The TRPC1 gene on chromosome 3q22–24 resides within the linkage region for diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). A recent study has demonstrated that TRPC1 expression is reduced in the kidney of diabetic ZDF- and STZ-treated rats. The present study aimed to evaluate the genetic and functional role of TRPC1 in the development of DN.
Genetic association study was performed with two independent cohorts, including 1,177 T1D European Americans with or without DN from GoKinD population and 850 African-American subjects with T2D-associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or with hypertensive (non-diabetic) ESRD, and nondiabetic controls. Seven tag SNP markers derived from HapMap data (phase II) were genotyped. TRPC1 gene expression was examined using real time RT-PCR.
No significant association of TRPC1 DNA polymorphisms with DN or ERSD was found in GoKinD and African-American populations. TRPC1 gene mRNA expression in kidney was found to be trendily reduced in 12-week and significantly in 26-week-old db/db mice.
TRPC1 genetic polymorphism may not fundamentally contribute to the development of DN, while reduction of the gene expression in kidney may be a late phenomenon of DN as seen in diabetic animal models.
TRPC1 gene; Single-nucleotide polymorphism; Diabetic nephropathy; End-stage renal disease; Diabetes types 1 and 2
The recent genome-wide association studies reveal that chromosome 3q resides within the linkage region for diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1D and T2D). The TRPC1 gene is on chromosome 3q22-24, and it has been demonstrated that TRPC1 expression is reduced in the kidney of diabetic animal models. Genetic association of TRPC1 polymorphism with T1D and DN has been reported in European Americans. However, there are no studies reporting the association of TRPC1 genetic polymorphism with T2D with and without DN in Chinese population. This study aimed to demonstrate the genetic role of TRPC1 in the development of T2D with and without DN in Chinese Han population. A genetic association study of TRPC1 was performed in T2D cases and in nondiabetic controls from Han population located in Northern Chinese areas. Six tag single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from HapMap data were genotyped. Among the six SNPs, only rs7638459 was suspected as risk factor of T2D without DN, fitting the log-additive model. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the CC genotyping was 2.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00–5.68), compared with the TT genotyping. In addition, rs953239 was found to be a protective factor of getting DN in T2D, also fitting the log-additive model. When compared with the AA genotyping for SNP rs953239, the adjusted OR for CC genotyping was 0.63 (95% CI = 0.44–0.99). To summarize, this study shows that TRPC1 genetic polymorphisms are associated with T2D and DN in T2D in the Han Chinese population.
TRPC1; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Diabetic nephropathy
A genome-wide association scan of type 1 diabetic patients from the GoKinD collections previously identified four novel diabetic nephropathy susceptibility loci that have subsequently been shown to be associated with diabetic nephropathy in unrelated patients with type 2 diabetes. To expand these findings, we examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at these susceptibility loci were associated with diabetic nephropathy in patients from the Joslin Study of Genetics of Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Family Collection. Six SNPs across the four loci identified in the GoKinD collections and 7 haplotype tagging SNPs, were genotyped in 66 extended families of European ancestry. Pedigrees from this collection contained an average of 18.5 members, including 2 to 14 members with type 2 diabetes. Among diabetic family members, the 9q21.32 locus approached statistical significance with advanced diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.037 [adjusted P = 0.222]). When we expanded our definition of diabetic nephropathy to include individuals with high microalbuminuria, the strength of this association improved significantly (P = 1.42×10−3 [adjusted P = 0.009]). This same locus also trended toward statistical significance with variation in urinary albumin excretion in family members with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.032 [adjusted P = 0.192]) and in analyses expanded to include all relatives (P = 0.019 [adjusted P = 0.114]). These data increase support that SNPs identified in the GoKinD collections on chromosome 9q21.32 are true diabetic nephropathy susceptibility loci.
MCF2L2, ADIPOQ and SOX2 genes are located in chromosome 3q26-27, which is linked to diabetic nephropathy (DN). ADIPOQ and SOX2 genetic polymorphisms are found to be associated with DN. In the present study, we first investigated the association between MCF2L2 and DN, and then evaluated effects of these three genes on the development of DN.
A total of 1177 type 1 diabetes patients with and without DN from the GoKinD study were genotyped with TaqMan allelic discrimination. All subjects were of European descent.
Leu359Ile T/G variant in the MCF2L2 gene was found to be associated with DN in female subjects (P = 0.017, OR = 0.701, 95%CI 0.524-0.938) but not in males. The GG genotype carriers among female patients with DN had tendency decreased creatinine and cystatin levels compared to the carriers with either TT or TG genotypes. This polymorphism MCF2L2-rs7639705 together with SNPs of ADIPOQ-rs266729 and SOX2-rs11915160 had combined effects on decreased risk of DN in females (P = 0.001).
The present study provides evidence that MCF2L2, ADIPOQ and SOX2 genetic polymorphisms have effects on the resistance of DN in female T1D patients, and suggests that the linkage with DN in chromosome 3q may be explained by the cumulated genetic effects.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether known genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes (HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 and insulin locus) play a role in the etiology of diabetic nephropathy.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Genetic analysis of HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1 and the insulin gene (INS) was performed in the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) collection of DNA (European ancestry subset), which includes case patients with type 1 diabetes and nephropathy (n = 829) and control patients with type 1 diabetes but not nephropathy (n = 904). The availability of phenotypic and genotypic data on GoKinD participants allowed a detailed analysis of the association of these genes with diabetic nephropathy.
Diabetic probands who were homozygous for HLA-DRB1*04 were 50% less likely to have nephropathy than probands without any DRB1*04 alleles. In heterozygous carriers, a protective effect of this allele was not as clearly evident; the mode of inheritance therefore remains unclear. This association was seen in probands with both short (<28 years, P = 0.02) and long (≥28 years, P = 0.0001) duration of diabetes. A1C, a marker of sustained hyperglycemia, was increased in control probands with normoalbuminuira, despite long-duration diabetes, from 7.2 to 7.3 to 7.7% with 0, 1, and 2 copies of the DRB1*04 allele, respectively. This result is consistent with a protective effect of DRB1*04 that may allow individuals to tolerate higher levels of hyperglycemia, as measured by A1C, without developing nephropathy.
These data suggest that carriers of DRB1*04 are protected from some of the injurious hyperglycemic effects related to nephropathy. Interestingly, DRB1*04 appears to be both a risk allele for type 1 diabetes and a protective allele for nephropathy.
Genetic studies in Turkish, Native American, European American, and African American (AA) families have linked chromosome 18q21.1-23 to susceptibility for diabetes associated nephropathy. In this study we have carried out fine linkage mapping in the 18q region previously linked to diabetic nephropathy in AAs by genotyping both microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for linkage analysis in an expanded set of 223 AA families multiplexed for type 2 diabetes associated ESRD (T2DM-ESRD). Several approaches were used to evaluate evidence of linkage with the strongest evidence for linkage in ordered subset analysis with an earlier age of T2DM diagnosis compared to the remaining pedigrees (LOD 3.9 at 90.1cM, ΔP=0.0161, NPL P value = 0.00002). Overall, the maximum LODs and LOD-1 intervals vary in magnitude and location depending upon analysis. The linkage mapping was followed up by performing a dense SNP map, genotyping 2,814 SNPs in the refined LOD-1 region in 1,029 AA T2DM-ESRD cases and 1,027 AA controls. Of the top 25 most associated SNPs, 10 resided within genic regions. Two candidate genes stood out: NEDD4L and SERPINB7. SNP rs512099, located in intron 1 of NEDD4L, was associated under a dominant model of inheritance (P value = 0.0006; Odds ratio (95% Confidence Interval) (OR (95%CI)) = 0.70 (0.57-0.86)). SNP rs1720843, located in intron 2 of SERPINB7, was associated under a recessive model of inheritance (P value = 0.0017; OR (95% CI) = 0.65 (0.50-0.85)). Collectively, these results suggest that multiple genes in this region may influence diabetic nephropathy susceptibility in AAs.
African American; diabetes type 2; nephropathy; linkage analysis; SNP; association analysis
The Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study was initiated to facilitate research aimed at identifying genes involved in diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this review, we present on overview of this study and the various reports that have utilized its collection. At the forefront of these efforts is the recent genome-wide association (GWA) scan implemented on the GoKinD collection. We highlight the results from our analysis of these data and describe compelling evidence from animal models that further support the potential role of associated loci in the susceptibility of DN. To enhance our analysis of genetic associations in GoKinD, using genome-wide imputation (GWI), we expanded our analysis of this collection to include genotype data from more than 2.4 million common SNPs. We illustrate the added utility of this enhanced dataset through the comprehensive fine-mapping of candidate genomic regions previously linked with DN and the targeted investigation of genes involved in candidate pathway implicated in its pathogenesis. Collectively, GWA and GWI data from the GoKinD collection will serve as a springboard for future investigations into the genetic basis of DN in T1D.
genome-wide association; diabetic nephropathy; type 1 diabetes; imputation
The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene has an important genetic effect on body mass index (BMI) and risk of obesity, and obesity contributes to the progression of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. We thus conducted a genetic association study to evaluate whether the FTO gene confers the risk susceptibility to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Genotyping experiments of the common FTO polymorphism, rs9939609, in 1170 type 1 diabetes patients with (n = 597) or without diabetic nephropathy (n = 573) were performed with TaqMan allelic discrimination. All subjects are of European descent and selected from the Genetics of Kidney Diseases in Diabetes (GoKinD) study. The frequency of T allele of this polymorphism was 0.414 in the studied population. There was no allelic association of this polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy. But, the risk susceptibility of A allele conferring to the increased BMI among type 1 diabetes patients was observed. The subjects carrying with AA genotype had higher BMI compared to the carriers with TA and/or TT genotype(s) (P ≤ 0.019). The present study provides evidence that the common FTO genetic polymorphism, rs9939609, is associated with increased BMI in type 1 diabetes but not with diabetic nephropathy.
diabetic nephropathy; fat mass and obesity associated; genetic association; single nucleotide polymorphism
Recent studies have reported that aberrant expression of transient receptor potential channel C6 (TRPC6) in a variety of human cancers is associated with aggressive behavior. However, the functional significance of TRPC6 in human cervical cancer is not known. This study was planned to detect whether TRPC6 is expressed in cervical cancer tissue and to evaluate the association between TPRC6 expression and clinicopathologic features.
Tissue samples were collected from the West China Second UNIV Hospital of Sichuan University. TRPC6 expression was detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. TRPC6 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry analysis of 40 cervical cancer specimens, and correlations were sought between elevated expression of TRPC6 and clinicopathologic features.
Increased expression of TRPC6 was detected in 25 of the 40 cervical cancer samples. Positive cells found in cervical carcinomas were significantly increased in numbers compared with specimens without lymphovascular space invasion. Elevated expression of TRPC6 was neither related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage nor pelvic lymph metastases. Indeed, the clinicopathologic analysis indicated that overexpression of TRPC6 was significantly associated with lymphovascular space invasion.
These results indicate that elevated expression of TRPC6 might be associated with an aggressive cervical cancer phenotype.
cervical cancer; transient receptor potential channel C6; overexpression; invasion
Background & Aims
Excessive Ca2+ influx mediates many cytotoxic processes, including those associated with autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as acute pancreatitis and Sjögren's syndrome. TRPC3 is a major Ca2+ influx channel in pancreatic and salivary gland cells. We investigated whether genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TRPC3 protects pancreas and salivary glands from Ca2+-dependent damage.
We developed a Ca2+-dependent model of cell damage for salivary gland acini. Acute pancreatitis was induced by injection of cerulein into wild-type and Trpc3−/− mice. Mice were also given the Trpc3-selective inhibitor pyrazole 3 (Pyr3).
Salivary glands and pancreas of Trpc3−/− mice were protected from Ca2+-mediated cell toxicity. Analysis of Ca2+ signaling in wild-type and Trpc3−/− acini showed that Pyr3 is highly specific inhibitor of Tprc3; it protected salivary glands and pancreas cells from Ca2+-mediated toxicity by inhibiting the Trpc3-mediated component of Ca2+ influx.
TRPC3-mediated Ca2+ influx mediates damage to pancreas and salivary glands. Pharmacological inhibition of TRPC3 with the highly selective TRPC3 inhibitor Pyr3 might be developed for treatment of patients with acute pancreatitis and Sjögren's syndrome.
Ca2+ influx; inflammation; cell death; therapeutics
Large-conductance (BKCa-type) Ca2+-activated K+ channels encoded by the Slo1 gene and various TRPC channels are co-expressed in many cell types, including podocytes (visceral epithelial cells) of the renal glomerulus. In this study, we show by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays that BKCa channels can associate with endogenous TRPC3 and TRPC6 channels in differentiated cells of a podocyte cell line. Both types of TRPC channels co-localize with Slo1 in podocytes, as well as in HEK293T cells transiently co-expressing the TRPC channels with Slo1. In HEK293T cells, co-expression of TRPC6 increased surface expression of a Slo1 subunit splice variant (Slo1VEDEC) that is typically retained in intracellular compartments, as assessed by cell-surface biotinylation assays and confocal microscopy. Corresponding currents through BKCa channels were also increased with TRPC6 co-expression, as assessed by whole-cell and excised inside-out patch recordings. By contrast, co-expression of TRPC3 had no effect on the surface expression of BKCa channels in HEK293T cells or on the amplitudes of currents in whole cells or excised patches. In podocytes, siRNA knockdown of endogenous TRPC6 reduced steady-state surface expression of endogenous Slo1 channels, but knockdown of TRPC3 had no effect. TRPC6, but not TRPC3 knockdown also reduced voltage-evoked outward current through podocyte BKCa channels. These data indicate that TRPC6 and TRPC3 channels can bind to Slo1, and this co-localization may allow them to serve as a source of Ca2+ for activation of BKCa channels. TRPC6 channels also play a role in regulation of surface expression of a subset of podocyte BKCa channels.
Hypoxia plays a major pathogenic role in diabetic nephropathy (DN). We have investigated in this study the effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α subunit (HIF1A) genetic polymorphisms on the development of DN.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In 1,165 American type 1 diabetic patients with and without DN selected from the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study, the HIF1A genetic polymorphisms were genotyped with TaqMan allelic discrimination. The regulation of HIF-1α in the kidneys of diabetic mice was appreciated by immunohistochemistry, and the effect HIF1A Pro582Ser polymorphism on HIF-1α sensitivity to glucose was evaluated in vitro.
We identified a protective association between HIF1A Pro582Ser polymorphism and DN in male subjects. We also provided mechanistic insights that HIF-1α is repressed in the medulla of diabetic mice despite hypoxia and that Pro582Ser polymorphism confers less sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of glucose during a hypoxic challenge.
The current study demonstrates for the first time that HIF1A Pro582Ser polymorphism has an effect on DN, possibly by conferring a relative resistance to the repressive effect of glucose on HIF-1α.
The Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study is an initiative that aims to identify genes that are involved in diabetic nephropathy. A large number of individuals with type 1 diabetes were screened to identify two subsets, one with clear-cut kidney disease and another with normal renal status despite long-term diabetes. Those who met additional entry criteria and consented to participate were enrolled. When possible, both parents also were enrolled to form family trios. As of November 2005, GoKinD included 3075 participants who comprise 671 case singletons, 623 control singletons, 272 case trios, and 323 control trios. Interested investigators may request the DNA collection and corresponding clinical data for GoKinD participants using the instructions and application form that are available at http://www.gokind.org/access. Participating scientists will have access to three data sets, each with distinct advantages. The set of 1294 singletons has adequate power to detect a wide range of genetic effects, even those of modest size. The set of case trios, which has adequate power to detect effects of moderate size, is not susceptible to false-positive results because of population substructure. The set of control trios is critical for excluding certain false-positive results that can occur in case trios and may be particularly useful for testing gene—environment interactions. Integration of the evidence from these three components into a single, unified analysis presents a challenge. This overview of the GoKinD study examines in detail the power of each study component and discusses analytic challenges that investigators will face in using this resource.
We formed the GEnetics of Nephropathy–an International Effort (GENIE) consortium to examine previously reported genetic associations with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 1 diabetes. GENIE consists of 6,366 similarly ascertained participants of European ancestry with type 1 diabetes, with and without DN, from the All Ireland-Warren 3-Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes U.K. and Republic of Ireland (U.K.-R.O.I.) collection and the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study (FinnDiane), combined with reanalyzed data from the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes U.S. Study (U.S. GoKinD). We found little evidence for the association of the EPO promoter polymorphism, rs161740, with the combined phenotype of proliferative retinopathy and end-stage renal disease in U.K.-R.O.I. (odds ratio [OR] 1.14, P = 0.19) or FinnDiane (OR 1.06, P = 0.60). However, a fixed-effects meta-analysis that included the previously reported cohorts retained a genome-wide significant association with that phenotype (OR 1.31, P = 2 × 10−9). An expanded investigation of the ELMO1 locus and genetic regions reported to be associated with DN in the U.S. GoKinD yielded only nominal statistical significance for these loci. Finally, top candidates identified in a recent meta-analysis failed to reach genome-wide significance. In conclusion, we were unable to replicate most of the previously reported genetic associations for DN, and significance for the EPO promoter association was attenuated.
To examine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1) gene, a locus previously shown to be associated with diabetic nephropathy in two ethnically distinct type 2 diabetic populations, and the risk of nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Genotypic data from a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) of the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study collection were analyzed for associations across the ELMO1 locus. In total, genetic associations were assessed using 118 SNPs and 1,705 individuals of European ancestry with type 1 diabetes (885 normoalbuminuric control subjects and 820 advanced diabetic nephropathy case subjects).
The strongest associations in ELMO1 occurred at rs11769038 (odds ratio [OR] 1.24; P = 1.7 × 10−3) and rs1882080 (OR 1.23; P = 3.2 × 10−3) located in intron 16. Two additional SNPs, located in introns 18 and 20, respectively, were also associated with diabetic nephropathy. No evidence of association for variants previously reported in type 2 diabetes was observed in our collection.
Using GWAS data from the GoKinD collection, we comprehensively examined evidence of association across the ELMO1 locus. Our investigation marks the third report of associations in ELMO1 with diabetic nephropathy, further establishing its role in the susceptibility of this disease. There is evidence of allelic heterogeneity, contributed by the diverse genetic backgrounds of the different ethnic groups examined. Further investigation of SNPs at this locus is necessary to fully understand the commonality of these associations and the mechanism(s) underlying their role in diabetic nephropathy.
Aceltylcysteine has been evaluated in several small trials as a means of reducing the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), however systematic reviews of these studies do not provide conclusive answers. Therefore, a large randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed to provide a reliable answer as to whether acetylcysteine is effective in decreasing the risk of CIN in high-risk patients undergoing angiographic procedures.
ACT is a RCT of acetylcysteine versus placebo in 2,300 patients at-risk for CIN undergoing an intravascular angiographic procedure. The randomization list will be concealed. Participants, health care staff, investigators and outcome assessors will be blinded to whether patients receive acetylcysteine or placebo. All analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. The study drugs (acetylcysteine 1200 mg or placebo) will be administered orally twice daily for two doses before and two doses after the procedure. The primary outcome is the occurrence of CIN, defined as a 25% elevation of serum creatinine above baseline between 48 and 96 hours after angiography.
The first patient entered the trial on September, 2008. Up to April 7, 2009, 810 patients had been included in 35 centers. The mean age was 69 (Standard deviation: 10), 18% had a baseline serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dL, 57% were diabetics and 13% had a history of heart failure. The ongoing ACT Trial is the largest multicentre RCT that will determine whether acetylcysteine is effective in decreasing the risk of CIN in patients at risk undergoing angiography.
Variants in the engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1) gene are associated with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Japanese cohort. We comprehensively evaluated this gene in African American (AA) T2DM patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Three hundred nine HapMap tagging SNPs and 9 reportedly associated SNPs were genotyped in 577 AA T2DM-ESRD patients and 596 AA non-diabetic controls, plus 43 non-diabetic European American controls and 45 Yoruba Nigerian samples for admixture adjustment. Replication analyses were conducted in 558 AAs with T2DM-ESRD and 564 controls without diabetes. Extension analyses included 328 AA with T2DM lacking nephropathy and 326 with non-diabetic ESRD. The original and replication analyses confirmed association with four SNPs in intron 13 (permutation p-values for combined analyses = 0.001-0.003), one in intron 1 (P=0.004) and one in intron 5 (P=0.002) with T2DM-associated ESRD. In a subsequent combined analysis of all 1,135 T2DM-ESRD cases and 1,160 controls, an additional 7 intron 13 SNPs produced evidence of association (P = 3.5×10-5 – P=0.05). No associations were seen with these SNPs in those with T2DM lacking nephropathy or with ESRD due to non-diabetic causes. Variants in intron 13 of the ELMO1 gene appear to confer risk for diabetic nephropathy in AA.
Association; Nephropathy; African American; Diabetes
Conflicting reports exist as to whether sickle cell trait is a risk factor for the progression of nephropathy. In order to determine whether African Americans with sickle cell trait are at increased risk for kidney disease, we assessed the genetic association between sickle cell trait and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hemoglobin S, non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9), and apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk variants were genotyped in 3258 unrelated African Americans: 1085 with non-diabetic ESRD, 996 with type 2 diabetes-associated ESRD, and 1177 controls. Since APOL1 is strongly associated with ESRD in African Americans, interactions between APOL1 and MYH9 risk variants and hemoglobin S were assessed using case-only and case-control centered two-way logistic regression interaction analyses. The sickle cell trait genotype frequencies were 8.7% in non-diabetic ESRD, 7.1% in type 2 diabetes-ESRD, and 7.2% in controls. There was no age-, gender-, and admixture-adjusted significance for sickle cell trait association with non-diabetic ESRD (odds ratio 1.16); type 2 diabetes-ESRD (odds ratio 1.01); or all-cause ESRD (combined non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic-ESRD patients compared to the controls; odds ratio 1.05) in dominant models. In addition, no evidence of APOL1 or MYH9 interactions with sickle cell trait was detected. Hence, sickle cell trait is not associated with diabetic or non-diabetic ESRD in a large sample of African Americans.
African American; APOL1; diabetes; end-stage kidney disease; hemoglobin S; hypertension
This meta-analysis assessed the pooled effect of each genetic variant reproducibly associated with diabetic nephropathy.
PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched for articles assessing the association between genes and diabetic nephropathy. All genetic variants statistically associated with diabetic nephropathy in an initial study, then independently reproduced in at least one additional study, were selected. Subsequently, all studies assessing these variants were included. The association between these variants and diabetic nephropathy (defined as macroalbuminuria/proteinuria or end-stage renal disease [ESRD]) was calculated at the allele level and the main measure of effect was a pooled odds ratio. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed, stratifying for type 1/type 2 diabetes mellitus, proteinuria/ESRD and ethnic group.
The literature search yielded 3,455 citations, of which 671 were genetic association studies investigating diabetic nephropathy. We identified 34 replicated genetic variants. Of these, 21 remained significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy in a random-effects meta-analysis. These variants were in or near the following genes: ACE, AKR1B1 (two variants), APOC1, APOE, EPO, NOS3 (two variants), HSPG2, VEGFA, FRMD3 (two variants), CARS (two variants), UNC13B, CPVL and CHN2, and GREM1, plus four variants not near genes. The odds ratios of associated genetic variants ranged from 0.48 to 1.70. Additional variants were detected in subgroup analyses: ELMO1 (Asians), CCR5 (Asians) and CNDP1 (type 2 diabetes).
This meta-analysis found 24 genetic variants associated with diabetic nephropathy. The relative contribution and relevance of the identified genes in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy should be the focus of future studies.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-010-1996-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Diabetes mellitus; Diabetic nephropathy; Genetic association studies; Genetic polymorphism; Meta-analysis
TRPC6, a member of the TRPC family, attracts much attention from the public because of its relationship with the disease. In both the brain and kidney, TRPC6 serves a variety of functions. The aim of the present study was to observe the expression and effects of TRPC6 in renal cortex and hippocampus during early postnatal development of the mouse. In the present study, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of TRPC6 in the mouse kidney and hippocampus of postnatal day 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 49 (P1, P3, P5, P7, P14, P21, P28 and P49). Results showed that the expression of TRPC6 was increased in the mouse hippocampus, and there was a significant increase between P7 and P14 during the postnatal development. Meanwhile, the expression of TRPC6 was also detected in glomerulus and tubules, and a decreased expression was found during postnatal maturation of mouse renal cortex. From these in vivo experiments, we concluded that the expression of TRPC6 was active in the developing mouse kidney cortex, and followed a loss of expression with the development of kidney. Meanwhile, an increased expression was found in the hippocampus with the development. Together, these data suggested that the developmental changes in TRPC6 expression might be required for proper postnatal kidney cortex development, and played a critical role in the hippocampus during development, which formed the basis for understanding the nephrogenesis and neurogenesis in mice and provided a practically useful knowledge to the clinical and related research.
Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels are a family of non-selective cation channels that play a crucial role in modulating neuronal excitability due to their involvement in intracellular Ca2+ regulation and dendritic growth. TRPC5 channels a) are one of the two most prevalent TRPC channels in the adult rodent brain; b) are densely expressed in deep layer pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC); and c) modulate neuronal persistent activity necessary for working memory and attention. In order to evaluate the causal role of TRPC5 in motivation/reward-related behaviors, conditional forebrain TRPC5 knock-down (trpc5-KD) mice were generated and trained to nose-poke for intravenous cocaine. Here we present a data set containing the first 6 days of saline or cocaine self-administration in wild type (WT) and trpc5-KD mice. In addition, we also present a data set showing the dose-response to cocaine after both groups had achieved similar levels of cocaine self-administration. Compared to WT mice, trpc5-KD mice exhibited an apparent increase in self-administration on the first day of cocaine testing without prior operant training. There were no apparent differences between WT and trpc5-KD mice for saline responding on the first day of training. Both groups showed similar dose-response sensitivity to cocaine after several days of achieving similar levels of cocaine intake.
The surface expression and channel activation of transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) were regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation and resultant binding with stimulatory PLC-γ1 and inhibitory nephrin. Disease-causing mutations made the TRPC6s insensitive to nephrin suppression, suggesting that the cell-type–specific regulation of TRPC6 might be involved in the pathogenesis.
Transient receptor potential canonicals (TRPCs) play important roles in the regulation of intracellular calcium concentration. Mutations in the TRPC6 gene are found in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), a proteinuric disease characterized by dysregulated function of renal glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes). There is as yet no clear picture for the activation mechanism of TRPC6 at the molecular basis, however, and the association between its channel activity and pathogenesis remains unclear. We demonstrate here that tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPC6 induces a complex formation with phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1, which is prerequisite for TRPC6 surface expression. Furthermore, nephrin, an adhesion protein between the foot processes of podocytes, binds to phosphorylated TRPC6 via its cytoplasmic domain, competitively inhibiting TRPC6–PLC-γ1 complex formation, TRPC6 surface localization, and TRPC6 activation. Importantly, FSGS-associated mutations render the mutated TRPC6s insensitive to nephrin suppression, thereby promoting their surface expression and channel activation. These results delineate the mechanism of TRPC6 activation regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation, and imply the cell type–specific regulation, which correlates the FSGS mutations with deregulated TRPC6 channel activity.
Transient receptor potential channels Trpc2 and Trpc3 are expressed on normal murine erythroid precursors, and erythropoietin stimulates an increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) through TRPC2 and TRPC3. Because modulation of [Ca2+]i is an important signaling pathway in erythroid proliferation and differentiation, Trpc2, Trpc3, and Trpc2/Trpc3 double knockout mice were utilized to explore the roles of these channels in erythropoiesis. Trpc2, Trpc3, and Trpc2/Trpc3 double knockout mice were not anemic, and had similar red blood cell counts, hemoglobins, and reticulocyte counts as wild type littermate controls. Although the erythropoietin induced increase in [Ca2+]i was reduced, these knockout mice showed no defects in red cell production. The major phenotypic difference at steady state was that the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and hematocrit of red cells were significantly greater in Trpc2 and Trpc2/Trpc3 double knockout mice, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly reduced. All hematological parameters in Trpc3 knockout mice were similar to controls. When exposed to phenyhydrazine, unlike the Trpc3 knockouts, Trpc2 and Trpc2/Trpc3 double knockout mice showed significant resistance to hemolysis. This was associated with significant reduction in hydrogen peroxide-induced calcium influx in erythroblasts. While erythropoietin induced calcium influx through TRPC2 or TRPC3 is not critical for erythroid production, these data demonstrate that TRPC2 plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced hemolysis which may be related to reduced calcium entry in red cells in the presence of Trpc2 depletion.
TRP Channels; Trpc2; Trpc3; erythropoietin; oxidative stress
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness. The purpose of this study is to identify novel genetic loci associated with the sight threatening complications of diabetic retinopathy. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data for severe diabetic retinopathy as defined by diabetic macular edema or proliferative diabetic retinopathy in unrelated cases ascertained from two large, type I diabetic cohorts: the Genetics of Kidney in Diabetes (GoKinD) and the Epidemiology of Diabetes Intervention and Control Trial (EDIC) studies. Controls were other diabetic subjects in the cohort. A combined total of 2829 subjects (973 cases, 1856 controls) were studied on 2 543 887 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Subjects with nephropathy were excluded in a sub-analysis of 281 severe retinopathy cases. We also performed an association analysis of 1390 copy number variations (CNVs) using tag SNPs. No associations were significant at a genome-wide level after correcting for multiple measures. The meta-analysis did identify several associations that can be pursued in future replication studies, including an intergenic SNP, rs476141, on chromosome 1 (P-value 1.2 × 10−7). The most interesting signal from the CNV analysis came from the sub-group analysis without nephropathy subjects and is rs10521145 (P-value 3.4 × 10−6) in the intron of CCDC101, a histone acetyltransferase. This SNP tags the copy number region CNVR6685.1 on chromosome 16 at 28.5 Mb, a gain/loss site. In summary, this study nominates several novel genetic loci associated with the sight-threatening complications of diabetic retinopathy and anticipates future large-scale consortium-based validation studies.
During membrane depolarization associated with skeletal excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, dihydropyridine receptor [DHPR, a L-type Ca2+ channel in the transverse (t)-tubule membrane] undergoes conformational changes that are transmitted to ryanodine receptor 1 [RyR1, an internal Ca2+-release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane] causing Ca2+ release from the SR. Canonical-type transient receptor potential cation channel 3 (TRPC3), an extracellular Ca2+-entry channel in the t-tubule and plasma membrane, is required for full-gain of skeletal EC coupling. To examine additional role(s) for TRPC3 in skeletal muscle other than mediation of EC coupling, in the present study, we created a stable myoblast line with reduced TRPC3 expression and without α1SDHPR (MDG/TRPC3 KD myoblast) by knock-down of TRPC3 in α1SDHPR-null muscular dysgenic (MDG) myoblasts using retrovirus-delivered small interference RNAs in order to eliminate any DHPR-associated EC coupling-related events. Unlike wild-type or α1SDHPR-null MDG myoblasts, MDG/TRPC3 KD myoblasts exhibited dramatic changes in cellular morphology (e.g., unusual expansion of both cell volume and the plasma membrane, and multi-nuclei) and failed to differentiate into myotubes possibly due to increased Ca2+ content in the SR. These results suggest that TRPC3 plays an important role in the maintenance of skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes.
calcium channel; dihydropyridine receptor; MG29; Orai1; ryanodine receptor; TRPC3 cation channel; TRPC4 cation channel