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Technological advances in robotic hardware and software have enabled powered exoskeletons to move from science fiction to the real world. The objective of this article is to emphasize two main points for future research. First, the design of future devices could be improved by exploiting biomechanical principles of animal locomotion. Two goals in exoskeleton research could particularly benefit from additional physiological perspective: 1) reduction in the metabolic energy expenditure of the user while wearing the device, and 2) minimization of the power requirements for actuating the exoskeleton. Second, a reciprocal potential exists for robotic exoskeletons to advance our understanding of human locomotor physiology. Experimental data from humans walking and running with robotic exoskeletons could provide important insight into the metabolic cost of locomotion that is impossible to gain with other methods. Given the mutual benefits of collaboration, it is imperative that engineers and physiologists work together in future studies on robotic exoskeletons for human locomotion.
PMCID: PMC2185037  PMID: 18185840
biomechanics; walking; running; neural control; metabolic cost
2.  Estrogen metabolomics: a physiologist’s perspective 
Hypertension  2010;56(5):816-818.
PMCID: PMC3018158  PMID: 20921431
6.  E. J. Marey--physiologist and first cinematographer. 
Medical History  1966;10(2):201-203.
PMCID: PMC1033590  PMID: 5325877
9.  John Gray M'Kendrick, physiologist (1841-1926). 
Medical History  1973;17(3):288-303.
PMCID: PMC1081476  PMID: 4595547
12.  Henry Newell Martin (1848-1893). A pioneer physiologist. 
Medical History  1969;13(3):271-279.
PMCID: PMC1033954  PMID: 4893626
The Ulster Medical Journal  1939;8(4):254.
PMCID: PMC2479547
14.  Minimal acupuncture is not a valid placebo control in randomised controlled trials of acupuncture: a physiologist's perspective 
Chinese Medicine  2009;4:1.
Placebo-control of acupuncture is used to evaluate and distinguish between the specific effects and the non-specific ones. During 'true' acupuncture treatment in general, the needles are inserted into acupoints and stimulated until deqi is evoked. In contrast, during placebo acupuncture, the needles are inserted into non-acupoints and/or superficially (so-called minimal acupuncture). A sham acupuncture needle with a blunt tip may be used in placebo acupuncture. Both minimal acupuncture and the placebo acupuncture with the sham acupuncture needle touching the skin would evoke activity in cutaneous afferent nerves. This afferent nerve activity has pronounced effects on the functional connectivity in the brain resulting in a 'limbic touch response'. Clinical studies showed that both acupuncture and minimal acupuncture procedures induced significant alleviation of migraine and that both procedures were equally effective. In other conditions such as low back pain and knee osteoarthritis, acupuncture was found to be more potent than minimal acupuncture and conventional non-acupuncture treatment. It is probable that the responses to 'true' acupuncture and minimal acupuncture are dependent on the aetiology of the pain. Furthermore, patients and healthy individuals may have different responses. In this paper, we argue that minimal acupuncture is not valid as an inert placebo-control despite its conceptual brilliance.
PMCID: PMC2644695  PMID: 19183454
18.  HENRY SEWALL, Physiologist and Physician 
California Medicine  1947;66(3):152-153.
PMCID: PMC1642882
20.  Canadian Physiologists at British Conventions 
PMCID: PMC1707168  PMID: 20314788
23.  Remarkable Physiologist 
British Medical Journal  1970;1(5695):555.
PMCID: PMC1699507
25.  Unheard Voices: The Physiologist 
British Medical Journal  1971;1(5739):43-44.
PMCID: PMC1794748  PMID: 20791762

Results 1-25 (63878)