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1.  Inducible Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT) Synergizes with Local Lymph Nodes during Antiviral CD4+ T Cell Responses 
Lymphatic Research and Biology  2013;11(4):196-202.
Background: Exposure of the lungs to an antigen or pathogen elicits the formation of lymphoid satellite islands termed inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT). However, little is known about how the presence of iBALT, induced by a stimulus unrelated to the subsequent challenge agent, influences systemic immunity in distal locations, whether it be independently, antagonistically, or synergistically. Here, we determined the kinetics of the influenza-specific responses in the iBALT, tracheobronchial lymph node (TBLN), and spleen of mice with and without pre-formed iBALT.
Methods and Results: Mice with VLP-induced iBALT or no pre-formed iBALT were challenged with influenza. We found that, as we have previously described, those mice whose lungs contained pre-formed iBALT were protected from morbidity, and furthermore, that these mice had increased dendritic cell, and alveolar macrophage accumulation in both the iBALT and TBLNs. This translated to similarly accelerated kinetics and intensified influenza-specific CD4+, but not CD8+ T cell responses in the iBALT, TBLN, and spleen. This expansion was then followed by a more rapid T cell contraction in all lymphoid tissues in the mice with pre-formed iBALT.
Conclusions: Thus, iBALT itself may not be responsible for the accelerated primary immune response we observe in mice with pre-formed iBALT, but may contribute to an overall accelerated local and systemic primary CD4+, but not CD8+ T cell response. Furthermore, less damaging immune responses observed in mice with pre-formed iBALT may be due to a quicker contraction of CD4+ T cell responses in both local and systemic secondary lymphoid tissue.
PMCID: PMC3875184  PMID: 24364842
2.  Inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) in patients with pulmonary complications of rheumatoid arthritis 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2006;116(12):3183-3194.
Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was originally described as a mucosal lymphoid organ in the lungs of some species. However, while the lungs of naive mice and humans typically lack BALT, pulmonary infection in mice leads to the development of inducible BALT (iBALT), which is located in peribronchial, perivascular, and interstitial areas throughout the lung. Here we investigated whether iBALT forms in patients with a variety of interstitial lung diseases. We show that while iBALT can be found in the lungs of patients suffering from multiple diseases, well-developed iBALT is most prevalent in patients with pulmonary complications of RA and Sjögren syndrome. In these patients, iBALT consisted of numerous B cell follicles containing germinal centers and follicular dendritic cells. A loosely defined T cell area surrounded the B cell follicles while lymphatics and high endothelial venules were found at the B cell/T cell interface. Increased expression of lymphoid-organizing chemokines, such as CXCL13 and CCL21, as well as molecules involved in the immunopathology of RA, such as B cell–activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF), ICOS ligand, and lymphotoxin, correlated with more well-developed iBALT. Finally, the presence of iBALT correlated with tissue damage in the lungs of RA patients, suggesting that iBALT participates in local RA pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC1678820  PMID: 17143328
3.  The development of inducible Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT) is dependent on IL-17 
Nature immunology  2011;12(7):639-646.
Ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues, such as inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT), form in non-lymphoid organs after local infection or inflammation. However, the initial events that promote this process remain enigmatic. Here we show that iBALT formed in murine lungs as a consequence of pulmonary inflammation during the neonatal period. Although CD4+CD3− lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells were found in neonatal lungs, particularly after inflammation, iBALT was formed in mice lacking LTi cells. Instead, we found that interleukin 17 (IL-17) produced by CD4+ T cells was essential for iBALT formation. IL-17 acted by promoting the lymphotoxin-α-independent expression of CXCL13, which was important for follicle formation. These results suggest that IL-17-producing T cells are critical for the development of ectopic lymphoid tissues.
PMCID: PMC3520063  PMID: 21666689
4.  Pulmonary expression of Oncostatin M (OSM) promotes inducible-BALT formation independently of IL-6, despite a role for IL-6 in OSM-driven pulmonary inflammation6 
Inducible Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT) is associated with immune responses to respiratory infections as well as with local pathology derived from chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Here we assessed the role of Oncostatin M (OSM) in B cell activation and iBALT formation in mouse lungs. We found that C57Bl/6 mice responded to an endotracheally-administered adenovirus vector expressing mouse OSM (Ad-mOSM), with marked iBALT formation, increased cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα and IL-12) and chemokine (CXCL13, CCL20, CCL21, Eotaxin-2, KC and MCP-1) production as well as inflammatory cell accumulation in the airways. B cells, T cells and dendritic cells were also recruited to the lung, where many displayed an activated phenotype. Mice treated with control adenovirus vector (Addl70) were not affected. Interestingly, IL-6 was required for inflammatory responses in the airways and for the expression of most cytokines and chemokines. However, iBALT formation and lymphocyte recruitment to the lung tissue occurred independently of IL-6 and STAT6 as assessed in gene-deficient mice. Collectively, these results support the ability of OSM to induce B cell activation and iBALT formation independently of IL-6 and highlight a role for IL-6 downstream of OSM in the induction of pulmonary inflammation.
PMCID: PMC4055037  PMID: 23797667
Oncostatin M; interleukin-6; lung; iBALT
5.  Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Mice Induces Chronic Lung Inflammation, iBALT Formation, and Fibrosis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77447.
Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) lung infection can induce chronic lung inflammation and is associated with not only acute asthma but also COPD exacerbations. However, in mouse models of CP infection, most studies have investigated specifically the acute phase of the infection and not the longer-term chronic changes in the lungs. We infected C57BL/6 mice with 5×105 CP intratracheally and monitored inflammation, cellular infiltrates and cytokine levels over time to investigate the chronic inflammatory lung changes. While bacteria numbers declined by day 28, macrophage numbers remained high through day 35. Immune cell clusters were detected as early as day 14 and persisted through day 35, and stained positive for B, T, and follicular dendritic cells, indicating these clusters were inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissues (iBALTs). Classically activated inflammatory M1 macrophages were the predominant subtype early on while alternatively activated M2 macrophages increased later during infection. Adoptive transfer of M1 but not M2 macrophages intratracheally 1 week after infection resulted in greater lung inflammation, severe fibrosis, and increased numbers of iBALTS 35 days after infection. In summary, we show that CP lung infection in mice induces chronic inflammatory changes including iBALT formations as well as fibrosis. These observations suggest that the M1 macrophages, which are part of the normal response to clear acute C. pneumoniae lung infection, result in an enhanced acute response when present in excess numbers, with greater inflammation, tissue injury, and severe fibrosis.
PMCID: PMC3808399  PMID: 24204830
6.  Inducible Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Elicited by a Protein Cage Nanoparticle Enhances Protection in Mice against Diverse Respiratory Viruses 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(9):e7142.
Destruction of the architectural and subsequently the functional integrity of the lung following pulmonary viral infections is attributable to both the extent of pathogen replication and to the host-generated inflammation associated with the recruitment of immune responses. The presence of antigenically disparate pulmonary viruses and the emergence of novel viruses assures the recurrence of lung damage with infection and resolution of each primary viral infection. Thus, there is a need to develop safe broad spectrum immunoprophylactic strategies capable of enhancing protective immune responses in the lung but which limits immune-mediated lung damage. The immunoprophylactic strategy described here utilizes a protein cage nanoparticle (PCN) to significantly accelerate clearance of diverse respiratory viruses after primary infection and also results in a host immune response that causes less lung damage.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Mice pre-treated with PCN, independent of any specific viral antigens, were protected against both sub-lethal and lethal doses of two different influenza viruses, a mouse-adapted SARS-coronavirus, or mouse pneumovirus. Treatment with PCN significantly increased survival and was marked by enhanced viral clearance, accelerated induction of viral-specific antibody production, and significant decreases in morbidity and lung damage. The enhanced protection appears to be dependent upon the prior development of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) in the lung in response to the PCN treatment and to be mediated through CD4+ T cell and B cell dependent mechanisms.
The immunoprophylactic strategy described utilizes an infection-independent induction of naturally occurring iBALT prior to infection by a pulmonary viral pathogen. This strategy non-specifically enhances primary immunity to respiratory viruses and is not restricted by the antigen specificities inherent in typical vaccination strategies. PCN treatment is asymptomatic in its application and importantly, ameliorates the damaging inflammation normally associated with the recruitment of immune responses into the lung.
PMCID: PMC2743193  PMID: 19774076
7.  Induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue serves as a general priming site for T cells and is maintained by dendritic cells 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2009;206(12):2593-2601.
Mucosal vaccination via the respiratory tract can elicit protective immunity in animal infection models, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. We show that a single intranasal application of the replication-deficient modified vaccinia virus Ankara, which is widely used as a recombinant vaccination vector, results in prominent induction of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). Although initial peribronchiolar infiltrations, characterized by the presence of dendritic cells (DCs) and few lymphocytes, can be found 4 d after virus application, organized lymphoid structures with segregated B and T cell zones are first observed at day 8. After intratracheal application, in vitro–differentiated, antigen-loaded DCs rapidly migrate into preformed BALT and efficiently activate antigen-specific T cells, as revealed by two-photon microscopy. Furthermore, the lung-specific depletion of DCs in mice that express the diphtheria toxin receptor under the control of the CD11c promoter interferes with BALT maintenance. Collectively, these data identify BALT as tertiary lymphoid structures supporting the efficient priming of T cell responses directed against unrelated airborne antigens while crucially requiring DCs for its sustained presence.
PMCID: PMC2806625  PMID: 19917776
8.  IL-17–induced CXCL12 recruits B cells and induces follicle formation in BALT in the absence of differentiated FDCs 
The requirements for BALT formation are pathogen-dependent and, in the absence of FDC maturation, IL-17 can drive BALT formation via CXCL12 B cell recruitment.
Ectopic lymphoid tissue, such as bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in the lung, develops spontaneously at sites of chronic inflammation or during infection. The molecular mechanisms underlying the neogenesis of such tertiary lymphoid tissue are still poorly understood. We show that the type of inflammation-inducing pathogen determines which key factors are required for the formation and maturation of BALT. Thus, a single intranasal administration of the poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is sufficient to induce highly organized BALT with densely packed B cell follicles containing a network of CXCL13-expressing follicular DCs (FDCs), as well as CXCL12-producing follicular stromal cells. In contrast, mice treated with P. aeruginosa (P.a.) develop BALT but B cell follicles lack FDCs while still harboring CXCL12-positive follicular stromal cells. Furthermore, in IL-17–deficient mice, P.a.-induced BALT largely lacks B cells as well as CXCL12-expressing stromal cells, and only loose infiltrates of T cells are present. We show that Toll-like receptor pathways are required for BALT induction by P.a., but not MVA, and provide evidence that IL-17 drives the differentiation of lung stroma toward podoplanin-positive CXCL12-expressing cells that allow follicle formation even in the absence of FDCs. Taken together, our results identify distinct pathogen-dependent induction and maturation pathways for BALT formation.
PMCID: PMC3978277  PMID: 24663215
9.  Does Disease-Irrelevant Intrathecal Synthesis in Multiple Sclerosis Make Sense in the Light of Tertiary Lymphoid Organs? 
Although partly disease-irrelevant, intrathecal immunoglobulins (Ig) synthesis is a typical feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is driven by the tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). A long-known hallmark of this non-specific intrathecal synthesis is the MRZ pattern, an intrathecal synthesis of Ig against measles, rubella, and zoster viruses. This non-specific intrathecal synthesis could also be directed against a wide range of pathogens. However, it is highly problematic since brain TLO should not be able to drive the clonal expansion of lymphocytes against alien antigens that are thought to be absent in MS brain. We propose to explain the paradox of non-specific intrathecal synthesis by discussing the natural properties of TLO. In fact, besides local antigen-driven clonal expansion, circulating plasmablasts and plasma cells (PC) are non-specifically recruited from blood and gain access to survival niches in the inflammatory CNS. This mechanism, which has been described in other inflammatory disorders, takes place in the TLO. As a consequence, PCs recruited in brain mirror the individual’s history of immunization and intrathecal synthesis of IgG in MS may target a broad range of common infectious agents, a hypothesis in line with epidemiological data. Moreover, the immunization schedule and its timing may interfere with PC recruitment. If this hypothesis is correct, the reaction against EBV appears paradoxical: although early infection of MS patients is systematic, intrathecal synthesis is far lower than expected, suggesting a crucial interaction between MS onset and timing of EBV infection. A growing body of evidence suggests that the non-specific intrathecal synthesis observed in MS is also common in many chronic CNS inflammatory disorders. Assuming that cortical TLO in MS are associated with typical sub-pial lesions, we have coined the concept of “TLO-pathy” to describe these lesions and take examples of them from non-MS disorders. Lastly, we propose that intrathecal synthesis could be considered a strong hallmark of CNS TLO and might be used to monitor future TLO-targeted therapies.
PMCID: PMC3949135  PMID: 24653716
multiple sclerosis; lymphoid tissue; antibody response; cerebrospinal fluid; Epstein–Barr virus
10.  Chemokine Binding Protein M3 of Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Modulates the Host Response to Infection in a Natural Host 
PLoS Pathogens  2011;7(3):e1001321.
Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection of Mus musculus-derived strains of mice is an attractive model of γ-herpesvirus infection. Surprisingly, however, ablation of expression of MHV-68 M3, a secreted protein with broad chemokine-binding properties in vitro, has no discernable effect during experimental infection via the respiratory tract. Here we demonstrate that M3 indeed contributes significantly to MHV-68 infection, but only in the context of a natural host, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). Specifically, M3 was essential for two features unique to the wood mouse: virus-dependent inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) in the lung and highly organized secondary follicles in the spleen, both predominant sites of latency in these organs. Consequently, lack of M3 resulted in substantially reduced latency in the spleen and lung. In the absence of M3, splenic germinal centers appeared as previously described for MHV-68-infected laboratory strains of mice, further evidence that M3 is not fully functional in the established model host. Finally, analyses of M3's influence on chemokine and cytokine levels within the lungs of infected wood mice were consistent with the known chemokine-binding profile of M3, and revealed additional influences that provide further insight into its role in MHV-68 biology.
Author Summary
Infection of inbred strains of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) with the rodent γ-herpesvirus MHV-68 continues to be developed as an attractive experimental model of γ-herpesvirus infection. In this regard, the MHV-68 protein M3 has been shown to selectively bind and inhibit chemokines involved in the antiviral immune response, a property expected to contribute significantly to virus infection and host colonization. However, inactivation of the M3 gene has no discernable consequence on infection in this animal host. Prompted by recent evidence that natural hosts of MHV-68 are members of the genus Apodemus, and that MHV-68 infection in laboratory-bred wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) differs significantly from that which has been described in standard strains of laboratory mice, we addressed whether M3 functions in a host-specific manner. Indeed, we find that M3 is responsible for host-specific differences observed for MHV-68 infection, that its influence on infection within wood mice is consistent with its chemokine-binding properties, and that in its absence, persistent latent infection - a hallmark of herpesvirus infections - is attenuated. This highlights the importance of host selection when investigating specific roles of pathogenesis-related viral genes, and advances our understanding of this model and its potential application to human γ-herpesvirus infections.
PMCID: PMC3060169  PMID: 21445235
11.  Secondary Lymphoid Organs: Responding to Genetic and Environmental Cues in Ontogeny and the Immune Response1 
Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) include lymph nodes (LNs), spleen, Peyer’s patches (PPs) and mucosal tissues- the nasal associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), adenoids, and tonsils. Less discretely anatomically defined cellular accumulations include the bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), cryptopatches, and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs). All SLOs serve to generate immune responses and tolerance. SLO development depends on the precisely regulated expression of cooperating lymphoid chemokines and cytokines LTα, LTβ, RANKL, TNF, IL-7, and perhaps IL-17. The relative importance of these factors varies between the individual lymphoid organs. Participating in the process are lymphoid tissue initiator (ltin), lymphoid tissue inducer (ltind), and lymphoid tissue organizer (lto) cells. These cells, and others that produce the crucial cytokines, maintain SLOs in the adult. Similar signals regulate the transition from inflammation to ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLOs).
PMCID: PMC2766168  PMID: 19661265
12.  Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (BALT) and Survival in a Vaccine Mouse Model of Tularemia 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(6):e11156.
Francisella tularensis causes severe pulmonary disease, and nasal vaccination could be the ideal measure to effectively prevent it. Nevertheless, the efficacy of this type of vaccine is influenced by the lack of an effective mucosal adjuvant.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Mice were immunized via the nasal route with lipopolysaccharide isolated from F. tularensis and neisserial recombinant PorB as an adjuvant candidate. Then, mice were challenged via the same route with the F. tularensis attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS). Mouse survival and analysis of a number of immune parameters were conducted following intranasal challenge. Vaccination induced a systemic antibody response and 70% of mice were protected from challenge as showed by their improved survival and weight regain. Lungs from mice recovering from infection presented prominent lymphoid aggregates in peribronchial and perivascular areas, consistent with the location of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). BALT areas contained proliferating B and T cells, germinal centers, T cell infiltrates, dendritic cells (DCs). We also observed local production of antibody generating cells and homeostatic chemokines in BALT areas.
These data indicate that PorB might be an optimal adjuvant candidate for improving the protective effect of F. tularensis antigens. The presence of BALT induced after intranasal challenge in vaccinated mice might play a role in regulation of local immunity and long-term protection, but more work is needed to elucidate mechanisms that lead to its formation.
PMCID: PMC2886834  PMID: 20585390
13.  Regulatory T cells interfere with the development of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue 
Presence and extent of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is subject to considerable variations between species and is only occasionally observed in lungs of mice. Here we demonstrate that mice deficient for the chemokine receptor CCR7 regularly develop highly organized BALT. These structures were not present at birth but were detectable from day 5 onwards. Analyzing CCR7−/−/wild-type bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrate that the development of BALT is caused by alterations of the hematopoietic system in CCR7-deficient mice. These observations together with the finding that CCR7-deficient mice posses dramatically reduced numbers of regulatory T cells (T reg cells) in the lung-draining bronchial lymph node suggest that BALT formation might be caused by disabled in situ function of T reg cells. Indeed, although adoptive transfer of wild-type T reg cells to CCR7-deficient recipients resulted in a profound reduction of BALT formation, neither naive wild-type T cells nor T reg cells from CCR7−/− donors impair BALT generation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that CCR7-deficient T reg cells, although strongly impaired in homing to peripheral lymph nodes, are fully effective in vitro. Thus our data reveal a CCR7-dependent homing of T reg cells to peripheral lymph nodes in conjunction with a role for these cells in controlling BALT formation.
PMCID: PMC2118537  PMID: 17371929
14.  Differential Pathological and Immune Responses in Newly Weaned Ferrets Are Associated with a Mild Clinical Outcome of Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Infection 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(24):13187-13201.
Young children are typically considered a high-risk group for disease associated with influenza virus infection. Interestingly, recent clinical reports suggested that young children were the smallest group of cases with severe pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) influenza virus infection. Here we established a newly weaned ferret model for the investigation of H1N1pdm infection in young age groups compared to adults. We found that young ferrets had a significantly milder fever and less weight loss than adult ferrets, which paralleled the mild clinical symptoms in the younger humans. Although there was no significant difference in viral clearance, disease severity was associated with pulmonary pathology, where newly weaned ferrets had an earlier pathology improvement. We examined the immune responses associated with protection of the young age group during H1N1pdm infection. We found that interferon and regulatory interleukin-10 responses were more robust in the lungs of young ferrets. In contrast, myeloperoxidase and major histocompatibility complex responses were persistently higher in the adult lungs; as well, the numbers of inflammation-prone granulocytes were highly elevated in the adult peripheral blood. Importantly, we observed that H1N1pdm infection triggered formation of lung structures that resembled inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues (iBALTs) in young ferrets which were associated with high levels of homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CXCL13, but these were not seen in the adult ferrets with severe disease. These results may be extrapolated to a model of the mild disease seen in human children. Furthermore, these mechanistic analyses provide significant new insight into the developing immune system and effective strategies for intervention and vaccination against respiratory viruses.
PMCID: PMC3503035  PMID: 23055557
15.  Expression of endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in adult human lung 
Respiratory Research  2009;10(1):97.
Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is the secondary lymphoid tissue in bronchial mucosa and is involved in the development of bronchopulmonary immune responses. Although migration of lymphocytes from blood vessels into secondary lymphoid tissues is critical for the development of appropriate adaptive immunity, the endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules that recruit specific subsets of lymphocytes into human BALT are not known. The aim of this study was to determine which adhesion molecules are expressed on lymphocytes and high endothelial venules (HEVs) in human BALT.
We immunostained frozen sections of BALT from lobectomy specimens from 17 patients with lung carcinoma with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules.
Sections of BALT showed B cell follicles surrounded by T cells. Most BALT CD4+ T cells had a CD45RO+ memory phenotype. Almost all BALT B cells expressed α4 integrin and L-selectin. In contrast, 43% of BALT T cells expressed α4 integrin and 20% of BALT T cells expressed L-selectin. Almost all BALT lymphocytes expressed LFA-1. HEVs, which support the migration of lymphocytes from the bloodstream into secondary lymphoid tissues, were prominent in BALT. All HEVs expressed peripheral node addressin, most HEVs expressed vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and no HEVs expressed mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1.
Human BALT expresses endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules that may be important in recruiting naive and memory/effector lymphocytes to BALT during protective and pathologic bronchopulmonary immune responses.
PMCID: PMC2772857  PMID: 19845971
16.  Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Play a Role for Effective Innate Immune Responses during Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e48655.
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are known for their robust antiviral response and their pro-tolerance effects towards allergic diseases and tissue engraftments. However, little is known about the role pDCs may play during a bacterial infection, including pulmonary Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP). In this study, we investigated the role of pDCs during pulmonary CP infection. Our results revealed that depletion of pDCs during acute CP infection in mice results in delayed and reduced lung inflammation, with an early delay in cellular recruitment and significant reduction in early cytokine production in the lungs. This was followed by impaired and delayed bacterial clearance from the lungs which then resulted in a severe and prolonged chronic inflammation and iBALT like structures containing large numbers of B and T cells in these animals. We also observed that increasing the pDC numbers in the lung by FLT3L treatment experimentally results in greater lung inflammation during acute CP infection. In contrast to these results, restimulation of T-cells in the draining lymph nodes of pDC-depleted mice induced greater amounts of proinflammatory cytokines than we observed in control mice. These results suggest that pDCs in the lung may provide critical proinflammatory innate immune responses in response to CP infection, but are suppressive towards adaptive immune responses in the lymph node. Thus pDCs in the lung and the draining lymph node appear to have different roles and phenotypes during acute CP infection and may play a role in host immune responses.
PMCID: PMC3485374  PMID: 23119083
17.  Prevention of Diabetes by FTY720-Mediated Stabilization of Peri-Islet Tertiary Lymphoid Organs 
Diabetes  2010;59(6):1461-1468.
The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a well-established mouse model of spontaneous type 1 diabetes, which is characterized by an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we address the role of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) that form in the pancreas of NOD mice during disease progression.
We developed a model designed to “lock” lymphocytes in the pancreatic lymph node (PLN) and pancreas by the use of FTY720, which blocks the exit of lymphocytes from lymph nodes. A combination of flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and analysis of clinical scores was used to study the effects of long-term FTY720 treatment on TLO development and development of diabetes.
Continuous treatment of NOD mice with FTY720 prevented diabetes development even at a time of significant insulitis. Treatment withdrawal led to accelerated disease independent of the PLN. Interestingly, naive T-cells trafficked to and proliferated in the TLOs. In addition, morphological changes were observed that occurred during the development of the disease. Remarkably, although the infiltrates are not organized into T/B-cell compartments in 8-week-old mice, by 20 weeks of age, and in age-matched mice undergoing FTY720 treatment, the infiltrates showed a high degree of organization. However, in naturally and FTY720-induced diabetic mice, T/B-cell compartmentalization was lost.
Our data show that TLOs are established during diabetes development and suggest that islet destruction is due to a loss of TLO integrity, which may be prevented by FTY720 treatment.
PMCID: PMC2874707  PMID: 20299465
18.  Role of lymphotoxin and homeostatic chemokines in the development and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract 
Secondary lymphoid organs are strategically placed to recruit locally activated antigen presenting cells (APCs) as well as naïve, recirculating T and B cells. The structure of secondary lymphoid organs - separated B and T zones, populations of specialized stromal cells, high endothelial venules and lymphatic vessles - has also evolved to maximize encounters between APCs and lymphocytes and to facilitate the expansion and differentiation of antigen-stimulated T and B cells. Many of the general mechanisms that govern the development and organization of secondary lymphoid organs have been identified over the last decade. However, the specific cellular and molecular interactions involved in the development and organization of each secondary lymphoid organ are slightly different and probably reflect the cell types available at that time and location. Here we review the mechanisms involved in the development, organization and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract, including Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and inducible Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT).
PMCID: PMC2884405  PMID: 20552039
Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT); inducible Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT); homeostatic chemokines; secondary lymphoid organs; lymphotoxin (LT); respiratory immunity
19.  Follicular dendritic cells, conduits, lymphatic vessels, and high endothelial venules in tertiary lymphoid organs: Parallels with lymph node stroma 
In this communication, the contribution of stromal, or non-hematopoietic, cells to the structure and function of lymph nodes (LNs), as canonical secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), is compared to that of tertiary lymphoid tissue or organs (TLOs), also known as ectopic lymphoid tissues. TLOs can arise in non-lymphoid organs during chronic inflammation, as a result of autoimmune responses, graft rejection, atherosclerosis, microbial infection, and cancer. The stromal components found in SLOs including follicular dendritic cells, fibroblast reticular cells, lymphatic vessels, and high endothelial venules and possibly conduits are present in TLOs; their molecular regulation mimics that of LNs. Advances in visualization techniques and the development of transgenic mice that permit in vivo real time imaging of these structures will facilitate elucidation of their precise functions in the context of chronic inflammation. A clearer understanding of the inflammatory signals that drive non-lymphoid stromal cells to reorganize into TLO should allow the design of therapeutic interventions to impede the progression of autoimmune activity, or alternatively, to enhance anti-tumor responses.
PMCID: PMC3515885  PMID: 23230435
autoimmunity; chronic inflammation; cancer; secondary lymphoid organ; tertiary lymphoid tissue
20.  Low CD4/CD8 Ratio in Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Is Associated with Lung Allograft Rejection 
Journal of Transplantation  2012;2012:928081.
Background. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) has been associated with lung allograft rejection in rat transplant models. In human transplant recipients, BALT has not been linked to clinically significant rejection. We hypothesize that the immunohistochemical composition of BALT varies with the presence of acute lung allograft rejection. Methods. We retrospectively examined 40 human lung allograft recipients transplanted from 3/1/1999 to 6/1/2008. Patients were grouped by frequency and severity of acute rejection based on International Society of Heart Lung Transplant (ISHLT) criteria. Transbronchial biopsies were reviewed for BALT by a blinded pathologist. BALT if present was immunohistochemically stained to determine T-and B-cell subpopulations. Results. BALT presence was associated with an increased frequency of acute rejection episodes in the first year after transplantation. Patients with a lower CD4/CD8 ratio had an increased rejection rate; however, BALT size or densities of T-cell and B-cell subpopulations did not correlate with rejection rate. Conclusion. The presence of BALT is associated with an increased frequency of rejection one year after transplant. The lower the CD4/CD8 ratio, the more acute rejection episodes occur in the first year after transplantation. The immunohistochemical composition of BALT may predict patients prone to frequent episodes of acute cellular rejection.
PMCID: PMC3423936  PMID: 22928088
21.  Vaccination reduces macrophage infiltration in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pigs infected with a highly virulent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia and is responsible for significant economic losses to the pig industry. To better understand the mode of action of a commercial, adjuvanted, inactivated whole cell vaccine and the influence of diversity on the efficacy of vaccination, we investigated samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs experimentally infected with either a low (LV) or a highly virulent (HV) M. hyopneumoniae strain. Non-vaccinated and sham-infected control groups were included. Lung tissue samples collected at 4 and 8 weeks post infection (PI) were immunohistochemically tested for the presence of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and macrophages in the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). The number of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was determined using quantitative PCR at 4 and 8 weeks PI. Serum antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae were determined at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks PI.
The immunostaining revealed a lower density of macrophages in the BALT of the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups. The highest number of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the BAL fluid was measured at 4 weeks PI for the HV strain and at 8 weeks PI for the LV strain. Vaccination reduced the number of organisms non-significantly, though for the HV strain the reduction was clinically more relevant than for the LV strain. At the level of the individual pigs, a higher lung lesion score was associated with more M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the lungs and a higher density of the investigated immune cells in the BALT.
In conclusion, the infiltration of macrophages after infection with M. hyopneumoniae is reduced by vaccination. The M. hyopneumoniae replication in the lungs is also reduced in vaccinated pigs, though the HV strain is inhibited more than the LV strain.
PMCID: PMC3349615  PMID: 22409839
22.  Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in the lungs of children who had died from sudden infant death syndrome and other causes. 
Thorax  1995;50(6):658-660.
BACKGROUND--Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is well characterised in rabbits and rats. In humans, however, it does not seem to be present in the healthy adult lung, although it can develop after certain microbial stimulation. METHODS--In the present study a consecutive series of lungs from 88 children who had died of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and 34 control cases of comparable age were examined for the presence of BALT. RESULTS--BALT was present in 36.4% of the patients who had died of SIDS and in 44.1% of the control cases. The probability of finding BALT increased with age, with similar kinetics in both groups. CONCLUSIONS--Future studies need to define when and at what rate BALT disappears as children get older. In young children BALT may act as an entry site for antigens to initiate an immune response, as is well documented for the gut-associated lymphoid system.
PMCID: PMC1021267  PMID: 7638809
23.  Autoreactive T and B Cells Induce the Development of Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in the Lung 
Rheumatoid arthritis–related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Studies in humans have found that the incidence of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) correlates with the severity of lung injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the development of BALT during systemic autoimmunity remain unknown. We have determined whether systemic autoimmunity in a murine model of autoimmune arthritis can promote the development of BALT by generating a novel murine model derived from K/BxN mice. Transgenic mice with the KRN T-cell receptor specific for the autoantigen, glucose-6–phosphate isomerase (GPI), were crossed with GPI-specific immunoglobulin heavy and light chain knock-in mice, producing mice with a majority of T and B cells specific for the same autoantigen. We found that 67% of these mice demonstrated lymphocytic infiltration in the lungs, localized to either the perivascular or peribronchial regions. Fifty percent of the mice with lymphocytic infiltration manifested lymphoid-like lesions resembling BALT, with distinct T and B cell follicles. The lungs from mice with lymphoid infiltrates had increased numbers of cytokine-producing T cells, including IL-17A+ T cells and increased major histocompatibility complex Class II expression on B cells. Interestingly, challenge with bleomycin failed to elicit a significant fibrotic response, compared with wild-type control mice. Our data suggest that systemic autoreactivity promotes ectopic lymphoid tissue development in the lung through the cooperation of autoreactive T and B cells. However, these BALT-like lesions may not be sufficient to promote fibrotic lung disease at steady state or after inflammatory challenge.
PMCID: PMC3653607  PMID: 23371062
autoimmunity; bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue; T cells; B cells
24.  Control of Dichotomic Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses by Artery Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Atherosclerosis 
Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) emerge in tissues in response to non-resolving inflammation such as chronic infection, graft rejection, and autoimmune disease. We identified artery TLOs (ATLOs) in the adventitia adjacent to atherosclerotic plaques of aged hyperlipidemic ApoE−/− mice. ATLOs are structured into T cell areas harboring conventional dendritic cells and monocyte-derived DCs; B cell follicles containing follicular dendritic cells within activated germinal centers; and peripheral niches of plasma cells. ATLOs also show extensive neoangiogenesis, aberrant lymphangiogenesis, and high endothelial venule (HEV) neogenesis. Newly formed conduit networks connect the external lamina of the artery with HEVs in T cell areas. ATLOs recruit and generate lymphocyte subsets with opposing activities including activated CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells, natural and induced CD4+ T regulatory (nTregs; iTregs) cells as well as B-1 and B-2 cells at different stages of differentiation. These data indicate that ATLOs organize dichotomic innate and adaptive immune responses in atherosclerosis. In this review we discuss the novel concept that dichotomic immune responses toward atherosclerosis-specific antigens are carried out by ATLOs in the adventitia of the arterial wall and that malfunction of the tolerogenic arm of ATLO immunity triggers transition from silent autoimmune reactivity to clinically overt disease.
PMCID: PMC3390894  PMID: 22783198
adaptive immune responses; artery tertiary lymphoid organs; atherosclerosis; autoimmunity; inflammation; stable plaque; vulnerable plaque
25.  Lymphoid Aggregates That Resemble Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Define a Specific Pathological Subset in Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e63470.
Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) has been used to describe the histological lesion associated with metal-on-metal (M-M) bearings. We tested the hypothesis that the lymphoid aggregates, associated with ALVAL lesions resemble tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). Histopathological changes were examined in the periprosthetic tissue of 62 M-M hip replacements requiring revision surgery, with particular emphasis on the characteristics and pattern of the lymphocytic infiltrate. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to study the classical features of TLOs in cases where large organized lymphoid follicles were present. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements were undertaken to detect localisation of implant derived ions/particles within the samples. Based on type of lymphocytic infiltrates, three different categories were recognised; diffuse aggregates (51%), T cell aggregates (20%), and organised lymphoid aggregates (29%). Further investigation of tissues with organised lymphoid aggregates showed that these tissues recapitulate many of the features of TLOs with T cells and B cells organised into discrete areas, the presence of follicular dendritic cells, acquisition of high endothelial venule like phenotype by blood vessels, expression of lymphoid chemokines and the presence of plasma cells. Co-localisation of implant-derived metals with lymphoid aggregates was observed. These findings suggest that in addition to the well described general foreign body reaction mediated by macrophages and a T cell mediated type IV hypersensitivity response, an under-recognized immunological reaction to metal wear debris involving B cells and the formation of tertiary lymphoid organs occurs in a distinct subset of patients with M-M implants.
PMCID: PMC3665779  PMID: 23723985

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