Partial wrist arthrodesis is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of posttraumatic wrist arthritis because of its ability to provide pain relief without sacrificing complete wrist motion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the redistribution of force after four-corner fusion and scaphoid excision, and to correlate the findings with the reported clinical outcomes.
Fifteen cadaveric wrists were used to study the biomechanics of the four-corner fusion. Pressure-sensitive film (super-low-pressure-indicating film—Pressurex, Sensor Products Inc, Madison, NJ) was inserted into the radiocarpal joint. Using the MTS 858 Mini Bionix (MTS System, Eden Prairie, MN), 50-kg loads (220 N) were applied to the wrists before and after simulated four-corner fusion and scaphoid excision. Statistically, we compared the pressure in the normal (intact) wrists versus four-corner fusion and scaphoid excision. The pressure measurements across the scaphoid fossa, lunate fossa, and triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) were compared.
There is a statistical significant difference between scaphoid, lunate, and TFCC mean total force when pre and post-fusion were compared (p = 0.0001). Our study revealed a statistical significant decrease in the mean scaphoid total force after scaphoid excision and four-corner fusion (p = 0.0001). We also found a subsequent increase in mean total force after scaphoid excision and four-corner fusion for the lunate fossa that did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.08), and no difference in load across the TFCC area (p = 0.995).
Our findings suggest that load is preferentially transferred to the radiolunate joint after scaphoid excision with four-corner fusion.
Wrist joint; Arthodesis; Biomechanics; Four-corner fusion
The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcome, union rate, and complications of a consecutive series of Scaphoid excision and limited wrist arthrodesis performed by a single surgeon using distal radius bone graft and K-wires or circular plate fixation. A sequential series of ten patients(11 wrists) who were stabilized with temporary K-wires were compared to 11 patients (11 wrists) who were stabilized with a circular plate. Minimum follow-up was 1 year. One patient in the K-wire group was converted to a wrist fusion. Six of the remaining ten patients in the K-wire fixation group and 8 of the 11 patients in the circular plate fixation group returned for the following blinded evaluations: Quick DASH, analog pain scale, range of motion, grip and pinch strength, plain x-ray, and multi-detector computed tomography evaluation. One non-union occurred in the K-wire group. There were no non-unions in the circular plate fixation group. There was no difference in any of remaining measures or rate of complications. This study shows that equivalent results can be obtained using circular plate fixation compared to K-wires when equivalent bone graft source and fusion technique are used. If K-wire removal requires a return to the OR, circular plate fixation is more cost-effective.
Wrist; Arthritis; Limited wrist arthrodesis
This report is of a 32 year old man who presented with complains of pain, swelling and deformity of right wrist of four weeks duration. He gave history of road traffic accident four weeks back leading to injury to right wrist; Preoperative radiographs and C.T. scan images were suggestive of trans-scaphoid dislocation of the proximal row of wrist. A volar and dorsal approach were used to reduce this complex dislocation but was not successful. Wrist arthodesis was performed after doing proximal row carpectomy. One year follow-up of the patient showed fair result with grip strength of 85% to contralateral side and modified Mayo wrist score of 65 at one year.
Trans-scaphoid dislocation; CT scan; carpectomy; wrist score
The objective of this article is to report our clinical experience in the treatment of patients with scaphoid nonunion using intercalated bone graft and Herbert’s screw and the long-term postoperative results with a minimum of five years of follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed 49 patients treated with carved intercalated bone graft and Herbert’s screw fixation from September 1987 to June 2001. Preoperative clinical manifestations and postoperative results were assessed by radiography, and functional results, including grip force, range of motion of the wrist joint, and Cooney’s scoring chart, were evaluated. The union rate was 93.9%. The average grip power, as well as wrist flexion and extension were significantly improved. Using Cooney’s scoring system, 29 patients were rated excellent and 17 good. For successful union, anatomical reduction with carved intercalated bone grafting and Herbert’s screw fixation is definitely a reliable option. This method leads to a satisfactory long-term functional outcome.
Screws with different levels of compression force are available for scaphoid fixation and it is known that the Acutrak screw generates greater compression than the Herbert screw. We retrospectively compared two types of headless compression screw for their effectiveness in the repair of scaphoid nonunion. Twenty-nine cases of proximal scaphoid nonunion were surgically treated with non-vascularised bone graft: the Acutrak screw was used in 17 patients and the cannulated Herbert screw in 12 patients. Wrist range of motion, Mayo wrist score, grip strength and QuickDASH scores were indicators used for the functional evaluation. Radiographic findings were assessed for consolidation of nonunion and signs of arthrosis. The mean follow-up time was 49.2 months (range 12–96). Statistically, there was no significant difference between the Acutrak and Herbert screw types in terms of functional evaluation and time required for consolidation. Greater compression did not influence the functional outcome, consolidation rate or time to consolidation. The need for greater compression in the treatment of proximal scaphoid nonunions is thus questionable because it may increase the risk of proximal fragment communition.
To compare the functional results of carpectomy and four‐corner fusion surgical procedures for treating osteoarthrosis following carpal trauma.
In this prospective randomized study, 20 patients underwent proximal row carpectomy or four‐corner fusion to treat wrist arthritis and their functional results were compared. The midcarpal joint was free of lesions in all patients.
Both proximal row carpectomy and four‐corner fusion reduced the pain. All patients had a decreased range of motion after surgery. The differences between groups were not statistically significant.
Functional results of the two procedures were similar as both reduced pain in patients with scapholunate advanced collapse/scaphoid non‐union advanced collapse (SLAC/SNAC) wrist without degenerative changes in the midcarpal joint.
Arthritis; Degenerative; Wrist injuries; Carpal bones; Arthrodesis; Wrist joint
Posttraumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of scaphoid is an extremely rare with only two reported cases so far. We present a case of a 30-year-old male with a 2-year-old posttraumatic osteonecrosis and nonunion of distal pole of scaphoid left wrist. He presented with complaints of pain and restriction of movements. There was no evidence of radiocarpal arthritis. He was managed with open reduction and internal fixation with k-wires, supplemented by a pronator quadratus based muscle pedicle bone graft. The fracture union was achieved at 6 months. After 2 years, he had almost complete range of wrist motion and had returned to his preinjury level of functional activity. His MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans showed evidence of revascularization suggesting successful incorporation of bone graft.
Posttraumatic osteonecrosis scophoid; posttraumatic nonunion scophoid; muscle pedicle bone graft
Scaphoid stress fractures are rare and can be a cause of wrist pain in sportspersons. All the cases reported in the literature have been sportspersons. Missing a scaphoid stress fracture could lead to non-union of the scaphoid and early degenerative arthritis of the radio-carpal joint. This can cause chronic wrist pain and can reduce the career span of a sportsperson. We report a case of non union of a scaphoid fracture in a cricketer possibly secondary to a stress fracture.
If neglected or misdiagnosed, non-union of a scaphoid fracture will almost inevitably progress to radiographic and symptomatic osteoarthritis of the wrist with subsequent morbidity and lifelong disability, especially in young males in which the fracture is more common. Fractures of the scaphoid bone are the most common fractures of the carpus and second in occurrence among fractures of the wrist.
The diagnosis and treatment are not simple. Familiarity with different imaging methods and treatment options is required. The treatment in most cases is conservative and will lead to uneventful union, but an operation may be needed in certain cases primarily and in the treatment of non-union.
The current literature on the diagnosis and treatment of scaphoid fractures is reviewed, and the authors try to make a clear and concise picture of this complex and sometimes controversial field.
Keywords: scaphoid; fracture
Fractures of the scaphoid bone mainly occur in young adults and constitute 2-7% of all fractures. The specific blood supply in combination with the demanding functional requirements can easily lead to disturbed fracture healing. Displaced scaphoid fractures are seen on radiographs. The diagnostic strategy of suspected scaphoid fractures, however, is surrounded by controversy. Bone scintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography have their shortcomings. Early treatment leads to a better outcome. Scaphoid fractures can be treated conservatively and operatively. Proximal scaphoid fractures and displaced scaphoid fractures have a worse outcome and might be better off with an open or closed reduction and internal fixation. The incidence of scaphoid non-unions has been reported to be between 5 and 15%. Non-unions are mostly treated operatively by restoring the anatomy to avoid degenerative wrist arthritis.
Despite extensive literature supporting the use of computerized tomography (CT) scans in evaluating scaphoid fractures, there has not been a consensus on the methodology for defining and quantifying union. The purpose of this study was to test the inter-observer reliability of two methods of quantifying scaphoid union.
The CT scans of 50 non-operatively treated scaphoid fractures were reviewed by four blinded observers. Each was asked to classify union into one of three categories, united, partially united, or tenuously united, based on their general impression. Each reviewer then carefully analyzed each CT slice and quantified union based on two methods, the mean percentage union and the weighted mean percentage union. The estimated percentage of scaphoid union for each scan was recorded, and inter-observer reliability for both methods was assessed using a Bland-Altman plot to calculate the 95% limits of agreement. Kappa statistic was used to measure the degree of agreement for the categorical assessment of union.
There was very little difference in the percentage of union calculated between the two methods (mean difference between the two methods was 1.2 ± 4.1%), with each reviewer demonstrating excellent agreement between the two methods based on the Bland-Altman plot. The kappa score indicated very good agreement (Ƙ = 0.80) between the consultant hand surgeon and the musculoskeletal radiologist, and good agreement (Ƙ = 0.62) between the consultant hand surgeon and the hand fellow for the categorical assessment of union.
This study describes two methods of quantifying and defining scaphoid union, both with a high inter-rater reliability. This indicates that either method can be reliably used, making it an important tool for both for clinical use and research purposes in future studies of scaphoid fractures, particularly those which are using union or time to union as their endpoint.
Level of evidence
Diagnostic, level III
Inter-rater reliability; Partial union; Scaphoid; Union
We reviewed 12 male patients with scaphoid nonunions treated by open reduction, bone grafting, and internal fixation with biodegradable implants made of self-reinforced poly-l-lactic acid. Mean patient age was 22.5 (20–25) years. Ten patients had type D2 scaphoid nonunions with a fracture line in the middle one third, one patient had type D2 nonunion with a fracture line in the proximal one third, and one patient had type D1 distal one-third fibrous union. The mean wrist score (modified Mayo wrist score) was 20.8 (10–40) preoperatively and improved after 22–80 months (55–90). All nonunions healed, and the mean solid union time was 4.5 (3.5–7) months. We obtained excellent results in five patients, good results in four, fair results in two, and a poor result in one. The results of this study offer a valid alternative in the fixation of scaphoid nonunions. The major advantage of biodegradable materials is to eliminate the requirement for the removal of the fixation material.
The purpose of this review was to assess the current evidence supporting operative fixation versus casting for acute scaphoid fractures through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.
Our search yielded 59 articles that met our inclusion criteria with five studies achieving high, 22 moderate, and 32 low Structured Effectiveness Quality Evaluation Scale scores. Pooled results of the four Sackett level 1 evidence studies showed no significant difference between the operative (114/115, 99%) versus non-operative group (106/112, 95%) (p = 0.07) when the definition of nonunion was based on more definitive criterion versus plain radiographs that may be insufficient to assess bony union. Similar results were found for the Sackett level 2 and 4 articles.
This systematic review reveals that significant weaknesses exist in the literature with respect to the level of evidence and quality of published studies on this topic. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to support the most effective treatment for acute scaphoid fractures.
Acute scaphoid fractures; Systematic review; Treatment scaphoid fractures
Wrist degeneration, resulting from scaphoid nonunion or scapholunate ligamentous disruption, is widely managed with scaphoid excision with four-corner fusion. There are no specific details in the literature regarding “salvage” of nonunion after attempted “four-corner fusions” or the patient outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of patients who underwent treatment for nonunion after four-corner fusion, the subsequent surgeries done for wrist salvage and the functional results.
We reviewed, retrospectively, 37 patients who underwent limited wrist fusion using circular plate fixation, of which eight cases (22%) went on to nonunion and necessitated revision surgeries with plate exchange and bone graft. (Table 1) Five of eight patients were available to return to the clinic, and the wrist range of motion and the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score were recorded.
The average DASH score was 46 (range, 15 to 60.8). Grip on the affected limb was, on the average, 62% of the contralateral limb. Average arc of wrist motion was 70° (35.7° of flexion and 34.3° of extension). Three of the five patients were laborers, and two returned to the previous employment. The remaining two patients returned to their previous sedentary jobs. All patients reported difficulty with recreational activities involving heavy activity.
Complications of four-corner arthrodesis using circular plate fixation were recorded, revealing a high number of nonunions and hardware failures. All nonunions were salvaged with allograft or autogenous grafting with plate revision; however, the patients did have considerable limitations.
Non-united; Four-corner fusions; Management; Circular plate
Fracture of the scaphoid bone is the most common fracture of the carpus, and frequently, diagnosis is delayed. The unique anatomy and blood supply of the scaphoid itself predisposes to delayed union or nonunion. The Synthes scaphoid screw is a cannulated headed screw, which provides superior compression compared with some other devices used to internally fix scaphoid nonunions. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective study looking at the union rate, time to union, and complications and correlating the outcome of treatment against the delay between injury and surgery and location of the fracture within the bone. This study is a review of a cohort of 30 patients treated with a cannulated Synthes scaphoid screw and corticocancellous bone grafting for scaphoid waist delayed union and nonunion at our center. We achieved 86% overall union rate. The patients with delayed union achieved a 100% union rate. Three out of four patients with persistent nonunion after surgery reported no pain and improved function. The failure rate was 75% in patients who had sustained their fracture more than 5 years previously. Our study demonstrates that delayed union of scaphoid waist fractures and scaphoid waist nonunions present for less than 5 years can be successfully treated by fracture compression and bone grafting.
Scaphoid; Delayed union; Nonunion; Synthes scaphoid screw fixation; Bone graft
The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences.
Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid.
This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning).
Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory.
Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation evaluated by CT-scanning, functional status of the wrist, including assessment by means of the patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) questionnaire and quality of life using SF-36 health survey questionnaire.
Primary endpoint is number of scaphoid unions at six weeks, secondary endpoints are time interval to clinical and radiological consolidation, number of non-unions, functional status at 52 weeks and non-adherence to the treatment protocol.
Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2064
Distal radial fractures are a common type of fracture. In the case of intra-articular fractures, they often result in post-traumatic arthrosis. The objective of this study is to describe a novel alternative to the established salvage techniques for the treatment of post-traumatic arthrosis of the radio-carpal and distal radio-ulnar joints (DRUJ). Six patients with radio-carpal and DRUJ arthrosis were treated with a combined radius, scaphoid, and lunate (RSL) arthrodesis and as a Herbert ulnar head prosthesis. Follow-up consisted of both radiographic and functional assessments. Functional measurements were noted both pre- and postoperatively. No non-union or pseudoarthrosis was seen; neither did any of the ulnar head prostheses show loosening. Clinical examination showed an improvement in strength, pain, and range of movement, as well as a decrease in disability. Combining RSL arthrodesis with a Herbert ulnar head prosthesis, which deals with pain while retaining partial wrist movement, can be an alternative to established salvage procedures.
Wrist; Partial arthrodesis; Endoprosthetics; Post-traumatic arthrosis
Scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) and scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC) are the two most common patterns of posttraumatic wrist arthritis. This review discusses the etiology and clinical evaluation, as well as up-to-date treatment options, for both of these conditions. Classic as well as newer innovative techniques are discussed with clinical outcomes in order to provide an evidence-based review of the world’s literature on SLAC/SNAC wrist.
SLAC; SNAC; Arthritis; Wrist; Review; Update
Cavitary-type scaphoid non-unions represent one of the most difficult treatment challenges amongst all scaphoid non-unions as they exhibit bone loss, scaphoid shortening, flexion (‘humpback’) deformity and dorsal intercalated segmental instability (DISI), creating altered carpal mechanics which may proceed to the degenerative changes of scapholunate advanced collapse of the wrist. Our technique and its rationale are presented in the largest-to-date series on cavitary scaphoid non-unions exhibiting DISI.
Our technique for treatment of these cavitary non-unions is presented through a series of 27 patients.
Union was achieved in (26/27) 96% of cases, with no complications. Carpal mechanics was restored, with an average carpal height index of 1.52 ± 0.06, and an average scapholunate angle was 46 ± 9°. Average follow-up was 2.2 years.
In this subset of patients, we believe this technique is less technically demanding than the use of either cortico-cancellous grafts or various compression screws. Our success equals or betters that of other published techniques, with all patients enjoying a full return to work, even in occupations demanding heavy labour. We believe that scaphoid union, coupled with the often difficult restoration of carpal height and intra-carpal angles, has produced very good functional outcomes in the management of these challenging cases.
Scaphoid non-union; Scapholunate angle; Carpal height index; Distal radius cancellous autograft; Kirschner wires
Scaphoid excision and four-corner fusion is commonly performed to reconstruct advanced scapholunate collapse and scaphoid nonunion with collapse. Metallic plates were introduced for achieving fixation of the four carpal bones. Although the developer reported high rates of fusion, several other early reports of circular plate fixation suggest higher complication rates and inferior outcomes compared with traditional fixation techniques.
To clarify the controversy in the literature we determined the fusion rates, complications, and functional outcomes of patients having circular plate fixation for four-corner fusion.
We retrospectively reviewed 15 patients treated for radioscaphoid arthritis with four-corner fusion using circular plate fixation. The minimum followup was 11 months (mean, 22 months; range, 11–39 months).
Radiographic union was achieved by all 15 patients. There was only one postoperative complication. ROM was 71% and grip strength was 78% of the opposite normal side.
Our results compare favorably with those using traditional fixation techniques. ROM measurements seem superior to those reported in the literature.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Isolated dislocation of the scaphoid is very rare. A 45-year old male, industrial worker reported two and half months after injury with wrist pain and swelling on the dorsum of left wrist. He was diagnosed as neglected dorsal dislocation of scaphoid. Proximal row carpectomy with capsular interposition was done stabilizing the distal carpus on the radius using Kirschner wires. At-12 months follow-up the patient had good wrist function and was satisfied with the outcome of the treatment. We hereby report this neglected dorsal dislocation of scaphoid in view of rarity and discuss the various options for management.
Neglected scaphoid dislocation; proximal row carpectomy; scaphoid
We treated 18 patients with advanced Kienbock's disease surgically. Six had total wrist fusions and 12 had limited carpal fusions. The average age was 39.6 yrs and the average follow up was 61.8 months and 66.8 months respectively. The visual analogue pain scores, the patient satisfaction scores and the SF 12 were better in the total wrist fusion group. The DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) scores, the range of movement and the grip strengths were better in the limited carpal fusions group but this was not statistically significant. Four patients with limited carpal fusions had a non-union that required revising. We believe that total wrist fusion should be offered earlier to patients with advanced stages of the disease, as there are less surgical failures, more satisfied patients, better post operative pain scores and consistent long-term results with less potential for further deterioration with time as compared to other treatment methods.
To measure the rate of union in patients with pseudoarthosis of the scaphoid, treated with trapezoidal bone grafting as outlined by Fernandez and 1 of 3 methods of internal fixation and to compare unions versus nonunions and potential predictors of union to determine if associations exist.
A retrospective radiologic study of scaphoid pseudoarthroses.
Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Ottawa Hospital, General Site, a tertiary care facility.
Thirty-four patients with nonunion of scaphoid fractures, treated between 1990 and 1997, with an average follow-up of 19.8 months.
Trapezoidal bone grafting and internal fixation with Kirschner (K) wires, an AO cannulated screw or a Herbert screw.
The time to union of scaphoid pseudoarthroses and predictors of union, including the classification, location of pseudoarthrosis, type of internal fixation and length of bone graft.
The results showed a correlation between the classification and location of the fracture as determined radiologically, and the outcome. There was no correlation between the type of internal fixation used and the outcome, or between the length of the bone graft and the outcome. Twenty-three patients had radiologically demonstrated union after a mean time of 8.2 months; 16 of 24 patients achieved successful union when treated with K-wire implants, after a mean time of 7.2 months.
Trapezoidal bone grafting and internal fixation with K wires is a practical technique, classification and location of the fracture notwithstanding. Time to union is long, and the results may be unpredictable. Use of K wires for internal fixation presents the clinician with an alternative to fixation with either the AO cannulated screw or the Herbert screw, and has the advantages of cost, ease of insertion and accessibility. This method may therefore be the treatment of choice in developing countries. Resection of the area of pseudoarthrosis must include all fibrous tissue and sclerotic bone. The length of graft, within the parameters of this study, did not affect the outcome.
Up to 40% of scaphoid fractures are missed at initial presentation as clinical examination and plain radiographs are poor at identifying scaphoid fractures immediately after the injury. Avoiding a delay in diagnosis is essential to prevent the risk of non-union and early wrist arthritis. We demonstrate the use of CT scanning for the early confirmation of a scaphoid fracture.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
We conducted a retrospective, chronological review of patients who attended an upper limb fracture clinic from January 2001 to October 2003 in a small district general hospital. We performed a CT scan on all ‘clinical scaphoid’ patients who had negative plain X-ray films.
Overall, 70% of patients had a CT scan within 1 week of injury and not from date of accident and emergency attendance; 83% of patients had a CT scan within 2 weeks of injury. Of 118 patients identified, 32% had positive findings and 22% of ‘clinical scaphoid’ patients had scaphoid fractures. The proportion of positive findings for an acute scaphoid fracture was 68%. Additional pathologies identified on CT were capitate, triquetral and radial fractures.
Our audit shows that it is practical to perform CT on suspicious scaphoid fractures in a small district general hospital. We identified an extremely high false-negative rate for plain X-rays and demonstrate that the appropriate use of CT at initial fracture clinic attendance with ‘clinical scaphoid’ leads to an earlier diagnosis and reduces the need for prolonged immobilisation and repeated clinical review.
Scaphoid fracture; Computed tomography; Fracture clinic
The purpose of this case series is to identify and illustrate the phenomenon of scaphoid remodeling in skeletally mature subjects following bone grafting for scaphoid nonunion. Nine patients with scaphoid nonunions were treated with interpositional bone grafting (with iliac crest bone graft) and K-wire fixation. The mean length of follow-up was 28.6 ± 9 months. Radiographs and CT scans were reviewed and assessed for degree of union and a qualitative assessment of scaphoid architecture. Following surgery, there was marked distortion of the scaphoid. Once healed, the contour of the scaphoid was still significantly distorted in all nine patients. Remodeling then became evident along the articular surfaces between 8 and 12 months. By 3 years, the scaphoid was completely recontoured and the normal architecture was completely restored in all nine patients. We conclude that the articular surface of the scaphoid remodels over time in skeletally mature subjects.
Scaphoid; Nonunion; Remodeling