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1.  Variants of the Adiponectin and Adiponectin Receptor 1 Genes and Breast Cancer Risk 
Cancer research  2008;68(9):3178-3184.
Breast cancer risk is higher among obese women and women with diabetes. Adiponectin is a protein exclusively secreted by adipose tissue, circulating levels of which have been associated with breast cancer risk. Whether genetic variants within the adiponectin pathway are associated with breast cancer risk is unknown. To explore the association of genetic variants of the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) genes with breast cancer risk, we conducted a case control study of female patients with breast cancer and healthy female controls from New York City recruited between 1999 and 2004. We genotyped 733 hospital-based breast cancer cases and 839 controls for 10 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of ADIPOQ and ADIPOR1. Two ADIPOQ SNPs (rs2241766 and rs1501299), which have been associated with circulating levels of adiponectin, were associated with breast cancer risk [rs1501299*GG: odd ratios (OR), 1.80; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.14–2.85; rs2241766*TG: OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.46–0.80]. One ADIPOR1 SNP (rs7539542), which modulates expression of adiponectin receptor 1 mRNA, was also associated with breast cancer risk (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28–0.92). Based on the known function of rs2241766 and rs1501299, we categorized individuals by adiponectin signaling status and found that, when compared with high signalers, intermediate signalers had a 4.16-fold increase in breast cancer risk (95% CI, 0.49–35.19), and low signalers had a 6.56-fold increase in breast cancer risk (95% CI, 0.78–54.89; Ptrend = 0.001). This is the first report of an association between functionally relevant variants of the adiponectin pathway and breast cancer risk. The results warrant further studies of the adiponectin pathway in breast cancer.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0533
PMCID: PMC2685173  PMID: 18451143
2.  Association between polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis 
BMC Medical Genetics  2012;13:40.
Background
Previous studies have examined the associations between polymorphisms of adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but those studies have been inconclusive. The aim of this study was to access the relationship between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), +45 T > G (rs2241766), +276 G > T (rs1501299) and -11377 C > G (rs266729) in ADIPOQ and CVD.
Methods
A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all studies on the association of ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms with CVD risk. The fixed and random effect pooled measures (i.e. odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)) were calculated in the meta-analysis. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using Q test and the I2. Publication bias was estimated using modified Egger’s linear regression test.
Results
Thirty-seven studies concerning the associations between the three polymorphisms of ADIPOQ gene and CVD risk were enrolled in this meta-analysis, including 6,398 cases and 10,829 controls for rs2241766, 8,392 cases and 18,730 controls for rs1501299 and 7,835 cases and 14,023 controls for rs266729. The three SNPs were significantly associated with CVD, yielding pooled ORs of 1.22 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.39; P = 0.004), 0.90 (95%CI: 0.83, 0.97; P = 0.007) and 1.09(95%CI: 1.01, 1.17; P = 0.032) for rs2241766, rs1501299 and rs266729, respectively. Rs2241766 and rs1501299 were significantly associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), yielding pooled ORs of 1.29 (95%CI: 1.09, 1.52; P = 0.004) and 0.89 (95%CI: 0.81, 0.99; P = 0.025), respectively. The pooled OR for rs266729 and CHD was 1.09 (95%CI: 0.99, 1.19; P = 0.090). Significant between-study heterogeneity was found in our meta-analysis. Evidence of publication bias was observed in the meta-analysis.
Conclusions
The present meta-analysis showed that the associations between rs2241766, rs1501299 and rs266729 in the ADIPOQ and CVD were significant but weak. High quality studies are still needed to confirm the associations, especially for rs2241766.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-13-40
PMCID: PMC3413575  PMID: 22639977
Adiponectin; Polymorphisms; Cardiovascular disease; Meta-analysis
3.  The adiponectin gene, ADIPOQ, and genetic susceptibility to colon cancer 
Oncology Letters  2011;3(1):176-180.
In order to evaluate the contribution of polymorphisms of the adiponectin gene, ADIPOQ, to the risk of colon cancer, we conducted a case-control study of 60 colon cancer patients and 60 age, gender and ethnicity-matched controls in the Saudi population. We tested the hypothesis by analyzing the genotypes for two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1501299 (G276T) and rs2241766 (T45G), in the ADIPOQ gene. In addition, the study was also designed to assess whether the two SNPs contribute to circulating adiponectin levels. We observed an increased risk of colon cancer associated with the 276T allele. The odds ratio (OR) was 2.64 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.49–14.6]. The G allele at the T45G polymorphism was associated with a lower risk of colon cancer (OR=0.41; 95% CI, 0.19–0.86). Our results suggest that the risk of developing colon cancer may be partially explained by genetic polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene.
doi:10.3892/ol.2011.443
PMCID: PMC3362502  PMID: 22740876
adiponectin; colon cancer; single nucleotide polymorphisms; polymerase chain reaction; restriction fragment length polymorphism
4.  Association of Genetic Variants in the Adiponectin Gene with Metabolic Syndrome: A Case-Control Study and a Systematic Meta-Analysis in the Chinese Population 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e58412.
Background
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been rising worldwide, including in China, but knowledge on specific genetic determinants of metabolic syndrome is very limited. A number of studies have reported that polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene are associated with metabolic syndrome in Chinese Han populations. However, data is still conflicting. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of the adiponectin genetic variants with metabolic syndrome by a case-control study and meta-analyses in Chinese.
Methods
We first investigated the association of ADIPOQ rs2241766 (+45T>G in exon 2), rs266729 (−11377C>G in promoter) and rs1501299 (+276G>T in intron 2) polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome in a Hubei Han Chinese population with 322 metabolic syndrome patients and 161 normal controls recruited from the Yichang, Hubei. Then we comprehensively reviewed the association between ADIPOQ rs2241766/rs266729/rs1501299 and metabolic syndrome in the Chinese populations via a meta-analysis. The strength of association was assessed by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results
The G allele frequency of rs2241766 in metabolic syndrome patients was significantly higher than those of controls group (29.8% vs 23.3%, OR = 1.40, P = 0.033). The logistic regression analysis adjusted by gender and age showed a nominally significant association for rs2241766 GG+GT genotype (P = 0.065, OR = 1.55) and rs1501299 GG genotype in recessive model (OR = 1.54, P = 0.066). However, no association was observed for rs266729 in our sample. We identified thirteen studies for rs2241766 (2,684 metabolic syndrome patients and 2,864 controls), three studies for rs266729, and eleven studies for rs1501299 (2,889 metabolic syndrome patients and 3,304 controls) in Chinese. Meta-analysis indicated significant associations for the rs2241766 G allele (OR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.05–1.24, P = 0.003), rs266729 GG+GT genotypes (OR = 0.80, 95%CI = 0.68–0.92, P = 0.003) and rs1501299 GG+TG genotypes (OR = 1.42, 95%CI 1.16–1.75, P = 0.001).
Conclusions
Our results demonstrated ADIPOQ as a pleiotropic locus for metabolic syndrome and its components in the Han Chinese population.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058412
PMCID: PMC3617191  PMID: 23593121
5.  Relation of a common variant of the adiponectin gene to serum adiponectin concentration and metabolic traits in an aged Japanese population 
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived protein that is down-regulated in obesity-linked disorders. Variants of the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) have been shown to affect adiponectin level. We have now examined the relation of polymorphisms of ADIPOQ to adiponectin concentration and to metabolic disorders in the Kita-Nagoya Genomic Epidemiology study, a population-based study of elderly Japanese. The genomic region including ADIPOQ was genotyped for 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 500 subjects of a screening population with the use of a fluorescence- or colorimetry-based allele-specific DNA primer–probe assay system. Four polymorphisms were then selected for genotyping in an additional 2797 subjects. Serum adiponectin level was negatively associated with metabolic abnormalities after adjustment for age and sex. The minor alleles of the rs1656930, Ile164Thr, and rs9882205 polymorphisms were associated with a low serum adiponectin level. Whereas the minor alleles of rs1656930 and rs9882205 were common (minor allele frequency of 6.2 and 38.5%, respectively), that of Ile164Thr was rare (0.9%). The minor allele of rs1656930 was positively associated with systolic blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension. The association of rs1656930 with adiponectin level was replicated in an independent population. A subject with the 164Thr/Thr genotype had an extremely low serum adiponectin level (0.6 μg/ml) and the phenotype of metabolic syndrome. Our results suggest that a common variant of ADIPOQ, the minor allele of rs1656930, is associated with hypoadiponectinemia and hypertension. Screening for a common genetic background underlying low adiponectin levels might provide important information for assessment and management of metabolic disorders.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.201
PMCID: PMC3062002  PMID: 21150884
adiponectin; polymorphism; metabolic disorder; hypertension; epidemiology
6.  Association of the +45T>G and +276G>T polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene with insulin resistance in nondiabetic Greek women 
Objective
We explored potential associations of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ; +45T>G, rs2241766 and +276G>T, rs1501299) with circulating total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, insulin resistance (IR), and markers of obesity in a healthy Greek female population.
Design and methods
The two SNPs were genotyped in 349 women without diabetes (mean age: 47.0±12.1 years, mean body mass index: 28.9±5.6 kg/m2). Total and HMW adiponectin concentrations, body composition variables, IR parameters, and plasma lipid levels were determined.
Results
In single SNP analysis adjusting for several potential confounders, SNP +276G>T was associated with higher fasting insulin levels (P = 0.01) and higher homeostasis model assessment index for IR (HOMA-IR; P = 0.009), and SNP +45T>G was associated with lower insulin levels and HOMA-IR (P = 0.05 and P = 0.07 respectively). No association with total or HMW adiponectin, plasma lipid levels, and body composition variables was observed; however, haplotype analysis revealed that subjects homozygous for the most common +45T/+276G haplotype had lower total adiponectin levels than did noncarriers of this haplotype (P = 0.02). The observed differences in HOMA-IR were very significant among women with a higher body fat (BF) percentage (≥ the population median of 41%; all P ≤ 0.005), but not among leaner individuals (P for interactions 0.01–0.07), thus suggesting that ADIPOQ effects on insulin sensitivity may depend upon BF status.
Conclusion
Our data suggest a significant role of ADIPOQ variants at positions +45 and +276 in the development of IR in healthy Greek women possibly through an interaction with BF.
doi:10.1530/EJE-09-0492
PMCID: PMC2896503  PMID: 19755407
7.  Meta-Analysis of Adiponectin Polymorphisms and Colorectal Cancer Risk 
Objective The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) has been suggested to be associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between adiponectin polymorphisms and CRC risk.
Methods All eligible case-control studies published up to March 2013 were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI. Effect sizes of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated by using a fixed- or random-effect model.
Results A total of 9 case-control studies were included, Of those studies, there were eight studies (2024 cases and 2777 controls) for rs1501299G/T polymorphism, five studies (1401 cases and 1691 controls) for rs2241766T/G polymorphism, five studies (2945 cases and 3361 controls) for rs266729C/G polymorphism, three studies (1221 cases and 1579 controls) for rs822395A/C polymorphism and three studies (1222 cases and 1575 controls) for rs822396A/G polymorphism. Overall, a significant association was observed for rs2241766T/G polymorphism under heterozygote comparison (TG vs. TT: OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.43); while there was no significant association for rs2241766 polymorphism under other genetic models, and for other four polymorphisms under all genetic models. Besides, when stratified analyses by ethnicity, no significant association between five polymorphisms and CRC risk were observed under all genetic models among Asian, Caucasian and African-American.
Conclusions This meta-analysis indicated that adiponectin rs2241766T/G rather than rs1501299G/T, rs266729C/G, rs822395A/C and rs822396A/G polymorphism was associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.
doi:10.7150/ijms.6843
PMCID: PMC3714387  PMID: 23869187
Adiponectin; Polymorphism; Colorectal cancer; Meta-analysis.
8.  Association of ADIPOQ +45T>G polymorphism with body fat mass and blood levels of soluble adiponectin and inflammation markers in a Mexican-Mestizo population 
Purpose
Obesity is a disease with genetic susceptibility characterized by an increase in storage and irregular distribution of body fat. In obese patients, the decrease in the Adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) expression has been associated with a systemic low-grade inflammatory state. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between ADIPOQ +45T>G gene simple nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2241766) with serum adiponectin (sAdiponectin), distribution of body fat storage, and inflammation markers.
Subjects and methods
In this cross-sectional study, 242 individuals from Western Mexico characterized as Mexican-Mestizo and classified by body mass index (BMI), were included. Anthropometrics, body composition, body fat distribution, and inflammation markers were measured by routine methods. Genotypes were characterized using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique and sAdiponectin by the ELISA method. A P-value <0.05 was considered the statistically significant threshold.
Results
sAdiponectin is associated with BMI (P < 0.001) and the genotypes (P < 0.001 to 0.0046) GG (8169 ± 1162 ng/mL), TG (5189 ± 501 ng/mL), and TT (3741 ± 323 ng/mL), but the SNP ADIPOQ +45T>G is not associated with BMI. However, the detailed analysis showed association of this SNP with a pattern of fat distribution and correlations (P < 0.05) with inflammation markers and distribution of body fat storage (Pearson’s r = −0.169 to −0.465) were found.
Conclusion
In this study, we have suggested that the ADIPOQ +45G allele could be associated with distribution of body fat storage in obesity. On the other hand, as no association was observed between ADIPOQ +45T>G gene polymorphism and obesity, it cannot be concluded that the ADIPOQ +45G allele is responsible for the increase of adiponectin levels.
doi:10.2147/DMSO.S35434
PMCID: PMC3484511  PMID: 23118546
ADIPOQ gene polymorphism; levels of inflammation markers; body fat distribution; obesity; Mexican-Mestizo population
9.  Polymorphisms of ADIPOQ and ADIPOR1 and prostate cancer risk 
Objective
Studies have linked prostate cancer risk with insulin resistance and obesity. Circulating levels of adiponectin, a protein involved in insulin resistance and obesity, have been associated with prostate cancer risk. We studied the association of prostate cancer risk with haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) chosen based on their functional relevance or association with other types of cancer.
Materials-Methods
DNA samples from 465 cases and 441 healthy volunteers from New York City were genotyped for ADIPOQ rs266729, rs822395, rs822396, rs1501299 and rs2241766 SNPs and ADIPOR1 rs12733285, rs1342387, rs7539542, rs2232853 and rs10920531 SNPs. We performed both single and multiple SNP analyses.
Results
We found that rs12733285, rs7539452, rs266729, rs822395, rs822396 and rs1501299 were significantly associated with prostate cancer risk. Haplotype analysis confirmed these results and identified five ADIPOQ 4-SNP haplotypes and one ADIPOR1 2-SNP haplotype tightly associated with prostate cancer risk. Importantly two ADIPOQ SNPs, rs266729 and rs1501299 have been previously associated with colon and breast cancer risk, respectively, in the same direction as in this study.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that variants of the adiponectin pathway may be associated with susceptibility to various forms of common cancers and warrant validation studies.
doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2011.01.005
PMCID: PMC3134585  PMID: 21397927
10.  Genetic Variations in ADIPOQ Gene Are Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e50848.
Background
Adiponectin is reported to be related to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Genetic variants in the gene encoding adiponectin (ADIPOQ) have been reported to be associated with adiponectin level in several genome–wide linkage and association studies. However, relatively little is known about the effects of ADIPOQ gene variants on COPD susceptibility. We determined the frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADIPOQ in a Chinese Han population and their possible association with COPD susceptibility.
Methods
We conducted a case–control study of 279 COPD patients and 367 age- and gender-distribution-matched control subjects. Seven tagging SNPs in ADIPOQ, including rs710445, rs16861205, rs822396, rs7627128, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs1063537 were genotyped by SNaPshot. Association analysis of genotypes/alleles and haplotypes constructed from these loci with COPD was conducted under different genetic models.
Results
The alleles or genotypes of rs1501299 distributed significantly differently in COPD patients and controls (allele: P = 0.002, OR = 1.43 and 95%CI = 1.14–1.79; genotype: P = 0.008). The allele A at rs1501299 was potentially associated with an increased risk of COPD in all dominant model analysis (P = 0.009; OR: 1.54; 95%CI: 1.11–2.13), recessive model analyses (P = 0.015; OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.11–2.75) and additive model analyses (P = 0.003; OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.29–3.47). In haplotype analysis, we observed haplotypes AAAAACT and GGACCTC had protective effects, while haplotypes AGAACTC, AGGCCTC, GGAACTC, GGACACT and GGGCCTC were significantly associated with the increased risk of COPD.
Conclusions
We conducted the first investigation of the association between the SNPs in ADIPOQ and COPD risk. Our current findings suggest that ADIPOQ may be a potential risk gene for COPD. Further studies in larger groups are warranted to confirm our results.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050848
PMCID: PMC3508992  PMID: 23209832
11.  Association of Atherosclerotic Peripheral Arterial Disease with Adiponectin Genes SNP+45 and SNP+276: A Case-Control Study 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:501203.
Objectives. We hypothesized that adiponectin gene SNP+45 (rs2241766) and SNP+276 (rs1501299) would be associated with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Furthermore, the association between circulating adiponectin levels, fetuin-A, and tumoral necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in patients with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease was investigated. Method. Several blood parameters (such as adiponectin, fetuin-A, and TNF-α) were measured in 346 patients, 226 with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and 120 without symptomatic PAD (non-PAD). Two common SNPs of the ADIPOQ gene represented by +45T/G 2 and +276G/T were also investigated. Results. Adiponectin concentrations showed lower circulating levels in the PAD patients compared to non-PAD patients (P < 0.001). Decreasing adiponectin concentration was associated with increasing serum levels of fetuin-A in the PAD patients. None of the investigated adiponectin SNPs proved to be associated with the subjects' susceptibility to PAD (P > 0.05). Conclusion. The results of our study demonstrated that neither adiponectin SNP+45 nor SNP+276 is associated with the risk of PAD.
doi:10.1155/2013/501203
PMCID: PMC3686066  PMID: 23819115
12.  High plasma leptin levels confer increased risk of atherosclerosis in women with systemic lupus erythematosus, and are associated with inflammatory oxidised lipids 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2011;70(9):1619-1624.
Background
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at increased risk of atherosclerosis, even after accounting for traditional risk factors. High levels of leptin and low levels of adiponectin are associated with both atherosclerosis and immunomodulatory functions in the general population.
Objective
To examine the association between these adipokines and subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE, and also with other known inflammatory biomarkers of atherosclerosis.
Methods
Carotid ultrasonography was performed in 250 women with SLE and 122 controls. Plasma leptin and adiponectin levels were measured. Lipoprotein a (Lp(a)), oxidised phospholipids on apoB100 (OxPL/apoB100), paraoxonase, apoA-1 and inflammatory high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function were also assessed.
Results
Leptin levels were significantly higher in patients with SLE than in controls (23.7±28.0 vs 13.3±12.9 ng/ml, p<0.001). Leptin was also higher in the 43 patients with SLE with plaque than without plaque (36.4±32.3 vs 20.9±26.4 ng/ml, p=0.002). After multivariate analysis, the only significant factors associated with plaque in SLE were leptin levels in the highest quartile (≥29.5 ng/ml) (OR=2.8, p=0.03), proinflammatory HDL (piHDL) (OR=12.8, p<0.001), age (OR=1.1, p<0.001), tobacco use (OR=7.7, p=0.03) and hypertension (OR=3.0, p=0.01). Adiponectin levels were not significantly associated with plaque in our cohort. A significant correlation between leptin and piHDL function (p<0.001), Lp(a) (p=0.01) and OxPL/apoB100 (p=0.02) was also present.
Conclusions
High leptin levels greatly increase the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE, and are also associated with an increase in inflammatory biomarkers of atherosclerosis such as piHDL, Lp(a) and OxPL/apoB100. High leptin levels may help to identify patients with SLE at risk of atherosclerosis.
doi:10.1136/ard.2010.142737
PMCID: PMC3147230  PMID: 21670088
13.  Association of Plasma Soluble E-Selectin and Adiponectin with Carotid Plaque in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Atherosclerosis  2009;210(2):569-574.
Background
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with premature atherosclerosis but the mechanisms underlying this association are not understood. The role of endothelial dysfunction is hypothesized.
Methods
In predominantly non-Caucasian patients with SLE (n=119) and controls (n=71), carotid ultrasonography was performed and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), soluble endothelial protein C receptor and gene polymorphism at A6936G, soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), and adiponectin were assessed.
Results
Carotid plaque was more prevalent among patients than controls (43% vs 17%, p = 0.0002). Mean CCA IMT was greater in patients compared to controls (0.59mm ± 0.19 vs 0.54mm ± 0.11, p=0.03). Among SLE patients, plaque was not associated with smoking, body mass index, LDL, triglycerides, homocysteine, C-reactive protein, anti-ds DNA antibody, C3, C4, SLE activity, or medications. Age and levels of soluble E-selectin and adiponectin were significantly higher in the SLE patients with plaque compared to those without plaque in univariate and multivariate analyses. sE-selectin and adiponectin were found to serve as independent predictors of carotid plaque and that elevations were persistent over more than one visit. Unexpectedly, these biomarkers were present despite clinical quiescence.
Conclusion
Premature atherosclerosis is a consistent feature of SLE and extends across ethnicities. Higher levels of adiponectin may represent a physiological attempt to limit further endothelial damage already reflected by the elevation in sE-selectin and the observed increase in plaque represents overwhelming of this reparative process by atherogenic stimuli.
doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.12.007
PMCID: PMC3963602  PMID: 20044088
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; atherosclerosis; Carotid Stenosis; Adiponectin; E-Selectin
14.  The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Agonist Rosiglitazone Ameliorates Murine Lupus by Induction of Adiponectin1 
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease for which current therapy is suboptimal. SLE is characterized by autoantibody production, with renal disease and premature atherosclerosis being common and severe manifestations causing appreciable morbidity and mortality. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists are widely used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus for their insulin-sensitizing properties, but also have immunomodulatory effects. In this report, we show that the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone reduces autoantibody production, renal disease, and atherosclerosis in mouse models of SLE. The beneficial effect of rosiglitazone on SLE manifestations depends on the induction of adiponectin, because rosiglitazone has no effect on autoantibody production or renal disease in lupus mice that lack adiponectin. In addition, lupus mice that lack adiponectin develop more severe disease than adiponectin-sufficient lupus mice, indicating that endogenous adiponectin is involved in regulating disease activity. Furthermore, administration of exogenous adiponectin ameliorates disease. These experiments suggest that PPARγ agonists may be useful agents for the treatment of SLE. They also demonstrate that induction of adiponectin is a major mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory effects of PPARγ agonists.
PMCID: PMC2841959  PMID: 19109165
15.  Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study 
BMC Medical Genetics  2011;12:5.
Background
Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits.
Methods
Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507) were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34) years was analysed by Cox regression analysis.
Results
rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p < 0.05) with body weight at baseline and in the longitudinal analyses. The rs266729 C allele and the rare minor alleles of rs2241766 and rs2082940 were associated with an increased adjusted hazard ratio of developing T2DM. The differences in baseline serum adiponectin concentrations were seen according to rs16861210, rs17366568, rs2241766, rs6773957 and rs2082940 and differences in the change of serum adiponectin levels from baseline to the four year examination were seen according to rs16861205, especially in subjects who were able to lose weight during the first year of intervention.
Conclusions
These results from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study support the concept that genetic variation in ADIPOQ locus contributes to variation in body size and serum adiponectin concentrations and may also modify the risk of developing T2DM.
Trial registration number
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-12-5
PMCID: PMC3032655  PMID: 21219602
16.  Genetic Variation in Adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and the Type-1 Receptor (ADIPOR1), Obesity and Prostate Cancer in African Americans 
Background
Adiponectin is a protein derived from adipose tissue suspected to play an important role in prostate carcinogenesis. Variants in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) and its type I receptor (ADIPOR1) have been recently linked to risk of both breast and colorectal cancer. Therefore, we set out to examine the relationship between polymorphisms in these genes, obesity and prostate cancer in study of African American men.
Methods
Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADIPOQ and ADIPOR1 were genotyped in DNA samples from 131 African American prostate cancer cases and 344 controls participating in the Flint Men's Health Study. Logistic regression was then used to estimate their association with prostate cancer and obesity.
Results
While no significant associations were detected between any of the tested SNPs and prostate cancer, the rs1501299 SNP in ADIPOQ was significantly associated with body mass (p=0.03).
Conclusions
Genetic variation in ADIPOQ and ADIPOR1 did not predict risk of prostate cancer in this study of African American men. However, the rs1501299 SNP in ADIPOQ was associated with obesity. Further investigation is warranted to determine if racial differences exist in the influence of the adiponectin pathway on prostate cancer risk.
doi:10.1038/pcan.2010.27
PMCID: PMC2978765  PMID: 20697428
adipokines; body mass index; genetic susceptibility; single nucleotide polymorphism; racial differences
17.  Population and family studies of three disease-related polymorphic genes in systemic lupus erythematosus. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1995;95(4):1766-1772.
The contribution to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) of three lupus-associated polymorphisms (involving the C4A2 complement component, Humhv3005 and the T cell antigen receptor alpha chain gene) are investigated in 81 individuals from 14 multiplex SLE families, 41 unrelated lupus patients, and 88 unrelated healthy controls. The results show a strong association between C4A deletion and SLE in these families. While the current study confirms the previously reported association between hv3005 deletion and sporadic SLE, the study fails to support this association in familial SLE patients. Moreover, no correlation is detected between the occurrence of hv3005 deletion and C4A null alleles in lupus patients, suggesting that the effects of these genetic polymorphisms on predisposition to lupus are independent. The previously reported lupus-associated T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain polymorphism is not detected in any of the individuals studied here. The combined data suggest that C4A null alleles predispose strongly to development of lupus, whereas the influence of hv3005 deletion is relatively weak. The results also suggest that contributions of weak susceptibility genes such as hv3005 to disease predisposition may be obscured by the effects of stronger genetic factors and thus need to be examined in patients lacking these factors.
PMCID: PMC295700  PMID: 7706484
18.  The 3′-UTR of the adiponectin Q gene harbours susceptibility loci for atherosclerosis and its metabolic risk traits 
BMC Medical Genetics  2013;14:127.
Background
Adiponectin Q is a hormone that modulates several metabolic processes and contributes to the suppression of biochemical pathways leading to metabolic syndrome. Hence, polymorphic changes in the adiponectin Q (ADIPOQ) gene are likely to contribute to metabolic disorders, and consequently lead to atherosclerosis. In the present study, we performed a population-based association study for 8 SNPs in 4646 Saudi individuals (2339 CAD cases versus angiographed 2307 controls) by real-time PCR.
Methods
Linkage analysis was done by the Affymetrix Gene Chip array, sequencing by the MegaBACE DNA analysis system and genotyping accomplished by TaqMan chemistry with the Applied Biosystem real-time Prism 7900HT Sequence Detection System.
Results
The rs2241766 (TG + GG) [Odds ratio(95% Confidence Interval = 1.35(1.01-1.72); p = 0.015] and rs9842733A > T [1.48(1.01-2.07); p = 0.042] were associated with hypertension [HTN; 3541 cases vs 1101 controls), following adjustment for the presence of other cardiovascular risk traits. The rs2241766 (TG + GG) was further implicated in harbouring of low high density lipoprotein levels (LHDL; 1353 versus 2156 controls) [1.35(1.10-1.67); p = 0.005], but lost its association with obesity after the adjustment for confounders. Besides, low high density lipoprotein was also linked with rs6444174 (TC + CC) [1.28(1.05-1.59)]. On the other hand, while initial univariate logistic regression analysis pointed to rs1063537 C > T (p = 0.010), rs2082940 C > T (p = 0.035) and rs1063539 G > C (p = 0.035) as being associated with myocardial infarction, significance levels of these relationships were diminished following adjustment for the influence of confounding covariates. Interestingly, haplotyping showed that an 8-mer haplotype GTGCCTCA and several of its derivatives constructed from the studied SNPs were commonly implicated in MI (χ2 = 4.12; p = 0.042), HTN (χ2 = 6.40; p = 0.011) and OBS (χ2 = 5.18; p = 0.023).
Conclusion
These results demonstrate that the ADIPOQ 3′UTR harbours common susceptibility variants for metabolic risk traits and CAD, pointing to the importance of this region in atherosclerosis disease pathways.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-14-127
PMCID: PMC3925068  PMID: 24330659
Adiponectin 3′-utranslated region; Haplotypes; Metabolic syndrome; Atherosclerosis
19.  Gene Polymorphisms of ADIPOQ +45T>G, UCP2 -866G>A, and FABP2 Ala54Thr on the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Matched Case-Control Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e67275.
As insulin resistance (IR) is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), we explored the association between each of the IR-related gene polymorphisms of adiponectin (ADIPOQ) rs2241766, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) rs659366, and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP2) rs1799883 and CRC risk. Genotyping of blood samples and collection of lifestyle and dietary habits were performed for 400 case-control pairs. Unconditional logistic regression (ULR) was applied to assess the effects of the three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), environmental factors. Both ULR and generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) were used to test the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on CRC risk. Subjects carrying the ADIPOQ rs2241766 TG+GG genotype had a higher CRC risk than those carrying the TT genotype (OR = 1.429, 95% CI 1.069–1.909). The additive and multiplicative interactions between ADIPOQ rs2241766 and FABP2 rs1799883 on CRC were found by ULR (RERI = 0.764, 95%CI 0.218∼1.311, AP = 0.514, 95%CI 0.165∼0.864, S = −1.745, 95%CI is unachievable, and Pmulti = 0.017, respectively). Furthermore, the high order gene-gene interaction of the three SNPs were found by GMDR (P = 0.0107). A significant dosage effect with an increasing number of risk genotypes was observed as the risk of CRC increased (Ptrend = 0.037). In GMDR, the gene-environment interaction among the three SNPs and red meat consumption on CRC risk was significant (P = 0.0107). Compared with subjects with low red meat consumption and null risk genotypes, those with high-red meat consumption and three risk genotypes had 3.439-fold CRC risk (95% CI 1.410–8.385). In conclusion, the results showed that the ADIPOQ rs2241766 TG+GG genotype increased CRC risk. Given the complexity of the carcinogen for CRC, ADIPOQ rs2241766, UCP2 rs659366, FABP2 rs1799883 and red meat consumption potentially worked together in affecting CRC risk.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067275
PMCID: PMC3695067  PMID: 23826253
20.  Vitamin D receptor gene BsmI polymorphisms in Thai patients with systemic lupus erythematosus 
The immunomodulatory role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is well known. An association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene BsmI polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been reported. To examine the characteristics of VDR gene BsmI polymorphisms in patients with SLE and the relationship of polymorphisms to the susceptibility and clinical manifestations of SLE, VDR genotypings of 101 Thai patients with SLE and 194 healthy controls were performed based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The relationship between VDR gene BsmI polymorphisms and clinical manifestations of SLE was evaluated. The distribution of VDR genotyping in patients with SLE was 1.9% for BB (non-excisable allele homozygote), 21.78% for Bb (heterozygote), and 76.23% for bb (excisable allele homozygote). The distribution of VDR genotyping in the control group was 1.03% for BB, 15.98% for Bb, and 82.99% for bb. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.357). The allelic distribution of B and b was similar within the groups (p = 0.173). The relationship between VDR genotype and clinical manifestation or laboratory profiles of SLE also cannot be statistically demonstrated. In conclusion, we cannot verify any association between VDR gene BsmI polymorphism and SLE. A larger study examining other VDR gene polymorphisms is proposed.
doi:10.1186/ar1910
PMCID: PMC1526606  PMID: 16507161
21.  Evaluation of the TREX1 gene in a large multi-ancestral lupus cohort 
Genes and immunity  2011;12(4):270-279.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disorder with a complex pathogenesis in which genetic, hormonal and environmental factors play a role. Rare mutations in the TREX1 gene, the major mammalian 3′-5′ exonuclease, have been reported in sporadic SLE cases. Some of these mutations have also been identified in a rare pediatric neurologic condition featuring an inflammatory encephalopathy known as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). We sought to investigate the frequency of these mutations in a large multi-ancestral cohort of SLE cases and controls.
Methods
Forty single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including both common and rare variants, across the TREX1 gene were evaluated in ∼8370 patients with SLE and ∼7490 control subjects. Stringent quality control procedures were applied and principal components and admixture proportions were calculated to identify outliers for removal from analysis. Population-based case-control association analyses were performed. P values, false discovery rate q values, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results
The estimated frequency of TREX1 mutations in our lupus cohort was 0.5%. Five heterozygous mutations were detected at the Y305C polymorphism in European lupus cases but none were observed in European controls. Five African cases incurred heterozygous mutations at the E266G polymorphism and, again, none were observed in the African controls. A rare homozygous R114H mutation was identified in one Asian SLE patient whereas all genotypes at this mutation in previous reports for SLE were heterozygous. Analysis of common TREX1 SNPs (MAF >10%) revealed a relatively common risk haplotype in European SLE patients with neurologic manifestations, especially seizures, with a frequency of 58% in lupus cases compared to 45% in normal controls (p=0.0008, OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.25-2.39). Finally, the presence or absence of specific autoantibodies in certain populations produced significant genetic associations. For example, a strong association with anti-nRNP was observed in the European cohort at a coding synonymous variant rs56203834 (p=2.99E-13, OR=5.2, 95% CI=3.18-8.56).
Conclusion
Our data confirm and expand previous reports and provide additional support for the involvement of TREX1 in lupus pathogenesis.
doi:10.1038/gene.2010.73
PMCID: PMC3107387  PMID: 21270825
22.  A risk haplotype of STAT4 for systemic lupus erythematosus is over-expressed, correlates with anti-dsDNA and shows additive effects with two risk alleles of IRF5 
Human Molecular Genetics  2008;17(18):2868-2876.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototype autoimmune disease where genes regulated by type I interferon (IFN) are over-expressed and contribute to the disease pathogenesis. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) plays a key role in the type I IFN receptor signaling, we performed a candidate gene study of a comprehensive set of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in STAT4 in Swedish patients with SLE. We found that 10 out of 53 analyzed SNPs in STAT4 were associated with SLE, with the strongest signal of association (P = 7.1 × 10−8) for two perfectly linked SNPs rs10181656 and rs7582694. The risk alleles of these 10 SNPs form a common risk haplotype for SLE (P = 1.7 × 10−5). According to conditional logistic regression analysis the SNP rs10181656 or rs7582694 accounts for all of the observed association signal. By quantitative analysis of the allelic expression of STAT4 we found that the risk allele of STAT4 was over-expressed in primary human cells of mesenchymal origin, but not in B-cells, and that the risk allele of STAT4 was over-expressed (P = 8.4 × 10−5) in cells carrying the risk haplotype for SLE compared with cells with a non-risk haplotype. The risk allele of the SNP rs7582694 in STAT4 correlated to production of anti-dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) antibodies and displayed a multiplicatively increased, 1.82-fold risk of SLE with two independent risk alleles of the IRF5 (interferon regulatory factor 5) gene.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddn184
PMCID: PMC2525501  PMID: 18579578
23.  High density genotyping of STAT4 gene reveals multiple haplotypic associations with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in different racial groups 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2009;60(4):1085-1095.
Objective
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototypic systemic autoimmune disorder with complex etiology and a strong genetic component. Recently, gene products involved in the interferon pathway have been under intense investigation in SLE pathogenesis. STAT1 and STAT4 are transcription factors that play key roles in the interferon and Th1 signaling pathways, making them attractive candidates for SLE susceptibility.
Methods
Fifty-six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across STAT1 and STAT4 genes on chromosome 2 were genotyped using Illumina platform as a part of extensive association study in a large collection of 9923 lupus cases and controls from different racial groups. DNA from patients and controls was obtained from peripheral blood. Principal component analyses and population based case-control association analyses were performed and the p values, FDR q values and Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated.
Results
We observed strong genetic associations with SLE and multiple SNPs located within the STAT4 gene in different ethnicities (Fisher combined p= 7.02×10−25). In addition to strong confirmation of the association in the 3rd intronic region of this gene reported previously, we identified additional haplotypic association across STAT4 gene and in particular a common risk haplotype that is found in multiple racial groups. In contrast, only a relatively weak suggestive association was observed with STAT1, probably due to the proximity to STAT4.
Conclusion
Our findings indicate that the STAT4 gene is likely to be a crucial component in SLE pathogenesis among multiple racial groups. The functional effects of this association, when revealed, might improve our understanding of the disease and provide new therapeutic targets.
doi:10.1002/art.24387
PMCID: PMC2776081  PMID: 19333953
24.  Association of the IRF5 Risk Haplotype With High Serum Interferon-α Activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2008;58(8):2481-2487.
Objective
A haplotype of the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene has been associated with the risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and our previous studies have demonstrated that high levels of serum interferon-α (IFNα) activity are a heritable risk factor for SLE. The aim of this study was to determine whether the IRF5 SLE risk haplotype mediates the risk of SLE by predisposing patients to the development of high levels of serum IFNα activity.
Methods
IFNα levels in 199 SLE patients of European and Hispanic ancestry were measured with a sensitive functional reporter cell assay. The rs2004640, rs3807306, rs10488631, and rs2280714 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IRF5 were genotyped in these patients. Haplotypes were categorized as SLE risk, neutral, or protective based on published data.
Results
SLE patients with risk/risk and risk/neutral IRF5 genotypes had higher serum IFNα activity than did those with protective/protective and neutral/protective genotypes (P = 0.025). This differential effect of IRF5 genotype on serum IFNα levels was driven largely by SLE patients who were positive for either anti–RNA binding protein (anti-RBP) or anti–double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) autoantibodies (P = 0.012 for risk/risk or risk/neutral versus protective/protective or neutral/protective). The rs3807306 genotype was independently associated with high serum IFNα in this autoantibody group. We found no difference in IFNα activity according to IRF5 genotype in patients lacking either type of autoantibody or in patients positive for both classes of autoantibody.
Conclusion
The IRF5 SLE risk haplotype is associated with higher serum IFNα activity in SLE patients, and this effect is most prominent in patients positive for either anti-RBP or anti-dsDNA autoantibodies. This study demonstrates the biologic relevance of the SLE risk haplotype of IRF5 at the protein level.
doi:10.1002/art.23613
PMCID: PMC2621107  PMID: 18668568
25.  Autoimmunity and Klinefelter’s syndrome: when men have two X chromosomes 
Journal of autoimmunity  2009;33(1):31-34.
Similar to other autoimmune diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominately affects women. Recent reports demonstrate excess Klinefelter’s among men with SLE and a possible under-representation of Turner’s syndrome among women with SLE as well as a case report of a 46,XX boy with SLE. These data suggest that risk of SLE is related to a gene dose effect for the X chromosome. Such an effect could be mediated by abnormal inactivation of genes on the X chromosome as has been demonstrated for CD40L, or by genetic polymorphism as has been demonstrated for Xq28. On the other hand, a gene dose effect could also be mediated by a gene without an SLE-associated polymorphism in that a gene that avoids X inactivation will have a higher level of expression in persons with two X chromosomes.
doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2009.03.006
PMCID: PMC2885450  PMID: 19464849
Systemic lupus erythematosus; Genetics; X chromosome

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