To implement the Partner for Promotion (PFP) program which was designed to enhance the skills and confidence of students and community pharmacy preceptors to deliver and expand advanced patient care services in community pharmacies and also to assess the program's impact.
A 10-month longitudinal community advanced pharmacy practice experience was implemented that included faculty mentoring of students and preceptors via formal orientation; face-to-face training sessions; online monthly meetings; feedback on service development materials; and a web site offering resources and a discussion board. Pre- and post-APPE surveys of students and preceptors were used to evaluate perceptions of knowledge and skills.
The skills survey results for the first 2 years of the PFP program suggest positive changes occurring from pre- to post-APPE survey in most areas for both students and preceptors. Four of the 7 pharmacies in 2005-2006 and 8 of the 14 pharmacies in 2006-2007 were able to develop an advanced patient care service and begin seeing patients prior to the conclusion of the APPE. As a result of the PFP program from 2005-2007, 14 new experiential sites entered into affiliation agreements with The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy.
The PFP program offers an innovative method for community pharmacy faculty members to work with students and preceptors in community pharmacies in developing patient care services.
community pharmacy; pharmaceutical services; administration; advanced pharmacy practice experience
Objectives. To evaluate pharmacy students' drug-drug interaction (DDI) knowledge retention over 1 year and to determine whether presenting DDI vignettes increased knowledge retention.
Methods. A knowledge assessment tool was distributed to fourth-year pharmacy students before and after completing a DDI educational session. The questionnaire was re-administered after 1 year to assess knowledge retention. During the intervening year, students had the option of presenting DDI case vignettes to preceptors and other health professionals as part of their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).
Results. Thirty-four of 78 pharmacy students completed both the post-intervention and 1-year follow-up assessments. Students’ knowledge of 4 DDI pairs improved, knowledge of 3 DDI pairs did not change, and knowledge of the remainder of DDI pairs decreased. Average scores of the 18 students who completed all tests and presented at least 1 vignette during their APPEs were higher on the 1-year follow-up assessment than students who did not, suggesting greater DDI knowledge retention (p = 0.04).
Conclusion. Although pharmacy students’ overall DDI knowledge decreased in the year following an educational session, those who presented vignettes to health professionals retained more DDI knowledge, particularly on those DDIs for which they gave presentations. Other methods to enhance pharmacy students’ retention of DDI knowledge of clinically important DDIs are needed.
drug-drug interaction; assessment
To determine the impact of an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) on students' clinical skills during their initial advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE).
A 4-week First Steps course that focused on students developing pharmacy practice skills, clinical communications skills, and effective use of reference materials was introduced in 2006 at the end of the third-year curriculum, prior to students beginning their APPEs.
During the third week of the first APPE, faculty members rated students' demonstration of 9 clinical skills on a 5-point Likert scale (1 being always and 5 being never). The evaluation was performed in 2005 prior to implementation of the course (control group) and again in 2006 after implementation of the course. Students who completed the First Steps course scored better on all 9 skills and had a better average clinical skills value (2.3) compared to the control group (2.6, p < 0.01).
Completion of an IPPE course that focused on critical pharmacy practice aspects, clinical communication skills, and use of reference materials resulted in increased frequency of desired clinical behaviors on a subsequent APPE.
introductory pharmacy practice experience; assessment; evaluation; experiential learning; advanced pharmacy practice experience
Pharmacy students should be given opportunities to learn and practice interpersonal communication skills during their community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Preceptors have the responsibility of setting the stage for the pharmacy students during their initial encounter. During this orientation to the site, students should become familiar with the history of the practice, the types of services provided, and the staff members. Once the orientation is completed, preceptors can develop strategies for incorporating the students into the practice's patient care activities. Students should participate in patient counseling, interviewing, and educational sessions. Also, students should participate in collaborative work with other health care providers. To ensure the development of communication skills in pharmacy students, preceptors can incorporate the teaching process “see one, do one, teach one” into their teaching activities. By following these strategies, preceptors can effectively and positively impact the communication skills of their students.
community pharmacy; advanced pharmacy practice experience; communication skills; preceptor
Setting up a community advanced pharmacy practice experience can be an overwhelming task for many pharmacy preceptors. This article provides guidance to pharmacist preceptors in developing a complete and effective community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). When preparing for the APPE, initial discussions with the college or school of pharmacy are key. Benefits, training, and requirements should be addressed. Site preparation, including staff education, will assist in the development process. The preceptor should plan orientation day activities and determine appropriate evaluation and feedback methods. With thorough preparation, the APPE will be rewarding for both the student and the pharmacy site.
community pharmacy; experiential education; advanced pharmacy practice experience; preceptor
To implement and evaluate a school wide, Web-based clinical intervention system to document types and impact of pharmacy students' clinical activities during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).
A clinical intervention form was developed by pharmacy practice faculty consensus and uploaded to a secure Web site. Prior to APPEs, all pharmacy students were trained on the purpose and use of the system as well as strategies to document interventions appropriately.
Over the 3-year period of data collection, 15,393 interventions were documented. Most common intervention types included dosage adjustments, education of patients and providers, and optimization of therapeutic regimens. The majority of the interventions were accepted by the medical team and resulted in positive clinical and economic outcomes.
Our school-wide system allowed students and faculty members to document clinical activities. Reporting can serve a number of purposes, including incorporation into student portfolios and faculty merit and promotion dossiers, and demonstration of the positive impact on patient care.
clinical interventions; documentation; patient care; advanced pharmacy practice experience
Objective. To identify what pharmacy students learn during the 6-month advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Sweden.
Methods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 pharmacy APPE students and 17 pharmacist preceptors and analyzed in a qualitative directed content analysis using a defined workplace learning typology for categories.
Results. The Swedish APPE provides students with task performance skills for work at pharmacies and social and professional knowledge, such as teamwork, how to learn while in a work setting, self-evaluation, understanding of the pharmacist role, and decision making and problem solving skills. Many of these skills and knowledge are not accounted for in the curricula in Sweden. Using a workplace learning typology to identify learning outcomes, as in this study, could be useful for curricula development.
Conclusions. Exploring the learning that takes place during the APPE in a pharmacy revealed a broad range of skills and knowledge that students acquire.
advanced pharmacy practice experience; curriculum; pharmacy practice experience; learning outcomes; assessment
To develop and implement learning activities within an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) to improve students' cultural competence.
During their AAPE at Community Access Pharmacy, students participated in topic discussions with faculty members, used interpreters to interview Hispanic patients, visited a Mexican grocery store, evaluated nontraditional medicine practices in the Hispanic community, and served as part of a patient care team at a homeless shelter and an HIV/AIDS clinic. The students reflected on these activities in daily logs and completed a final evaluation of their experiences.
Forty-three students completed the rotation from 2004-2007. Almost all learned something new about counseling patients with cultural/language differences (98%) and became more aware of financial barriers to health care and potential solutions to overcome them (93%). Students' reflections were positive and showed progression toward cultural competence.
A culturally diverse patient population provided opportunities for APPE students to develop the skills necessary to become culturally competent pharmacists. Future work should focus on potential evaluation tools to assess curricular cultural competency outcomes in APPE's.
experiential education; cultural competency; diversity
To quantify the benefits of an enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) community pharmacy model compared to the traditional program by comparing basic and comprehensive pharmaceutical care provided by students and assessing preceptors’ perceptions of the APPE.
A pilot study consisting of 1 enhanced APPE arm and 2 traditional APPE (control) arms was conducted. The enhanced APPE consisted of a preceptor education program, a 5-day onsite student orientation, and an 8-week experience completed at 1 rather than 2 community sites.
The level of interventions provided by students in the enhanced APPE arm significantly surpassed that of students in the control arms. In addition, preceptor questionnaires indicated overwhelming support for the enhanced model over the traditional APPE.
The study's findings demonstrated that the enhanced APPE model enabled the participating pharmacies to provide increased level of patient care (as compared to the control sites) and improved preceptor satisfaction with the APPE.
pharmaceutical care; medication therapy management; advanced pharmacy practice experience; community pharmacy; evaluation; student impact; assessment
To assess a community geriatrics advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) that aimed to improve students' attitudes towards older adults and provide a student-directed learning experience.
Students provided blood pressure monitoring and medication counseling to older adults living in a low-income residential facility as part of a required 6-week ambulatory care service-learning APPE. Pre-experience and post-experience essays on students' perceptions of the elderly and their intended and actual learning were retrospectively reviewed using a qualitative process to determine whether the course objectives were met.
Many students initially described older adults in factual terms or using negative descriptors. Most expressed a desire to increase their knowledge of diseases commonly occurring in and drugs commonly prescribed for the elderly or to improve specific skills. Many students initially had difficulty articulating clear and measurable learning objectives and appropriate assessment metrics, which are important components of self-directed learning. The final essays revealed many students learned more about the humanistic aspects of care than they had anticipated.
This community-based geriatrics experience improved students' attitudes towards working with older adults and provided practice in developing and assessing their personal learning objectives.
student-directed learning; community pharmacy geriatrics; advanced pharmacy practice experience; service learning
To describe a unique advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in which pharmacy students provided medication education to hospitalized patients.
Students were trained to independently assess patients' needs for education and identify drug-related problems. Students then provided medication education and performed medication therapy management under the supervision of clinical staff pharmacists. To assess the impact of the APPE, the number of hospitalized patients assessed and educated during the 3-month time period prior to student involvement was compared to the first 3 months of the APPE.
Student participation increased the number of patients receiving medication education and medication therapy management from the hospital pharmacy. At the end of the APPE, students reported that the experience positively affected their ability to impact patients' care and to critique their own learning and skills.
The inpatient medication education APPE provided students the opportunity to be responsible and accountable for the provision of direct patient care. In addition, the APPE benefitted the hospital, the school of pharmacy, and, most importantly, the patients.
patient education; advanced pharmacy practice experience; medication therapy management; hospital
Community pharmacists are a valuable information resource for patients and other healthcare providers. The advent of new information technology, most notably the Internet, coupled with the rapid availability of new healthcare information, has fueled this demand. Pharmacy students must receive training that enables them to meet this need. Community advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) provide an excellent opportunity for students to develop and master drug information skills in a real-world setting. Preceptors must ensure that students are familiar with drug information resources and can efficiently identify the most useful resource for a given topic. Students must also be trained to assess the quality of resources and use this information to effectively respond to drug or health information inquiries. This article will discuss key aspects of providing drug information in the community pharmacy setting and can serve as a guide and resource for APPE preceptors.
community pharmacy; drug information; advanced pharmacy practice experience
To describe the use of student self-assessments as a measure of the effectiveness of a drug information advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) and to determine whether other APPEs reinforced information-related skills.
Students taking a drug information APPE completed a self-assessment survey instrument focusing on key information-related skills on the first day and again on the last day of that APPE. Findings were used to determine the effect of this and other APPEs on perceived information skills. Student ratings were compared with faculty ratings for items with similar wording.
Student self-ratings improved after completing the drug information APPE. Other APPEs, gender, and course grade did not significantly impact student perceptions of their information-related knowledge and skills. Student and faculty ratings were similar, although individual variability occurred.
Student self-assessments, along with other direct and indirect data, can provide useful information needed to assess and change aspects of the experiential program and curriculum.
self-assessment; assessment; advanced pharmacy practice experience; drug information
Objective. To describe the implementation of an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in medication therapy management (MTM) designed to contribute to student pharmacists’ confidence and abilities in providing MTM.
Design. Sixty-four student pharmacists provided MTM services during an APPE in a communication and care center.
Assessment. Students conducted 1,495 comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) identifying 6,056 medication-related problems. Ninety-eight percent of the students who completed a survey instrument (52 of 53) following the APPE expressed that they had the necessary knowledge and skills to provide MTM services. Most respondents felt that pharmacist participation in providing Medicare MTM could move the profession of pharmacy forward and that pharmacists will have some role in deciding the specific provisions of the Medicare MTM program (92% and 91%, respectively).
Conclusion. Students completing the MTM APPE received patient-centered experiences that supplemented their confidence, knowledge, and skill in providing MTM services in the future.
medication therapy management; advanced pharmacy practice experience; student pharmacists; patient-centered care
Objective. To describe the development and outcomes of an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) for a medical mission trip to Guatemala.
Design. Pre-mission preparation and post-mission reflection activities were combined with in-country activities to create a 5-week APPE. During the 10-day medical mission trip, pharmacy students dispensed medications, counseled patients, conducted quality improvement assessments, and presented their findings and experiences as part of an interdisciplinary health care team.
Assessment. The students who completed the mission trip met the objectives of the APPE and reported substantial learning in the areas of interdisciplinary teamwork and cultural competency. All students’ scores on the Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence—Student Version (IAPCC-SV) increased. The majority (81%) of student-generated quality improvement recommendations were implemented by the mission team.
Conclusions. The medical mission APPE provided a rich learning environment for pharmacy students and resulted in modifications to the medical mission operation. This type of APPE could be implemented in other colleges of pharmacy via formation of partnerships with established medical mission teams as this one was.
advanced pharmacy practice experience; experiential learning; international practice experience; medical mission
To compare patients' expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities.
A survey of anchored measures of patient satisfaction was conducted in 2 groups of APPE- affiliated community pharmacies: those participating in an enhanced APPE model versus those participating in the traditional model. The enhanced intervention included preceptor training, a comprehensive student orientation, and an extended experience at a single pharmacy rather than the traditional 2 x 4-week experience at different pharmacies.
While patient expectations were similar in both traditional and enhanced APPE pharmacies, patients in enhanced pharmacies reported significantly higher in-store satisfaction and fewer service gaps. Additionally, satisfaction was significantly higher for patients who had received any form of consultation, from either pharmacist or students, than those reporting no consultations.
Including provision of pharmaceutical care services as part of APPEs resulted in direct and measurable improvements in patient satisfaction.
advanced pharmacy practice experience; patient satisfaction; pharmaceutical care; community pharmacy
To evaluate early predictors of advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) performance using either timed pharmaceutical care plan (TPCP) reports of 4 case histories or traditional lecture-based pharmacotherapy course examinations.
Statistical process control (SPC) methods were used to identify a group of third-year pharmacy students “at risk” for poor APPE performance (defined as an APPE grade point average of < 3.0). Examination scores from an integrated lecture-based pharmacotherapy sequence were used for comparison.
TPCP scores but not lecture-based examination scores successfully identified 6 of 10 students who ultimately performed poorly in their APPEs.
Adaptation of SPC methods to assess student performance during problem-based learning (PBL) case reports is a useful technique for identifying students “at risk” for poor APPE performance.
problem-solving; problem-based learning; assessment; advanced pharmacy practice experience; pharmaceutical care; performance
To assess the effectiveness of a service-learning advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in a diabetes camp to improve student confidence in diabetes knowledge and related skills
Pharmacy students assisted medical staff during a week-long diabetes camp for children. Students participated in all aspects of diabetes care, as well as wrote pre- and post-camp reflection papers, completed online quizzes, presented an educational training session, and completed pre- and post-camp survey instruments.
Students' confidence in their diabetes knowledge and patient care skills increased as a result of participating in the camp.
A diabetes camp APPE improved students' confidence in their knowledge and ability to manage diabetes, and allowed them to gain experience working with an interdisciplinary team in a unique real-world environment.
service-learning; diabetes; camp; advanced pharmacy practice experience
Objective. To develop a prerequisite elective course to prepare students for an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Kenya.
Design. The course addressed Kenyan culture, travel preparation, patient care, and disease-state management. Instructional formats used were small-group discussions and lectures, including some Web-based presentations by Kenyan pharmacists on disease states commonly treated in Kenya. Cultural activities include instruction in conversational and medical Kiswahili and reading of a novel related to global health programs.
Assessment. Student performance was assessed using written care plans, quizzes, reflection papers, a formulary management exercise, and pre- and post-course assessments. Student feedback on course evaluations indicated that the course was well received and students felt prepared for the APPE.
Conclusion. This course offered a unique opportunity for students to learn about pharmacy practice in global health and to apply previously acquired skills in a resource-constrained international setting. It prepares students to actively participate in clinical care activities during an international APPE.
international pharmacy; clinical pharmacy; advanced pharmacy practice experience; experiential learning; pharmaceutical care
Objective. To implement a 5-week advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in community engagement and assess the impact of the APPE on students’ confidence and ability to provide community-based services.
Design. Working with community partners, students provided medication reconciliation, attended interprofessional healthcare meetings, developed health-promotion activities, and conducted medication-therapy reviews.
Assessment. Responses to pre- and post-APPE 10-item surveys, preceptor and practice-experience evaluations, and the documented number of pharmacy student recommendations were determined.
Conclusion. This APPE provides students opportunities in nontraditional community settings to increase their confidence and enhance their skills in health-promotion activities, medication-therapy management, and interprofessional care of patients, all of which are essential to the practice of pharmacy.
community engagement; community partners; medication therapy management (MTM); health promotion; geriatrics
Objective. To develop, implement, and review a competence-assessment program to identify students at risk of underperforming at advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) sites and to facilitate remediation before they assume responsibility for patient care.
Design. As part of the standardized client program, pharmacy students were examined in realistic live client-encounter simulations. Authentic scenarios were developed, and actors were recruited and trained to portray clients so students could be examined solving multiple pharmacy problems. Evaluations of students were conducted in the broad areas of knowledge and live performance.
Assessment. Measurements included student-experience survey instruments used to evaluate case realism and challenge; videos used to determine the fidelity of standardized clients, and clerkship performance predictions used to identify students who required individual attention and improvement prior to clerkship courses.
Conclusions. The assessment program showed promise as a means of discriminating between students who are prepared for APPEs and those at risk for underperforming.
assessment; performance; patient; advanced pharmacy practice experience; standardized client
To implement a required capstone experience in research for pharmacy students, assess course outcomes, and solicit mentors' and students' opinions regarding the structure and efficacy of the course.
Fourth-year pharmacy students chose a research project, selected a mentor, and completed a 5-week capstone advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE), during which they wrote a research paper and presented their research at a poster session.
Eighty students completed the capstone experience in 2008-2009 and 56 faculty and non-faculty pharmacists served as mentors. Based on their responses on a course evaluation, the students' experience with their mentor and course instructor were positive. Thirty-one mentors completed a survey on which they indicated their overall support of the capstone project, but wanted their role to be better defined and felt the students needed to have additional training in statistics, survey question design, and the IRB process before completing the APPE.
The capstone APPE was perceived by students and mentors as a positive learning experience that allowed the student to take information from the curriculum and apply it to a real-world situation. Additional research is needed to determine whether pharmacy students will use the research skills acquired in their future careers.
advanced pharmacy practice experience; research; curriculum
Pharmacy schools across North America have been charged to ensure their students are adequately skilled in the principles and practices of pharmaceutical care. Despite this mandate, a large percentage of students experience insufficient opportunities to practice the activities, tasks and processes essential to pharmaceutical care. The objective of this retrospective study of pharmacy students was to: (1) as "proof of concept", test the overall educational impact of an enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experiential (APPE) model on student competencies; (2) develop an instrument to measure students' and preceptors' experiences; and (3) assess the psychometric properties of the instrument.
A comparative-experimental design, using student and preceptor surveys, was used to evaluate the impact of the enhanced community-based APPE over the traditional APPE model. The study was grounded in a 5-stage learning model: (1) an enhanced learning climate leads to (2) better utilization of learning opportunities, including (3) more frequent student/patient consultation, then to (4) improved skills acquisition, thence to (5) more favorable attitudes toward pharmaceutical care practice. The intervention included a one-day preceptor workshop, a comprehensive on-site student orientation and extending the experience from two four-week experiences in different pharmacies to one eight-week in one pharmacy.
The 35 student and 38 preceptor survey results favored the enhanced model; with students conducting many more patient consultations and reporting greater skills improvement. In addition, the student self-assessment suggested changes in attitudes favoring pharmaceutical care principles. Psychometric testing showed the instrument to be sensitive, valid and reliable in ascertaining differences between the enhanced and traditional arms.
The enhanced experiential model positively affects learning opportunities and competency acquisition, as measured by a new instrument showing sound psychometric properties.
To describe PharmD students' work experiences and activities; examine their attitudes towards their work; examine perceptions of preceptor pharmacists they worked with; and determine important issues associated with career preference.
A written survey was administered to third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at 8 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the Midwest.
Five hundred thirty-three students (response rate = 70.4%) completed the survey instrument. Nearly 100% of PharmD students reported working in a pharmacy by the time their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) began. Seventy-eight percent reported working in a community pharmacy, and 67% had worked in a chain community pharmacy. For all practice settings, students reported spending 69% of their time on activities such as compounding, dispensing, and distribution of drug products.
Most students are working in community pharmacy (mainly chain) positions where their primary function is traditional drug product dispensing and distribution. Having a controllable work schedule was the variable most strongly associated with career choice for all students.
pharmacy student; work experience; work activities; attitudes; career choice
Objective. To further develop and evaluate a diabetes disease state management (DSM) program that provided direct patient care responsibilities to advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) students as members of healthcare teams.
Design. Nine new clinics and 3 established sites that provide self-care management education to patients with diabetes were established and maintained in rural Colorado pharmacies and supported by students in APPE training for 48 weeks per year.
Evaluation. The 12 clinics provided 120 APPE student placements in 2010-2011. Students’ perceptions of their experiences were positive. Patients who completed the student-supported diabetes self-management education program had improvements in blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipid values.
Conclusions. Twelve diabetes DSM clinics provided direct patient care opportunities to APPE students working as part of healthcare teams while expanding healthcare resources in underserved communities in Colorado.
pharmacy education; diabetes; advanced pharmacy practice experience; outcomes