Compounds with a ‘stuffed anti-bixbyite’ structure, such as Li3AlN2, were analysed in terms of both the extended Zintl–Klemm concept and the coordination-defect concept. For the first time, inorganic crystal structures are seen as a set of ‘multiple resonance structures’ (Klemm pseudo-structures) which co-exist as the result of unexpected electron transfers between any species pair comprising either like or unlike atoms, cations or anions. If this is the driving force controlling crystal structures, the conventional oxidation states assigned to cations and anions lose some of their usefulness.
The bixbyite structure (Mn2O3) () is often described as a distorted face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) array of Mn atoms, with O atoms occupying 3/4 of the tetrahedral holes. The empty M
4 tetrahedra are centred at 16c. In anti-bixbyite structures (Mg3N2), cation vacancies are centred in empty N4 tetrahedra. If 16 hypothetical atoms were located at this site they would form the structure of γ-Si. This means that anti-bixbyite structures are ideally prepared to accommodate Si(Ge) atoms at these holes. Several compounds (Li3AlN2 and Li3ScN2) fully satisfy this expectation. They are really anti-bixbyites ‘stuffed’ with Al(Sc). The presence of these atoms in 16c is illuminated in the light of the extended Zintl–Klemm concept (EZKC) [Vegas & García-Baonza (2007 ▶). Acta Cryst. B63, 339–345], from which a compound would be the result of ‘multiple resonance’ pseudo-structures, emerging from electron transfers between any species pair (like or unlike atoms, cations or anions). The coordination-defect (CD) concept [Bevan & Martin (2008) ▶. J. Solid State Chem.
181, 2250–2259] is also consistent with the EZKC description of the pseudo-structures. A more profound insight into crystal structures is gained if one is not restricted to the contemplation of classical anions and cations in their conventional oxidation states.
Zintl–Klemm concept; coordination-defect concept; multiple resonance structure; electron transfer
The elastic strain sustainable in crystal lattices is usually limited by the onset of inelastic yielding mediated by discrete dislocation activity, displacive deformation twinning and stress-induced phase transformations, or fracture associated with flaws. Here we report a continuous and gradual lattice deformation in bending nickel nanowires to a reversible shear strain as high as 34.6%, which is approximately four times that of the theoretical elastic strain limit for unconstrained loading. The functioning deformation mechanism was revealed on the atomic scale by an in situ nanowire bending experiments inside a transmission electron microscope. The complete continuous lattice straining process of crystals has been witnessed in its entirety for the straining path, which starts from the face-centred cubic lattice, transitions through the orthogonal path to reach a body-centred tetragonal structure and finally to a re-oriented face-centred cubic structure.
In bulk materials crystal lattices typically have a limited resistance to elastic strain, beyond which yielding and plastic deformation occur. Here, using in situ transmission electron microscopy, a continuous elastic lattice deformation is observed in nickel nanowires, up to a strain of 34.6%.
We have determined the magnetic structures of single-crystal thin-films of IrMn3 for the crystallographic phases of chemically-ordered L12, and for chemically-disordered face-centred-cubic, which is the phase typically chosen for information-storage devices. For the chemically-ordered L12 thin-film, we find the same triangular magnetic structure as reported for the bulk material. We determine the magnetic structure of the chemically-disordered face-centred-cubic alloy for the first time, which differs from theoretical predictions, with magnetic moments tilted away from the crystal diagonals towards the face-planes. We study the influence of these two antiferromagnetic structures on the exchange-bias properties of an epitaxial body-centred-cubic Fe layer showing that magnetization reversal mechanism and bias-field in the ferromagnetic layer is altered significantly. We report a change of reversal mechanism from in-plane nucleation of 90° domain-walls when coupled to the newly reported cubic structure towards a rotational process, including an out-of-plane magnetization component when coupled to the L12 triangular structure.
Glyceryl monooleate (GMO)/poloxamer 407 cubic nanoparticles were investigated as potential oral drug delivery systems to enhance the bioavailability of the water-insoluble model drug simvastatin. The simvastatin-loaded cubic nanoparticles were prepared through fragmentation of the GMO/poloxamer 407 bulk cubic-phase gel using high-pressure homogenization. The internal structure of the cubic nanoparticles was identified by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The mean diameter of the cubic nanoparticles varied within the range of 100–150 nm, and both GMO/poloxamer 407 ratio and theoretical drug loading had no significant effect on particle size and distribution. Almost complete entrapment with efficiency over 98% was achieved due to the high affinity of simvastatin to the hydrophobic regions of the cubic phase. Release of simvastatin from the cubic nanoparticles was limited both in 0.1 M hydrochloride solution containing 0.2% sodium lauryl sulfate and fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid with a total release of <3.0% at 10 h. Pharmacokinetic profiles in beagle dogs showed sustained plasma levels of simvastatin for cubic nanoparticles over 12 h. The relative oral bioavailability of simvastatin cubic nanoparticles calculated on the basis of area under the curve was 241% compared to simvastatin crystal powder. The enhancement of simvastatin bioavailability was possibly attributable to facilitated absorption by lipids in the formulation rather than improved release.
cubic nanoparticles; glyceryl monooleate; oral bioavailability; poloxamer 407; simvastatin
We demonstrate a simple one-step process for the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticle aqueous colloids using the multifunctional molecule, dodecylamine (DDA), that electrostatically complexes with aqueous iron ions (one precursor Fe2+ from FeCl2), reduces them, and subsequently caps the nanoparticles. The iron oxide particles thus synthesized are of the face-centered cubic (FCC) phase with high degree of monodispersity with appropriate concentration of amine capping molecular layer. The aqueous magnetic nanocrystalline colloids were characterized by TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA/DTA and FTIR spectroscopy techniques. The relaxivity, stability, and hydrodynamic size of the nanoparticles were investigated for potential application in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The magnetic properties were also studied by using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer at room temperature. We believe that such simple one-step synthesis of biocompatible aqueous nanomagnetic colloids will have viable applications in biomedical imaging, diagnostics and therapeutics.
The low-energy structures (LESs) of adatom clusters on a series of metal face-centered cubic (fcc) (110) surfaces are systematically studied by the genetic algorithm, and a simplified model based on the atomic interactions is developed to explain the LESs. Two different kinds of LES group mainly caused by the different next nearest-neighbor (NNN) adatom-adatom interaction are distinguished, although the NNN atomic interaction is much weaker than the nearest-neighbor interaction. For a repulsive NNN atomic interaction, only the linear chain is included in the LES group. However, for an attractive one, type of structure in the LES group is various and replace gradually one by one with cluster size increasing. Based on our model, we also predict the shape feature of the large cluster which is found to be related closely to the ratio of NN and NNN bond energies, and discuss the surface reconstruction in the view of atomic interaction. The results are in accordance with the experimental observations.
PACS: 68.43.Hn; 68.43.Fg.
supported cluster; structure; shape; metal surface
The orientational geometry of residue packing in proteins was studied in the past by superimposing clusters of neighboring residues with several simple lattices.1,2 In this work, instead of a lattice we use the regular polyhedron, the icosahedron, as the model to describe the orientational distribution of contacts in clusters derived from a high-resolution protein dataset (522 protein structures with high resolution < 1.5Å). We find that the order parameter (orientation function) measuring the angular overlap of directions in coordination clusters with directions of the icosahedron is 0.91, which is a significant improvement in comparison with the value 0.82 for the order parameter with the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice. Close packing tendencies and patterns of residue packing in proteins is considered in detail and a theoretical description of these packing regularities is proposed.
residue packing in proteins; icosahedron; packing pattern
The maximum capacity of a hydrophobic adsorbent is interpreted in terms of square or hexagonal (cubic and face-centered-cubic, FCC) interfacial packing models of adsorbed blood proteins in a way that accommodates experimental measurements by the solution-depletion method and quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM) for the human proteins serum albumin (HSA, 66 kDa), immunoglobulin G (IgG, 160 kDa), fibrinogen (Fib, 341 kDa), and immunoglobulin M (IgM, 1000 kDa). A simple analysis shows that adsorbent capacity is capped by a fixed mass/volume (e.g. mg/mL) surface-region (interphase) concentration and not molar concentration. Nearly analytical agreement between the packing models and experiment suggests that, at surface saturation, above-mentioned proteins assemble within the interphase in a manner that approximates a well-ordered array. HSA saturates a hydrophobic adsorbent with the equivalent of a single square-or-hexagonally-packed layer of hydrated molecules whereas the larger proteins occupy two-or-more layers, depending on the specific protein under consideration and analytical method used to measure adsorbate mass (solution depletion or QCM). Square-or-hexagonal (cubic and FCC) packing models cannot be clearly distinguished by comparison to experimental data. QCM measurement of adsorbent capacity is shown to be significantly different than that measured by solution depletion for similar hydrophobic adsorbents. The underlying reason is traced to the fact that QCM measures contribution of both core protein, water of hydration, and interphase water whereas solution depletion measures only the contribution of core protein. It is further shown that thickness of the interphase directly measured by QCM systematically exceeds that inferred from solution-depletion measurements, presumably because the static model used to interpret solution depletion does not accurately capture the complexities of the viscoelastic interfacial environment probed by QCM.
Protein adsorption; solution depletion; quartz crystal microbalance; interphase
Ag and Cu nanocrystals (NCs) were assembled into ordered porous anodic alumina (OPAA) by a single-potential-step chronoamperometry technique. The composition, morphology, microstructure, and optical property were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and optical absorption spectroscopy. The results indicate that metallic NCs/OPAA composite possesses a significant surface plasmon resonance absorption. For continuous electrodeposition, metallic nanowires are smooth and uniform with face-centered cubic (fcc) single-crystalline structure; however, for interval electrodeposition, the nanowires are bamboo-like or pearl-chain-like with fcc polycrystalline structure. The length of the nanoparticle nanowires or the single-crystalline nanowires can be controlled well by adjusting the experimental cycle times or the continuous depositing time. The transverse dipole resonance of metallic NCs enhances and displays a blue shift with increasing electrodeposition time or experimental cycle times, which is consistent with Zong's results but contradictory to Duan's results. The formation mechanisms of the nanoparticle nanowires and the single-crystalline nanowires were discussed in detail.
Nanostructures; Chemical synthesis; Electron microscopy; Optical properties
Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) are a ubiquitous group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of primary amines to aldehydes coupled to the reduction of O2 to H2O2. These enzymes utilize a wide range of substrates from methylamine to polypeptides. Changes in CAO activity are correlated with a variety of human diseases, including diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease, and inflammatory disorders. CAOs contain a cofactor, 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ), that is required for catalytic activity and synthesized through the post-translational modification of a tyrosine residue within the CAO polypeptide. TPQ generation is a self-processing event only requiring the addition of oxygen and Cu(II) to the apoCAO. Thus, the CAO active site supports two very different reactions: TPQ synthesis, and the two electron oxidation of primary amines. Crystal structures are available from bacterial through to human sources, and have given insight into substrate preference, stereospecificity, and structural changes during biogenesis and catalysis. In particular both these processes have been studied in crystallo through the addition of native substrates. These latter studies enable intermediates during physiological turnover to be directly visualized, and demonstrate the power of this relatively recent development in protein crystallography.
amine oxidase; copper; biogenesis; catalysis; cofactor; protein crystallography
Chemically disordered face centered cubic (fcc) FePt nanoparticles (NPs) show the controlled release of Fe in low pH solution. The released Fe catalyzes H2O2 decomposition into reactive oxygen species within cells, causing fast oxidation and deterioration of cellular membrane. Functionalized with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) peptide via phospholipid, the fcc-FePt NPs can bind preferentially to the human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780) that over-expresses LHRH receptors, and exhibit high toxicity to these tumor cells. In contrast, the fcc-FePt NPs pre-etched in the low pH (4.8) buffer solution show non-appreciable cytotoxicity. The work demonstrates that fcc-FePt NPs may function as a new type of agent for controlled cancer therapy.
We have developed a simple but powerful method and web server to quickly locate charged and hydrophobic clusters in proteins (http://www.netasa.org/qgrid/index.html). For the charged clusters, each atom in the protein is first assigned a charge according to a standard force field. Then a box is created with dimensions corresponding to the range of atomic coordinates. This box is then divided into cubic grids of selected size, which now have one or more charged atoms in them. This leaves each grid with a certain amount of charge. Cubic grids with more than a cutoff charge are then clustered using a hierarchical clustering method based on Euclidean distance. A tree diagram made from the resulting clusters indicates the distribution of charged and hydrophobic regions of the protein. Hydrophobic clusters are developed by grouping the positions of Cα atoms of such residues. We propose that such a tree representation will be helpful in detecting protein–protein interfaces, structure similarity and motif detection.
Although deformation processes in submicron-sized metallic crystals are well documented, the direct observation of deformation mechanisms in crystals with dimensions below the sub-10-nm range is currently lacking. Here, through in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations, we show that (1) in sharp contrast to what happens in bulk materials, in which plasticity is mediated by dislocation emission from Frank-Read sources and multiplication, partial dislocations emitted from free surfaces dominate the deformation of gold (Au) nanocrystals; (2) the crystallographic orientation (Schmid factor) is not the only factor in determining the deformation mechanism of nanometre-sized Au; and (3) the Au nanocrystal exhibits a phase transformation from a face-centered cubic to a body-centered tetragonal structure after failure. These findings provide direct experimental evidence for the vast amount of theoretical modelling on the deformation mechanisms of nanomaterials that have appeared in recent years.
Deformations in nanocrystals smaller than 10 nm are not well understood. The authors perform compression high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies of gold nanoparticles, and determine that the nanoparticles deform through the emission of partial dislocations from free surfaces.
The purpose of this study was to design and investigate the transdermal controlled release cubic phase gels containing capsaicin using glycerol monooleate (MO), propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol, PG), and water. Three types of cubic phase gels were designed based on the ternary phase diagram of the MO–PG–water system, and their internal structures were confirmed by polarizing light microscopy (PLM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Release results showed the cubic phase gels could provide a sustained system for capsaicin, while the initial water content in the gels was the major factor affecting the release rate. Release kinetics was determined to fit Higuchi’s square-root equation indicating that the release was under diffusion control. The calculated diffusion exponent showed the release from cubic phase gels was anomalous transport. The unique structure of the cubic phases, capsaicin distributed in the lipid bilayers, and cubic phase gel swelling contributed to the release mechanism. The cubic phase gel may be an interesting application for transdermal delivery system of capsaicin in alleviating the post-incision pain.
capsaicin; cubic phase gel; kinetics
transition-metal oxides are important functional materials
in areas such as energy and information storage. The cubic ABO3 perovskite is an archetypal example of this class, formed
by the occupation of small octahedral B-sites within an AO3 network defined by larger A cations. We show that introduction of
chemically mismatched octahedral cations into a cubic perovskite oxide
parent phase modifies structure and composition beyond the unit cell
length scale on the B sublattice alone. This affords an endotaxial
nanocomposite of two cubic perovskite phases with distinct properties.
These locally B-site cation-ordered and -disordered phases share a
single AO3 network and have enhanced stability against
the formation of a competing hexagonal structure over the single-phase
parent. Synergic integration of the distinct properties of these phases
by the coherent interfaces of the composite produces solid oxide fuel
cell cathode performance superior to that expected from the component
phases in isolation.
Hexalithium calcium disamarium(III) ditantalum(V) dodecaoxide, Li6CaSm2Ta2O12, crystallizes in a cubic garnet-type structure. In the crystal structure, disordered Li atoms occupy two crystallographic sites. One Li has a tetrahedral coordination environment in the oxide lattice, whereas the other Li atom occupies a significantly distorted octahedral site, with site occupancies for the two Li atoms of 0.26 (7) and 0.44 (2), respectively. Ca and Sm atoms are statistically distributed over the same crystallographic position with a occupancy of 2/3 for Sm and of 1/3 for Ca, and are eightfold coordinated by O atoms. The TaO6 octahedron is joined to six others via corner-sharing LiO4 tetrahedra. One Li and the O atoms lie on general positions, while the other atoms are situated on special positions. The Sm/Ca position has 222, Ta has , and the tetrahedrally coordinated Li atom has site symmetry.
Experimental evidences are presented showing unusually large and highly anisotropic vibrations in the “simple cubic” (SC) unit cell adopted by calcium over a broad pressure ranging from 30–90 GPa and at temperature as low as 40 K. X-ray diffraction patterns show a preferential broadening of the (110) Bragg reflection indicating that the atomic displacements are not isotropic but restricted to the  plane. The unusual observation can be rationalized invoking a simple chemical perspective. As the result of pressure-induced s → d transition, Ca atoms situated in the octahedral environment of the simple cubic structure are subjected to Jahn-Teller distortions. First-principles molecular dynamics calculations confirm this suggestion and show that the distortion is of dynamical nature as the cubic unit cell undergoes large amplitude tetragonal fluctuations. The present results show that, even under extreme compression, the atomic configuration is highly fluxional as it constantly changes.
In this study, Pb-filled ZnO nanowires [Pb(core)/ZnO(shell)] were synthesized by a simple and novel one-step vapor transport and condensation method by microwave-assisted decomposition of zinc ferrite. The synthesis was performed using a conventional oven at 1000 W and 5 min of treatment. After synthesis, a spongy white cotton-like material was obtained in the condensation zone of the reaction system. HRTEM analysis revealed that product consists of a Pb-(core) with (fcc) cubic structure that preferentially grows in the  direction and a hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-(Shell) that grows in the  direction. Nanowire length was more than 5 μm and a statistical analysis determined that the shell and core diameters were 21.00 ± 3.00 and 4.00 ± 1.00 nm, respectively. Experimental, structural details, and synthesis mechanism are discussed in this study.
Summary: Studies on proteins are often restricted to highly simplified models to face the immense computational complexity of the associated problems. Constraint-based protein structure prediction (CPSP) tools is a package of very fast algorithms for ab initio optimal structure prediction and related problems in 3D HP-models [cubic and face centered cubic (FCC)]. Here, we present CPSP-web-tools, an interactive online interface of these programs for their immediate use. They include the first method for the direct prediction of optimal energies and structures in 3D HP side-chain models. This newest extension of the CPSP approach is described here for the first time.
Availability and Implementation: Free access at http://cpsp.informatik.uni-freiburg.de
Contact: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
A recently proposed electronic structure-based force field called the explicit polarization (X-Pol) potential is used to study many-body electronic polarization effects in a protein, in particular by carrying out a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) in water with periodic boundary conditions. The primary unit cell is cubic with dimensions ~54 × 54 × 54 Å3, and the total number of atoms in this cell is 14281. An approximate electronic wave function, consisting of 29026 basis functions for the entire system, is variationally optimized to give the minimum Born–Oppenheimer energy at every MD step; this allows the efficient evaluation of the required analytic forces for the dynamics. Intramolecular and intermolecular polarization and intramolecular charge transfer effects are examined and are found to be significant; for example, 17 out of 58 backbone carbonyls differ from neutrality on average by more than 0.1 electron, and the average charge on the six alanines varies from −0.05 to +0.09. The instantaneous excess charges vary even more widely; the backbone carbonyls have standard deviations in their fluctuating net charges from 0.03 to 0.05, and more than half of the residues have excess charges whose standard deviation exceeds 0.05. We conclude that the new-generation X-Pol force field permits the inclusion of time-dependent quantum mechanical polarization and charge transfer effects in much larger systems than was previously possible.
The structure of the title compound, MnII[FeIII(CN)6]2/3·5H2O, features a face-centered cubic –Mn—NC—Fe– framework with both Mn and Fe having site symmetry m
m. Since one-third of the [Fe(CN)6]3− units are missing for a given formula in order to maintain charge neutrality, each Mn atom around such a vacancy is coordinated not only by the N atoms of the CN groups but also by the O atoms of the ligand water molecules. In addition to ligand water molecules, two types of non-coordinated water molecules, so-called zeolitic water molecules, exist in the interstitial sites of the –Mn—NC—Fe– framework. The positions of the O atoms of the zeolitic water molecules are fixed by the linkage via hydrogen bonds between ligand water and zeolitic water molecules. The structure is related to a recently reported rubidium manganese hexacyanoferrate. Site occupancy factors for Fe, C, N are 0.67; for two O atoms the value is 0.83 and for one O atom is 0.17.
Fully dense bulk nanocomposites have been obtained by a novel two-step severe plastic deformation process in the immiscible Fe–Cu system. Elemental micrometer-sized Cu and Fe powders were first mixed in different compositions and subsequently high-pressure-torsion-consolidated and deformed in a two-step deformation process. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and atom probe investigations were performed to study the evolving far-from-equilibrium nanostructures which were observed at all compositions. For lower and higher Cu contents complete solid solutions of Cu in Fe and Fe in Cu, respectively, are obtained. In the near 50% regime a solid solution face-centred cubic and solid solution body-centred cubic nanograined composite has been formed. After an annealing treatment, these solid solutions decompose and form two-phase nanostructured Fe–Cu composites with a high hardness and an enhanced thermal stability. The grain size of the composites retained nanocrystalline up to high annealing temperatures.
High-pressure torsion; Solid solubility extension; Fe–Cu alloy
The fundamental chemistry underpinning aerobic life on Earth involves reduction of dioxygen to water with concomitant proton translocation. This process is catalyzed by members of the heme-copper oxidase (HCO) superfamily. Despite the availability of crystal structures for all types of HCO, the mode of action for this enzyme is not understood at the atomic level, namely how vectorial H+ and e- transport are coupled. Toward addressing this problem, we report wild type and A120F mutant structures of the ba3-type cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus at 1.8 Å resolution. The enzyme has been crystallized from the lipidic cubic phase, which mimics the biological membrane environment. The structures reveal 20 ordered lipid molecules that occupy binding sites on the protein surface or mediate crystal packing interfaces. The interior of the protein encloses 53 water molecules, including 3 trapped in the designated K-path of proton transfer and 8 in a cluster seen also in A-type enzymes that likely functions in egress of product water and proton translocation. The hydrophobic O2-uptake channel, connecting the active site to the lipid bilayer, contains a single water molecule nearest the CuB atom but otherwise exhibits no residual electron density. The active site contains strong electron density for a pair of bonded atoms bridging the heme Fea3 and CuB atoms that is best modeled as peroxide. The structure of ba3-oxidase reveals new information about the positioning of the enzyme within the membrane and the nature of its interactions with lipid molecules. The atomic resolution details provide insight into the mechanisms of electron transfer, oxygen diffusion into the active site, reduction of oxygen to water, and pumping of protons across the membrane. The development of a robust system for production of ba3-oxidase crystals diffracting to high resolution, together with an established expression system for generating mutants, opens the door for systematic structure-function studies.
The performance of magnetic nanoparticles is intimately entwined with their structure, mean size and magnetic anisotropy. Besides, ensembles offer a unique way of engineering the magnetic response by modifying the strength of the dipolar interactions between particles. Here we report on an experimental and theoretical analysis of magnetic hyperthermia, a rapidly developing technique in medical research and oncology. Experimentally, we demonstrate that single-domain cubic iron oxide particles resembling bacterial magnetosomes have superior magnetic heating efficiency compared to spherical particles of similar sizes. Monte Carlo simulations at the atomic level corroborate the larger anisotropy of the cubic particles in comparison with the spherical ones, thus evidencing the beneficial role of surface anisotropy in the improved heating power. Moreover we establish a quantitative link between the particle assembling, the interactions and the heating properties. This knowledge opens new perspectives for improved hyperthermia, an alternative to conventional cancer therapies.
Family centred care (FCC) is currently a valued philosophy within neonatal care; an approach that places the parents at the heart of all decision-making and engagement in the care of their infant. However, to date, there is a lack of clarity regarding the definition of FCC and limited evidence of FCCs effectiveness in relation to parental, infant or staff outcomes.
In this paper we present a new perspective to neonatal care based on Aaron Antonovksy’s Sense of Coherence (SOC) theory of well-being and positive health. Whilst the SOC was originally conceptualised as a psychological-based construct, the SOCs three underpinning concepts of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness provide a theoretical lens through which to consider and reflect upon meaningful care provision in this particular care environment. By drawing on available FCC research, we consider how the SOC concepts considered from both a parental and professional perspective need to be addressed. The debate offered in this paper is not presented to reduce the importance or significance of FCC within neonatal care, but, rather, how consideration of the SOC offers the basis through which meaningful and effective FCC may be delivered. Practice based implications contextualised within the SOC constructs are also detailed.
Consideration of the SOC constructs from both a parental and professional perspective need to be addressed in FCC provision. Service delivery and care practices need to be comprehensible, meaningful and manageable in order to achieve and promote positive well-being and health for all concerned.
Neonatal; NICU; Family centred care; Sense of coherence; Antonovsky; Service delivery; Parents; Staff