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1.  Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(30):10368-10382.
More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i30.10368
PMCID: PMC4130844  PMID: 25132753
Helicobacter pylori; Virulence factor; Medicinal plant; Active compound; Mechanism; Inflammation; Gastric cancer; Nuclear factor-κB pathway
2.  Tea polyphenols, their biological effects and potential molecular targets 
Histology and histopathology  2008;23(4):487-496.
Summary
Tea is the most popular beverage in the world, second only to water. Tea contains an infusion of the leaves from the Camellia sinensis plant rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, the most abundant of which is (−)-EGCG. Although tea has been consumed for centuries, it has only recently been studied extensively as a health-promoting beverage that may act to prevent a number of chronic diseases and cancers. The results of several investigations indicate that green tea consumption may be of modest benefit in reducing the plasma concentration of cholesterol and preventing atherosclerosis. Additionally, the cancer-preventive effects of green tea are widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies. In vitro cell culture studies show that tea polyphenols potently induce apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. Green tea polyphenols were shown to affect several biological pathways, including growth factor-mediated pathway, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent pathway, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways. Various animal studies have revealed that treatment with green tea inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as skin, lung, liver, stomach, mammary gland and colon. Recently, phase I and II clinical trials have been conducted to explore the anticancer effects of green tea in humans. A major challenge of cancer prevention is to integrate new molecular findings into clinical practice. Therefore, identification of more molecular targets and biomarkers for tea polyphenols is essential for improving the design of green tea trials and will greatly assist in a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer activity.
PMCID: PMC3763709  PMID: 18228206
Tea polyphenols; Molecular targets; Cancer prevention; Cancer treatment
3.  Post-immunisation gastritis and Helicobacter infection in the mouse: a long term study 
Gut  2001;49(4):467-473.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Vaccine development is progressing but there is concern that immunisation may exacerbate Helicobacter induced gastritis: prophylactic immunisation followed by challenge with H felis or H pylori can induce a more severe gastritis in mice than seen with infection alone. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between immunity to Helicobacter infection and post-immunisation gastritis.
METHODS—(1) C57BL/6 mice were prophylactically immunised before challenge with either H felis or H pylori. Histopathology and colonisation were assessed one month post-challenge. (2) C57BL/6 mice were prophylactically immunised against H felis infection and gastritis assessed up to 18 months post-challenge.
RESULTS—Prophylactic immunisation induced a reduction in bacterial colonisation following H felis challenge which was associated with increased severity of active gastritis with neutrophil infiltration and atrophy. However, immunised mice challenged with H pylori SS1 had little evidence of pathology. Long term follow up showed that post-immunisation gastritis was evident at three months. However, from six months onwards, although immunised/challenged mice still developed gastritis, there was no significant difference between inflammation in these mice and infected controls. Post-immunisation gastritis was not associated with the serum antibody response. Immunisation prevented the formation of secondary lymphoid aggregates in the gastric tissue.
CONCLUSION—The H felis mouse model of post-immunisation gastritis is the most extreme example of this type of pathology. We have shown in this model that post-immunisation gastritis is a transient event which does not produce long term exacerbation of pathology.


Keywords: Helicobacter; immunisation; post-immunisation gastritis
doi:10.1136/gut.49.4.467
PMCID: PMC1728471  PMID: 11559641
4.  Helicobacter pylori Counteracts the Apoptotic Action of Its VacA Toxin by Injecting the CagA Protein into Gastric Epithelial Cells 
PLoS Pathogens  2009;5(10):e1000603.
Infection with Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers but is also a high risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. The most pathogenic H. pylori strains (i.e., the so-called type I strains) associate the CagA virulence protein with an active VacA cytotoxin but the rationale for this association is unknown. CagA, directly injected by the bacterium into colonized epithelium via a type IV secretion system, leads to cellular morphological, anti-apoptotic and proinflammatory effects responsible in the long-term (years or decades) for ulcer and cancer. VacA, via pinocytosis and intracellular trafficking, induces epithelial cell apoptosis and vacuolation. Using human gastric epithelial cells in culture transfected with cDNA encoding for either the wild-type 38 kDa C-terminal signaling domain of CagA or its non-tyrosine-phosphorylatable mutant form, we found that, depending on tyrosine-phosphorylation by host kinases, CagA inhibited VacA-induced apoptosis by two complementary mechanisms. Tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA prevented pinocytosed VacA to reach its target intracellular compartments. Unphosphorylated CagA triggered an anti-apoptotic activity blocking VacA-induced apoptosis at the mitochondrial level without affecting the intracellular trafficking of the toxin. Assaying the level of apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells infected with wild-type CagA+/VacA+ H. pylori or isogenic mutants lacking of either CagA or VacA, we confirmed the results obtained in cells transfected with the CagA C-ter constructions showing that CagA antagonizes VacA-induced apoptosis. VacA toxin plays a role during H. pylori stomach colonization. However, once bacteria have colonized the gastric niche, the apoptotic action of VacA might be detrimental for the survival of H. pylori adherent to the mucosa. CagA association with VacA is thus a novel, highly ingenious microbial strategy to locally protect its ecological niche against a bacterial virulence factor, with however detrimental consequences for the human host.
Author Summary
The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori is the main causative agent of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer in humans. Our work sheds light on a new molecular mechanism by which H. pylori would exert its highly efficient colonization strategy of the human host. In this paper, we show that the H. pylori CagA protein counteracts, by two distinct non-overlapping mechanisms, the apoptotic activity of the H. pylori VacA toxin on human gastric epithelial cells so as to allow a protection of the bacterium niche against VacA, giving a rationale for the association of these two virulence factors in the most pathogenic H. pylori strains. This is a new, highly ingenious mechanism by which a bacterium locally protects its ecological niche against the action of one of its own virulence factors. However, while exerting a beneficial role for survival and growth of the bacterium by counteracting VacA toxin, CagA injection in the gastric epithelial cells triggers proinflammatory and anti-apoptotic responses which are detrimental for the human host in the long-term and favor the development of ulcer and cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000603
PMCID: PMC2745580  PMID: 19798427
5.  Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers 
Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enhance the detoxification pathway of environmental toxicants and carcinogens. Although epidemiological studies have provided inconclusive results on the effect of green tea consumption against the development of esophageal and lung cancers in humans overall, the inverse association between green tea intake and risk of esophageal cancer risk is more consistently observed in studies with adequate control for potential confounders. Epidemiological studies also have demonstrated an inverse, albeit moderate, association between green tea consumption and lung cancer, especially in non-smokers. This article reviews data on the cancer-preventive activities of green tea extract and green tea polyphenols and possible mechanisms against the esophageal and lung carcinogenesis in experimental animals, and summarizes the current knowledge from epidemiological studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and esophageal and lung cancer risk in humans.
doi:10.1002/mnfr.201000637
PMCID: PMC3400335  PMID: 21538848
Esophageal cancer; Green tea; Lung cancer; Polyphenol
6.  The Chemopreventive and Chemotherapeutic Potentials of Tea Polyphenols 
Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world reported to have multiple health benefits. Preventive and therapeutic benefits of tea polyphenols include enhanced general well being and anti-neoplastic effects. The pharmacologic action of tea is often attributed to various catechins present therein. Experiments conducted in cancer cell lines and animal models demonstrate that tea polyphenols protect against cellular damage caused by oxidative stress and altered immunity. Tea polyphenols modify various metabolic and signaling pathways in the regulation of proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis and therefore restrict clonal expansion of cancer cells. Tea polyphenols have been shown to reactivate tumor suppressors, block the unlimited replicative potential of cancer cells, and physically bind to nucleic acids involved in epigenetic alterations of gene regulation. Remarkable interest in green tea as a potential chemopreventive agent has been generated since recent epigenetic data showed that tea polyphenols have the potential to reverse epigenetic modifications which might otherwise be carcinogenic. Like green tea, black tea may also possess chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential; however, there is still not enough evidence available to make any conclusive statements. Here we present a brief description of tea polyphenols and discuss the findings of various in vitro and in vivo studies of the anticancer effects of tea polyphenols. Detailed discussion of various studies related to epigenetic changes caused by tea polyphenols leading to prevention of oncogenesis or cancer progression is included. Finally, we discuss on the scope and development of tea polyphenols in cancer prevention and therapy.
PMCID: PMC3161164  PMID: 21466438
Apoptosis; Angiogenesis; Cancer; Epigenetics; Green tea; Tea catechins; Metastasis
7.  Essential Oils as Components of a Diet-Based Approach to Management of Helicobacter Infection 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2003;47(10):3240-3246.
An increased density of Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa can be associated with more severe gastritis and an increased incidence of peptic ulcers. Therefore, people with asymptomatic gastritis would certainly benefit from a nutritional approach to help them manage the infection and therefore decrease the risk of development of associated pathologies. We analyzed the activities of 60 essential oils against H. pylori P1 and identified 30 oils that affected growth, with in vitro inhibition zones ranging between 0.7 and 6.3 cm in diameter. We further analyzed the effects of 16 oils with different activities on H. pylori P1 viability. Fifteen showed strong bactericidal activities, with minimal bactericidal concentrations after 24 h ranging from 0.02 to 0.1 g/liter at pH 7.4. Even though slight variations in activities were observed, the essential oils that displayed the strongest bactericidal potentials against H. pylori P1 were also active against other Helicobacter strains tested. Among the pure constituents of different essential oils tested, carvacrol, isoeugenol, nerol, citral, and sabinene exhibited the strongest anti-H. pylori activities. Although oral treatment of H. pylori SS1-infected mice with carrot seed oil did not result in significant decreases in the bacterial loads in the treated animals compared to those in the control animals, in all experiments performed, the infection was cleared in 20 to 30% of carrot seed oil-treated animals. Our results indicate that essential oils are unlikely to be efficient anti-Helicobacter agents in vivo. However, their effects may not be irrelevant if one plans to use them as food additives to complement present therapies.
doi:10.1128/AAC.47.10.3240-3246.2003
PMCID: PMC201172  PMID: 14506036
8.  Prevention of coronary heart disease and cancer by tea, a review 
Biomedical research has uncovered the mechanisms whereby tea promotes good health and lowers the risk of major chronic diseases, such as heart disease and many types of cancer. The active components in tea are polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate in green tea, theaflavins and thearubigins in black tea. Green and black tea and the polyphenols have similar beneficial effects. The mechanisms are categorized into 5 groups. 1) Tea polyphenols are powerful antioxidants. They decrease the oxidation of LDL cholesterol and lower the risk of heart disease, and also inhibit action of reactive oxygen species mediating the oxidation of DNA associated with carcinogenesis 2) Tea polyphenols induce detoxifying enzymes, glucuronosyl transferases, eliminating active forms of carcinogens and other toxicants, accounting for the lower cancer risk. 3) Tea polyphenols lower duplication rates of cancer cells and inhibit the growth of cancer, increase apoptosis and lower angiogenesis. 4) Tea polyphenols alter the intestinal bacterial flora, suppressing undesirable bacteria and favoring growth of beneficial bacteria. 5) Aging phenomena, and diseases associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are inhibited.
doi:10.1007/BF02908887
PMCID: PMC2723467  PMID: 21432397
black and green tea; prevention; reactive oxygen species; heart disease; cancer; cell growth inhibition; apoptosis; angiogenesis; bacterial flora; extended aging
9.  Green tea drinking modestly reduces breast cancer risk4,5 
The Journal of nutrition  2008;139(2):310-316.
Green tea is a commonly consumed beverage in China. Epidemiological and animal data suggest tea and tea polyphenols may be preventive against various cancers, including breast cancer. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes catechol estrogens and tea polyphenols. COMT rs4680 AA genotype leads to lower COMT activity which may affect the relationship between green tea consumption and breast cancer risk. We evaluated whether regular green tea consumption was associated with breast cancer risk among 3454 incident cases and 3474 controls aged 20–74 in a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China during 1996–2005. All participants were interviewed in person about green tea consumption habits including age of initiation, duration of use, brew strength and quantity of tea. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for green tea consumption measures and adjusted for age and other confounding factors. Compared with never drinkers, regular drinking of green tea was associated with a slight decreased risk for breast cancer (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.79–0.98). Among premenopausal women, reduced risk was observed for years of green tea drinking (p for trend, 0.02) and a dose response relationship with the amount of tea consumed per month was also observed 18 (p for trend, 0.046). No modifying effect of COMT rs4680 genotypes on the association of green tea intake with breast cancer risk was observed. Drinking green tea may be weakly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer.
doi:10.3945/jn.108.098699
PMCID: PMC2646205  PMID: 19074205
10.  Green Tea Polyphenols Reduce Gastric Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis Stimulated by Helicobacter pylori Infection 
Recently the finding of gastric cancer in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected mouse models was reported. Studies of humans and animal models have shown that H. pylori infection stimulates gastric epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis. Polyphenols contained in green tea and related compounds were reported to have a variety anti-tumor effects and bactericidal properties. We studied the effect of green tea polyphenols on gastric cell proliferation and apoptosis in an H. pylori-infected mouse model. This model was prepared by inoculating Balb/c mice with 108 cfu of H. pylori (NCTC 11637 strain) by gavage. Beginning 18 weeks after inoculation, 0.5% polyphenols were given in drinking water every day for 2 weeks. Mice were sacrificed 1 h after bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was given i.p. for preparation of paraffin-embedded specimens. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined by the avidin-biotin complex method using anti-BrdU antibody and the TUNEL method, respectively. H. pylori infection resulted in increased BrdU-labeled cells in both the antrum and the bodies. Administration of polyphenols suppressed this increased proliferation. H. pylori infection increased apoptotic cells in both the antrum and the corpus in comparison with controls. This increase was not seen in H. pylori-infected mice given polyphenols. We conclude the administration with polyphenols might suppress gastric carcinogenesis that is in part related to H. pylori infection.
doi:10.3164/jcbn.40.108
PMCID: PMC2127227  PMID: 18188412
Helicobacter pylori; green tea polyphenols; gastric cell proliferation; apoptosis
11.  Soy Phytochemicals and Tea Bioactive Components Synergistically Inhibit Androgen-Sensitive Human Prostate Tumors in Mice 
The Journal of nutrition  2003;133(2):516-521.
Although high doses of single bioactive agents may have potent anticancer effects, the chemopreventive properties of the Asian diet may result from interactions among several components that potentiate the activities of any single constituent. In Asia, where intake of soy products and tea consumption are very high, aggressive prostate cancer is significantly less prevalent in Asian men. The objective of the present study was to identify possible synergistic effects between soy and tea components on prostate tumor progression in a mouse model of orthotopic androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer. Soy phytochemical concentrate (SPC), black tea and green tea were compared with respect to tumorigenicity rate, primary tumor growth, tumor proliferation index and microvessel density, serum androgen level and metastases to lymph nodes. SPC, black tea and green tea significantly reduced tumorigenicity. SPC and black tea also significantly reduced final tumor weights. Green tea did not reduce final tumor weight, although it tended to elevate (P = 0.14) the serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentration. The combination of SPC and black tea synergistically inhibited prostate tumorigenicity, final tumor weight and metastases to lymph nodes in vivo. The combination of SPC and green tea synergistically inhibited final tumor weight and metastasis and significantly reduced serum concentrations of both testosterone and DHT in vivo. Inhibition of tumor progression was associated with reduced tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. This study suggests that further research is warranted to study the role of soy and tea combination as effective nutritional regimens in prostate cancer prevention.
PMCID: PMC2683253  PMID: 12566493
prostate cancer; soy phytochemicals; tea; synergy
12.  Expression of human β-defensin 2 (hBD-2) in Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis: antibacterial effect of hBD-2 against Helicobacter pylori 
Gut  2001;49(4):481-487.
BACKGROUND—Human β-defensin 2 (hBD-2) plays a role in the innate defence system at mucosal surfaces. Colonisation of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach is an important pathological factor in gastrointestinal illnesses, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric adenocarcinoma.
AIMS—To evaluate the antibacterial role of hBD-2 against H pylori infection in the gastric mucosa.
SUBJECTS—Biopsied gastric mucosa specimens from H pylori positive (n=6) and H pylori negative (n=6) individuals were used. H pylori was determined by the presence of urease activity and microscopic examination.
METHODS—The specimens were examined for hBD-2 expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridisation. The antibacterial effect of hBD-2 against H pylori was evaluated by the number of colony forming units of H pylori after incubation with 0, 10−9, 10−8, 10−7, 10−6, or 10−5 M of hBD-2 peptide.
RESULTS—All six H pylori positive specimens expressed a high level of hBD-2 mRNA while hBD-2 mRNA was not detected in the H pylori negative specimens by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry using anti-hBD-2 antiserum revealed that hBD-2 was expressed in the surface epithelium of H pylori infected specimens. In gastric specimens obtained after H pylori eradication, hBD-2 immunoreactivity had dramatically decreased. In situ hybridisation confirmed that hBD-2 transcripts were localised in the epithelium of H pylori infected gastric specimens. Incubation with hBD-2 reduced the growth rate of cultured H pylori in a dose dependent manner, and incubation with 10−5 M hBD-2 completely inhibited the proliferation of H pylori.
CONCLUSIONS—H pylori infection induces hBD-2 expression in the human gastric epithelium. hBD-2 inhibited the growth of H pylori in vitro, suggesting that hBD-2 plays an antibacterial role in H pylori induced gastritis.


Keywords: human β-defensin 2; Helicobacter pylori; gastritis; antimicrobial peptide
doi:10.1136/gut.49.4.481
PMCID: PMC1728463  PMID: 11559643
13.  Red wine and green tea reduce H pylori- or VacA-induced gastritis in a mouse model 
AIM: To investigate whether red wine and green tea could exert anti-H pylori or anti-VacA activity in vivo in a mouse model of experimental infection.
METHODS: Ethanol-free red wine and green tea concentrates were administered orally as a mixture of the two beverages to H pylori infected mice, or separately to VacA-treated mice. Gastric colonization and gastric inflammation were quantified by microbiological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses.
RESULTS: In H pylori-infected mice, the red wine and green tea mixture significantly prevented gastritis and limited the localization of bacteria and VacA to the surface of the gastric epithelium. Similarly, both beverages significantly prevented gastric epithelium damage in VacA-treated mice; green tea, but not red wine, also altered the VacA localization in the gastric epithelium.
CONCLUSION: Red wine and green tea are able to prevent H pylori-induced gastric epithelium damage, possibly involving VacA inhibition. This observation supports the possible relevance of diet on the pathological outcome of H pylori infection.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i3.349
PMCID: PMC4065887  PMID: 17230601
VacA; H pylori; Gastritis; Wine; Tea; Polyphenols
14.  Evaluation of the Effect of Green Tea Extract on Mouth Bacterial Activity in the Presence of Propylene Glycol 
Background
Compounds present in green tea have proved to inhibit the growth and activity of bacteria associated with infections.
Objectives
To assess the effects of green tea leaves extract in presence of propylene glycol on the aerobic mouth bacteria load.
Materials and Methods
Saliva of 25 volunteer girl students aging 20-25 years were selected and evaluated by a mouthwash sample containing 1% tannin, as the most effective antibacterial complex in green tea. Comparative studies were also conducted between green tea mouthwashes containing 1% tannin and a similar sample with 10% propylene glycol added during extraction. This comparison was applied for a chlorhexidine 0.2% sample as a chemical mouthwash brand, too.
Results
There was a meaningful difference between the green tea mouthwashes containing 10% propylene glycol and the simple green tea extract (P < 0.05). Significant difference was also seen between the herbal and chemical mouthwashes (P < 0.05). The extract 1% tannin containing 10% propylene glycol reduced the aerobic mouth bacterial load of the student salvia about 64 percent. The pH monotonousness in different days and temperatures approved the stability of tannin in liquid water medium.
Conclusions
Using green tea extract as a herbal mouthwash is safe and harmless specially for children and pregnant women. This result led us to suppose that green tea may prevent plaque formation on teeth, coming over halitosis due to mouth infection, too. These effects need to be approved in an in vivo trial as a second study.
PMCID: PMC3941855  PMID: 24624155
Green Tea Extract; Propylene Glycol; Bacterial Infection; Mouthwash; Tooth; Halitosis
15.  Changes of Constituents and Activity to Apoptosis and Cell Cycle During Fermentation of Tea 
Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest.
doi:10.3390/ijms12031862
PMCID: PMC3111638  PMID: 21673927
tea; catechins; theabrownins; caffeine; apoptosis; cell cycle
16.  Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films 
Background
The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C) for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C) for 8 weeks.
Results
The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage.
Conclusions
Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea extracts to improve the microbiological safety and quality of ham steak during room and refrigerated storage.
doi:10.1186/1752-153X-6-74
PMCID: PMC3441517  PMID: 22839307
17.  In Vitro Characterization of the Anti-Bacterial Activity of SQ109 against Helicobacter pylori 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68917.
The most evident challenge to treatment of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium responsible for gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer, is the increasing rate of resistance to all currently used therapeutic antibiotics. Thus, the development of novel therapies is urgently required. N-geranyl-N'-(2-adamantyl) ethane-1, 2-diamine (SQ109) is an ethylene diamine-based antitubercular drug that is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Previous pharmacokinetic studies of SQ109 revealed that persistently high concentrations of SQ109 remain in the stomach 4 hours post oral administration in rats. This finding, combined with the need for new anti-Helicobacter therapies, prompted us to define the in vitro efficacy of SQ109 against H. pylori. Liquid broth micro-dilution was used for susceptibility studies to determine the antimicrobial activity of SQ109 against a total of 6 laboratory strains and 20 clinical isolates of H. pylori; the clinical isolates included a multi-drug resistant strain. All strains tested were susceptible to SQ109 with MIC and MBC ranges of 6-10 µM and 50-60 µM, respectively. SQ109 killing kinetics were concentration- and time-dependent. SQ109 killed H. pylori in 8-10 h at 140 µM (2MBCs) or 4-6 h at 200 µM (~3MBCs). Importantly, though the kinetics of killing were altered, SQ109 retained potent bactericidal activity against H. pylori at low pH. Additionally, SQ109 demonstrated robust thermal stability and was effective at killing slow growing or static bacteria. In fact, pretreatment of cultures with a bacteriostatic concentration of chloramphenicol (Cm) synergized the effects of typically bacteriostatic concentrations of SQ109 to the level of five-logs of bacterial killing. A molar-to-molar comparison of the efficacy of SQ109 as compared to metronidazole (MTZ), amoxicillin (AMX), rifampicin (RIF) and clarithromycin (CLR), revealed that SQ109 was superior to MTZ, AMX and RIF but not to CLR. Finally, the frequency of resistance to SQ109 was low and electron microscopy studies revealed that SQ109 interacted with bacterial inner membrane and cytoplasmic content(s). Collectively, our in vitro data demonstrate that SQ109 is an effective monotherapy against susceptible and multi-drug resistant strains of H. pylori and may be useful alone or in combination with other antibiotics for development as a new class of anti-Helicobacter drugs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068917
PMCID: PMC3723868  PMID: 23935905
18.  Targeting Receptor Tyrosine Kinases for Chemoprevention by Green Tea Catechin, EGCG 
Tea is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Epidemiologic studies show an inverse relationship between consumption of tea, especially green tea, and development of cancers. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies indicate strong chemopreventive effects for green tea and its constituents against cancers of various organs. (–)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin in green tea, appears to be the most biologically active constituent in tea with respect to inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Recent studies indicate that the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are one of the critical targets of EGCG to inhibit cancer cell growth. EGCG inhibits the activation of EGFR (erbB1), HER2 (neu/erbB2) and also HER3 (neu/erbB3), which belong to subclass I of the RTK superfamily, in various types of human cancer cells. The activation of IGF-1 and VEGF receptors, the other members of RTK family, is also inhibited by EGCG. In addition, EGCG alters membrane lipid organization and thus inhibits the dimerization and activation of EGFR. Therefore, EGCG inhibits the Ras/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, which are RTK-related cell signaling pathways, as well as the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, thereby modulating the expression of target genes which are associated with induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. These findings are significant because abnormalities in the expression and function of RTKs and their downstream effectors play a critical role in the development of several types of human malignancies. In this paper we review evidence indicating that EGCG exerts anticancer effects, at least in part, through inhibition of activation of the specific RTKs and conclude that targeting RTKs and related signaling pathway by tea catechins might be a promising strategy for the prevention of human cancers.
doi:10.3390/ijms9061034
PMCID: PMC2658783  PMID: 19325845
Tea catechins; EGCG; cell signaling pathway; RTK; AP-1, activator protein-1; COX-2, cyclooxygenase-2; EC, (–)-epicatechin; ECG, epicatechin-3-gallate; EGC, (–)-epigallocatechin; EGCG, (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate; EGF, epidermal growth factor; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; FGFR, fibroblast growth factor receptor; HNSCC, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; IGF-1R, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor; IGFBP, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein; IκBα, inhibitor of κB-α; IKKα, inhibitor of κB kinase-α; LR, laminin receptor; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; MEK, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; PDGFR, platelet-derived growth factor receptor; PGE2prostaglandin E2; Poly E, polyphenon E; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; ROS, reactive oxygen species; RTK, receptor tyrosine kinase; Stat, signal transducers and activator of transcription; TGFα, transforming growth factor-α; TRAMP, transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate; UV, ultraviolet; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGFR, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor
19.  Difluoromethylornithine Is a Novel Inhibitor of Helicobacter pylori Growth, CagA Translocation, and Interleukin-8 Induction 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e17510.
Helicobacter pylori infects half the world's population, and carriage is lifelong without antibiotic therapy. Current regimens prescribed to prevent infection-associated diseases such as gastroduodenal ulcers and gastric cancer can be thwarted by antibiotic resistance. We reported that administration of 1% d,l-α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) to mice infected with H. pylori reduces gastritis and colonization, which we attributed to enhanced host immune response due to inhibition of macrophage ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. Although no ODC has been identified in any H. pylori genome, we sought to determine if DFMO has direct effects on the bacterium. We found that DFMO significantly reduced the growth rate of H. pylori in a polyamine-independent manner. Two other Gram-negative pathogens possessing ODC, Escherichia coli and Citrobacter rodentium, were resistant to the DFMO effect. The effect of DFMO on H. pylori required continuous exposure to the drug and was reversible when removed, with recovery of growth rate in vitro and the ability to colonize mice. H. pylori exposed to DFMO were significantly shorter in length than those untreated and they contained greater internal levels of ATP, suggesting severe effects on bacterial metabolism. DFMO inhibited expression of the H. pylori virulence factor cytotoxin associated gene A, and its translocation and phosphorylation in gastric epithelial cells, which was associated with a reduction in interleukin-8 expression. These findings suggest that DFMO has effects on H. pylori that may contribute to its effectiveness in reducing gastritis and colonization and may be a useful addition to anti-H. pylori therapies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017510
PMCID: PMC3046249  PMID: 21386987
20.  Helicobacter pylori versus the Host: Remodeling of the Bacterial Outer Membrane Is Required for Survival in the Gastric Mucosa 
PLoS Pathogens  2011;7(12):e1002454.
Modification of bacterial surface structures, such as the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is used by many pathogenic bacteria to help evade the host innate immune response. Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative bacterium capable of chronic colonization of the human stomach, modifies its lipid A by removal of phosphate groups from the 1- and 4′-positions of the lipid A backbone. In this study, we identify the enzyme responsible for dephosphorylation of the lipid A 4′-phosphate group in H. pylori, Jhp1487 (LpxF). To ascertain the role these modifications play in the pathogenesis of H. pylori, we created mutants in lpxE (1-phosphatase), lpxF (4′-phosphatase) and a double lpxE/F mutant. Analysis of lipid A isolated from lpxE and lpxF mutants revealed lipid A species with a 1 or 4′-phosphate group, respectively while the double lpxE/F mutant revealed a bis-phosphorylated lipid A. Mutants lacking lpxE, lpxF, or lpxE/F show a 16, 360 and 1020 fold increase in sensitivity to the cationic antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B, respectively. Moreover, a similar loss of resistance is seen against a variety of CAMPs found in the human body including LL37, β-defensin 2, and P-113. Using a fluorescent derivative of polymyxin we demonstrate that, unlike wild type bacteria, polymyxin readily associates with the lpxE/F mutant. Presumably, the increase in the negative charge of H. pylori LPS allows for binding of the peptide to the bacterial surface. Interestingly, the action of LpxE and LpxF was shown to decrease recognition of Helicobacter LPS by the innate immune receptor, Toll-like Receptor 4. Furthermore, lpxE/F mutants were unable to colonize the gastric mucosa of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6J tlr4 -/- mice when compared to wild type H. pylori. Our results demonstrate that dephosphorylation of the lipid A domain of H. pylori LPS by LpxE and LpxF is key to its ability to colonize a mammalian host.
Author Summary
Since its discovery in 1982 Helicobacter pylori has been identified as the leading cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, infecting around 50% of the world's population. Infected patients are at increased risk for gastric cancers, allowing for classification of H. pylori as a class I carcinogen by the World Health Organization. H. pylori has only one well defined niche, the human stomach. Since no other reservoirs exist, a unique balance must be established during infection permitting long-term survival of both the bacterium and its human host. Here, we show that H. pylori modifies its primary surface component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), making the bacterium undetectable by components of the innate immune system and highly resistant to antimicrobial compounds secreted by host cells. Mutant strains of H. pylori unable to modify their surface show increased sensitivity to antimicrobial peptides (∼1000 fold) and increased recognition by components of the innate immune system. H. pylori mutants were unable to colonize mouse models, suggesting that remodeling of LPS is essential for survival within the gastric mucosa. Understanding the adaptations used by H. pylori to survive and persist within the human host is key towards unraveling how this unique organism impacts gastric disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002454
PMCID: PMC3245313  PMID: 22216004
21.  Antibacterial Activity of Iranian Green and Black Tea on Streptococcus Mutans: An In Vitro Study 
Objective:
Dental caries is a common infectious disease. Streptococcus mutans is the pre-valent decay microorganism. The anti Streptococcus mutans activity of non fermented and semi-fermented tea has been shown. The aim of this study was to determine the anti Streptococcus mutans activity of Iranian green and black tea (non fermented and fermented type).
Materials and Methods:
The study was experimental. The aerial parts of wild-growing Camellia sinensis were collected from Lahijan province. The methanolic extract of green and black tea were examined on Streptococcus mutans (ATCC3566). Five different concentrations (50mg/ml, 100mg/ml, 200mg/ml, 300mg/ml and 400 mg/ml) of tea extracts were tested using the well assay method. The agar dilution method recommended by the NCCLS standards (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) was used. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of extract inhibiting visible growth of the organism on the agar media plate. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was detected from MIC.
Results:
The Iranian green and black tea had an antibacterial effect on 100 to 400 mg/ml concentrations. The minimum inhibitory concentration of green and black tea was 150 and 50 mg/ml, respectively. The mean diameter of inhibition zone were 9.5 mm and 10.9 mm for methanolic extract of green and black tea, respectively.
Conclusion:
Both Iranian non fermented (green tea) and fermented (black tea) have anti Streptococcus mutans activity in vitro. The anti Streptococcus mutans activity of black tea appears on a lower concentration than green tea.
PMCID: PMC3184736  PMID: 21998809
Green Tea; Black Tea; Antibacterial Effect; Streptococcus Mutans
22.  Gastric Helicobacters in Domestic Animals and Nonhuman Primates and Their Significance for Human Health 
Clinical Microbiology Reviews  2009;22(2):202-223.
Summary: Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated “H. heilmannii,” but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pigs, is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Other gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters colonizing the human stomach are H. felis, H. salomonis, H. bizzozeronii, and the still-uncultivable “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii.” These microorganisms are often detected in the stomachs of dogs and cats. “Candidatus Helicobacter bovis” is highly prevalent in the abomasums of cattle but has only occasionally been detected in the stomachs of humans. There are clear indications that gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infections in humans originate from animals, and it is likely that transmission to humans occurs through direct contact. Little is known about the virulence factors of these microorganisms. The recent successes with in vitro isolation of non-H. pylori helicobacters from domestic animals open new perspectives for studying these microorganisms and their interactions with the host.
doi:10.1128/CMR.00041-08
PMCID: PMC2668234  PMID: 19366912
23.  The role of Th cell subsets in the control of Helicobacter infections and in T cell-driven gastric immunopathology 
Chronic infection with the gastric bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori causes gastric adenocarcinoma in a particularly susceptible fraction of the infected population. The intestinal type of gastric cancer is preceded by a series of preneoplastic lesions that are of immunopathological origin, and that can be recapitulated by experimental infection of C57BL/6 mice with Helicobacter species. Several lines of evidence suggest that specific T cell subsets and/or their signature cytokines contribute to the control of Helicobacter infections on the one hand, and to the associated gastric preneoplastic pathology on the other. Here, we have used virulent H. pylori and H. felis isolates to infect mice that lack α/β T cells due to a targeted deletion of the T cell receptor β-chain, or are deficient for the unique p35 and p19 subunits of the Th1- and Th17-polarizing cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23, respectively. We found that α/β T cells are absolutely required for Helicobacter control and for the induction of gastric preneoplastic pathology. In contrast, neither IL-12-dependent Th1 nor IL-23-dependent Th17 cells were essential for controlling the infection; IL-12p35-/- and IL-23p19-/- mice did not differ significantly from wild type animals with respect to Helicobacter colonization densities. Gastritis and gastric preneoplastic pathology developed to a similar extent in all three strains upon H. felis infection; in the H. pylori infection model, IL-23p19-/- mice exhibited significantly less gastritis and precancerous pathology. In summary, the results indicate that neither Th1 nor Th17 cells are by themselves essential for Helicobacter control; the associated gastric pathology is reduced only in the absence of Th17-polarizing IL-23, and only in the H. pylori, but not the H. felis infection model. The results thus suggest the involvement of other, as yet unknown T cell subsets in both processes.
doi:10.3389/fimmu.2012.00142
PMCID: PMC3365484  PMID: 22675328
T helper cell subsets; gastric immunopathology; gastric cancer precursor lesions; experimental infection models
24.  The Host Protein Calprotectin Modulates the Helicobacter pylori cag Type IV Secretion System via Zinc Sequestration 
PLoS Pathogens  2014;10(10):e1004450.
Transition metals are necessary for all forms of life including microorganisms, evidenced by the fact that 30% of all proteins are predicted to interact with a metal cofactor. Through a process termed nutritional immunity, the host actively sequesters essential nutrient metals away from invading pathogenic bacteria. Neutrophils participate in this process by producing several metal chelating proteins, including lactoferrin and calprotectin (CP). As neutrophils are an important component of the inflammatory response directed against the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, a major risk factor for gastric cancer, it was hypothesized that CP plays a role in the host response to H. pylori. Utilizing a murine model of H. pylori infection and gastric epithelial cell co-cultures, the role CP plays in modifying H. pylori -host interactions and the function of the cag Type IV Secretion System (cag T4SS) was investigated. This study indicates elevated gastric levels of CP are associated with the infiltration of neutrophils to the H. pylori-infected tissue. When infected with an H. pylori strain harboring a functional cag T4SS, calprotectin-deficient mice exhibited decreased bacterial burdens and a trend toward increased cag T4SS -dependent inflammation compared to wild-type mice. In vitro data demonstrate that culturing H. pylori with sub-inhibitory doses of CP reduces the activity of the cag T4SS and the biogenesis of cag T4SS-associated pili in a zinc-dependent fashion. Taken together, these data indicate that zinc homeostasis plays a role in regulating the proinflammatory activity of the cag T4SS.
Author Summary
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that colonizes the stomach and causes gastric diseases. Some strains of H. pylori possess a secretion system that has the capacity to inject a cancer-causing protein into host cells. The activity of this secretion system contributes to the development of inflammation and is linked to the development of gastric cancer. Here, we show that the host protein calprotectin, which has the ability to bind and sequester nutrient metals from invading pathogens, can directly repress H. pylori secretory activity and the production of secretion-associated pili in a zinc-dependent manner. H. pylori-infected animals lacking calprotectin trend toward having more gastric inflammation and a significantly lower bacterial burden than infected animals that express calprotectin; these differences are not observed when animals are infected with a strain of H. pylori that lacks an active secretion system. Thus, a better understanding of how nutritional immunity modulates this secretion system could help us develop novel antimicrobial therapeutic strategies targeting secretory processes in H. pylori.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004450
PMCID: PMC4199781  PMID: 25330071
25.  Effects of green, oolong and black teas and related components on the proliferation and invasion of hepatoma cells in culture 
Cytotechnology  1999;31(1-2):37-44.
The effects of teas and related components on the proliferation and invasion of cancer cells were examined by employing both in vitro proliferation and invasion assay systems. Powdered green, oolong and black tea extracts dose-dependently inhibited proliferation and invasion of a rat ascites hepatoma cell line of AH109A but did not affect the proliferation of the normal mesentery-derived mesothelial cells (M-cells) isolated from rats; higher concentrations of powdered oolong and black teas could restrain the proliferation of another tumor cell line of L929. The AH109A cells were found to penetrate underneath the monolayer of M-cells in the presence of 10% calf serum. When each rat serum obtained at 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 h after oral intubation of each tea extract was added to the culture media instead of calf serum at a concentration of 10%, both the invasion and proliferation of AH109A were significantly suppressed. These ex vivo results suggest the potential bioavailability of effective tea components in rats. Furthermore, (–)-epigallocatechin gallate, (–)-epicatechin gallate and (–)-epigallocatechin from green tea as well as the mixture of theaflavin and theaflavin gallates from black tea were shown to be the most effective components against the invasion and proliferation of AH109A. These results show that the inhibitory effects of the teas and related components against AH109A cells are due to the cell-specific and higher sensitivity of the cell line to tea components.
doi:10.1023/A:1008076306672
PMCID: PMC3449775  PMID: 19003122
catechins; hepatoma cells; invasion; proliferation; teas

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