The present study was aimed to evaluate the wound healing activity of extract of bark part of Mimusops elengi. It is well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines. On the basis of traditional use and literature references, this plant was selected for wound healing potential. A methanolic extract of bark parts of Mimusops elengi was examined for wound healing activity in the form of ointment in three types of wound models on mice: the excision, the incision and dead space wound model. The extract ointments showed considerable response in all the above said wound models as comparable to those of a standard drug Betadine ointment in terms of wound contracting ability, wound closure time, tensile strength and dry granuloma weight. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that Mimusops elengi bark extract exhibits significant wound healing
Mimusops elengi; Wound healing; Betadine; methanolic extract
The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2% w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use.
Young shoots of Rubus species have been used for healing of wounds, infected insect bites and pimples in folk medicine for ages. In order to evaluate the wound healing activity of Rubus sanctus, four different extracts were prepared from the whole aerial parts of the plant by using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively. Incision wound healing model by using tensiometer on rats and excision model on mice were employed to assess the activity. Remarkable wound healing activity was observed with the ointment formulation of the methanol extract at 1% concentration on the mentioned models. The results of histopathological examination also supported the outcome of both incision and excision wound models. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with a reference ointment Madecassol. The experimental data confirmed the ethnobotanical usage of R. sanctus.
This study evaluated the wound healing potential of Spathodea campanulata stem bark in Sprague Dawley rats using the excision wound model. The methanol extract contained glycosides, flavonoids and tannins, and was relatively stable when stored at the room temperature for six (6) months. Solvent-free, semi-solid extract of S. campanulata was incorporated into an aqueous cream and applied (10 % w/w and 20 % w/w) on excision wounds of thirty two (32) rats. Cicatrin® cream was used as a standard wound healing agent. Prior to the remedial cream application, done later on twice daily, sixteen (16) rats had their wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus, while in the remaining sixteen the wounds were kept clean. The surface area of the excision wounds was monitored planimetrically every four (4) days until a complete wound closure or healing took place. Excision wounds treated with 20 % w/w Spathodea cream and Cicatrin® cream showed a rapid and comparable decrease (p > 0.05) in wound size. In uninfected wounds, both 20 % w/w Spathodea cream and Cicatrin® cream application resulted in ∼ 95 %-wound closure seen on Day 20, and a complete closure seen on Day 24. In infected wounds, both 20 % w/w Spathodea cream and Cicatrin® cream administration led to ∼ 91 %-wound closure on Day 24 and a complete wound contraction on Day 28. The results of this study justify the folkloric use of S. campanulata stem bark to the effect of wound treatment.
Spathodea campanulata; wound healing; excision wound model; Spathodea cream; Cicatrin® cream; wound contraction
The preliminary phytochemical analysis of Limonia acidissima plant parts such as bark, leaf, rind, pulp and seed showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, glycosides, phenols, gum and mucilage, fixed oils and fats, resins and tannins. Among the five plant parts, pulp possessed high amount of protein and the carbohydrate content was more in seeds and rind is rich was amino acid. The methanolic extracts of L. acidissima plant parts were tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using disc diffusion method. The extracts from different parts showed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity.
Limonia acidissima; stomachic; astringent; diuretic; cardiotonic; carminative; bowel infections; antidote
Achillea species are widely used for diarrhea, abdominal pain, stomachache and healing of wounds in folk medicine. To evaluate the wound healing activity of the plant, extracts were prepared with different solvents; hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively from the roots of Achillea biebersteinii. Linear incision by using tensiometer and circular excision wound models were employed on mice and rats. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with the standard skin ointment Madecassol. The n-hexane extract treated groups of animals showed 84.2% contraction, which was close to contraction value of the reference drug Madecassol (100%). On the other hand the same extract on incision wound model demonstrated a significant increase (40.1%) in wound tensile strength as compared to other groups. The results of histoptological examination supported the outcome of linear incision and circular excision wound models as well. The experimental data demonstrated that A. biebersteinii displayed remarkable wound healing activity.
The efficacy of Centella asiatica for incision and burn wounds are not fully understood. Here, we report the wound healing activities of sequential hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and partial-thickness burn wound models in rats.
Male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into incision and burn wound groups. Each group was stratified into seven subgroups: (1) untreated; (2) NSS-; (3) Tween 20®- (vehicle control); (4) hexane extract-; (5) ethyl acetate extract-; (6) methanol extract-; and (7) aqueous extract-treated groups. The test substances were applied topically once daily. The tensile strength of the incision wound was measured on the seventh day after wound infliction. The general appearance and degree of wound healing of the burn wound were assessed on Days 3, 7, 10 and 14 after burn injury and prior to histopathological evaluation.
On the seventh day after wound infliction, the tensile strength of incision wound in all extract-treated groups was significantly higher than that of the vehicle control (Tween 20®), but comparable to the NSS-treated group. The degrees of healing in the burn wound with the four extracts were significantly higher than that of the control on Days 3, 10 and 14. Histopathological findings on Day 14 after burn injury revealed prominent fibrinoid necrosis and incomplete epithelialization in the control and untreated groups, whereas fully developed epithelialization and keratinization were observed in all extract-treated groups. Analysis by thin layer chromatography demonstrated that the phyto-constituents β-sitosterol, asiatic acid, and asiaticoside and madecassocide were present in the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively.
All extracts of Centella asiatica facilitate the wound healing process in both incision and burn wounds. Asiatic acid in the ethyl acetate extract seemed to be the most active component for healing the wound.
Centella asiatica; Wound healing; Incision wound; Burn wound; Asiatic acid; β-sitosterol; Asiaticoside; Madecassocide
Cephalotaxus spp. are known to possess various therapeutic potentials. Cephalotaxus griffithii, however, has not been evaluated for its biological potential. The reason may be the remoteness and inaccessibility of the habitat where it is distributed. The main aim of this study was to: (1) evaluate multiple biological potentials of stem bark of C. griffithii, and (2) identify solvent extract of stem bark of C. griffithii to find the one with the highest specific biological activity.
Dried powder of stem bark of C. griffithii was exhaustively extracted serially by soaking in petroleum ether, acetone and methanol to fractionate the chemical constituents into individual fractions or extracts. The extracts were tested for total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant (DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, and reducing power models), antibacterial (disc diffusion assay on six bacterial strains), cytotoxic (MTT assay on HeLa cells), and apoptotic activity (fluorescence microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and flow cytometry on HeLa cells).
Among the three extracts of stem bark of C. griffithii, the acetone extract contained the highest amount of total phenolics and flavonoids and showed maximum antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic (IC50 of 35.5 ± 0.6 μg/ml; P < 0.05), and apoptotic (46.3 ± 3.6% sub-G0/G1 population; P < 0.05) activity, followed by the methanol and petroleum ether extracts. However, there was no significant difference observed in IC50 values (DPPH scavenging assay) of the acetone and methanol extracts and the positive control (ascorbic acid). In contrast, superoxide radical scavenging assay-based antioxidant activity (IC50) of the acetone and methanol extracts was significantly lower than the positive control (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis suggested that phenolic and flavonoid content present in stem bark of C. griffithii extracts was responsible for the high antioxidant, cytotoxic, and apoptotic activity (P < 0.05).
Stem bark of C. griffithii has multiple biological effects. These results call for further chemical characterization of acetone extract of stem bark of C. griffithii for specific bioactivity.
Cephalotaxus griffithii; Polyphenol; Antioxidant; Antibacterial; Cytotoxicity; Apoptosis
Background. Sphaeranthus amaranthoides commonly known as sivakaranthai is used in folklore medicine for the treatment of skin diseases.
Methods. The antioxidant activity of the extract and its fraction was evaluated by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity, and total phenolic content. The tested plant extracts showed variable degrees of antioxidant activity. In the present study, methanolic extract of the whole plant of S. amaranthoides and a flavonoid fraction obtained from column chromatography were studied for wound healing activity by incorporating the sample in simple ointment base. Wound healing activity was studied in excision wound model in rats, following which, wound contraction, period of epithelization, hydroxyproline content, and collagen levels in the scab were studied.
Results. Methanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant effect (72.05%) and diethyl ether extract has the least (29.34%) compared to the standard (74.53%). Treatment of wound with ointment containing 5% (w/w) methanolic extract and 5% (w/w) flavonoid fraction exhibited better wound healing activity than positive control (silver sulfadiazine). Finally, histopathology studies conformed wound healing activity in Sphaeranthus amaranthoides. The methanolic extract and flavonoid fraction exhibited good wound healing activity probably due to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid constituents. The methanolic extract and flavonoid fraction significantly enhanced the rate of wound contraction and the period of epithelialization comparable to silver sulfadiazine.
Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl–hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5–7.5 mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25–7.5 mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5–7.5 mg/mL and 2.5–10 mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7 μg/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1 μg/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w) showed significant (P < 0.05) wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant (P < 0.05) wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these may justify the medicinal uses of the plants for treatment of microbial infections and wounds.
Wound healing agents support the natural healing process, reduce trauma and likelihood of secondary infections and hasten wound closure. The wound healing activities of water in oil cream of the methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) was evaluated in rats with superficial skin excision wounds. Antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Echerichia coli were determined. The total flavonoid content, antioxidant properties and thin layer chromatographic fingerprints of the extract were also evaluated. The extract demonstrated antioxidant properties with a total flavonoid content of 12.30±0.09 mg/g. Six reproducible spots were obtained using methanol:water (95:5) as the mobile phase. The extract showed no antimicrobial activity on the selected microorganisms, which are known to infect and retard wound healing. Creams containing H. sabdariffa extract showed significant (P<0.05) and concentration dependent wound healing activities. There was also evidence of synergism with creams containing a combination of gentamicin and H. sabdariffa extract. This study, thus, provides evidence of the wound healing potentials of the formulated extract of the calyces of H. sabdariffa and synergism when co-formulated with gentamicin.
Antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity; Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx; water in oil cream; wound healing
Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenes, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic acid, sterols, and glycosides. This study was intended to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of various extracts of fresh leaves of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn experimentally by in vitro (human red blood cell membrane stabilization method) and in vivo methods (0.1 ml of 1% w/v carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model). Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, alcohol, and aqueous extracts were screened for in vitro antiinflammatory activity. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts which showed, best in vitro antiinflammatory activity was screened for in vivo antiinflammatory activity at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Indomethacin at the dose level of 10 mg/kg was used as reference standard drug. Both the extracts showed a dose dependent significant (P<0.001) reduction in paw edema when compared to the control, at all the time intervals and comparable to indomethacin (reference standard) treated group. The results of the present study demonstrate that petroleum ether and chloroform extracts possess significant (P<0.001) antiinflammatory potential which provide scientific basis for the traditional claims of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn leaves as an antiinflammatory drug.
Antiinflammatory activity; carrageenan; Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn; human red blood cells membrane; verbenaceae
Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of methanolic, sequential extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and alkaloid rich fractions of Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten was carried out. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, tannins and saponins that have been associated with antimicrobial activity. The stem and root bark methanolic extracts showed good activity against the bacterial strains used including the multiple drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 15.6 to 500 µg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 31.25 to 500 µg/ml. The sequential extracts of the root and stem bark had high antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 3.9 and 250 µg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) ranging between 7.8 and 500 µg/ml against the tested microorganisms. The dichloromethane extract of the alkaloid rich fractions however exhibited reduced antibacterial activities as compared to methanol and sequential extracts but the dichloromethane:methanol (4:1) mixture showed high activity with MICs ranging between 15.6 and 250 µg/ml. These antibacterial efficacy studies suggest that Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten could be a source of antibacterial agents.
Tabernaemontana stapfiana; Antibacterial; MICs; MBCs
The present study was carried out to assess the phytochemical and anti-dermatophytic effect of the leaf and bark extracts of Xylosma longifolium Clos. The leaf and stem bark are used by the indigenous people of Manipur, India for treatment of skin diseases.
The leaves and stem barks of Xylosma longifolium were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol respectively. The different extracts of each plant parts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. The phenolic content was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Each extracts was further analysed by RP-HPLC to quantify some individual flavonoid components. The anti-dermatophytic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Microsporum boullardii MTCC 6059, M. canis (MTCC 2820 and MTCC 32700), M. gypseum MTCC 2819, Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878, T. rubrum (MTCC 296 and MTCC 3272).
The free radical scavenging activity values were ranged from 0.7 to 1.41 mg/ml and 0.6 to 1.23 mg/ml, respectively for leaf and stem bark extracts. The amount of total phenolic contents of the extracts occurred in both leaf and bark in the range of 12 to 56.6 mg GAE/100 g and 16 to 58 mg GAE/100 g respectively. RP-HPLC analysis for flavonoids revealed the presence of two major flavonoid compounds, rutin and catechin. Kaempferol was in trace or absent. Methanol leaf extract showed significant low inhibitory effect against tested fungus Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878 (0.140625 mg/ml) as the most sensitive. These finding suggest that the methanol leaf extract tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties.
The results of our study may partially justify the folkloric uses on the plant studied and further provide an evidence that the leaf extract of Xylosma longifolium might be indeed a potential sources of antimicrobial agents.
Xylosma Longifolium; Phenolic; Flavonoid; Antioxidant; RP-HPLC; Anti-Dermatophytic
The effects of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrott. and Rich.) Taubert (Fabaceae) on bleeding/clotting and coagulation time, excision and dead space wounds were studied in rats. Also, the extract was subjected to antibacterial, and acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) tests. The extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced bleeding/clotting and coagulation time in rats. It also reduced epithelialization period of excision wounds in rats and inhibited the growth of laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae to varying extents. Acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) test on the extract established an LD50 of 774 mg/kg (i.p) in mice while phytochemical analysis gave positive reactions for alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and carbohydrates. The results of this study demonstrate the beneficial effects of the stem bark of P. africana in wound care.
Haemostatic activity; antibacterial activity; Prosopis africana; wound care
The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial and preliminary phytochemical properties of Lantana indica Roxb. The aqueous and organic solvent (ethyl acetate and methanol) extracts from the leaves of Lantana indica (Verbenaceae) were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Steptococcus pyrogens, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans by agar well diffusion method. The results showed promising antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. Among these, methanol and aqueous extracts were found to possess a more potent inhibitory effect when compared to the ethyl acetate extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, tannins and flavonoidal glycosides. The result of this study validates the use of methanol and aqueous extract of this species in ethnomedicine, favouring the isolation of antibacterial agents from the leaf extract of Lantana indica.
Lantana indica; agar well diffusion method; antimicrobial activity
Natural products have numerous medicinal applications and play important roles in the biology of the organisms that accumulate them. Flavonoids are one large group of natural products with a diverse number of functions in plants and in human health. The isolates of the flowers of Ipomoea carnea (Family: Convolvulaceae) was screened for wound-healing activity on the male wistar rats by Excision wound model and Incision wound model respectively. The studies on excision wound model reveals significant wound healing activity of the extract, which is comparable with the reference control sulphathiazole. The isolates of Ipomoea carnea show significant activity on all wound models.
Ipomoea carnea; Wound-healing activity; Kaempferol; Kaempferol-3-O-â-D-glucoside
To evaluate the antioxidant potential of the phenolic extracts of Mimusops elengi (M. elengi) L. (Sapotaceae).
The extract of stem bark and seeds of M. elengi were prepared in methanol and acetone:water (7:3). The acetone: water was further partitioned with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Antioxidant activity of the extracts and partitioned fractions of M. elengi was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (DPPH), inhibition of lipid peroxidation [ferric thiocyanate (FTC)], and total antioxidant activity (phosphomolybdate method). Total phenolics content were calculated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.
The stem bark extract partitioned with ethyl acetate exhibited highest amount of total phenols (98.0 mg GAE/g dry weight), among all other extracts, with 92.0% DPPH radical scavenging activity at concentration of 0.5 mg/mL, while methanol extract (stem bark) had maximum inhibition of lipid peroxidation (62.0%) and total antioxidant activity (771.0 mg/g GAE/g). A positive correlation occurred between total phenols and radical scavenging activity (R2 = 0.922 9) and total antioxidant activity (R2 = 0.945 1).
Our study suggested that antioxidant activity of stembark extract of M. elengi is due the presence of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, the bark extract is a valuable source of natural antioxidants.
Antioxidant activity; DPPH; Mimusops elengi L.; Percentage inhibition; Total phenolics content
To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16th days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future.
Antimicrobial activity; excision wound; incision wound; Wedelia biflora
Ethyl acetate(EA) extract of the stem bark of Cylicodiscus gabunensis (CG) was analysed phytochemically and evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against 17 pathogenic species isolated from patient: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus feacalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus T, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, polyphenols, coumarins, triterpenes and/or sterols and reducing sugars were detected in the (EA) extract of CG. The best MIC and MBC values for the microorganisms sensitive to the extract were 0.00078 and 0.00315 mg/ml respectively. The greater and remarkable antimicrobial activity of the (EA) extract of CG was recorded with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus cereus T. These results provide a rationalization for the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of infections diseases.
Antimicrobial activity; Cylicodiscus gabunensis
The present study was performed to evaluate the preventive and curative antidiarrheal effects of the methanol extract, fractions and compound from the stem bark of Trilepisium madagascariense in rats.
Materials and Methods:
The methanol extract from the stem bark of T. madagascariense, its fractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous residue) and compound (obtained from further column chromatography of the ethyl acetate fraction) were evaluated for the antidiarrheal activity in rats. These test samples (at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for the extract and fractions and 2.5 mg/kg for compound) were assayed on the latent periods, purging indices and fecal frequencies in castor oil-induced diarrhea. Gastrointestinal transit and castor oil-induced enteropooling assays were conducted. Shigella-induced diarrhea was assayed. Blood chemistry and fecal Shigella load were examined.
The fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from the methanol extract of T. madagascariense afforded a known compound [isoliquiritigenin (1)]. Compound 1 increased the latent period of diarrhea induction (179.40 min) compared to the saline control (60.80 min). The purging indices, fecal frequencies and intestinal enteropooling decreased with an increase in the dose of test samples. The blood cell counts, sera creatinine and fecal Shigella load decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in the plant extract-treated rats compared to the saline control.
The results of our study, being reported for the first time, provide clear evidence that the methanol extract, fractions and isoliquiritigenin from T. madagascariense stem bark possess antidiarrheal activities.
Antidiarrheal; castor oil; isoliquiritigenin; Shigella; Trilepisium madagascariense
Argyreia nervosa (Convolvulaceae) plant is an example of hallucinogenic plant. The antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anticonvulsant, nootropic, antifertility and aphrodisiac properties have already been reported for this plant.
The aim of present work was to evaluate the wound healing property in normal and diabetic animals by oral and topical administration of ethanolic extract of leaves.
Materials and Methods:
Phytochemical investigations showed the presence of various biochemicals (alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, triterpenoids, proteins, saponins, steroids, tannins). A single injection of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.) prepared in citrate buffer (0.1 M, pH 4.5) was administered to produce diabetes in rats and mice, after overnight fasting. Excision wounds (sized 300 mm2 and of 2 mm depth) were used for the study of rate of contraction of wound and epithelization. The means of wound area measurement between groups at different time intervalswere compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnet's test.
Extracts of A. nervosa showed significant wound healing effect in normal (topically treated) and diabetic (both topically and orally treated) rats. In diabetic rats, the topically treated group showed more significant effect than the orally treated groups.
The present study demonstrates that A. nervosa leaves extract applied topically promotes healing of wounds more significantly as compared to oral application, in both normal rats and alloxan induced diabetic rats, where healing is otherwise delayed.
Alloxan; diabetes; wound healing
Acalypha manniana (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant popularly used in Cameroon and in several parts of Africa for the treatment of various microbial diseases like diarrhea and skin infections.
The present study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial and radical-scavenging activities of A. manniana methanol leaf extract and its fractions.
The methanol extract was partitioned into hexane, ethyl acetate and residual fractions and phytochemical analysis was conducted using standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial species and four dermatophyte species. The free radical scavenging activities of the methanol extract and its fractions were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay.
The results obtained showed that A. manniana contains alkaloids, tannins, anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenols and steroids. The methanol extract as well as the hexane, ethyl acetate and residual fractions exhibited both antibacterial and antidermatophytic activities that varied between the microbial species (MIC = 0.12 – 2.04 mg/mL). These tested samples also showed high radical-scavenging activities (RaS50 = 3.34 – 4.80 μg/mL) when compared with vitamin C used as reference antioxidant (RaS50 = 1.74 μg/mL).
These findings provide evidence that the studied plant possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and may act as potential antioxidant for biological systems susceptible to free radical-mediated reactions.
Acalypha manniana; Euphorbiaceae; Extracts; Phytochemicals; Antimicrobials; Free radical scavenging
The antibacterial activity of the leaves and bark of mangrove plants, Avicennia marina, A. officinalis, Bruguiera sexangula, Exoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, and Rhizophora apiculata was evaluated against antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus sp. Soxhlet extracts of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water were prepared and evaluated the antibacterial activity using agar diffusion method. Most of the plant extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against both bacterial species. However, higher antibacterial activity was observed for Staphylococcus aureus than Proteus sp. The highest antibacterial activity was shown by ethyl acetate of mature leaf extracts of E. agallocha for Staphylococcus aureus. All ethyl acetate extracts showed higher inhibition against S. aureus while some extracts of chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol gave inhibition against Proteus sp. None of the petroleum ether and aqueous extracts showed inhibition against Proteus sp. All fresh plant materials did also show more antibacterial activity against both bacterial strains than did dried plant extracts. Antibacterial activity of fresh and dried plant materials reduced for both bacterial strains with time after extraction. Since L. racemosa and A. marina gave the best inhibition for bacterial species, they were used for further investigations. Charcoal treated plant extracts of L. racemosa and A. marina were able to inhibit both bacterial strains more than those of untreated plant extracts. Phytochemical screening of mature leaf, bark of L. racemosa and leaf extracts of A. marina has been carried out and revealed that leaf and bark contained alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids and flavonoids. None of the above extracts indicate the presence of saponins and cardiac glycosides. Separated bands of extracts by TLC analysis showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus.
Antibacterial activity; inhibition; mangroves; soxhlet extraction
To establish the wound healing activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of roots of Ficus racemosa (F. racemosa).
Two models were performed to evaluate the wound healing activity i.e. incision and excision models. In incision model the parameter which was carried out was breaking strength of wounded skin. In excision model percentage wound contraction and period of epithelialization were established for both the extracts. Reference standard drug was povidone iodine ointment for comparison with other groups.
From the observation in both two models, aqueous extract of F. racemosa was found to have greater wound healing activity in terms of breaking strength in incision model and percentage wound contraction, period of epithelialization in excision model than that of other groups.
In conclusion, our findings suggest that aqueous extract of F. racemosa possesses better wound healing ability than the ethanolic extract.
Ficus racemosa; Incision; Excision; Phytochemical analysis; Povidone iodine