Background and purpose Because of the varying structure of dysplastic hips, the optimal realignment of the joint during periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) may differ between patients. Three-dimensional (3D) mechanical and radiological analysis possibly accounts better for patient-specific morphology, and may improve and automate optimal joint realignment.
Patients and methods We evaluated the 10-year outcomes of 12 patients following PAO. We compared 3D mechanical analysis results to both radiological and clinical measurements. A 3D discrete-element analysis algorithm was used to calculate the pre- and postoperative contact pressure profile within the hip. Radiological angles describing the coverage of the joint were measured using a computerized approach at actual and theoretical orientations of the acetabular cup. Quantitative results were compared using postoperative clinical evaluation scores (Harris score), and patient-completed outcome surveys (q-score) done at 2 and 10 years.
Results The 3D mechanical analysis indicated that peak joint contact pressure was reduced by an average factor of 1.7 subsequent to PAO. Lateral coverage of the femoral head increased in all patients; however, it did not proportionally reduce the maximum contact pressure and, in 1 case, the pressure increased. This patient had the lowest 10-year q-score (70 out of 100) of the cohort. Another hip was converted to hip arthroplasty after 3 years because of increasing osteoarthritis.
Interpretation The 3D analysis showed that a reduction in contact pressure was theoretically possible for all patients in this cohort, but this could not be achieved in every case during surgery. While intraoperative factors may affect the actual surgical outcome, the results show that 3D contact pressure analysis is consistent with traditional PAO planning techniques (more so than 2D analysis) and may be a valuable addition to preoperative planning and intraoperative assessment of joint realignment.
Due to wide variations in acetabular structure of individuals with hip dysplasia, the measurement of the acetabular orientation may not be sufficient to predict the joint loading and pressure distribution across the joint. Addition of mechanical analysis to preoperative planning, therefore, has the potential to improve the clinical outcome.
We analyzed the effect of periacetabular osteotomy on hip dysplasia using computer-aided simulation of joint contact pressure on regular AP radiographs. The results were compared with the results of surgery based on realignment of acetabular angles to the normal hip.
Patients and methods
We studied 12 consecutive periacetabular osteotomies with no femoral head deformity. The median age of patients, all females, was 35 (20−50) years. The median follow-up was 2 years (1.3−2.2). Patient outcome was measured with the total score of a self-administered questionnaire (q-score) and with the Harris hip score. The pre- and postoperative orientation of the acetabulum was defined using reconstructed 3D CT-slices to measure angles in the three anatomical planes. Peak contact pressure, weight-bearing area, and the centroid of the contact pressure distribution (CP-ratio) were calculated.
While 9 of 12 cases showed decreased peak pressure after surgery, the mean changes in weight-bearing area and peak contact pressure were not statistically significant. However, CP-ratio changed (p < 0.001, paired t-test) with surgery. For the optimal range of CP-ratio (within its mid-range 40−60%), the mechanical outcome improved significantly.
Verifying the correlation between the optimal CP-ratio and the outcome of the surgery requires additional studies on more patients. Moreover, the anatomically measured angles were not correlated with the ranges of CP-ratio, suggesting that they do not always associate with objective mechanical goals of realignment osteotomy. Mechanical analysis, therefore, can be a valuable tool in assessing two-dimensional radiographs in hip dysplasia.
Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is an effective acetabular reorientation technique for treatment of symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. In hips with severe deformities, an adjunctive femoral osteotomy (PFO) may optimize correction, joint stability, and congruency. We analyzed the clinical and radiographic results of combined PAO/PFO in treating severe hip deformities. Second, we compared the clinical results of patients treated with PAO/PFO with patients treated with isolated PAO for lesser deformities. Twenty-five patients (28 hips) treated with PAO/PFO were reviewed and followed a minimum of 16 months (mean, 44 months). The matched PAO cohort included 25 patients (28 hips). For the PAO/PFO group, the average Harris hip score improved from 60.9 to 86.3. Eighty-nine percent of the patients demonstrated at least a 10-point improvement in the hip score and 75% had a Harris hip score over 80 points. Radiographic evaluation demonstrated consistent deformity correction. The PAO/PFO group had a lower average Harris hip score preoperatively, yet hip function after surgery was comparable between groups. These data indicate combined PAO/PFO is associated with improved hip function in most patients. These clinical results are comparable to those obtained with isolated PAO for lesser hip deformities.
Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is intended to treat a painful dysplastic hip. Manual radiological angle measurements are used to diagnose dysplasia and to define regions of insufficient femoral head coverage for planning PAO. No method has yet been described that recalculates radiological angles as the acetabular bone fragment is reoriented. In this study, we propose a technique for computationally measuring the radiological angles from a joint contact surface model segmented from CT-scan data. Using oblique image slices, we selected the lateral and medial edge of the acetabulum lunate to form a closed, continuous, 3D curve. The joint surface is generated by interpolating the curve and the radiological angles are measured directly using the 3D surface. This technique was evaluated using CT data for both normal and dysplastic hips. Manual measurements made by three independent observers showed minor discrepancies between the manual observations and the computerized technique. Inter-observer error (mean difference±standard deviation) was 0.04±3.53° Observer 1; −0.46±3.13° for Observer 2; and 0.42±2.73° for Observer 3. The measurement error for the proposed computer method was −1.30±3.30°. The computerized technique demonstrates sufficient accuracy compared to manual techniques, making it suitable for planning and intraoperative evaluation of radiological metrics for periacetabular osteotomy.
Periacetabular osteotomy; inter-observer error; radiographic angles; preoperative planning; acetabular coverage; cartilage segmentation
We retrospectively reviewed 68 hips in 62 patients with acetabular dysplasia who underwent curved periacetabular osteotomy. Among the 68 hips, 33 had acetabular retroversion (retroversion group) and 35 had anteversion (control group) preoperatively. All hips were evaluated according to the Harris hip score. Radiographic evaluations of acetabular retroversion and posterior wall deficiency were based on the cross-over sign and posterior wall sign, respectively. The clinical scores of the two groups at the final follow-up were similar. In the retroversion group, 12 hips had anteverted acetabulum postoperatively. The posterior wall sign disappeared in these hips, but remained in 21 hips with retroverted acetabulum postoperatively. Among the 21 hips with retroverted acetabulum, posterior osteoarthritis of the hip developed postoperatively in five hips. When performing corrective osteotomy for a dysplastic hip with acetabular retroversion, it is important to correct the acetabular retroversion to prevent posterior osteoarthritis of the hip due to posterior wall deficiency.
This study assessed medial translation of the hip joint achieved by the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) in correcting residual acetabular dysplasia deformities. 86 hips in 75 patients with an average age of 25 years (range, 12-50) were treated for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia with a periacetabular osteotomy. Radiographic analysis was performed to assess correction of the acetabular deformity with specific attention to the horizontal position of the hip joint center. All hips were followed until bony union of the iliac osteotomy and the average follow-up was 28 months. The lateral center edge angle improved an average 31.6° (-0.4° preoperative, 31.2° at follow-up). Anterior center edge angle improved 39.3° (-4.5° to 34.8°). The acetabular roof obliquity improved an average 21.8° (25.1° to 3.3°). Preoperatively, the average distance from the medial aspect of the femoral head to the ilioischial line was 17.6 mm. This distance was decreased to an average 7.8 mm postoperatively. This change resulted in an average medial translation of the hip joint center of 9.8 mm, (range -6 to 31mm). Overall, some degree of medial translation of the hip joint center was obtained in 79 (92%) of the hips. 4 (5%) were maintained in the same horizontal position, and 3 (3%) had slight lateral repositioning. For the hips translated medially, the average change was 10.0 mm, and 72% of all hips had an optimal correction with the distance between the medial aspect of the femoral head and the ilioischial line being between 0 and 10 mm. This study demonstrates that in addition to optimizing femoral head coverage, a major and distinct advantage of the periacetabular osteotomy is reproducible and consistent medial translation of the hip joint center.
In residual hip dysplasia periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) can improve insufficient coverage of the femoral head. It requires a broad dissection of the pelvic bones and detachment of muscle insertions, however. We have developed a modification of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy with reduced soft tissue exposure. It uses two small skin incisions and offers therefore the perspective of nicer scars but also increases the risk of technical complications due to impaired vision. To be able to draft these risks, the clinical and radiographic results of 23 patients with PAO through the modified Smith-Petersen approach of Ganz (group A) and 24 patients with our two-incision modification (group B) have been reviewed retrospectively with an average follow-up of 19 (group A) and 12 (group B) months postoperatively.
Functional improvement (Harris Hip Score) and center-edge-angle normalization did not differ significantly in both groups. Scars of patients in group B were significantly shorter. However, the overall patient satisfaction (as measured with a visual analogous scale) was the same in both groups. 4 patients in group A and one patient in group B developed superficial or deep wound infections.
In conclusion, the experience with our cohort study showed that approach-related morbidity can be reduced without increasing the risk for the individual patient. This observation clearly holds a promise for further minimal invasive approaches as well as for further morbidity reduction of PAO.
Level of Evidence: Retrospective comparative study (Level III).
Untreated hip dysplasia can result in a degenerative process joint and secondary osteoarthritis at an early age. While most periacetabular osteotomies (PAOs) are performed to relieve symptoms, the osteotomy is presumed to slow or prevent degeneration unless irreparable damage to the cartilage has already occurred.
We therefore determined (1) whether changes in the thickness of the cartilage in the hip occur after PAO, and (2) how many patients had an acetabular labral tear and whether labral tears are associated with thinning of the cartilage after PAO.
Patients and Methods
We prospectively followed 22 women and four men with hip dysplasia with MRI before PAO and again 1 year and 2½ years postoperatively to determine if cartilage thinning (reflecting osteoarthritis) occurred. The thickness of the femoral and acetabular cartilage was estimated with a stereologic method. Three and one-half years postoperatively, 18 of 26 patients underwent MR arthrography to investigate if they had a torn acetabular labrum.
The acetabular cartilage thickness differed between 1 and 2½ years postoperatively (preoperative 1.40 mm, 1 year postoperatively 1.47 mm, and 2½ years postoperatively 1.35 mm), but was similar at all times for the femoral cartilage (preoperative 1.38 mm, 1 year postoperatively 1.43 mm, and 2½ years postoperatively 1.38 mm.) Seventeen of 18 patients had a torn labrum. The tears were located mainly superior on the acetabular rim.
Cartilage thickness 2½ years after surgery compared with preoperatively was unchanged indicating the osteoarthritis had not progressed during short-term followup after PAO.
Osteolysis, which is considered to be a major source of morbidity following total hip joint replacement, has been notoriously difficult to measure accurately, particularly in the acetabular area. In order to study periacetabular osteolysis, specialized software for computerized tomography (CT) scan image analysis has been developed. This software (3D-CT) eliminates metal artifacts, allows three-dimensional segmentation of the CT image, and reconstructs the segmented image to provide an accurate representation and measurement of volume for osteolytic lesions. In the present study, 20 patients underwent periacetabular osteolytic volume determination using 3D-CT, functional assessment (using the Harris Hip Scale, the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index, and the short form 36 questionnaire), and two-dimensional analysis of volumetic polyethylene wear using digitalized plain films. Periacetabular osteolysis correlated directly with the polyethylene wear rate (relative risk [RR] = 0.494, P = 0.027). If one patient with an acetabular revision, one patient with recurrent dislocation, and one patient with a Biomet prosthesis are excluded, then the correlation between wear and osteolysis is improved (RR = 0.685, P = 0.002). In summary, the current study demonstrates both the feasibility of CT imaging of periacetabular osteolysis and the correlation between polyethylene wear and osteolytic volume, providing a potential outcome measure for clinical trials that are designed to examine interventions in this complex disease process.
3D-segmented computerized tomography; aseptic loosening; osteolysis; prosthesis
The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is commonly used to surgically treat residual acetabular dysplasia. However, the degree to which function and radiographic deformity are corrected in patients with more severe deformities that have undergone previous reconstructive pelvic or femoral osteotomies is unclear.
We evaluated hip pain and function, radiographic deformity correction, complications, reoperations, and early failures (conversion to THA) associated with PAO in hips treated with previous reconstructive hip surgery.
We retrospectively reviewed 63 patients who had undergone 67 PAOs after a previous reconstructive hip procedure. We compared preoperative hip scores and radiographic parameters with postoperative values at most recent followup. We recorded complications, need for nonarthroplasty revision surgery, and failures. Minimum followup was 2 years.
Five of the 67 hips (8%) were converted to THA between 24 and 118 months. The average followup for the remaining 62 hips was 60 months (range, 24–147 months). The average Harris hip score improved 11 points, and postoperatively, 83% of the hips had pain component scores of greater than 30 (none, slight, or mild pain). Radiographically, there were improvements in lateral center-edge angle (25°), anterior center-edge angle (23°), Tönnis angle (17°), and medialization of the hip center (8 mm). Complications occurred in 13 hips (19%). Seven hips (10%) underwent a subsequent surgical procedure to address residual pain or deformity.
PAO performed after previous reconstructive hip surgery improves hip function and corrects residual dysplasia deformities. These procedures are inherently more complex than primary PAO and are associated with a considerable risk of perioperative complications, reoperations, and early treatment failures.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
We retrospectively evaluated 17 hips in 16 patients who underwent a periacetabular osteotomy for the treatment of dysplastic hip with Perthes-like deformities. These residual deformities were graded using the Stulberg classification system. There were three class II hips, 11 class III hips and three class IV hips preoperatively. The average age of the patients at surgery was 36.9 years and the average follow-up was 6.6 years. The average Harris hip score significantly improved from the preoperative value of 68.2 points to 91.1 points postoperatively. The average postoperative range of motion in all directions did not change significantly from the preoperative value. The average postoperative Harris hip score of class IV hips was smaller than that of the class II or class III hips. The standard radiographic evaluations also showed significant improvements postoperatively. Periacetabular osteotomy without combined femoral osteotomies, as a treatment for patients with Perthes-like deformities, produced good clinical and radiographic results.
There is no clear evidence regarding the outcome of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) in different patient populations. We performed systematic meta-regression analysis of 23 eligible studies. There were 1,113 patients of which 61 patients had total hip arthroplasty (THA) (endpoint) as a result of failed Bernese PAO. Univariate analysis revealed significant correlation between THA and presence of grade 2/grade 3 arthritis, Merle de’Aubigne score (MDS), Harris hip score and Tonnis angle, change in lateral centre edge (LCE) angle, late proximal femoral osteotomies, and heterotrophic ossification (HO) resection. Multivariate analysis showed that the odds of having THA increases with grade 2/grade 3 osteoarthritis (3.36 times), joint penetration (3.12 times), low preoperative MDS (1.59 times), late PFO (1.59 times), presence of preoperative subluxation (1.22 times), previous hip operations (1.14 times), and concomitant PFO (1.09 times). In the absence of randomised controlled studies, the findings of this analysis can help the surgeon to make treatment decisions.
Cotyloplasty is a technique that involves making a perforation of the medial wall of a shallow acetabulum and then inserting an acetabular cup with the medial aspect of its dome beyond the Kohler line. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) using cotyloplasty with focusing on the amount of medial cup protrusion.
Sixteen hips with insufficient acetabulum in sixteen patients were treated by cementless THA using cotyloplasty. The average patient age was 47 years. The diagnoses included dysplastic hip (12) and infection sequelae (4). All the patients were followed up for at least 2 years. Clinically, the Harris hip scores were assessed and radiologically, the amount of cup protrusion, the hip center movement and cup fixation were evaluated.
The average Harris hip score improved from 57 to 94 postoperatively. The average proportion of cup surface beyond the Kohler line was 44.1% and the hip centers were medialized by an average of 23 mm. Stable fixation of the acetabular cup was achieved in all the cases except one. In this one case, migration of the cup was detected 2 weeks postoperatively and a reoperation was performed.
Using cotyloplasty, good coverage of the acetabular cup was obtained without a block bone graft, and the hip joint centers were medialized. However, the safety margin for the amount of protrusion should be established.
Cotyloplasty; Hip dysplasia; Insufficient acetbulum; Total hip replacement; Cementless
The purpose of this study is to investigate the early clinical and radiographic findings related to acetabular orientation after a curved periacetabular osteotomy (CPO). 106 dysplastic hips of 88 patients underwent CPO were investigated retrospectively with an average follow-up of 3.6 years. Conventional anteroposterior radiographs were used to measure the radiographic findings and range of motion were used for clinical evaluations. A significant improvement was noted in radiographic measurements including lateral centre-edge angle, acetabular index, and acetabular angle of Sharp. However, a high rate of postoperative acetabular retroversion was observed (62% hips) and a marked decrease in free flexion was noted. The Tönnis scale revealed a one-grade progression in most retroversion hips. Acetabular retroversion is a high risk factor leading to degenerative osteoarthritis of hip. Therefore, special consideration must be taken in surgical planning and careful intraoperative confirmation is required whilst manoeuvring the acetabular fragment in CPO.
We evaluated the results of polygonal triple (Kotz) osteotomy for the treatment of acetabular dysplasia over 10 years. This study included 31 hips of 27 patients who had the Kotz osteotomy for acetabular dysplasia. The mean age was 21.5 years. We performed the original Kotz osteotomy for the first 22 hips (group I), while the modified Kotz osteotomy through an intra-pelvic approach without damage to the abductor muscle was applied for the last 9 hips (group II). Patients were evaluated by clinically and radiologically. The average follow-up was 106 months in group I, and 18 months in group II. The Trendelenburg gait was unchanged for four patients in group I and for one patient in group II. The Harris Hip Score improved in all patients postoperatively. Radiographic assesment showed improvement in both groups in terms of the angle of CE, VCE, and Sharp postoperatively(P<0.05). The complication rate per hip was 0.29. The original Kotz osteotomy achieves adequate coverage for the treatment of acetabular dysplasia, and patients are generally satisfied by this procedure. Nonetheless, the modified Kotz osteotomy provides recovery of the abductor muscle strength in the early postoperative period and subsequently decreases the rate of the Trendelenburg gait compared to the original Kotz osteotomy.
The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a popular option for treating symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. We noted symptomatic impingement after PAO in several male patients.
We therefore determined (1) the incidence of clinical signs of FAI after PAO in the male population; and (2) whether any factors were associated with the positive impingement signs after PAO in males.
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 38 males who underwent 46 periacetabular osteotomies (PAO) between 2000 and 2007. Clinical and radiographic data were analyzed with the focus on pre- and postoperative incidence of femoroacetabular impingement. Minimum followup was 12 months (average, 43 months; range, 12–90 months).
We found a positive impingement sign in 19 of the 46 hips during the preoperative examination compared to 22 (47.8%) hips postoperatively. The ROM (flexion and internal rotation) decreased postoperatively compared to preoperatively. Radiographic parameters of coverage LCE-, ACE- and Tönnis angle improved into the normal range. Twenty hips had postoperative heterotopic ossification to varying degrees, mostly minor. WOMAC scores improved in the function and pain domains postoperatively.
Despite normalization of coverage we found a high postoperative rate of clinical signs of FAI after PAO in males.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
The goal of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy is to correct the deficient acetabular coverage in hips with developmental dysplasia to prevent secondary osteoarthrosis. We determined the 20-year survivorship of symptomatic patients treated with this procedure, determined the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the surviving hips, and identified factors predicting poor outcome. We retrospectively evaluated the first 63 patients (75 hips) who underwent periacetabular osteotomy at the institution where this technique was developed. The mean age of the patients at surgery was 29 years (range, 13–56 years), and preoperatively 24% presented with advanced grades of osteoarthritis. Four patients (five hips) were lost to followup and one patient (two hips) died. The remaining 58 patients (68 hips) were followed for a minimum of 19 years (mean, 20.4 years; range, 19–23 years) and 41 hips (60%) were preserved at last followup. The overall mean Merle d’Aubigné and Postel score decreased in comparison to the 10-year value and was similar to the preoperative score. We observed no major changes in any of the radiographic parameters during the 20-year postoperative period except the osteoarthritis score. We identified six factors predicting poor outcome: age at surgery, preoperative Merle d’Aubigné and Postel score, positive anterior impingement test, limp, osteoarthrosis grade, and the postoperative extrusion index. Periacetabular osteotomy is an effective technique for treating symptomatic developmental dysplasia of the hip and can maintain the natural hip at least 19 years in selected patients.
Level of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Background and purpose Several studies have demonstrated an increased intracapsular pressure in several hip disorders such as septic arthritis, synovitis, and trauma. We therefore measured the intracapsular pressure in different positions in early dysplasic hips and its relation to the concentration of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), the volume of joint fluid, and the clinical and radiographic findings before a periacetabular osteotomy.
Methods 12 female patients (12 hips, mean age 35 (18–52)) with hip dysplasia were investigated. The intracapsular pressure was recorded and we investigated possible correlations with the Harris hip score, the Tönnis scale, radiographic findings, the volume of joint fluid, and the concentration of IL-1β.
Results An increased intracapsular pressure was noted, especially in flexion or extension with internal rotation. We found positive correlations between the intracapsular pressure and both the volume of joint fluid and the concentration of IL-1β.
Interpretation Increased intracapsular pressure varied with different positions, indicating the presence of synovitis resulting from early osteoarthritis in dysplastic hips. Positive correlations between the pressure and both the concentration of IL-1β and the volume of joint fluid suggest that the inflammatory cytokines produced by the synovial membrane as a consequence of mechanical instability of the hip joint may be of importance for the initiation and/or development of osteoarthritis in dysplastic hips.
We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the results of acetabular circumferential medial wall osteotomy, a procedure designed to provide secure fixation of a cementless hemispherical acetabular cup for the sequelae of septic arthritis of the hip.
We assessed 38 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) with circumferential acetabular medial wall osteotomies performed on patients with sequelae of septic arthritis of the hip between 1993 and 2000, who were followed up for ≥ 3 years. The average follow-up period was 8.3 years (range, 3 to 12 years). The indication for this technique was poor acetabular cup coverage of ≤ 70% on preoperative templating. In all cases, cementless hemispherical acetabular cups were fixed to the true acetabulum. Additional procedures included soft tissue release in 16 hips and femoral derotational and shortening osteotomies in 12 hips. We evaluated both clinical and radiological results.
The Harris hip scores improved from 57 points preoperatively to 91 points postoperatively. Radiological analysis revealed no aseptic loosening or radiolucent lines around the acetabular cup. Stable bony fixation of the acetabular cup in the true acetabulum was seen in all cases. Acetabular osteolysis was demonstrated in 12 hips. Revision surgery was performed in 6 hips, but there were no complications related to acetabular circumferential medial wall osteotomy.
Circumferential acetabular medial wall osteotomy can provide appropriate positioning and sufficient coverage of the acetabular cup and thus preserve the medial wall thickness in cementless THA without the need for additional bone grafting for the sequelae of septic arthritis of the hip.
Sequelae of septic arthritis of the hip; Cementless THA; Circumferential medial wall osteotomy
Residual acetabular dysplasia of the hip in most patients can be corrected by periacetabular osteotomy. However, some patients have intraarticular abnormalities causing insufficient coverage, containment or congruency after periacetabular osteotomy, or extraarticular abnormalities that limit either acetabular correction or hip motion. For these patients, we believe an additional proximal femoral osteotomy can improve coverage, containment, congruency and/or motion.
We provide algorithms for (1) identifying patients we believe will benefit from proximal femoral osteotomy, (2) selecting the appropriate osteotomy, and (3) choosing the sequence of these osteotomies.
Anteroposterior, false-profile and functional radiographs and MR can identify most patients we believe will benefit from periacetabular and femoral osteotomies. Recently described techniques, including relative femoral neck lengthening, femoral neck osteotomy and femoral head osteotomy have expanded indications for a combined procedure. Historically performed first, periacetabular osteotomy is now frequently performed following femoral osteotomy.
The rate of intertrochanteric osteotomy performed with periacetabular osteotomy has decreased from approximately 10% in the first 500 surgeries to about 2% currently. Among 151 relative neck lengthenings (23 with PAO), 53 femoral neck osteotomies (4 with PAO) and 14 femoral head osteotomies (11 with PAO), eleven complications occurred including osteonecrosis in two and delayed unions in eight. No complication occurred following a combined procedure.
Although isolated periacetabular osteotomy can provide sufficient coverage, containment and congruency for most patients with residual hip dysplasia, some may benefit from an additional proximal femoral osteotomy. Knowing the appropriate indications, selection, and sequencing of these osteotomies is critical for enhancing patient outcomes.
Level of Evidence
Level V, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
The functional outcomes of periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) and factors predicting outcome in the older patient with acetabular dysplasia are not well understood. We therefore retrospectively determined the functional outcome of 70 patients (87 hips) over age 40 treated with PAO in three institutions; we also determined whether preoperative factors, particularly the presence of osteoarthritis, influenced the survival of the hip or time to total hip arthroplasty after PAO. The average age at surgery was 43.6 years. The minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 4.9 years; range, 2–13 years). Twenty-one hips (24%) had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA), at a mean of 5.2 years after PAO (range, 1.9–7.6 years). Surviving hips had a mean improvement in Harris hip score from 60.7 to 90.3 and in total WOMAC pain score from 8.7 to 3. We observed no differences in preoperative or postoperative radiographic measurements or preoperative clinical function scores (HHS, WOMAC) in hips surviving and hips having THA. The risk of THA at 5 years after PAO was 12% in hips with preoperative Tönnis Grade 0 or 1 and 27% for Tönnis Grade 2. Our preliminary study suggests that PAO will give satisfactory functional and pain scores in patients over age 40 having dysplastic hips with mild or no arthrosis.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Open and arthroscopic procedures are treatment options for patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Age has been found to be a predictive factor in the outcome of patients undergoing periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for hip dysplasia. It is unclear if older age contraindicates joint preservation through a surgical hip dislocation (SHD).
The purpose of this retrospective case series was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of patients over 40 years of age without radiographic evidence of end-stage arthritis who underwent SHD for the treatment of FAI and to determine whether older age should be a contraindication for joint-preserving procedures in these patients. Our specific aims included (1) documenting the intraoperative findings and procedures, (2) assessing pain relief provided, and (3) assessing treatment failures and postoperative complications, noting the number of patients that ultimately required total hip arthroplasty (THA).
Patients and Methods
All patients at age 40 and older who had SHD for the treatment of FAI were identified from a series of patients treated with SHD. Clinical notes, radiographs, and operative reports were reviewed to determine clinical results, complications, and the need for additional procedures. The minimum follow-up was 1 year (mean 3.9 years; range 1–8 years).
At final follow-up, 11/22 (50%) of hips had pain relief, while 11/22 (50%) either continued having significant symptoms or required THA. Five (23%) reported nontrochanteric pain symptoms that were the same or worse than before surgery, and six hips (27%) underwent subsequent THA). The average time between SHD and THA was 1.9 years (0.9–6.2). The average age of patients who went on to require THA was 45 (42–50) years.
Surgical hip dislocation can be used for the treatment of FAI in patients over age 40, but strict selection criteria should be adhered to, as only half of the patients experienced significant improvement in their hip pain. THA was required in one-third of hips for continued pain and radiographic progression of arthritis. SHD for treatment of pathology that is not amenable to hip arthroscopy should remain a surgical option in older patients with FAI only if joint degeneration is not present.
hip offset; femoracetabular impingement; joint preservation; surgical hip dislocation
We evaluated the clinical and radiological results of one-stage correction for cerebral palsy patients.
We reviewed clinical outcomes and radiologic indices of 32 dysplastic hips in 23 children with cerebral palsy (13 males, 10 females; mean age, 8.6 years). Ten hips had dislocation, while 22 had subluxation. Preoperative Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) scores of the patients were as follows; level V (13 patients), level IV (9), and level III (1). Acetabular deficiency was anterior in 5 hips, superolateral in 7, posterior in 11 and mixed in 9, according to 3 dimensional computed tomography. The combined surgery included open reduction of the femoral head, release of contracted muscles, femoral shortening varus derotation osteotomy and the modified Dega osteotomy. Hip range of motion, GMFCS level, acetabular index, center-edge angle and migration percentage were measured before and after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 28.1 months.
Hip abduction (median, 40°), sitting comfort and GMFCS level were improved after surgery, and pain was decreased. There were two cases of femoral head avascular necrosis, but no infection, nonunion, resubluxation or redislocation. All radiologic indices showed improvement after surgery.
A single event multilevel surgery including soft tissue, pelvic and femoral side correction is effective in treating spastic dislocation of the hip in cerebral palsy.
Cerebral palsy; Hip dislocation; Single event multilevel surgery; Dega osteotomy
Adult hip dysplasia (AHD) is a common etiology of hip pain in the young adult. Patients with adult hip dysplasia may present with hip pain and early degenerative changes resulting from elevated cumulative hip-contact stress. While there are numerous studies using radiographic parameters coupled with general and disease-specific health status measures to demonstrate that periacetabular osteotomy improves the orientation of the acetabulum, decreases pain and improves function, to our knowledge there is only one study that utilized gait analysis to demonstrate an objective functional alteration. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the walking pattern and assess the activity level of patients undergoing periacetabular osteotomy for symptomatic adult hip dysplasia.
Institutional review board approval was obtained for collection and review of data on 55 patients who underwent periacetabular osteotomy at one institution by the senior author (TM) between the years 2007-2009. Walking pattern characteristics were assessed including velocity, cadence, stride
length of the affected side, and percent of single-limb support on the affected limb using GaitRite® walking pattern analysis. Activity was assessed as average steps/day over a consecutive seven-day period. As a secondary analysis, the disease-specific and generalized health status outcome measures of all patients who underwent periacetabular osteotomy were reviewed.
At an average of 11.5 months post periacetabu-lar osteotomy the walking patterns of 27 patients were available for review. Several trends were observed, including an approximate 5% increase in walking velocity (118 cm/sec to 125 cm/sec), and a 4.5 % increase in stride length (132 cm to 138 cm, p=0.01). At a mean 9.5 months following surgery, 26 patients reported an 8.75% decrease in average steps taken daily (4598 steps/day to 4196 steps/day). A significant improvement in SF-36 PC scores (p<0.01), the WOMAC hip pain and function scores (p<0.01) and the HHS (p<0.01) was noted during the same period.
At an average of 11.5 months following periacetabular osteotomy for the treatment of symptomatic hip dysplasia, a trend toward increased walking velocity and a significant increase in stride length was noted. A significant improvement in pain relief as well as improved physical function was observed in the short term. Subgroup analysis of patients without pre-existing osteoarthritis (as compared to those with pre-existing osteoarthrosis) revealed increased walking velocity, stride length of the affected limb, and percent of gait cycle in single support on the affected limb following periacetabular osteotomy. Further prospective studies are needed to fully clarify the long-term impact of the periacetabular osteotomy on patients with symptomatic hip dysplasia.
Background and purpose Historically, a Schanz osteotomy of the femur has been used to reduce limp in patients with severely dysplastic hips. In such hips, total hip arthroplasty is a technically demanding operation. We report the long-term results of cementless total hip arthroplasty in a group of patients who had all undergone a Schanz osteotomy earlier.
Patients and methods From 1988 through 1995, 68 total hip replacements were performed in 59 consecutive patients previously treated with a Schanz osteotomy. With the cup placed at the level of the true acetabulum, a shortening osteotomy of the proximal part of the femur and distal advancement of the greater trochanter were performed in 56 hips. At a mean of 13 (9–18) years postoperatively, we evaluated these patients clinically and radiographically.
Results The mean Harris hip score had increased from 51 points preoperatively to 93 points. Trendelenburg sign was negative and there was good or slightly reduced abduction strength in 23 of 25 hips that had not been revised. There were 12 perioperative complications. Only 1 cementless press-fit porous-coated cup was revised for aseptic loosening. However, the 12-year survival rate of these cups was only 64%, as 18 cups underwent revision for excessive wear of the polyethylene liner and/or osteolysis. 6 CDH femoral components had to be revised due to technical errors.
Interpretation Our results suggest that cementless total hip arthroplasty combined with a shortening osteotomy of the femur and distal advancement of the greater trochanter can be recommended for most patients with a previous Schanz osteotomy of the femur. Because of the high incidence of liner wear and osteolysÍs of modular cementless cups in this series, nowadays we use hard-on-hard articulations in these patients.