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1.  Dental pain, oral impacts and perceived need for dental treatment in Tanzanian school students: a cross-sectional study 
Background
Dental caries, dental pain and reported oral problems influence people's oral quality of life and thus their perceived need for dental care. So far there is scant information as to the psychosocial impacts of dental diseases and the perceived treatment need in child populations of sub-Saharan Africa.
Objectives
Focusing on primary school students in Kilwa, Tanzania, a district deprived of dental services and with low fluoride concentration in drinking water, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of dental pain and oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP), and to describe the distribution of OIDP by socio-demographics, dental caries, dental pain and reported oral problems. The relationship of perceived need estimates with OIDP was also investigated.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008. A total of 1745 students (mean age 13.8 yr, sd = 1.67) completed an extensive personal interview and under-went clinical examination. The impacts on daily performances were assessed using a Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP instrument and caries experience was recorded using WHO (1997) criteria.
Results
A total of 36.2% (41.3% urban and 31.4% rural, p < 0.001) reported at least one OIDP. The prevalence of dental caries was 17.4%, dental pain 36.4%, oral problems 54.1% and perceived need for dental treatment 46.8% in urban students. Corresponding estimates in rural students were 20.8%, 24.4%, 43.3% and 43.8%. Adjusted OR for reporting oral impacts if having dental pain ranged from 2.5 (95% CI 1.8–3.6) (problem smiling) to 4.7 (95% CI 3.4–6.5) (problem sleeping),- if having oral problems, from 1.9 (95% CI 1.3–2.6) (problem sleeping) to 3.8 (95% CI 2.7–5.2) (problem eating) and if having dental caries from 1.5 (95% CI 1.1–2.0) (problem eating) to 2.2 (95% CI 1.5–2.9) (problem sleeping). Students who perceived need for dental care were less likely to be females (OR = 0.8, 95% CI 0.6–0.9) and more likely to have impacts on eating (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.4–2.7) and tooth cleaning (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.6–2.5).
Conclusion
Substantial proportions of students suffered from untreated dental caries, oral impacts on daily performances and perceived need for dental care. Dental pain and reported oral problems varied systematically with OIDP across the eight impacts considered. Eating and tooth cleaning problems discriminated between subjects who perceived need for dental treatment and those who did not.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-7-73
PMCID: PMC2726126  PMID: 19643004
2.  Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH): A cross-sectional study 
BMC Pediatrics  2010;10:87.
Background
Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1) assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2) examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender and 3) examine whether socio-demographic disparity in oral health was explained by oral health-related behaviours.
Methods
Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 using one-stage cluster sampling design. Total of 2412 students (mean age 15.2 yr) completed self-administered questionnaires, whereas 1077 (mean age 14.9 yr) underwent dental-examination. Bivariate analyses were conducted using cross-tabulations and chi-square statistics. Multiple variable analyses were conducted using stepwise standardized logistic regression (SLR) with odds ratios and 95% Confidence intervals (CI).
Results
44.8% presented with fair to poor OHIS and 48.2% reported any OIDP. Older students, those from low socio-economic status families, had parents who couldn't afford dental care and had low educational-level reported oral impacts, poor oral hygiene, irregular toothbrushing, less dental attendance and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened drinks more frequently than their counterparts. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that reporting any OIDP was independently associated with; older age-groups, parents do not afford dental care, smoking experience, no dental visits and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Behavioural factors accounted partly for association between low family SES and OIDP. Low family SES, no dental attendance and smoking experience were most important in males. Low family SES and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks were the most important correlates in females.
Socio-behavioural factors associated with higher odds ratios for poor OHIS were; older age, belonging to the poorest household category and having parents who did not afford dental care across both genders.
Conclusion
Disparities in oral hygiene status and OIDP existed in relation to age, affording dental care, smoking and intake of sugar sweetened soft drinks. Gender differences should be considered in intervention studies, and modifiable behaviours have some relevance in reducing social disparity in oral health.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-10-87
PMCID: PMC3001697  PMID: 21118499
3.  Dental caries in relation to socio-behavioral factors of 6-year-old school children of Udaipur district, India 
Dental Research Journal  2012;9(6):681-687.
Background:
Based on the previous national oral health survey in India, some variation was observed in oral health status and behavior between the urban and rural population. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the dental caries experience in deciduous dentition of 6-year-old urban and rural schoolchildren of Udaipur district and to evaluate the influence of socio behavioral characteristics on dental caries experience.
Materials and Methods:
A combination of multi stage and cluster sampling procedure was executed to collect a representative sample of 875, 6-year-old school children. Clinical examination for caries was conducted using dmft (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index. Socio - demographic information was collected prior to clinical examination in addition to information on oral health behavior by personal interviews.
Results:
Only 7.8% children reported of brushing their teeth twice or more than twice daily. Rural children visited the dentist less often than the urban children (P < 0.05). Greater proportion of boys (62.2%) experienced caries than girls (55.1%), decayed component constituted a major contribution for dmft. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the influence of gender, urbanization, tooth brushing frequency, dental visits, parent's education and occupation on caries occurrence.
Conclusions:
Rural children and boys experienced greater caries than their urban and girl counterparts. Caries experience was related to the parent's occupation and education. Moreover, caries occurrence was influenced by brushing frequency and dental visiting habits.
PMCID: PMC3612213  PMID: 23559941
Dental caries; education of parent; occupation of parent; urbanization
4.  Oral health and the impact of socio-behavioural factors in a cross sectional survey of 12-year old school children in Laos 
BMC Oral Health  2009;9:29.
Background
In recent decades low-income countries experienced an increasing trend in dental caries among children, particularly recorded in 12-year olds, which is the principal WHO indicator age group for children. This increases the risks of negative affects on children's life. Some data exist on the oral health status of children in low-income countries of Southeast Asia. However, information on how oral health is associated with socio-behavioural factors is almost not available. The aims of this study were to: assess the level of oral health of Lao 12-year-olds in urban and semi-urban settings; study the impact of poor oral health on quality of life; analyse the association between oral health and socio-behavioural factors; investigate the relation between obesity and oral health.
Methods
A cross sectional study of 12-year old schoolchildren chosen by multistage random sampling in Vientiane, Lao P.D.R (hereafter Laos). The final study population comprised 621 children. The study consisted of: clinical registration of caries and periodontal status, and scores for dental trauma according to WHO; structured questionnaire; measurement of anthropometric data. Frequency distributions for bi-variate analysis and logistic regression for multivariate analysis were used for assessment of statistical association between variables.
Results
Mean DMFT was 1.8 (SEM = 0.09) while caries prevalence was 56% (CI95 = 52-60). Prevalence of gingival bleeding was 99% (CI95 = 98-100) with 47% (CI95 = 45-49) of present teeth affected. Trauma was observed in 7% (CI95 = 5-9) of the children. High decay was seen in children with dental visits and frequent consumption of sweet drinks. Missed school classes, tooth ache and several impairments of daily life activities were associated with a high dD-component. No associations were found between Body Mass Index (BMI) and oral health or common risk factors. The multivariate analyses revealed high risk for caries for children with low or moderate attitude towards health, a history of dental visits and a preference for drinking sugary drinks during school hours. Low risk was found for children with good or average perception of own oral health. High risk for gingival bleeding was seen in semi-urban children and boys.
Conclusion
Although the caries level is low it causes considerable negative impact on daily life. School based health promotion should be implemented focussing on skills based learning and attitudes towards health.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-9-29
PMCID: PMC2781791  PMID: 19917089
5.  Applicability of an abbreviated version of the Child-OIDP inventory among primary schoolchildren in Tanzania 
Background
There is a need for studies evaluating oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children in developing countries.
Aim
to assess the psychometric properties, prevalence and perceived causes of the child version of oral impact on daily performance inventory (Child-OIDP) among school children in two socio-demographically different districts of Tanzania. Socio-behavioral and clinical correlates of children's OHRQoL were also investigated.
Method
One thousand six hundred and one children (mean age 13 yr, 60.5% girls) attending 16 (urban and rural) primary schools in Kinondoni and Temeke districts completed a survey instrument in face to face interviews and participated in a full mouth clinical examination. The survey instrument was designed to measure a Kiswahili translated and culturally adapted Child-OIDP frequency score, global oral health indicators and socio-demographic factors.
Results
The Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP inventory preserved the overall concept of the original English version and revealed good reliability in terms of Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.77 (Kinondoni: 0.62, Temeke: 0.76). Weighted Kappa scores from a test-retest were 1.0 and 0.8 in Kinondoni and Temeke, respectively. Validity was supported in that the OIDP scores varied systematically and in the expected direction with self-reported oral health measures and socio-behavioral indicators. Confirmatory factor analyses, CFA, confirmed three dimensions identified initially by Principle Component Analysis within the OIDP item pool. A total of 28.6% of the participants had at least one oral impact. The area specific rates for Kinondoni and Temeke were 18.5% and 45.5%. The most frequently reported impacts were problems eating and cleaning teeth, and the most frequently reported cause of impacts were toothache, ulcer in mouth and position of teeth.
Conclusion
This study showed that the Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP was applicable for use among schoolchildren in Tanzania.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-5-40
PMCID: PMC1939836  PMID: 17631038
6.  Developmental defects of enamel in primary teeth and association with early life course events: a study of 6–36 month old children in Manyara, Tanzania 
BMC Oral Health  2013;13:21.
Background
Children with low birth weight show an increased prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in the primary dentition that subsequently may predispose to early childhood caries (ECC).
Focusing 6–36 months old, the purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of enamel defects in the primary dentition and identify influences of early life course factors; socio-demographics, birth weight, child’s early illness episodes and mothers’ perceived size of the child at birth, whilst controlling for more recent life course events in terms of current breastfeeding and oral hygiene.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in the high fluoride area of Manyara, northern Tanzania including 1221 child-mother pairs who attended Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) clinics for immunization and/or growth monitoring. After the primary caregivers had completed face to face interviews at the health care facility, children underwent oral clinical examination whereby ECC and developmental defects of enamel were recorded using field criteria. All erupted teeth were examined and the enamel defects were assessed on buccal surfaces according to the modified DDE Index.
Results
The prevalence of enamel defects was 33.3%. Diffuse opacities were the most common defects identified (23.1%), followed by hypoplasia (7.6%) and demarcated opacities (5.0%). The most frequently affected teeth were the upper central incisors (29.0% - 30.5%), whereas lower central incisors (4.3% to 4.5%) were least frequently affected. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for confounding the factors revealed that having normal birth weight (equal or more than 2500 g) associated with lower odds of having enamel hypoplasia [OR 0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.7)]. No statistically significant association occurred between birth weight and diffuse opacities, demarcated opacities or combined DDE.
Conclusion
Children with the history of low birth weight were more likely than their normal birth weight counterparts to present with enamel hypoplasia. In view of the frequent occurrence of enamel defects and the fact that hypoplasia may constitute a risk factor for future ECC, enamel defects should be included as a dental health indicator in epidemiological studies of children in northern Tanzania.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-13-21
PMCID: PMC3671208  PMID: 23672512
7.  Ethnic and socio-economic disparities in oral health outcomes and quality of life among Sri Lankan preschoolers: a cross-sectional study 
Introduction
The distribution and severity of dental caries among preschool children vary according to the socio-economic and ethnic differences within and between countries. Understanding socio-economic influences on child oral health could inform early interventions to reduce the oral health burden throughout the life-cycle. The aim of this study is to examine the socio-economic and ethnic influences on oral health among preschoolers in Kegalle, Sri Lanka.
Methods
The study involved 784 children aged between 48–72 months recruited from 84 pre-schools in the Kegalle district in Sri Lanka. Cross-sectional data were collected by means of an oral examination of the children and a self-administered questionnaire to their parents/caregivers. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) was used to assess Oral Health related Quality of Life (OHQoL). Univariate and multivariate models of Poisson regression were used to investigate the associations between the variables.
Results
Compared to children whose fathers had tertiary education, those whose fathers did not study beyond grade 5, had more caries measured in terms of decayed, missing and filled surfaces (dmfs) (IRR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.06; p < 0.01) and experienced poor OHQoL at child (IRR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.20, 5.31; p < 0.05) and family (IRR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.27; p < 0.05) levels. However, lower educational attainment among mothers was associated with better OHQoL among children. Compared to the Sinhalese ethnic group, Tamils had more gingival bleeding (bleeding surfaces) (IRR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.92, 4.81; p < 0.001) and poor OHQoL at child level (IRR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.19, 3.60; p < 0.01), whereas Muslims had poor OHQoL at family level (IRR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.84; p < 0.01). Children of low-income families had more gum bleeding (IRR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.00; p < 0.05) compared to children of high-income families.
Conclusions
Socio-economic and ethnic differences in oral health outcomes exist among this population of preschoolers. Interventions targeting children of fathers with low educational levels and ethnic minority groups are required to reduce inequalities in oral health in Sri Lanka and other similar countries.
doi:10.1186/1475-9276-12-89
PMCID: PMC3830507  PMID: 24228941
Oral health; Dental caries; Bleeding gums; Quality of life; Socio-economic disparities; Preschoolers; Sri Lanka
8.  Validity and reliability of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) frequency scale: a cross-sectional study of adolescents in Uganda 
BMC Oral Health  2003;3:5.
Background
Assessing oral health related quality of life impact of mouth in adolescents is a relatively ignored area in dental research. This study aimed to examine reliability and validity of an abbreviated version of the oral impact of daily performance (OIDP) questionnaire and to analyse the interrelationship among OIDP scores, socio-demographic characteristics and oral health status in Uganda.
Method
1146 adolescents (mean age 15.8, response rate 87%) attending secondary schools in Kampala (urban) and Lira (rural) completed a survey instrument designed to measure subjective oral health indicators including the eight-item OIDP frequency scores. A clinical examination was conducted among 372 students (mean age 16.3, response rate 72%) and caries was assessed following the World Health Organisation criteria (1997).
Results
62% of the students experienced at least one oral impact during the 6 months preceding the survey. Cronbach's alpha for the OIDP frequency items was 0.91 and the corrected item-total correlation ranged from 0.62 to 0.75. Discriminant and construct validity were demonstrated in that the OIDP scores varied systematically in the expected direction with missing teeth and self-report indicators of oral health status, respectively. Socio-demographics and dental attendance did not predict OIDP through interaction with clinical indicators but varied systematically and independently with OIDP frequency scores in the multivariate analysis.
Conclusion
the OIDP frequency score have acceptable psychometric properties in the context of an oral health survey among Ugandan adolescents. Some evidence of the importance of social and personal characteristics in shaping adolescents' responses to oral disorders was provided.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-3-5
PMCID: PMC212323  PMID: 12943555
adolescents; Uganda; OIDP; validity; reliability; caries experience; social factors
9.  Knowledge of Oral Health Issues Among Low–Income Baltimore Adults: A Pilot Study 
Purpose
This pilot study documents conceptual knowledge of oral health among low–income adults in Baltimore.
Methods
Selected questions from the Baltimore Health Literacy and Oral Health Knowledge Project, a cross–sectional, population–based investigation of oral health literacy, were used for this analysis. Participants were asked questions during face–to–face interviews about basic oral health and the prevention and management of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Descriptive analyses included tests of association with selected socio–demographic variables (age, sex, education level, annual household income).
Results
The majority of respondents were African American women, 45 to 64 years of age, with 12 years of education and an income less than or equal to $25,000. Ninety–one percent of respondents knew that sugar caused dental caries, while 82% understood that the best way to prevent tooth decay was to brush and floss every day. Knowledge of oral hygiene practices and the prevention and management of gingivitis and periodontitis was mixed. Seventy–six percent understood that the best way to remove tartar was by a dental cleaning. However, only 15% knew how often to floss their teeth and only 21% knew that plaque was composed of germs.
Conclusion
Conceptual oral health knowledge is one component of oral health literacy. In turn, oral health literacy impacts communication. Practitioners should account for limited conceptual knowledge when they discuss oral health issues with their low–income and minority patients. If this is not accounted for, they will probably find that their oral hygiene education messages are being ignored and health promotion is being adversely affected.
PMCID: PMC3612929  PMID: 21396263
adults; knowledge; oral health; oral hygiene; periodontal diseases; questionnaires
10.  Association of Parental Stress and Early Childhood Caries 
Dental Research Journal  2009;6(2):65-70.
Background:
Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children’s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association between parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC).
Methods:
A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. Details of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group.
Results:
Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively).
Conclusion:
Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.
PMCID: PMC3075457  PMID: 21528033
Dental caries; Dental stress analysis; Oral health
11.  Malocclusion, psycho-social impacts and treatment need: A cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school-children 
BMC Oral Health  2008;8:14.
Background
studies on the relationship between children's malocclusion and its psycho-social impacts are so far largely unexplored in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malocclusion, reported dental problems and dissatisfaction with dental appearance among primary school children in Tanzania. The relationship of dissatisfaction with socio-demographic characteristics, clinically defined malocclusion and psychosocial impacts of dental anomalies was investigated. Orthodontic treatment need was estimated using an integrated socio-dental approach.
Method
One thousand six hundred and one children (mean age 13 yr) attending primary schools in the districts of Kinondoni and Temeke completed face to face interviews and a full mouth clinical examination. The survey instrument was designed to measure a Kiswahili translated and culturally adapted Child Oral Impact on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) frequency score, reported dental problems, dissatisfaction with dental appearance/function and socio-demographic characteristics.
Results
The prevalence of malocclusion varied from 0.9% (deep bite) to 22.5% (midline shift) with a total of 63.8% having at least one type of anomaly. Moderate proportions of children admitted dental problems; ranging from 7% (space position) to 20% (pain). The odds ratio of having problems with teeth position, spaces, pain and swallowing if having any malocclusion were, respectively 6.7, 3.9, 1.4 and 6.8. A total of 23.3% children were dissatisfied with dental appearance/function. Children dissatisfied with their dental appearance were less likely to be Temeke residents (OR = 0.5) and having parents of higher education (OR = 0.6) and more likely to reporting problem with teeth position (OR = 4.3) and having oral impacts (OR = 2.7). The socio-dental treatment need of 12% was five times lower than the normative need assessment of 63.8%.
Conclusion
Compared to the high prevalence of malocclusion, psycho social impacts and dissatisfaction with appearance/function was not frequent among Tanzanian schoolchildren. Subjects with malocclusion reported problems most frequently and malocclusion together with other psycho-social impact scores determined children's satisfaction with teeth appearance- and function.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-8-14
PMCID: PMC2413214  PMID: 18460198
12.  Prevalence and socio-behavioral influence of early childhood caries, ECC, and feeding habits among 6 – 36 months old children in Uganda and Tanzania 
BMC Oral Health  2012;12:24.
Background
Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious problem that has remained unexplored in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to identify possible socio-behavioral correlates of ECC focusing 6–36 months old children and their caretakers.
Methods
Cross sectional studies were conducted in a high fluoride rural area, Manyara, Tanzania and a low fluoride urban area, Kampala, Uganda. Totals of 1221 and 816 child - caretaker pairs attending health care facilities for growth monitoring were recruited in Manyara and Kampala, respectively. All caretakers completed face to face interviews at the health care facility. Children underwent oral clinical examination whereby ECC and Enamel hypoplasia were recorded using the dmft (WHO 1997) and the DDE index (FDI 1992).
Results
The prevalence of ECC was 3.7% in Manyara and 17.6% in Kampala. According to multiple logistic regression analyses, received oral health information from health worker was the strongest determinant of ECC in Manyara, adjusted OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.09 – 0.93. In Kampala, visible plaque, high sugar intake and presence of enamel hypoplasia associated with ECC, adjusted ORs 2.8 (95% CI 1.61- 4.95), 3.0 (95% CI 1.39 – 6.34) and 2.3 (95% CI 1.36 - 3.95).
Conclusion
Oral health education aimed at caretakers of 6–36 months, including health care workers’ information regarding the detrimental consequences for oral health of frequent sugar consumption and poor oral hygiene is important for prevention of ECC in Tanzania and Uganda.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-12-24
PMCID: PMC3434064  PMID: 22834770
13.  Disparities in Oral Health Status Among Older Adults in a Multi-Ethnic Rural Community: The Rural Nutrition and Oral Health Study 
Objectives
To compare oral health status by ethnicity and socioeconomic status among African American (AA), American Indian (AI), and white dentate and edentulous community-dwelling older adults.
Design
Cross-sectional study; data from self-reports and oral examinations.
Participants
A multi-stage cluster sampling design was used to recruit 635 participants aged 60+ from rural North Carolina counties with substantial AA and AI populations.
Measurements
Participants completed in-home interviews and oral examinations. Self-reported data included socio-demographic indicators, self-rated oral health status, and presence/absence of periodontal disease, bleeding gums, oral pain, dry mouth, and fit of prostheses. Oral examination data included number of teeth and numbers of anterior and posterior functional occlusal units.
Results
Compared to whites, AAs and AIs had significantly lower incomes and educational attainment. Self-rated oral health was significantly higher in whites, compared to both AAs and AIs. Prevalence of self-reported periodontal disease and bleeding gums was lower in whites. Among dentate participants, AAs were significantly more likely than whites to have moderately reduced numbers of teeth (11–20 teeth) and posterior occlusal contacts. Oral health deficits remained associated with ethnicity when adjusted for socioeconomic variables.
Conclusions
Oral health disparities in older adults in a multi-ethnic rural area are largely associated with ethnicity and not socioeconomic status. Clinicians should be aware of these health disparities in oral health status and their possible role in disparities in chronic disease. Further research is necessary to understand whether these oral health disparities reflect current or lifetime access to care, diet, or attitudes toward oral health care.
doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02367.x
PMCID: PMC3400086  PMID: 19563519
14.  Influence of oral mucosal lesions and oral symptoms on oral health related quality of life in dermatological patients: a cross sectional study in Sudan 
BMC Oral Health  2012;12:19.
Background
There are only few studies considering the impact of oral mucosal lesions (OML) on the oral quality of life of patients with different dermatological conditions. This study aimed to assess the relationship between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and OML and reported oral symptoms, perceived general and oral health condition and caries experience in adult skin diseased patients attending an outpatient dermatologic clinic in Sudan.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 544 diagnosed skin diseased patients (mean age 37.1 years, 50 % females), during the period October 2008 to January 2009. The patients were orally examined and OML and caries experience was recorded. The patients were interviewed using the Sudanese Arabic version of the OIDP. OHRQoL was evaluated by socio-demographic and clinical correlates according to number of types of OML diagnosed (no OML, one type of OML, > one type of OML) and number and types of oral symptoms.
Results
An oral impact (OIDP > 0) was reported by 190 patients (35.6 %) (mean OIDP total score 11.6, sd = 6.7). The prevalence of any oral impact was 30.5 %, 36.7 % and 44.1 %, in patients with no OML, one type of OML and more than one type of OML, respectively. Number of types of OML and number and types of oral symptoms were consistently associated with the OIDP scores. Patients who reported bad oral health, patients with ≥ 1 dental attendance, patients with > 1 type of OML, and patients with ≥ 1 type of oral symptoms were more likely than their counterparts in the opposite groups to report any OIDP. The odds ratios (OR) were respectively; 2.9 (95 % CI 1.9-4.5), 2.3 (95 % CI 1.5-3.5), 1.8 (95 % CI 1.1-3.2) and 6.7 (95 % CI 2.6-17.5). Vesiculobullous and ulcerative lesions of OML disease groups associated statistically significantly with OIDP.
Conclusion
OIDP was more frequently affected among skin diseased patients with than without OML. The frequency of the impacts differed according to the number of type of OML, oral symptoms, and OML disease groups. Dentists and dermatologists should pay special attention to skin diseased patients because they are likely to experience oral impacts on daily performances.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-12-19
PMCID: PMC3461441  PMID: 22768994
dermatology; oral mucosal lesions; oral impact on daily performance; quality of life
15.  Prevalence of dental caries among a cohort of preschool children living in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka: A descriptive cross sectional study 
BMC Oral Health  2012;12:49.
Background
Dental caries among young children are a global problem. Scant attention is paid towards primary teeth, leading to high prevalence of dental caries. There are only few studies done in Sri Lanka, addressing oral hygiene among preschool children. Scientific evidence is in need to persuade authorities to establish a programme promoting oral hygiene among preschool children.
Methods
A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Ragama Medical officer of Health area. Consecutive children between 2 – 5 years of age, attending child welfare clinics were recruited for the study. Practices related to dental hygiene and socio-economic characteristics were obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Mouth was examined for evidence of dental caries. Data collection and examination were done by two doctors who were trained for this purpose. The data were analysed using SSPS version 16.
Results
Total of 410 children were included. None had a routine visits to a dentist. Practices related to tooth brushing were satisfactory. Prevalence of dental caries gradually increased with age to reach 68.8% by 5 years. Mean total decayed-extracted-filled (deft) score for the whole sample was 1.41 and Significant caries index (SIC) was 4.09. Decayed tooth were the main contributor for the deft score and Care index was only 1.55. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of caries than boys.
Conclusions
Dental care provided for Sri Lankan preschool children appears to be unsatisfactory as prevalence of dental caries among this cohort of preschool children was very high. There is an urgent need to improve dental care facilities for Sri Lankan preschool children.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-12-49
PMCID: PMC3514298  PMID: 23148740
Dental caries; Deft score; SIC index; Care index
16.  Relationship between household socio-economic status and under-five mortality in Rufiji DSS, Tanzania 
Global Health Action  2013;6:10.3402/gha.v6i0.19278.
Background
Disparities in health outcomes between the poor and the better off are increasingly attracting attention from researchers and policy makers. However, policies aimed at reducing inequity need to be based on evidence of their nature, magnitude, and determinants.
Objectives
The study aims to investigate the relationship between household socio-economic status (SES) and under-five mortality, and to measure health inequality by comparing poorest/least poor quintile mortality rate ratio and the use of a mortality concentration index. It also aims to describe the risk factors associated with under-five mortality at Rufiji Demographic Surveillance Site (RDSS), Tanzania.
Methods
This analytical cross sectional study included 11,189 children under-five residing in 7,298 households in RDSS in 2005. Principal component analysis was used to construct household SES. Kaplan–Meier survival incidence estimates were used for mortality rates. Health inequality was measured by calculating and comparing mortality rates between the poorest and least poor wealth quintile. We also computed a mortality concentration index. Risk factors of child mortality were assessed using Poisson regression taking into account potential confounders.
Results
Under-five mortality was 26.9 per 1,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) (23.7–30.4)]. The poorest were 2.4 times more likely to die compared to the least poor. Our mortality concentration index [−0.16; 95% CI (−0.24, −0.08)] indicated considerable health inequality. Least poor households had a 52% reduced mortality risk [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.48; 95% CI 0.30–0.80]. Furthermore, children with mothers who had attained secondary education had a 70% reduced risk of dying compared to mothers with no education [IRR = 0.30; 95% CI (0.22–0.88)].
Conclusion
Household socio-economic inequality and maternal education were associated with under-five mortality in the RDSS. Targeted interventions to address these factors may contribute towards accelerating the reduction of child mortality in rural Tanzania.
doi:10.3402/gha.v6i0.19278
PMCID: PMC3556682  PMID: 23364083
inequality; socio-economic status; principal component analysis; mortality concentration index
17.  Dental caries and oral health practice among 12 year old school children from low socio-economic status background in Zimbabwe 
Introduction
Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data.
Methods
A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines.
Results
Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants.
Conclusion
There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula.
doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.14.164.2399
PMCID: PMC3696470  PMID: 23819006
Dental caries; children; urban and rural area; Zimbabwe
18.  Dental caries prevalence, oral health knowledge and practice among indigenous Chepang school children of Nepal 
BMC Oral Health  2013;13:20.
Background
Chepang communities are one of the most deprived ethnic communities in Nepal. According to the National Pathfinder Survey, dental caries is a highly prevalent childhood disease in Nepal. There is no data concerning the prevalence of caries along with knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices among Chepang schoolchildren. The objectives of this study were to 1) record the prevalence of dental caries 2) report experience of dental pain 3) evaluate knowledge, attitude and preventive practices on oral health of primary Chepang schoolchildren.
Method
A cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 5 government Primary schools of remote Chandibhanjyang Village Development Committee (VDC) in Chitwan district. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Review Board within the Research Department of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Tribhuvan University. Consent was obtained from parents for conducting clinical examination and administrating questionnaire. Permission was taken from the school principal in all schools. Data was collected using a pretested questionnaire on 131 schoolchildren aged 8-16-year- olds attending Grade 3–5. Clinical examination was conducted on 361 school children aged 5–16 –year-olds attending grade 1–5. Criteria set by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis. The questionnaires, originally constructed in English and translated into Nepali were administered to the schoolchildren by the researchers. SPSS 11software was used for data analysis.
Results
Caries prevalence for 5–6 –year-old was above the goals recommended by WHO and Federation of Dentistry international (FDI) of less than 50% caries free children. Caries prevalence in 5-6-year-olds was 52% and 12-13-year-olds was 41%. The mean dmft/DMFT score of 5–6 –year-olds and 12 -13-year -olds was 1.59, 0.31 and 0.52, 0.84 respectively. The DMFT scores increased with age and the d/D component constituted almost the entire dmft/DMFT index. About 31% of 8-16-year-olds school children who participated in the survey reported having suffered from oral pain. Further, the need for treatment of decayed teeth was reported at 100%. About 76% children perceived teeth as an important component of general health and 75% reported it was required to eat. A total 93% children never visited a dentist or a health care service. Out of 56% children reporting cleaning their teeth daily, only 24% reported brushing their teeth twice daily. About 86% of the children reported using toothbrush and toothpaste to clean their teeth. Although 61% children reported to have received oral health education, 82% children did not know about fluoride and its benefit on dental health. About 50% children reported bacteria as the main cause of tooth decay and 23% as not brushing teeth for gingivitis. Frequency of sugar exposure was low; 75% of children reported eating sugar rich food once daily.
Conclusions
Caries prevalence of 5–6 –year- old Chepang school children is above the recommended target set by FDI/WHO. The study reported 31% schoolchildren aged 8-16-year old suffered oral pain and decayed component constituted almost the entire dmft/DMFT index. The brushing habit was reportedly low with only 24% of the children brushing twice daily. A nationwide scientifically proven, cost effective school based interventions is needed for prevention and control of caries in schoolchildren in Nepal.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-13-20
PMCID: PMC3655880  PMID: 23672487
Dental caries; School children; Oral hygiene
19.  Immigrant-native differences in caries-related knowledge, attitude, and oral health behaviors: a cross-sectional study in Taiwan 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14:3.
Background
With the growing number of transnational marriages in Taiwan, oral health disparities have become a public health issue. This study assessed immigrant-native differences in oral health behaviors of urban mothers and their children.
Methods
We used the baseline data of an oral health promotion program to examine the immigrant-native differences in caries-related knowledge, attitude, and oral health behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from mothers in urban area, Taiwan. A total of 150 immigrant and 440 native mothers completed the self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression models analyzed the racial differences in oral health behaviors.
Results
Approximately 37% of immigrant mothers used dental floss, 25% used fluoride toothpaste, and only 13.5% of them regularly visited a dentist. Less that 40% of immigrant mothers brush their children’s teeth before aged one year, 45% replaced child’s toothbrush within 3 months, and only half of the mothers regularly took their child to the dentist. Immigrant mothers had lower level of caries-related knowledge and attitudes than native mothers (p < .001). Compared to native group, the immigrant mothers were less likely to use of dental floss ([Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) =0.35], fluoride toothpaste (aOR = 0.29), visit a dentist in the past 2 years (aOR = 0.26), and take their children to regular dental check-up (aOR = 0.38); whereas, they were more likely to not consume sweeten beverages (aOR = 3.13).
Conclusions
The level of caries-related knowledge, attitudes and oral health behaviors were found lower in immigrant mothers than native ones. The findings suggested cross-cultural caries prevention programs aimed at reducing immigrant-native disparities in child oral health care must be developed for these immigrant minorities.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-3
PMCID: PMC3898042  PMID: 24423385
Attitudes; Behavior; Dental caries; Immigrants; Health care
20.  Tobacco use and caries risk among adolescents – a longitudinal study in Sweden 
BMC Oral Health  2013;13:31.
Background
Smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco have a detrimental impact on general and oral health. The relationship to dental caries is however still unclear. As caries is a multi-factorial disease with clear life-style, socio-economic and socio-demographic gradients, the tobacco use may be a co-variable in this complex rather than a direct etiological factor. Our aim was to analyze the impact of tobacco use on caries incidence among adolescents, with consideration to socio-economic variables by residency, using epidemiological data from a longitudinal study in the region of Halland, Sweden.
Methods
The study population consisted of 10,068 adolescents between 16–19 years of age from whom yearly data on caries and tobacco use (cigarette smoking and use of smokeless tobacco) were obtained during the period 2006–2012. Reported DMFS increment between 16 and 19 years of age (∆DMFS) for an individual was considered as the primary caries outcome. The outcome data were compared for self-reported never vs. ever users of tobacco, with consideration to neighborhood-level socio-economy (4 strata), baseline (i.e., 16 years of age) DMFS and sex. The region consists of 65 parishes with various socio-economic conditions and each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish. Neighborhood (parish-level) socio-economy was assessed by proportion of residing families with low household purchasing power.
Results
∆DMFS differed evidently between ever and never users of tobacco (mean values: 1.8 vs. 1.2; proportion with ∆DMFS > 0: 54.2% vs. 40.5%; p < 0.0001). Significant differences were observed in each neighborhood-level socio-economic stratum. Even after controlling for baseline DMFS and sex, ∆DMFS differed highly significantly between the ever and never users of tobacco (overall p < 0.0001).
Conclusion
Tobacco use was clearly associated with increased caries increment during adolescence. Hence, this factor is relevant to consider in the clinical caries risk assessment of the individual patient as well as for community health plans dealing with oral health.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-13-31
PMCID: PMC3723799  PMID: 23855639
Adolescents; Caries; Tobacco use; Socio-economy; Prevention
21.  Genome-wide Association Scan for Childhood Caries Implicates Novel Genes 
Journal of Dental Research  2011;90(12):1457-1462.
Dental caries is the most common chronic disease in children and a major public health concern due to its increasing incidence, serious health and social co-morbidities, and socio-demographic disparities in disease burden. We performed the first genome-wide association scan for dental caries to identify associated genetic loci and nominate candidate genes affecting tooth decay in 1305 US children ages 3-12 yrs. Affection status was defined as 1 or more primary teeth with evidence of decay based on intra-oral examination. No associations met strict criteria for genome-wide significance (p < 10E-7); however, several loci (ACTN2, MTR, and EDARADD, MPPED2, and LPO) with plausible biological roles in dental caries exhibited suggestive evidence for association. Analyses stratified by home fluoride level yielded additional suggestive loci, including TFIP11 in the low-fluoride group, and EPHA7 and ZMPSTE24 in the sufficient-fluoride group. Suggestive loci were tested but not significantly replicated in an independent sample (N = 1695, ages 2-7 yrs) after adjustment for multiple comparisons. This study reinforces the complexity of dental caries, suggesting that numerous loci, mostly having small effects, are involved in cariogenesis. Verification/replication of suggestive loci may highlight biological mechanisms and/or pathways leading to a fuller understanding of the genetic risks for dental caries.
doi:10.1177/0022034511422910
PMCID: PMC3215757  PMID: 21940522
caries; childhood caries; fluoride(s); genetics; genome-wide association study; genomics
22.  Validation of two complementary oral-health related quality of life indicators (OIDP and OSS 0-10 ) in two qualitatively distinct samples of the Spanish population 
Background
Oral health-related quality of life can be assessed positively, by measuring satisfaction with mouth, or negatively, by measuring oral impact on the performance of daily activities. The study objective was to validate two complementary indicators, i.e., the OIDP (Oral Impacts on Daily Performances) and Oral Satisfaction 0–10 Scale (OSS), in two qualitatively different socio-demographic samples of the Spanish adult population, and to analyse the factors affecting both perspectives of well-being.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was performed, recruiting a Validation Sample from randomly selected Health Centres in Granada (Spain), representing the general population (n = 253), and a Working Sample (n = 561) randomly selected from active Regional Government staff, i.e., representing the more privileged end of the socio-demographic spectrum of this reference population. All participants were examined according to WHO methodology and completed an in-person interview on their oral impacts and oral satisfaction using the OIDP and OSS 0–10 respectively. The reliability and validity of the two indicators were assessed. An alternative method of describing the causes of oral impacts is presented.
Results
The reliability coefficient (Cronbach's alpha) of the OIDP was above the recommended 0.7 threshold in both Validation and Occupational samples (0.79 and 0.71 respectively). Test-retest analysis confirmed the external reliability of the OSS (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, 0.89; p < 0.001) Some subjective factors (perceived need for dental treatment, complaints about mouth and intermediate impacts) were strongly associated with both indicators, supporting their construct and criterion validity. The main cause of oral impact was dental pain. Several socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical variables were identified as modulating factors.
Conclusion
OIDP and OSS are valid and reliable subjective measures of oral impacts and oral satisfaction, respectively, in an adult Spanish population. Exploring simultaneously these issues may provide useful insights into how satisfaction and impact on well-being are constructed.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-6-101
PMCID: PMC2631008  PMID: 19019208
23.  Oral health-related quality of life in complete denture wearers depending on their socio-demographic background, prosthetic-related factors and clinical condition 
Objectives: To investigate the differences in impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among complete denture wearers depending on their socio-demographic characteristics, prosthetic-related factors and oral status. Study Design: 51 patients aged 50-90 years treated, from 2005 to 2010, with at least one complete denture at the Department of Buccofacial Prostheses of the Complutense University (Madrid) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All of the participants answered the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14sp) questionnaire. The additive scoring method was used. The prevalence of impacts was calculated by using the occasional threshold (OHIP-14sp score≥2). Socio-demographic and prosthetic-related variables were gathered. Patients underwent clinical examination to assess their oral condition. Descriptive probes and Chi-Square tests were run (p≤0.05). Results: The predominant participants’ profile was that of a man with a mean age of 69 years wearing complete dentures in both the maxilla and the mandible. The prevalence of impact was 23.5%, showing an average score of 19±9.8. The most affected domains were “functional limitation” and “physical pain”, followed by “physical disability”. Minor impacts were recorded for the psychological and social subscales (“psychological discomfort”, “psychological disability”, “social disability” and “handicap”). The prosthesis’ location significantly influenced the overall patient satisfaction, the lower dentures being the less comfortable. Having a complete removable denture as antagonist significantly hampered the patient satisfaction. Patients without prosthetic stomatitis and those who need repairing or changing their prostheses, recorded significantly higher OHIP-14sp total scores. Conclusions: The use of conventional complete dentures brings negative impacts in the OHRQoL of elderly patients, mainly in case of lower prostheses that required reparation or substitution, with a removable total denture as antagonist. The prosthetic stomatitis in this study was always associated to other severe illness, which may have influenced the self-perceived discomfort with the prostheses, as those patients were daily medicated with painkillers.
Key words:Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP), oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), patient satisfaction, complete denture, elderly patients.
doi:10.4317/medoral.18648
PMCID: PMC3668860  PMID: 23385509
24.  “DOES PLACE EXPLAIN RACIAL HEALTH DISPARITIES? QUANTIFYING THE CONTRIBUTION OF RESIDENTIAL CONTEXT TO THE BLACK/WHITE HEALTH GAP IN THE UNITED STATES” 
Social science & medicine (1982)  2008;67(8):1258-1268.
The persistence of the black health disadvantage has been a puzzling component of health in the United States in spite of general declines in rates of morbidity and mortality over the past century. Studies that have focused on well-established individual-level determinants of health such as socio-economic status and health behaviors have been unable to fully explain these disparities. Recent research has begun to focus on other factors such as racism, discrimination, and segregation. Variation in neighborhood context — socio-demographic composition, social aspects, and built environment —has been postulated as an additional explanation for racial disparities, but few attempts have been made to quantify its overall contribution to the black/white health gap. This analysis is an attempt to generate an estimate of place effects on explaining health disparities by utilizing data from the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (1989−1994), combined with a methodology for identifying residents of the same blocks both within and across NHIS survey cross-sections. Our results indicate that controlling for a single point-in-time measure of residential context results in a roughly 15 to 76 percent reduction of the black/white disparities in self-rated health that were previously unaccounted for by individual-level controls. The contribution of residential context toward explaining the black/white self-rated health gap varies by both age and gender such that contextual explanations of disparities decline with age and appear to be smaller among females.
doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.06.018
PMCID: PMC2614884  PMID: 18649984
racial disparities; neighborhood effects; USA; age; gender
25.  Socio-demographic factors related to periodontal status and tooth loss of pregnant women in Mbale district, Uganda 
BMC Oral Health  2009;9:18.
Background
Information on the socio-behavioral distribution of periodontal status and tooth loss in pregnancy emanating from sub Saharan Africa is sparse. This study examined periodontal status and tooth loss in pregnant Ugandan women and assessed the relationship with socio-demographics factors, parity, dental care and oral hygiene.
Methods
Mothers were participants of a multicentre cluster-randomized behavioral intervention study (PROMISE-EBF Safety and Efficacy of Exclusive Breast feeding Promotion in the Era of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa). In Uganda, these were pregnant women resident in Mbale district, recruited into the PROMISE EBF study between January 2006 and June 2008. A total of 886 women were eligible to participate of whom information became available for 877 (participation rate 98.9%, mean age 25.6) women who participated in the recruitment interview and 713 (mean age 25.5) women who got a clinical oral examination. Periodontal status was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN).
Results
The prevalence of tooth loss was 35.7%, 0.6% presented with pockets shallow pockets (4–5 mm), whereas 3.3% and 63.4% displayed bleeding and calculus, respectively. A total of 32.7% were without any sign of periodontal disease. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed that older women, women from larger households and those presenting with microbial plaque were respectively, 3.4, 1.4 and 2.5 times more likely to have CPI score >0. Rural (OR = 0.9), nulliparous (OR = 0.4) and women who never visited a dentist (OR = 0.04) were less likely, whereas women from larger households (OR = 1.5) were more likely to have lost at least one tooth.
Conclusion
The results revealed moderate prevalence of bleeding and tooth loss, high prevalence of calculus, low frequency of pockets 4–5 mm. Disparity in pregnant women's oral health related to parity suggests that education of maternity care providers concerning oral health in pregnancy is warranted.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397150
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-9-18
PMCID: PMC2722607  PMID: 19615094

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