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1.  Keeping the culture alive: the laboratory technician in mid-twentieth-century British medical research 
This paper reports results from a detailed study of the careers of laboratory technicians in British medical research. Technicians and their contributions are very frequently missing from accounts of modern medicine, and this project is an attempt to correct that absence. The present paper focuses almost entirely on the Medical Research Council's National Institute for Medical Research in North London, from the first proposal of such a body in 1913 until the mid 1960s. The principal sources of information have been technical staff themselves, largely as recorded in an extensive series of oral history interviews. These have covered a wide range of issues and provide valuable perspectives about technicians' backgrounds and working lives.
doi:10.1098/rsnr.2007.0035
PMCID: PMC2628576  PMID: 18548906
medical laboratory technicians; medical laboratories; medical history
2.  The State of Human Anatomy Teaching in the Medical Schools of Gulf Cooperation Council Countries 
Available literature on medical education charts an emerging trend in the field of anatomy. In the past decade, assisted by innovations in informatics and the paradigm shift in medical education, the hands-on experience of cadaver dissection has progressively become a relic of the past. Within the context of the situation in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, this paper compares the traditional teaching approach with the modern one that tends to emphasise technical gadgetry, virtual reality and plastic models rather than hands-on-experience to impart knowledge and skill. However, cadaver-based learning is an important building block for the future physician and surgeon since clinical astuteness is likely to rely on skills gained from hands-on experience rather than the tendency to learning through virtual reality found in modern curricula.
PMCID: PMC3074750  PMID: 21509271
Anatomy teaching; Computer-assisted learning; Curriculum; Cadaver; Dissection
3.  The Research Council System and the Politics of Medical and Agricultural Research for the British Colonial Empire, 1940–52 
Medical History  2013;57(3):338-358.
Historical accounts of colonial science and medicine have failed to engage with the Colonial Office’s shift in focus towards the support of research after 1940. A large new fund was created in 1940 to expand activities in the colonies described as fundamental research. With this new funding came a qualitative shift in the type of personnel and activity sought for colonial development and, as a result, a diverse group of medical and technical officers existed in Britain’s colonies by the 1950s. The fact that such variety existed amongst British officers in terms of their qualifications, institutional locations and also their relationships with colonial and metropolitan governments makes the use of the term ‘expert’ in much existing historical scholarship on scientific and medical aspects of empire problematic. This article will consider how the Colonial Office achieved this expansion of research activities and personnel after 1940. Specifically, it will focus on the reasons officials sought to engage individuals drawn from the British research councils to administer this work and the consequences of their involvement for the new apparatus established for colonial research after 1940. An understanding of the implications of the application of the research council system to the Colonial Empire requires engagement with the ideology promoted by the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) and Medical Research Council (MRC) which placed emphasis on the distinct and higher status of fundamental research and which privileged freedom for researchers.
doi:10.1017/mdh.2013.17
PMCID: PMC3865944  PMID: 24069883
Medical Research Council; Agricultural Research Council; Colonial Office; 1940 CDW Act; Colonial Medical Research Council; East Africa
4.  New York State Council of Health-system Pharmacists 
Pharmacy and Therapeutics  2013;38(7):425-426.
The Emily Jerry Foundation was instrumental in requiring training and certification for pharmacy technicians; and a representative from the institute for Safe Medication Practices discusses “off-the-beaten-track” areas of medication use.
PMCID: PMC3776484  PMID: 24049431
5.  Medical Research Council leukaemia trial, UKALL VII. A report to the Council by the Working Party on Leukaemia in Childhood. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1985;60(11):1050-1054.
Eighty two eligible children with 'standard risk' lymphoblastic leukaemia were entered into the Medical Research Council UKALL VII trial. Three failed to remit. With a minimum follow up time of four years, actuarial relapse free survival for the remainder was 65%; a significant improvement over the two preceding 'standard risk' trials at the same stage. Only one of five treatment variables possibly affected relapse free survival; this being whether methotrexate was given orally or parenterally during remission maintenance treatment. Twenty seven of 36 patients (75%) who were given intramuscular methotrexate remain alive and in their first remission compared with 23 of 41 (56%) given the drug orally. Although statistically significant differences in small trials should be interpreted with caution, this finding raises the possibility that orally administered methotrexate is not completely absorbed.
PMCID: PMC1777623  PMID: 3907505
6.  Incidence of tuberculosis, hepatitis, brucellosis, and shigellosis in British medical laboratory workers. 
British Medical Journal  1976;1(6012):759-762.
A retrospective postal survey of 21 000 medical laboratory workers in England and Wales showed 18 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in 1971, a five-times increased risk of acquiring the disease compared with the general population. Technicians were at greatest risk, especially if they worked in morbid anatomy departments. Of the 35 cases of hepatitis, the technicians were again the occupational group most likely to acquire the disease. Microbiology staff were twice as likely to report shigellosis as those in other pathology divisions but only one case of brucellosis was reported in the whole laboratory population. A similar survey carried out in 1973 of 3000 Scottish medical laboratory workers corroborates the results from England and Wales. Medical laboratory workers continue to experience a considerable risk of developing an occupationally acquired infection. Improvements in staff safety and health care seem to be necessary.
PMCID: PMC1639170  PMID: 1260318
7.  Assessment of the technical quality of electrocardiograms. 
The technical quality of 600 electrocardiograms (ECG's) was assessed for missing leads and clipping, and graded from 1 to 5 for each of noise, lead drift and beat-to-beat drift. Three subgroups of 200 ECGs each were studied: group A, those obtained by emergency department staff (non-technicians); group B, records obtained by ECG technicians; and group C, telephone-transmitted records obtained by technicians performing all the laboratory work at a smaller, outlying hospital. Records with missing leads, clipping, grade 4 or 5 noise, grade 5 lead drift or grade 5 beat-to-beat drift were classified as unsatisfactory or rejected. With these stringent criteria the rejection rate was 71.0% for group A records, 58.5% for group B and 44.5% for group C. The proportions of records with peak quality (no missing leads or clipping, and grade 1 noise, lead drift or beat-to-beat drift) were 4.5% for group A, 5.5% for group B and 23.0% for group C. Suggested revisions in the grading of technical quality of ECGs are presented.
Images
PMCID: PMC1818330  PMID: 688125
8.  The General Medical Council: frame of reference or arbiter of morals? 
Journal of Medical Ethics  1977;3(3):110-114.
Many members of the public think of the General Medical Council (GMC) as the body which tries doctors: the doctors' law courts, as it were. And, except in the more sober of newspapers and news reports, the 'offences ' which receive the most publicity are those concerning alleged improper relations between doctors and patients. Professor Sir Denis Hill, in the following paper, which he read in the spring of this year to the annual conference of the London Medical Group devoted to a discussion of human sexuality, chose to examine the whole function of the General Medical Council as a frame of moral reference for doctors. Judging allegations of professional misconduct by doctors is the function of the Council's Disciplinary Committee. Judging sexual misconduct forms only a small part of their work. The GMC's responsibility covers the whole notion of morals and morality as it concerns doctors in their professional work. Sir Denis Hill stresses the modern thinking that morality must be learned and that attitudes are always shifting as society alters its norms of what is moral conduct. That is not to say that all that was previously considered not to be moral has now become acceptable but rather that other concepts have entered the field of moral debate. Therefore the GMC must constantly review the frame of reference it offers to doctors and the public may be surprised to learn that that process is never static. Sir Denis Hill in this paper is speaking personally and not as a member of the General Medical Council or of any of that body's special committees.
PMCID: PMC1154576  PMID: 926129
9.  Prescriptions for medical research. I--Management within the Medical Research Council. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1993;306(6893):1668-1672.
In their submission to the government in advance of the white paper on science policy in the United Kingdom the Medical Research Council commends the MRC's own approach to managing directly funded research. But a series of semi-structured interviews with the directors of some of the MRC's units suggests a gap between the MRC's model of managed research and the reality. Although such units are theoretically managed from MRC head office (and units are charged an overhead for this), in practice each unit runs its own affairs. Between major reviews average contact time with the head office contact person is seven hours a year. The first paper argues that a purchaser-provider split would recognise the benefits of decentralisation and allow units to bid for research funds from several sources, the successful ones guaranteeing their survival through a rolling series of research programmes. The second paper criticises the MRC's cumbersome peer review system. Reliance on outside experts atrophies the scientific skills of head office staff and builds delays into decision making. A purchaser-provider model would allow the head office scientific staff to act like commercial research and development managers, commissioning research, and using the outcome, rather than peer review, as a criterion for continued funding.
PMCID: PMC1678049  PMID: 8324441
10.  Twenty year follow up of patients in the Medical Research Council trial of anticoagulants in acute myocardial infarction. 
British Heart Journal  1987;57(5):413-415.
A 20 year follow up of 1330 patients in the Medical Research Council trial of short term anticoagulant treatment in myocardial infarction showed no long term benefits; but it provided interesting data on the outcome in such patients. Sixteen per cent of the patients were alive 20 years later. The excess mortality rate in trial participants over that expected for England and Wales as a whole declined rapidly after the early months, but some excess persisted throughout the follow up. Three quarters of all the deaths were from coronary heart disease; 70% of these coronary deaths occurred after the patients had left hospital. This finding emphasises the importance of secondary prevention.
PMCID: PMC1277194  PMID: 3297120
11.  The Indian Council of Medical Research–India Diabetes (ICMR–INDIAB) Study: Methodological Details 
Background
Currently available estimates of diabetes prevalence in India are based on published data derived from very few studies. The Indian Council of Medical Research–India Diabetes (ICMR–INDIAB) study is a community-based survey conceived with the aim of obtaining the prevalence rates of diabetes in India as a whole, covering all 28 states, the National Capital Territory of Delhi, and two of the union territories in the mainland of India, with a total sample size of 124,000 individuals.
Methods
A stratified multistage sampling design has been used. In all study subjects, a structured questionnaire was administered and anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured. Fasting capillary blood glucose was first determined using a glucose meter. An oral glucose load was then administered to all subjects except those with self-reported diabetes, and the 2 h post-load capillary blood glucose was estimated. In every fifth subject, a fasting venous sample was collected for measurement of lipids and creatinine, a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram was performed, and dietary assessment questionnaire was administered. In all diabetic subjects, an additional diabetes questionnaire was used and a fasting venous sample drawn for glycated hemoglobin.
Results
All biological samples collected were analyzed in a central laboratory. All data collected were stored electronically. Quality control was achieved through multiple tiers of checks.
Conclusions
The ICMR–INDIAB study is the first of its kind attempting to provide accurate and comprehensive state- and national-level data on diabetes prevalence in India.
PMCID: PMC3192597  PMID: 21880233
coronary artery disease; diabetes; hypertension; India; prevalence; state-wise; urban rural
12.  Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses 
Brain  2011;135(5):1639-1649.
The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal width of its response options. No study has systematically examined, through modern psychometric approach, whether physicians are able to properly use the Medical Research Council grades. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate physicians’ ability to discriminate among the Medical Research Council categories in patients with different neuromuscular disorders and with various degrees of weakness through thresholds examination using Rasch analysis as a modern psychometric method; (ii) to examine possible factors influencing physicians’ ability to apply the Medical Research Council categories through differential item function analyses; and (iii) to examine whether the widely used Medical Research Council 12 muscles sum score in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy would meet Rasch model's expectations. A total of 1065 patients were included from nine cohorts with the following diseases: Guillain–Barré syndrome (n = 480); myotonic dystrophy type-1 (n = 169); chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n = 139); limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (n = 105); multifocal motor neuropathy (n = 102); Pompe's disease (n = 62) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined related polyneuropathy (n = 8). Medical Research Council data of 72 muscles were collected. Rasch analyses were performed on Medical Research Council data for each cohort separately and after pooling data at the muscle level to increase category frequencies, and on the Medical Research Council sum score in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Disordered thresholds were demonstrated in 74–79% of the muscles examined, indicating physicians’ inability to discriminate between most Medical Research Council categories. Factors such as physicians’ experience or illness type did not influence these findings. Thresholds were restored after rescoring the Medical Research Council grades from six to four options (0, paralysis; 1, severe weakness; 2, slight weakness; 3, normal strength). The Medical Research Council sum score acceptably fulfilled Rasch model expectations after rescoring the response options and creating subsets to resolve local dependency and item bias on diagnosis. In conclusion, a modified, Rasch-built four response category Medical Research Council grading system is proposed, resolving clinicians’ inability to differentiate among its original response categories and improving clinical applicability. A modified Medical Research Council sum score at the interval level is presented and is recommended for future studies in Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.
doi:10.1093/brain/awr318
PMCID: PMC3338921  PMID: 22189568
MRC; manual muscle testing; Rasch; neuromuscular disorders
13.  Process mapping of PTA and stent placement in a university hospital interventional radiology department 
Insights into Imaging  2012;3(4):329-336.
Objective
To apply the process mapping technique in an interdisciplinary approach in order to visualize, better understand, and efficiently organize percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement procedures in a university hospital’s interventional radiology department.
Methods
After providing an overview of seven established mapping techniques for medical professionals, the process mapping technique was chosen and applied in an interdisciplinary approach including referrers (physicians, nurses, and other staff in referring departments, e.g., vascular surgery), providers (interventional radiologists, nurses, technicians, and staff of the angiography suite), and specialists of the hospital’s controlling department.
Results
A generally binding and standardized process map was created, describing the entire procedure for a patient in whom the radiological intervention of PTA or stent treatment is contemplated from admission to the department of vascular surgery until discharge after successful treatment. This visualization tool assists in better understanding (especially given natural staff fluctuation over time) and efficiently organizing PTA and stent procedures.
Conclusion
Process mapping can be applied for streamlining workflow in healthcare, especially in interdisciplinary settings. By defining exactly what a business entity does, who is responsible, to what standard a process should be completed, and how the success can be assessed, this technique can be used to eliminate waste and inefficiencies from the workplace while providing high-quality goods and services easily, quickly, and inexpensively.
Main Messages
• Process mapping can be used in a university hospital’s interventional radiology department.
• Process mapping can describe the patient’s entire process from admission to PTA/stent placement until discharge.
• Process mapping can be used in interdisciplinary teams (e.g., referrers, providers, and controlling specialists).
• Process mapping can be used in order to more efficiently organize PTA and stent placement procedures.
• Process mapping can assist in better understanding and efficiently organizing procedures in standardized fashion.
doi:10.1007/s13244-012-0147-2
PMCID: PMC3481077  PMID: 22695945
Interventional; Health policy and practice; Decision analysis; Quality management; Process control
14.  Infections in British clinical laboratories, 1988-1989. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1991;44(8):667-669.
During 1988-89 this continuing survey showed 18 infections in the staff of laboratories reporting from 166 centres, representing 21,756 person-years of exposure. Shigella and other bowel infections (one caused by S typhi) predominated, affecting 11 microbiology medical laboratory scientific officers. Three shigella infections originated from quality control samples. Pulmonary tuberculosis affected four workers, including two mortuary technicians, but without detected occupational exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Other infections included one caused by Brucella melitensis. Hepatitis was not reported. The sustained low level of hepatitis is encouraging and suggests a low risk to staff of bloodborne infections such as human immunodeficiency virus.
PMCID: PMC496761  PMID: 1890201
15.  What happens to clinical training fellows? A retrospective study of the 20 years outcome of a Medical Research Council UK cohort 
BMJ Open  2012;2(4):e001792.
Objectives
The Clinical Research Training Fellowship (CRTF) allows up to 3 years support for clinically qualified candidates to undertake specialised or further research training in biomedical sciences. CRTFs are perceived as a crucial step in the career development and progression of Clinical Academics but there are no published data to support this notion. We conducted an electronic survey of a large cohort of Medical Research Council (MRC) CRTFs followed for up to 20 years.
Design
Retrospective analysis of CRTF outcome data held with the MRC, UK.
Participants
Two cohorts comprising 40 CRFTs awarded by the MRC in the year 1991 and 299 MRC CRTFs who were awarded a fellowship between 1993 and 2003.
Results
The MRC CRTF scheme built capacity in clinical academia across the UK with 40% of CRTFs progressing to a University professorship. Importantly, the CRTF scheme is also providing NHS consultants who remain research active.
Conclusions
This is the first analysis of outcome of CRTFs in the UK and provides robust evidence of the importance of this capacity building mode of funding to underpin research excellence at the University–NHS interface.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001792
PMCID: PMC3432844  PMID: 22936819
17.  Involvement of consumers in studies run by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit: Results of a survey 
Trials  2012;13:9.
Background
We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV.
Methods
Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009) were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research.
Results
Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86%) were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31%) had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG) [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers.
Conclusions
Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development of a unit policy on consumer involvement, to guide future research conducted within the MRC Clinical Trials Unit and beyond.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-9
PMCID: PMC3398265  PMID: 22243649
Public and patient involvement; consumer involvement; clinical trials; systematic reviews; RCTs
18.  Thomas Graham Brown (1882–1965): Behind the Scenes at the Cardiff Institute of Physiology 
Thomas Graham Brown undertook seminal experiments on the neural control of locomotion between 1910 and 1915. Although elected to the Royal Society in 1927, his locomotion research was largely ignored until the 1960s when it was championed and extended by the distinguished neuroscientist, Anders Lundberg. Puzzlingly, Graham Brown's published research stopped in the 1920s and he became renowned as a mountaineer. In this article, we review his life and multifaceted career, including his active neurological service in WWI. We outline events behind the scenes during his tenure at Cardiff's Institute of Physiology in Wales, UK, including an interview with his technician, Terrence J. Surman, who worked in this institute for over half a century.
doi:10.1080/0964704X.2010.510991
PMCID: PMC3259622
physiology; spinal cord; locomotion; motoneurones; interneurones; neural control; mountaineering; sailing; medical school politics
19.  Why the Medical Research Council refused Robert Edwards and Patrick Steptoe support for research on human conception in 1971 
Human Reproduction (Oxford, England)  2010;25(9):2157-2174.
BACKGROUND
In 1971, Cambridge physiologist Robert Edwards and Oldham gynaecologist Patrick Steptoe applied to the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) for long-term support for a programme of scientific and clinical ‘Studies on Human Reproduction’. The MRC, then the major British funder of medical research, declined support on ethical grounds and maintained this policy throughout the 1970s. The work continued with private money, leading to the birth of Louise Brown in 1978 and transforming research in obstetrics, gynaecology and human embryology.
METHODS
The MRC decision has been criticized, but the processes by which it was reached have yet to be explored. Here, we present an archive-based analysis of the MRC decision.
RESULTS
We find evidence of initial support for Edwards and Steptoe, including from within the MRC, which invited the applicants to join its new directly funded Clinical Research Centre at Northwick Park Hospital. They declined the offer, preferring long-term grant support at the University of Cambridge, and so exposed the project to competitive funding mode. Referees and the Clinical Research Board saw the institutional set-up in Cambridge as problematic with respect to clinical facilities and patient management; gave infertility a low priority compared with population control; assessed interventions as purely experimental rather than potential treatments, and so set the bar for safety high; feared fatal abnormalities and so wanted primate experiments first; and were antagonized by the applicants’ high media profile. The rejection set MRC policy on IVF for 8 years, until, after the birth of just two healthy babies, the Council rapidly converted to enthusiastic support.
CONCLUSIONS
This analysis enriches our view of a crucial decision, highlights institutional opportunities and constraints and provides insight into the then dominant attitudes of reproductive scientists and clinicians towards human conception research.
doi:10.1093/humrep/deq155
PMCID: PMC2922998  PMID: 20657027
Robert Edwards; funding; history; human conception; IVF; Medical Research Council; Patrick Steptoe
20.  Analysis of the Indian Council of Medical Research–India Diabetes (ICMR–INDIAB) Study 
The Indian Council of Medical Research–India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study is the first nationally representative survey of diabetes in India. It aims to provide national and regional counts of diabetes and prediabetes and also of cardiovascular risk factors. This ambitious and complex survey uses robust sampling techniques, standardized methods, appropriate quality assurance, and a three-phase data collection. However, the survey should be completed within a reasonable time span to avoid a differential effect of secular trends on regional estimates. A high response rate and low missing values must also be ensured.
Reliance on capillary whole blood glucose (CBG) for the diagnosis of hyperglycemic states is a limitation of the survey. However, this is a reasonable compromise given the practical challenges of such a large study. Despite a good correlation between CBG and venous plasma glucose (VPG), the use of CBG may misclassify glycemic status. A better characterization of the CBG–VPG relationship, and the performance of CBG for detecting hyperglycemia, using a much larger sample, seems therefore advisable. This should be possible given that venous blood has been collected on a sizeable subset of participants.
The Indian Council of Medical Research and the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation deserve praise for this massive undertaking, which will highlight areas for policy action and establish a national framework for noncommunicable disease (NCD) surveillance. The ICMR–INDIAB survey lays the foundation for effective NCD prevention and control and for applied public health research.
PMCID: PMC3192598  PMID: 21880234
capillary glucose; diabetes; India; prevalence; survey
21.  Report of a Joint Cancer Research UK/Medical Research Council workshop on cancer cachexia research at the Royal College of Physicians, Tuesday, 2 December 2003 
British Journal of Cancer  2005;92(10):1830-1833.
A joint workshop held by Cancer Research UK and the Medical Research Council aimed to stimulate interest in further research into the area of cancer cachexia. The workshop was divided into four sessions: an overview of cancer cachexia, potential mechanisms involved and methodologies that might be used to understand cachexia, and also the experience of cachexia from other disease areas. The workshop identified a need to develop a multimodal therapeutic approach to cancer cachexia and a need to undertake more multidisciplinary research.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602565
PMCID: PMC2361757  PMID: 15841075
cachexia; Cancer Research UK
22.  The Registration of Medical Graduates from Eastern European Union Countries with the General Medical Council (GMC) and the Medical Council, Ireland. 
The Ulster Medical Journal  2013;82(2):71-74.
The purpose of this study was to identify the number of medical graduates registered with the General Medical Council (GMC) between 1990 and 2005, whose initial training was in Eastern Europe and who came from universities which have subsequently developed an “English Parallel” course and are now within the European Union (EU). A similar exercise was undertaken with graduates registered with the Medical Council, Ireland.
Between 1990 and 2005 one thousand six hundred and fourteen (1614) doctors, who had trained in the selected universities from Eastern Europe, registered with the General Medical Council (GMC) in the United Kingdom (Table 1). The Register of Medical Practitioners for Ireland as at 1st July 2005 was also scanned manually to identify graduates from these countries who were registered in Ireland. Sixty four such graduates were identified of whom 6 qualified before 1990 and 5 were in their internship year. The study suggests that since 2000 younger graduates who sought training in Central and Eastern Europe are returning to the UK shortly after graduation to register and start clinical training.
PMCID: PMC3756861  PMID: 24082282
23.  US pharmacopeia council of experts 2005–2010: Work plans, new revision approaches, and other enhancements 
The AAPS Journal  2006;8(4):E661-E664.
The United States Pharmacopeial Convention (the USP Convention), which meets at 5-year intervals, last convened in 2005. At that meeting, the convention membership elected a new Council of Experts for the 2005–2010 cycle. In turn, the Council elected members of Expert Committees charged with updating and revising the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF) and developing other authoritative standards and information. As one of their final activities, Expert Committees from the 2000–2005 cycle and USP staff carefully reviewed their work from the 2000–2005 cycle and reexamined the contents of USP-NF. From this comprehensive inventory emerged an updated and more focused new work plan directed toward acquiring missing monographs, updating monographs (typically because of advances in analytical technologies), and attending to General Chapter work (eg, dividing the General Chapter Chromatography <621> into smaller chapters) during the 2005–2010 cycle. Several elements of the work plan also speak to Resolutions adopted at the March 2005 Convention (available at www.usp.org/aboutUSP/resolutions. html) and prior ones as well. Because the work plan involves new approaches that affect both General Chapters (and thus the performance of tests and procedures) and monograph specifications—as well as the function of Pharmacopeial Forum and the introduction of new products—USP expects the plan to have a broad impact. This article briefly reviews some of these anticipated changes, informs constituents about how they can remain updated about progress and upcoming modifications to official texts, and invites participation in the standards-setting process.
doi:10.1208/aapsj080475
PMCID: PMC2751362  PMID: 17285738
US Pharmacopeia; United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary; USP-NF; Pharmacopeial Forum; monograph
24.  Prognostic features in the third MRC myelomatosis trial. Medical Research Council's Working Party on Leukaemia in Adults. 
British Journal of Cancer  1980;42(6):831-840.
This paper reports the prognostic significance of clinical and laboratory features recorded at presentation in 485 patients entered into the Medical Research Council's 3rd therapeutic trial in myelomatosis between July 1975 and August 1978. The data were complete up to 1 January 1980, with a median follow-up time of 36 months. The 3 major determinants of prognosis were the blood urea concentration (BUC), the haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), and the clinical performance status. Three prognostic groups based on these determinants were specified. The groups contained 22%, 56% and 22% of the patients and gave 2-year survival probabilities of 76%, 50% and 9% respectively. Patients in the good-prognosis group had a BUC less than or equal to 8 mM. [Hb] greater than or equal to 100 g/l, and no or minimal symptoms. Those in the poor-prognosis group had either [Hb] less than or equal to 75 g/l or a BUC greater than 10 mM and restricted clinical activity. Patients who had combinations of the 3 determinant features which excluded them from these 2 groups were classified into an intermediate prognosis group.
PMCID: PMC2010574  PMID: 7459218
25.  Is the cognitive function of older patients affected by antihypertensive treatment? Results from 54 months of the Medical Research Council's trial of hypertension in older adults. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1996;312(7034):801-805.
OBJECTIVE--To establish whether initiation of treatment with diuretic or beta blocker is associated over 54 months with change in cognitive function. DESIGN--A cognitive substudy, nested within a randomised, placebo controlled, single blind trial. SETTING--226 general practices from the Medical Research Council's general practice research framework. SUBJECTS--A subset of 2584 subjects sequentially recruited from among the 4396 participants aged 65-74 in the trial of treatment of hypertension in older adults. The 4396 subjects were randomised to receive diuretic, beta blocker, or placebo. Subjects had mean systolic pressures of 160-209 mm Hg and mean diastolic pressures <115 mm Hg during an eight week run in. OUTCOME MEASURES--The rate of change in paired associate learning test (PALT) and trail making test part A (TMT) scores (administered at entry and at 1, 9, 21, and 54 months) over time. RESULTS--There was no difference in the mean learning test coefficients (rate of change of score over time) between the three treatments: diuretic -0.31 (95% confidence interval -0.23 to -0.39), beta blocker -0.33 (-0.25 to -0.41), placebo -0.30, (-0.24 to -0.36). There was also no difference in the mean trail making coefficients (rate of change in time taken to complete over time) between the three groups: diuretic -2.73 (95% confidence interval -3.57 to -1.88), beta blocker -2.08 (-3.29 to -0.87), placebo -3.01, (-3.69 to -2.32). A less conservative protocol analysis confirmed this negative finding. CONCLUSION--Treating moderate hypertension in older people is unlikely to influence, for better or for worse, subsequent cognitive function.
PMCID: PMC2350726  PMID: 8608285

Results 1-25 (810356)