. The extracts were tested for total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant (DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, and reducing power models), antibacterial (disc diffusion assay on six bacterial strains), cytotoxic (MTT assay on HeLa cells), and apoptotic activity (fluorescence microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and flow cytometry on HeLa cells).
Among the three extracts of stem bark of C. griffithii, the acetone extract contained the highest amount of total phenolics and flavonoids and showed maximum antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic (IC50 of 35.5 ± 0.6 μg/ml; P < 0.05), and apoptotic (46.3 ± 3.6% sub-G0/G1 population; P < 0.05) activity, followed by the methanol and petroleum ether extracts. However, there was no significant difference observed in IC50 values (DPPH scavenging assay) of the acetone and methanol extracts and the positive control (ascorbic acid). In contrast, superoxide radical scavenging assay-based antioxidant activity (IC50) of the acetone and methanol extracts was significantly lower than the positive control (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis suggested that phenolic and flavonoid content present in stem bark of C. griffithii extracts was responsible for the high antioxidant, cytotoxic, and apoptotic activity (P < 0.05).
Stem bark of C. griffithii has multiple biological effects. These results call for further chemical characterization of acetone extract of stem bark of C. griffithii for specific bioactivity.
Cephalotaxus griffithii; Polyphenol; Antioxidant; Antibacterial; Cytotoxicity; Apoptosis
Background. Sphaeranthus amaranthoides commonly known as sivakaranthai is used in folklore medicine for the treatment of skin diseases.
Methods. The antioxidant activity of the extract and its fraction was evaluated by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity, and total phenolic content. The tested plant extracts showed variable degrees of antioxidant activity. In the present study, methanolic extract of the whole plant of S. amaranthoides and a flavonoid fraction obtained from column chromatography were studied for wound healing activity by incorporating the sample in simple ointment base. Wound healing activity was studied in excision wound model in rats, following which, wound contraction, period of epithelization, hydroxyproline content, and collagen levels in the scab were studied.
Results. Methanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant effect (72.05%) and diethyl ether extract has the least (29.34%) compared to the standard (74.53%). Treatment of wound with ointment containing 5% (w/w) methanolic extract and 5% (w/w) flavonoid fraction exhibited better wound healing activity than positive control (silver sulfadiazine). Finally, histopathology studies conformed wound healing activity in Sphaeranthus amaranthoides. The methanolic extract and flavonoid fraction exhibited good wound healing activity probably due to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid constituents. The methanolic extract and flavonoid fraction significantly enhanced the rate of wound contraction and the period of epithelialization comparable to silver sulfadiazine.
Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of methanolic, sequential extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and alkaloid rich fractions of Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten was carried out. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, tannins and saponins that have been associated with antimicrobial activity. The stem and root bark methanolic extracts showed good activity against the bacterial strains used including the multiple drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 15.6 to 500 µg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 31.25 to 500 µg/ml. The sequential extracts of the root and stem bark had high antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 3.9 and 250 µg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) ranging between 7.8 and 500 µg/ml against the tested microorganisms. The dichloromethane extract of the alkaloid rich fractions however exhibited reduced antibacterial activities as compared to methanol and sequential extracts but the dichloromethane:methanol (4:1) mixture showed high activity with MICs ranging between 15.6 and 250 µg/ml. These antibacterial efficacy studies suggest that Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten could be a source of antibacterial agents.
Tabernaemontana stapfiana; Antibacterial; MICs; MBCs
The effects of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrott. and Rich.) Taubert (Fabaceae) on bleeding/clotting and coagulation time, excision and dead space wounds were studied in rats. Also, the extract was subjected to antibacterial, and acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) tests. The extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced bleeding/clotting and coagulation time in rats. It also reduced epithelialization period of excision wounds in rats and inhibited the growth of laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae to varying extents. Acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) test on the extract established an LD50 of 774 mg/kg (i.p) in mice while phytochemical analysis gave positive reactions for alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and carbohydrates. The results of this study demonstrate the beneficial effects of the stem bark of P. africana in wound care.
Haemostatic activity; antibacterial activity; Prosopis africana; wound care
The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial and preliminary phytochemical properties of Lantana indica Roxb. The aqueous and organic solvent (ethyl acetate and methanol) extracts from the leaves of Lantana indica (Verbenaceae) were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Steptococcus pyrogens, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans by agar well diffusion method. The results showed promising antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. Among these, methanol and aqueous extracts were found to possess a more potent inhibitory effect when compared to the ethyl acetate extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, tannins and flavonoidal glycosides. The result of this study validates the use of methanol and aqueous extract of this species in ethnomedicine, favouring the isolation of antibacterial agents from the leaf extract of Lantana indica.
Lantana indica; agar well diffusion method; antimicrobial activity
Natural products have numerous medicinal applications and play important roles in the biology of the organisms that accumulate them. Flavonoids are one large group of natural products with a diverse number of functions in plants and in human health. The isolates of the flowers of Ipomoea carnea (Family: Convolvulaceae) was screened for wound-healing activity on the male wistar rats by Excision wound model and Incision wound model respectively. The studies on excision wound model reveals significant wound healing activity of the extract, which is comparable with the reference control sulphathiazole. The isolates of Ipomoea carnea show significant activity on all wound models.
Ipomoea carnea; Wound-healing activity; Kaempferol; Kaempferol-3-O-â-D-glucoside
Ethyl acetate(EA) extract of the stem bark of Cylicodiscus gabunensis (CG) was analysed phytochemically and evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against 17 pathogenic species isolated from patient: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus feacalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus T, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, polyphenols, coumarins, triterpenes and/or sterols and reducing sugars were detected in the (EA) extract of CG. The best MIC and MBC values for the microorganisms sensitive to the extract were 0.00078 and 0.00315 mg/ml respectively. The greater and remarkable antimicrobial activity of the (EA) extract of CG was recorded with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus cereus T. These results provide a rationalization for the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of infections diseases.
Antimicrobial activity; Cylicodiscus gabunensis
The present study was performed to evaluate the preventive and curative antidiarrheal effects of the methanol extract, fractions and compound from the stem bark of Trilepisium madagascariense in rats.
Materials and Methods:
The methanol extract from the stem bark of T. madagascariense, its fractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous residue) and compound (obtained from further column chromatography of the ethyl acetate fraction) were evaluated for the antidiarrheal activity in rats. These test samples (at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for the extract and fractions and 2.5 mg/kg for compound) were assayed on the latent periods, purging indices and fecal frequencies in castor oil-induced diarrhea. Gastrointestinal transit and castor oil-induced enteropooling assays were conducted. Shigella-induced diarrhea was assayed. Blood chemistry and fecal Shigella load were examined.
The fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from the methanol extract of T. madagascariense afforded a known compound [isoliquiritigenin (1)]. Compound 1 increased the latent period of diarrhea induction (179.40 min) compared to the saline control (60.80 min). The purging indices, fecal frequencies and intestinal enteropooling decreased with an increase in the dose of test samples. The blood cell counts, sera creatinine and fecal Shigella load decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in the plant extract-treated rats compared to the saline control.
The results of our study, being reported for the first time, provide clear evidence that the methanol extract, fractions and isoliquiritigenin from T. madagascariense stem bark possess antidiarrheal activities.
Antidiarrheal; castor oil; isoliquiritigenin; Shigella; Trilepisium madagascariense
The antibacterial activity of the leaves and bark of mangrove plants, Avicennia marina, A. officinalis, Bruguiera sexangula, Exoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, and Rhizophora apiculata was evaluated against antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus sp. Soxhlet extracts of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water were prepared and evaluated the antibacterial activity using agar diffusion method. Most of the plant extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against both bacterial species. However, higher antibacterial activity was observed for Staphylococcus aureus than Proteus sp. The highest antibacterial activity was shown by ethyl acetate of mature leaf extracts of E. agallocha for Staphylococcus aureus. All ethyl acetate extracts showed higher inhibition against S. aureus while some extracts of chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol gave inhibition against Proteus sp. None of the petroleum ether and aqueous extracts showed inhibition against Proteus sp. All fresh plant materials did also show more antibacterial activity against both bacterial strains than did dried plant extracts. Antibacterial activity of fresh and dried plant materials reduced for both bacterial strains with time after extraction. Since L. racemosa and A. marina gave the best inhibition for bacterial species, they were used for further investigations. Charcoal treated plant extracts of L. racemosa and A. marina were able to inhibit both bacterial strains more than those of untreated plant extracts. Phytochemical screening of mature leaf, bark of L. racemosa and leaf extracts of A. marina has been carried out and revealed that leaf and bark contained alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids and flavonoids. None of the above extracts indicate the presence of saponins and cardiac glycosides. Separated bands of extracts by TLC analysis showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus.
Antibacterial activity; inhibition; mangroves; soxhlet extraction
Juniperus and Cupressus genera are mainly used as diuretic, stimulant, and antiseptic, for common cold and wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, essential oils obtained from cones of Cupressus and berries of Juniperus were evaluated for their wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by linear incision and circular excision experimental wound models, assessment of hydroxyproline content, and subsequently histopathological analysis. The healing potential was comparatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol. Additionally acetic-acid-induced capillary permeability test was used for the oils' anti-inflammatory activity. The essential oils of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea demonstrated the highest activities, while the rest of the species did not show any significant wound healing effect. The experimental study revealed that J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea display remarkable wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities, which support the folkloric use of the plants.
In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum), a plant widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of alcoholic and aqueous extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of alcoholic and aqueous extract of O. sanctum. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision, excision and dead space wounds in extract-treated rats and controls. Both the doses of alcoholic and aqueous extract significantly increased wound breaking strength, hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid, hexosamines, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and significantly decreased percentage of wound contraction and lipid peroxidation when compared with the control group. The results suggest that O. sanctum has antioxidant properties, which may be responsible and favorable for faster wound healing and this plant extract may be useful in the management of abnormal healing and hypertropic scars.
antioxidant property; Ocimum sanctum; wound healing activity
Actaea spicata Linn. (Ranunculaceae) has been traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as rheumatism, inflammation, nerve diseases, lumbago, scrofula and chorea, but no systematic phytochemical and pharmacological work has ever been carried out on this potential plant. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of phenols and flavonoids in A. spicata. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken to estimate total phenols and flavonoids in methanol extract of A. spicata roots, and its ethyl acetate fraction. In vitro antioxidant activity was also evaluated in the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction using DPPH method. Ethyl acetate fraction was found to contain twice the content of flavonoids and phenols in comparison to methanolic extract, whereas phenolic content in methanol extract was approximately similar to ethyl acetate fraction. A significant antioxidant activity, i.e., mean percentage inhibition of DPPH radical was observed in methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction at the concentration of 10 μg/ml and 5 μg/ml respectively. Finally, it was suggested that polyphenols are responsible for antioxidant activity of A. spicata.
Actaea spicata; antioxidant activity; flavonoids; phenols
The present study reports protective activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) was administered orally to the rats with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3 gm/kg). Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as positive control. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of ethyl acetate fraction revealed presence of its major chemical constituents. A significant (P < 0.05) reduction in serum enzymes GOT (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), GPT alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin content and histopathological screening in the rats treated gave indication that ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra possesses hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Ceiba pentandra; hepatoprotective; hepatotoxicity; paracetamol
Hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DM), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (M) extracts
(0.1, 0.2 and 0.4mg/ml) were obtained via Soxhlet from Plathymenia
reticulata barks (Pr). These extracts were evaluated against the
myotoxicity (58%) and the irreversible in vitro neuromuscular
blockade of Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) venom (40μg/ml)
in a mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparation, by using light-microscopy and
conventional myographic techniques. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to
access the basic composition of extracts. The efficacy of the extracts was
analyzed by Student's t-test or repeated measures ANOVA.
The significance level was set at 5%. The Pr extracts showed a higher
polyphenols content (3.75%), from which tannins take part, around 20 times more
than flavonoids content (0.16%). Qualitatively, via TLC, DM and EA extracts
showed higher tannins concentration than the HEX and M extracts.
Pharmacologically, at 0.4mg/ml, DM was more effective (92 ± 6.2%) than EA
(81.3 ±10%) = HEX, 77.2 ±4.7%) > M (54 ±10%)
against the toxic effects of the venom. Morphologically, DM extract preserved
intact 52.8% of the muscle fibers in the presence of the venom. We concluded
that P. reticulata extracts are able to inhibit toxic effects
of B. jararacussu venom, whose protective mechanism could be
mediated by tannins.
Bothrops jararacussu; neuromuscular preparation; snake venom; tannin; polyphenol; flavonoid; Plathymenia reticulata
The leaves of Carapa guianensis have been used to treat ulcers, skin parasites, and skin problems. The ethanolic extract of C. guianensis leaf was evaluated for its antibacterial and wound healing activity using excision, incision and dead space wound models in rats. The animals were randomly divided into two groups (n = 6) in all the models. In the excision wound model test group animals were treated topically with the leaf extract (250 mg kg−1 body weight) whereas, control animals were treated with petroleum jelly. In the incision and dead space wound models, the test group animals were treated with extract (250 mg kg−1 day−1) orally by mixing in drinking water and the control group animals were maintained with plain drinking water. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, skin breaking strength, granulation tissue weight and hydoxyproline content. On Day 15 extract-treated animals exhibited 100% reduction in the wound area when compared to controls (95%) with significant decrease in the epithelialization period. The extract failed to demonstrate antibacterial activity. Skin breaking strength (P < .001), wet (P < .002) and dry (P < .02) granulation tissue and hydroxyproline content (P < .03) were significantly higher in extract treated animals. The increased rate of wound contraction, skin breaking strength and hydroxyproline content supports potential application of C. guianensis in wound healing.
To investigate the wound-healing potency of the ethanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis.
Materials and Methods:
The wound-healing activity of H. rosa sinensis (5 and 10% w/w) on Wistar albino rats was studied using three different models viz., excision, incision and dead space wound. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision model, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and collagen content in dead space wound model, percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelization in excision wound model. The granulation tissue formed on days 4, 8, 12, and 16 (post-wound) was used to estimate total collagen, hexosamine, protein, DNA and uronic acid. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The extract increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, total protein and total collagen content of granulation tissues. The extract-treated wounds were found to heal much faster as indicated by improved rates of epithelialization and wound contraction. The extract of H. rosa sinensis significantly (P<0.001) increased the wound-breaking strength in the incision wound model compared to controls. The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelialize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly (P<0.001) increased as compared to control wounds. Wet and dry granulation tissue weights in a dead space wound model increased significantly (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in wound closure rate, tensile strength, dry granuloma weight, wet granuloma weight and decrease in epithelization period in H. rosa sinensis-treated group as compared to control and standard drug-treated groups.
The ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinensis had greater wound-healing activity than the nitrofurazone ointment.
Collagen; granulation tissue; granuloma tissue; Hibiscus rosa sinensis; tensile strength
Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (Amaranthaceae) is a herbaceous plant used against inflammation, cough, and diarrhea in Brazilian popular medicine. In our preliminary study, promising wound healing activity of methanol extract of leaves of A. brasiliana (MEAB) was observed in normal excision and incision wound models. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the wound healing activity along with the antioxidant enzyme profile during cutaneous excision immunocompromised wound after topical application of 5% w/w ointment of MEAB in rats. Immunocompromised state was induced by pretreatment with hydrocortisone (HC) at 40 mg/kg body weight (i.m.) in male rats. Following one-week pretreatment with HC, wounds were created. The vehicle, 5% (w/w) ointment of MEAB, or standard drug (Himax) was applied topically twice daily. Healing potential was evaluated by the rate of wound contraction, estimation of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants like catalase, SOD, GSH, protein, vitamin C, and hydroxyproline content, which was supported by histopathological study on the 8th day following wounding. There was significant increase in the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant parameters in the extract-reated group as compared to control group. Histopathological study revealed collagen deposition, fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis, and development of basement membrane in A. brasiliana group. The results of the present investigation revealed significant wound healing activity of MEAB.
The fruiting branches of Colutea cilicica Boiss. & Bal., along with leaves and fruits, have been used to heal inflammatory wounds at traditional medicine in various parts of Turkey. In order to evaluate the wound healing activity of the plant, aqueous extracts were prepared from the flowering parts and fruits of Colutea cilicica Boiss. & Bal. by using 40°C distilled water. Incision wound healing models by using tensiometer on rats and excision wound healing models on mice were employed to assess the activity. Significant wound healing activity was observed when ointment formulation of the aqueous extract at 1% concentration was applied on the mentioned models. The fruit extract treated the groups of animals, showing a 78.1% contraction in wounds, which was close to the contraction value of the reference drug Madecassol (100%). On the other hand, the same extract used on the incision wound model demonstrated a significant increase (42%) in wound tensile strength, compared to the flowering aerial parts. Histopathological examination also supported the results shown in both the incision and excision wound models. The wound healing effect was evaluated and compared with the reference ointment Madecassol. Moreover, zinc and vitamin C levels in the fruit (9480 ± 0 mcg g−1; 389 mg g−1) and flowering aerial part (6609 ± 1 mcg g−1; 404 mg g−1) extracts, which might have contributed to the wound healing process, were determined. The experimental data confirmed the traditional usage of C. cilicica Boiss. & Bal.