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1.  Efficient whole-genome association mapping using local phylogenies for unphased genotype data 
Bioinformatics  2008;24(19):2215-2221.
Motivation: Recent advances in genotyping technology has made data acquisition for whole-genome association study cost effective, and a current active area of research is developing efficient methods to analyze such large-scale datasets. Most sophisticated association mapping methods that are currently available take phased haplotype data as input. However, phase information is not readily available from sequencing methods and inferring the phase via computational approaches is time-consuming, taking days to phase a single chromosome.
Results: In this article, we devise an efficient method for scanning unphased whole-genome data for association. Our approach combines a recently found linear-time algorithm for phasing genotypes on trees with a recently proposed tree-based method for association mapping. From unphased genotype data, our algorithm builds local phylogenies along the genome, and scores each tree according to the clustering of cases and controls. We assess the performance of our new method on both simulated and real biological datasets.
Availability The software described in this article is available at http://www.daimi.au.dk/~mailund/Blossoc and distributed under the GNU General Public License.
Contact:mailund@birc.au.dk
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btn406
PMCID: PMC2553438  PMID: 18667442
2.  Linkage disequilibrium mapping via cladistic analysis of phase-unknown genotypes and inferred haplotypes in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 simulated data 
BMC Genetics  2005;6(Suppl 1):S100.
We recently described a method for linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping, using cladistic analysis of phased single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes in a logistic regression framework. However, haplotypes are often not available and cannot be deduced with certainty from the unphased genotypes. One possible two-stage approach is to infer the phase of multilocus genotype data and analyze the resulting haplotypes as if known. Here, haplotypes are inferred using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm and the best-guess phase assignment for each individual analyzed. However, inferring haplotypes from phase-unknown data is prone to error and this should be taken into account in the subsequent analysis. An alternative approach is to analyze the phase-unknown multilocus genotypes themselves. Here we present a generalization of the method for phase-known haplotype data to the case of unphased SNP genotypes. Our approach is designed for high-density SNP data, so we opted to analyze the simulated dataset. The marker spacing in the initial screen was too large for our method to be effective, so we used the answers provided to request further data in regions around the disease loci and in null regions. Power to detect the disease loci, accuracy in localizing the true site of the locus, and false-positive error rates are reported for the inferred-haplotype and unphased genotype methods. For this data, analyzing inferred haplotypes outperforms analysis of genotypes. As expected, our results suggest that when there is little or no LD between a disease locus and the flanking region, there will be no chance of detecting it unless the disease variant itself is genotyped.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-6-S1-S100
PMCID: PMC1866839  PMID: 16451556
3.  HaploRec: efficient and accurate large-scale reconstruction of haplotypes 
BMC Bioinformatics  2006;7:542.
Background
Haplotypes extracted from human DNA can be used for gene mapping and other analysis of genetic patterns within and across populations. A fundamental problem is, however, that current practical laboratory methods do not give haplotype information. Estimation of phased haplotypes of unrelated individuals given their unphased genotypes is known as the haplotype reconstruction or phasing problem.
Results
We define three novel statistical models and give an efficient algorithm for haplotype reconstruction, jointly called HaploRec. HaploRec is based on exploiting local regularities conserved in haplotypes: it reconstructs haplotypes so that they have maximal local coherence. This approach – not assuming statistical dependence for remotely located markers – has two useful properties: it is well-suited for sparse marker maps, such as those used in gene mapping, and it can actually take advantage of long maps.
Conclusion
Our experimental results with simulated and real data show that HaploRec is a powerful method for the large scale haplotyping needed in association studies. With sample sizes large enough for gene mapping it appeared to be the best compared to all other tested methods (Phase, fastPhase, PL-EM, Snphap, Gerbil; simulated data), with small samples it was competitive with the best available methods (real data). HaploRec is several orders of magnitude faster than Phase and comparable to the other methods; the running times are roughly linear in the number of subjects and the number of markers. HaploRec is publicly available at .
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-7-542
PMCID: PMC1766938  PMID: 17187677
4.  Inference of the Haplotype Effect in a Matched Case-Control Study Using Unphased Genotype Data* 
Typically locus specific genotype data do not contain information regarding the gametic phase of haplotypes, especially when an individual is heterozygous at more than one locus among a large number of linked polymorphic loci. Thus, studying disease-haplotype association using unphased genotype data is essentially a problem of handling a missing covariate in a case-control design. There are several methods for estimating a disease-haplotype association parameter in a matched case-control study. Here we propose a conditional likelihood approach for inference regarding the disease-haplotype association using unphased genotype data arising from a matched case-control study design. The proposed method relies on a logistic disease risk model and a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) among the control population only. We develop an expectation and conditional maximization (ECM) algorithm for jointly estimating the haplotype frequency and the disease-haplotype association parameter(s). We apply the proposed method to analyze the data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer prevention study, and a matched case-control study of breast cancer patients conducted in Israel. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated via simulation studies.
doi:10.2202/1557-4679.1079
PMCID: PMC2835450  PMID: 20231916
5.  Inferring haplotypes and parental genotypes in larger full sib-ships and other pedigrees with missing or erroneous genotype data 
BMC Genetics  2012;13:85.
Background
In many contexts, pedigrees for individuals are known even though not all individuals have been fully genotyped. In one extreme case, the genotypes for a set of full siblings are known, with no knowledge of parental genotypes. We propose a method for inferring phased haplotypes and genotypes for all individuals, even those with missing data, in such pedigrees, allowing a multitude of classic and recent methods for linkage and genome analysis to be used more efficiently.
Results
By artificially removing the founder generation genotype data from a well-studied simulated dataset, the quality of reconstructed genotypes in that generation can be verified. For the full structure of repeated matings with 15 offspring per mating, 10 dams per sire, 99.89% of all founder markers were phased correctly, given only the unphased genotypes for offspring. The accuracy was reduced only slightly, to 99.51%, when introducing a 2% error rate in offspring genotypes. When reduced to only 5 full-sib offspring in a single sire-dam mating, the corresponding percentage is 92.62%, which compares favorably with 89.28% from the leading Merlin package. Furthermore, Merlin is unable to handle more than approximately 10 sibs, as the number of states tracked rises exponentially with family size, while our approach has no such limit and handles 150 half-sibs with ease in our experiments.
Conclusions
Our method is able to reconstruct genotypes for parents when genotype data is only available for offspring individuals, as well as haplotypes for all individuals. Compared to the Merlin package, we can handle larger pedigrees and produce superior results, mainly due to the fact that Merlin uses the Viterbi algorithm on the state space to infer the genotype sequence. Tracking of haplotype and allele origin can be used in any application where the marker set does not directly influence genotype variation influencing traits. Inference of genotypes can also reduce the effects of genotyping errors and missing data. The cnF2freq codebase implementing our approach is available under a BSD-style license.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-13-85
PMCID: PMC3562206  PMID: 23046532
Haplotyping; Phasing; Genotype inference; Nuclear family data; Hidden Markov models
6.  Generalized Linear Modeling with Regularization for Detecting Common Disease Rare Haplotype Association 
Genetic epidemiology  2009;33(4):308-316.
Whole genome association studies (WGAS) have surged in popularity in recent years as technological advances have made large-scale genotyping more feasible and as new exciting results offer tremendous hope and optimism. The logic of WGAS rests upon the common disease/common variant (CD/CV) hypothesis. Detection of association under the common disease/rare variant (CD/RV) scenario is much harder, and the current practices of WGAS may be under-power without large enough sample sizes. In this paper, we propose a generalized linear model with regularization (rGLM) approach for detecting disease-haplotype association using unphased single nucleotide polymorphisms data that is applicable to both CD/CV and CD/RV scenarios. We borrow a dimension-reduction method from the data mining and statistical learning literature, but use it for the purpose of weeding out haplotypes that are not associated with the disease so that the associated haplotypes, especially those that are rare, can stand out and be accounted for more precisely. By using high-dimensional data analysis techniques, which are frequently employed in microarray analyses, interacting effects among haplotypes in different blocks can be investigated without much concern about the sample size being overwhelmed by the number of haplotype combinations. Our simulation study demonstrates the gain in power for detecting associations with moderate sample sizes. For detecting association under CD/RV, regression type methods such as that implemented in hapassoc may fail to provide coefficient estimates for rare associated haplotypes, resulting in a loss of power compared to rGLM. Furthermore, our results indicate that rGLM can uncover the associated variants much more frequently than can hapassoc.
doi:10.1002/gepi.20382
PMCID: PMC2752471  PMID: 19025789
whole genome association study; interacting effects between haplotype blocks; dimension reduction; regularization/LASSO; case-control design
7.  Direct maximum parsimony phylogeny reconstruction from genotype data 
BMC Bioinformatics  2007;8:472.
Background
Maximum parsimony phylogenetic tree reconstruction from genetic variation data is a fundamental problem in computational genetics with many practical applications in population genetics, whole genome analysis, and the search for genetic predictors of disease. Efficient methods are available for reconstruction of maximum parsimony trees from haplotype data, but such data are difficult to determine directly for autosomal DNA. Data more commonly is available in the form of genotypes, which consist of conflated combinations of pairs of haplotypes from homologous chromosomes. Currently, there are no general algorithms for the direct reconstruction of maximum parsimony phylogenies from genotype data. Hence phylogenetic applications for autosomal data must therefore rely on other methods for first computationally inferring haplotypes from genotypes.
Results
In this work, we develop the first practical method for computing maximum parsimony phylogenies directly from genotype data. We show that the standard practice of first inferring haplotypes from genotypes and then reconstructing a phylogeny on the haplotypes often substantially overestimates phylogeny size. As an immediate application, our method can be used to determine the minimum number of mutations required to explain a given set of observed genotypes.
Conclusion
Phylogeny reconstruction directly from unphased data is computationally feasible for moderate-sized problem instances and can lead to substantially more accurate tree size inferences than the standard practice of treating phasing and phylogeny construction as two separate analysis stages. The difference between the approaches is particularly important for downstream applications that require a lower-bound on the number of mutations that the genetic region has undergone.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-8-472
PMCID: PMC2222657  PMID: 18053244
8.  Multinomial logistic regression approach to haplotype association analysis in population-based case-control studies 
BMC Genetics  2006;7:43.
Background
The genetic association analysis using haplotypes as basic genetic units is anticipated to be a powerful strategy towards the discovery of genes predisposing human complex diseases. In particular, the increasing availability of high-resolution genetic markers such as the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has made haplotype-based association analysis an attractive alternative to single marker analysis.
Results
We consider haplotype association analysis under the population-based case-control study design. A multinomial logistic model is proposed for haplotype analysis with unphased genotype data, which can be decomposed into a prospective logistic model for disease risk as well as a model for the haplotype-pair distribution in the control population. Environmental factors can be readily incorporated and hence the haplotype-environment interaction can be assessed in the proposed model. The maximum likelihood estimation with unphased genotype data can be conveniently implemented in the proposed model by applying the EM algorithm to a prospective multinomial logistic regression model and ignoring the case-control design. We apply the proposed method to the hypertriglyceridemia study and identifies 3 haplotypes in the apolipoprotein A5 gene that are associated with increased risk for hypertriglyceridemia. A haplotype-age interaction effect is also identified. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimator has satisfactory finite-sample performances.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that the proposed method can serve as a useful alternative to existing methods and a reliable tool for the case-control haplotype-based association analysis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-7-43
PMCID: PMC1559715  PMID: 16907993
9.  Haplotype inference from unphased SNP data in heterozygous polyploids based on SAT 
BMC Genomics  2008;9:356.
Background
Haplotype inference based on unphased SNP markers is an important task in population genetics. Although there are different approaches to the inference of haplotypes in diploid species, the existing software is not suitable for inferring haplotypes from unphased SNP data in polyploid species, such as the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum). Potato species are tetraploid and highly heterozygous.
Results
Here we present the software SATlotyper which is able to handle polyploid and polyallelic data. SATlo-typer uses the Boolean satisfiability problem to formulate Haplotype Inference by Pure Parsimony. The software excludes existing haplotype inferences, thus allowing for calculation of alternative inferences. As it is not known which of the multiple haplotype inferences are best supported by the given unphased data set, we use a bootstrapping procedure that allows for scoring of alternative inferences. Finally, by means of the bootstrapping scores, it is possible to optimise the phased genotypes belonging to a given haplotype inference. The program is evaluated with simulated and experimental SNP data generated for heterozygous tetraploid populations of potato. We show that, instead of taking the first haplotype inference reported by the program, we can significantly improve the quality of the final result by applying additional methods that include scoring of the alternative haplotype inferences and genotype optimisation. For a sub-population of nineteen individuals, the predicted results computed by SATlotyper were directly compared with results obtained by experimental haplotype inference via sequencing of cloned amplicons. Prediction and experiment gave similar results regarding the inferred haplotypes and phased genotypes.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that Haplotype Inference by Pure Parsimony can be solved efficiently by the SAT approach, even for data sets of unphased SNP from heterozygous polyploids. SATlotyper is freeware and is distributed as a Java JAR file. The software can be downloaded from the webpage of the GABI Primary Database at . The application of SATlotyper will provide haplotype information, which can be used in haplotype association mapping studies of polyploid plants.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-356
PMCID: PMC2566320  PMID: 18667059
10.  Empirical vs Bayesian approach for estimating haplotypes from genotypes of unrelated individuals 
BMC Genetics  2007;8:2.
Background
The completion of the HapMap project has stimulated further development of haplotype-based methodologies for disease associations. A key aspect of such development is the statistical inference of individual diplotypes from unphased genotypes. Several methodologies for inferring haplotypes have been developed, but they have not been evaluated extensively to determine which method not only performs well, but also can be easily incorporated in downstream haplotype-based association analyses. In this paper, we attempt to do so. Our evaluation was carried out by comparing the two leading Bayesian methods, implemented in PHASE and HAPLOTYPER, and the two leading empirical methods, implemented in PL-EM and HPlus. We used these methods to analyze real data, namely the dense genotypes on X-chromosome of 30 European and 30 African trios provided by the International HapMap Project, and simulated genotype data. Our conclusions are based on these analyses.
Results
All programs performed very well on X-chromosome data, with an average similarity index of 0.99 and an average prediction rate of 0.99 for both European and African trios. On simulated data with approximation of coalescence, PHASE implementing the Bayesian method based on the coalescence approximation outperformed other programs on small sample sizes. When the sample size increased, other programs performed as well as PHASE. PL-EM and HPlus implementing empirical methods required much less running time than the programs implementing the Bayesian methods. They required only one hundredth or thousandth of the running time required by PHASE, particularly when analyzing large sample sizes and large umber of SNPs.
Conclusion
For large sample sizes (hundreds or more), which most association studies require, the two empirical methods might be used since they infer the haplotypes as accurately as any Bayesian methods and can be incorporated easily into downstream haplotype-based analyses such as haplotype-association analyses.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-8-2
PMCID: PMC1803795  PMID: 17261196
11.  Powerful Haplotype-Based Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Tests for Tightly Linked Loci 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77399.
Recently, there have been many case-control studies proposed to test for association between haplotypes and disease, which require the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) assumption of haplotype frequencies. As such, haplotype inference of unphased genotypes and development of haplotype-based HWE tests are crucial prior to fine mapping. The goodness-of-fit test is a frequently-used method to test for HWE for multiple tightly-linked loci. However, its degrees of freedom dramatically increase with the increase of the number of loci, which may lack the test power. Therefore, in this paper, to improve the test power for haplotype-based HWE, we first write out two likelihood functions of the observed data based on the Niu's model (NM) and inbreeding model (IM), respectively, which can cause the departure from HWE. Then, we use two expectation-maximization algorithms and one expectation-conditional-maximization algorithm to estimate the model parameters under the HWE, IM and NM models, respectively. Finally, we propose the likelihood ratio tests LRT and LRT for haplotype-based HWE under the NM and IM models, respectively. We simulate the HWE, Niu's, inbreeding and population stratification models to assess the validity and compare the performance of these two LRT tests. The simulation results show that both of the tests control the type I error rates well in testing for haplotype-based HWE. If the NM model is true, then LRT is more powerful. While, if the true model is the IM model, then LRT has better performance in power. Under the population stratification model, LRT is still more powerful. To this end, LRT is generally recommended. Application of the proposed methods to a rheumatoid arthritis data set further illustrates their utility for real data analysis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077399
PMCID: PMC3805574  PMID: 24167573
12.  Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies 
BMC Genetics  2009;10:54.
Background
In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure [1] quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies.
Results
A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity.
Conclusion
Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-54
PMCID: PMC2760579  PMID: 19751505
13.  Phylogenetic nomenclature and evolution of mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) haplotypes 
BMC Genetics  2010;11:38.
Background
Polymorphisms of the mannose-binding lectin gene (MBL2) affect the concentration and functional efficiency of the protein. We recently used haplotype-specific sequencing to identify 23 MBL2 haplotypes, associated with enhanced susceptibility to several diseases.
Results
In this work, we applied the same method in 288 and 470 chromosomes from Gabonese and European adults, respectively, and found three new haplotypes in the last group. We propose a phylogenetic nomenclature to standardize MBL2 studies and found two major phylogenetic branches due to six strongly linked polymorphisms associated with high MBL production. They presented high Fst values and were imbedded in regions with high nucleotide diversity and significant Tajima's D values. Compared to others using small sample sizes and unphased genotypic data, we found differences in haplotyping, frequency estimation, Fu and Li's D* and Fst results.
Conclusion
Using extensive testing for selective neutrality, we confirmed that stochastic evolutionary factors have had a major role in shaping this polymorphic gene worldwide.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-11-38
PMCID: PMC2885306  PMID: 20465856
14.  An Effective Filter for IBD Detection in Large Data Sets 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e92713.
Identity by descent (IBD) inference is the task of computationally detecting genomic segments that are shared between individuals by means of common familial descent. Accurate IBD detection plays an important role in various genomic studies, ranging from mapping disease genes to exploring ancient population histories. The majority of recent work in the field has focused on improving the accuracy of inference, targeting shorter genomic segments that originate from a more ancient common ancestor. The accuracy of these methods, however, is achieved at the expense of high computational cost, resulting in a prohibitively long running time when applied to large cohorts. To enable the study of large cohorts, we introduce SpeeDB, a method that facilitates fast IBD detection in large unphased genotype data sets. Given a target individual and a database of individuals that potentially share IBD segments with the target, SpeeDB applies an efficient opposite-homozygous filter, which excludes chromosomal segments from the database that are highly unlikely to be IBD with the corresponding segments from the target individual. The remaining segments can then be evaluated by any IBD detection method of choice. When examining simulated individuals sharing 4 cM IBD regions, SpeeDB filtered out 99.5% of genomic regions from consideration while retaining 99% of the true IBD segments. Applying the SpeeDB filter prior to detecting IBD in simulated fourth cousins resulted in an overall running time that was 10,000x faster than inferring IBD without the filter and retained 99% of the true IBD segments in the output.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092713
PMCID: PMC3965454  PMID: 24667521
15.  TREEQA: QUANTITATIVE GENOME WIDE ASSOCIATION MAPPING USING LOCAL PERFECT PHYLOGENY TREES 
The goal of genome wide association (GWA) mapping in modern genetics is to identify genes or narrow regions in the genome that contribute to genetically complex phenotypes such as morphology or disease. Among the existing methods, tree-based association mapping methods show obvious advantages over single marker-based and haplotype-based methods because they incorporate information about the evolutionary history of the genome into the analysis. However, existing tree-based methods are designed primarily for binary phenotypes derived from case/control studies or fail to scale genome-wide.
In this paper, we introduce TreeQA, a quantitative GWA mapping algorithm. TreeQA utilizes local perfect phylogenies constructed in genomic regions exhibiting no evidence of historical recombination. By efficient algorithm design and implementation, TreeQA can efficiently conduct quantitative genom-wide association analysis and is more effective than the previous methods. We conducted extensive experiments on both simulated datasets and mouse inbred lines to demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of TreeQA.
PMCID: PMC2739990  PMID: 19209719
16.  WinHAP: An Efficient Haplotype Phasing Algorithm Based on Scalable Sliding Windows 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e43163.
Haplotype phasing represents an essential step in studying the association of genomic polymorphisms with complex genetic diseases, and in determining targets for drug designing. In recent years, huge amounts of genotype data are produced from the rapidly evolving high-throughput sequencing technologies, and the data volume challenges the community with more efficient haplotype phasing algorithms, in the senses of both running time and overall accuracy. 2SNP is one of the fastest haplotype phasing algorithms with comparable low error rates with the other algorithms. The most time-consuming step of 2SNP is the construction of a maximum spanning tree (MST) among all the heterozygous SNP pairs. We simplified this step by replacing the MST with the initial haplotypes of adjacent heterozygous SNP pairs. The multi-SNP haplotypes were estimated within a sliding window along the chromosomes. The comparative studies on four different-scale genotype datasets suggest that our algorithm WinHAP outperforms 2SNP and most of the other haplotype phasing algorithms in terms of both running speeds and overall accuracies. To facilitate the WinHAP’s application in more practical biological datasets, we released the software for free at: http://staff.ustc.edu.cn/~xuyun/winhap/index.htm.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043163
PMCID: PMC3419172  PMID: 22905221
17.  A Variable-Sized Sliding-Window Approach for Genetic Association Studies via Principal Component Analysis 
Annals of human genetics  2009;73(Pt 6):631-637.
Recently with the rapid improvements in high-throughout genotyping techniques, researchers are facing the very challenging task of analyzing large-scale genetic associations, especially at the whole-genome level, without an optimal solution. In this study, we propose a new approach for genetic association analysis that is based on a variable-sized sliding-window framework and employs principal component analysis to find the optimum window size. With the help of the bisection algorithm in window-size searching, our method is more computationally efficient than available approaches. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method by comparing it with two other methods—a single-marker method and a variable-length Markov chain method. We demonstrate that, in most cases, the proposed method outperforms the other two methods. Furthermore, since the proposed method is based on genotype data, it does not require any computationally intensive phasing program to account for uncertain haplotype phase.
doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00543.x
PMCID: PMC2784738  PMID: 19735491
18.  Backward Genotype-Trait Association (BGTA)-Based Dissection of Complex Traits in Case-Control Designs 
Human heredity  2006;62(4):196-212.
Background
The studies of complex traits project new challenges to current methods that evaluate association between genotypes and a specific trait. Consideration of possible interactions among loci leads to overwhelming dimensions that cannot be handled using current statistical methods.
Methods
In this article, we evaluate a multi-marker screening algorithm – the backward genotype-trait association (BGTA) algorithm for case-control designs, which uses unphased multi-locus genotypes. BGTA carries out a global investigation on a candidate marker set and automatically screens out markers carrying diminutive amounts of information regarding the trait in question. To address the ‘too many possible genotypes, too few informative chromosomes’ dilemma of a genomic-scale study that consists of hundreds to thousands of markers, we further investigate a BGTA-based marker selection procedure, in which the screening algorithm is repeated on a large number of random marker subsets. Results of these screenings are then aggregated into counts that the markers are retained by the BGTA algorithm. Markers with exceptional high counts of returns are selected for further analysis.
Results and Conclusion
Evaluated using simulations under several disease models, the proposed methods prove to be more powerful in dealing with epistatic traits. We also demonstrate the proposed methods through an application to a study on the inflammatory bowel disease.
doi:10.1159/000096995
PMCID: PMC2757084  PMID: 17114886
Multi-locus; Genotype; Association mapping; Case-control design; Complex traits; Epistasis
19.  A haplotype inference algorithm for trios based on deterministic sampling 
BMC Genetics  2010;11:78.
Background
In genome-wide association studies, thousands of individuals are genotyped in hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Statistical power can be increased when haplotypes, rather than three-valued genotypes, are used in analysis, so the problem of haplotype phase inference (phasing) is particularly relevant. Several phasing algorithms have been developed for data from unrelated individuals, based on different models, some of which have been extended to father-mother-child "trio" data.
Results
We introduce a technique for phasing trio datasets using a tree-based deterministic sampling scheme. We have compared our method with publicly available algorithms PHASE v2.1, BEAGLE v3.0.2 and 2SNP v1.7 on datasets of varying number of markers and trios. We have found that the computational complexity of PHASE makes it prohibitive for routine use; on the other hand 2SNP, though the fastest method for small datasets, was significantly inaccurate. We have shown that our method outperforms BEAGLE in terms of speed and accuracy for small to intermediate dataset sizes in terms of number of trios for all marker sizes examined. Our method is implemented in the "Tree-Based Deterministic Sampling" (TDS) package, available for download at http://www.ee.columbia.edu/~anastas/tds
Conclusions
Using a Tree-Based Deterministic sampling technique, we present an intuitive and conceptually simple phasing algorithm for trio data. The trade off between speed and accuracy achieved by our algorithm makes it a strong candidate for routine use on trio datasets.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-11-78
PMCID: PMC2939632  PMID: 20727218
20.  Accelerating Haplotype-Based Genome-Wide Association Study Using Perfect Phylogeny and Phase-Known Reference Data 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(7):e22097.
The genome-wide association study (GWAS) has become a routine approach for mapping disease risk loci with the advent of large-scale genotyping technologies. Multi-allelic haplotype markers can provide superior power compared with single-SNP markers in mapping disease loci. However, the application of haplotype-based analysis to GWAS is usually bottlenecked by prohibitive time cost for haplotype inference, also known as phasing. In this study, we developed an efficient approach to haplotype-based analysis in GWAS. By using a reference panel, our method accelerated the phasing process and reduced the potential bias generated by unrealistic assumptions in phasing process. The haplotype-based approach delivers great power and no type I error inflation for association studies. With only a medium-size reference panel, phasing error in our method is comparable to the genotyping error afforded by commercial genotyping solutions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022097
PMCID: PMC3137625  PMID: 21789217
21.  Improved IBD detection using incomplete haplotype information 
BMC Genetics  2010;11:58.
Background
The availability of high density genetic maps and genotyping platforms has transformed human genetic studies. The use of these platforms has enabled population-based genome-wide association studies. However, in inheritance-based studies, current methods do not take full advantage of the information present in such genotyping analyses.
Results
In this paper we describe an improved method for identifying genetic regions shared identical-by-descent (IBD) from recent common ancestors. This method improves existing methods by taking advantage of phase information even if it is less than fully accurate or missing. We present an analysis of how using phase information increases the accuracy of IBD detection compared to using only genotype information.
Conclusions
Our algorithm should have utility in a wide range of genetic studies that rely on identification of shared genetic material in large families or small populations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-11-58
PMCID: PMC2914765  PMID: 20591167
22.  Comparison of the power of haplotype-based versus single- and multilocus association methods for gene × environment (gene × sex) interactions and application to gene × smoking and gene × sex interactions in rheumatoid arthritis 
BMC Proceedings  2007;1(Suppl 1):S73.
Accounting for interactions with environmental factors in association studies may improve the power to detect genetic effects and may help identifying important environmental effect modifiers. The power of unphased genotype-versus haplotype-based methods in regions with high linkage disequilibrium (LD), as measured by D', for analyzing gene × environment (gene × sex) interactions was compared using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 (GAW15) simulated data on rheumatoid arthritis with prior knowledge of the answers. Stepwise and regular conditional logistic regression (CLR) was performed using a matched case-control sample for a HLA region interacting with sex. Haplotype-based analyses were performed using a haplotype-sharing-based Mantel statistic and a test for haplotype-trait association in a general linear model framework. A step-down minP algorithm was applied to derive adjusted p-values and to allow for power comparisons. These methods were also applied to the GAW15 real data set for PTPN22.
For markers in strong LD, stepwise CLR performed poorly because of the correlation/collinearity between the predictors in the model. The power was high for detecting genetic main effects using simple CLR models and haplotype-based methods and for detecting joint effects using CLR and Mantel statistics. Only the haplotype-trait association test had high power to detect the gene × sex interaction.
In the PTPN22 region with markers characterized by strong LD, all methods indicated a significant genotype × sex interaction in a sample of about 1000 subjects. The previously reported R620W single-nucleotide polymorphism was identified using logistic regression, but the haplotype-based methods did not provide any precise location information.
PMCID: PMC2367597  PMID: 18466575
23.  Empirical evaluations of analytical issues arising from predicting HLA alleles using multiple SNPs 
BMC Genetics  2011;12:39.
Background
Numerous immune-mediated diseases have been associated with the class I and II HLA genes located within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) consisting of highly polymorphic alleles encoded by the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1 loci. Genotyping for HLA alleles is complex and relatively expensive. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of predicting HLA alleles, using MHC SNPs inside and outside of HLA that are typically included in SNP arrays and are commonly available in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We have recently described a novel method that is complementary to the previous methods, for accurately predicting HLA alleles using unphased flanking SNPs genotypes. In this manuscript, we address several practical issues relevant to the application of this methodology.
Results
Applying this new methodology to three large independent study cohorts, we have evaluated the performance of the predictive models in ethnically diverse populations. Specifically, we have found that utilizing imputed in addition to genotyped SNPs generally yields comparable if not better performance in prediction accuracies. Our evaluation also supports the idea that predictive models trained on one population are transferable to other populations of the same ethnicity. Further, when the training set includes multi-ethnic populations, the resulting models are reliable and perform well for the same subpopulations across all HLA genes. In contrast, the predictive models built from single ethnic populations have superior performance within the same ethnic population, but are not likely to perform well in other ethnic populations.
Conclusions
The empirical explorations reported here provide further evidence in support of the application of this approach for predicting HLA alleles with GWAS-derived SNP data. Utilizing all available samples, we have built "state of the art" predictive models for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1. The HLA allele predictive models, along with the program used to carry out the prediction, are available on our website.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-12-39
PMCID: PMC3111398  PMID: 21518453
24.  Fosmid-based whole genome haplotyping of a HapMap trio child: evaluation of Single Individual Haplotyping techniques 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;40(5):2041-2053.
Determining the underlying haplotypes of individual human genomes is an essential, but currently difficult, step toward a complete understanding of genome function. Fosmid pool-based next-generation sequencing allows genome-wide generation of 40-kb haploid DNA segments, which can be phased into contiguous molecular haplotypes computationally by Single Individual Haplotyping (SIH). Many SIH algorithms have been proposed, but the accuracy of such methods has been difficult to assess due to the lack of real benchmark data. To address this problem, we generated whole genome fosmid sequence data from a HapMap trio child, NA12878, for which reliable haplotypes have already been produced. We assembled haplotypes using eight algorithms for SIH and carried out direct comparisons of their accuracy, completeness and efficiency. Our comparisons indicate that fosmid-based haplotyping can deliver highly accurate results even at low coverage and that our SIH algorithm, ReFHap, is able to efficiently produce high-quality haplotypes. We expanded the haplotypes for NA12878 by combining the current haplotypes with our fosmid-based haplotypes, producing near-to-complete new gold-standard haplotypes containing almost 98% of heterozygous SNPs. This improvement includes notable fractions of disease-related and GWA SNPs. Integrated with other molecular biological data sets, this phase information will advance the emerging field of diploid genomics.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkr1042
PMCID: PMC3299995  PMID: 22102577
25.  Comparison of the accuracy of methods of computational haplotype inference using a large empirical dataset 
BMC Genetics  2004;5:22.
Background
Analyses of genetic data at the level of haplotypes provide increased accuracy and power to infer genotype-phenotype correlations and evolutionary history of a locus. However, empirical determination of haplotypes is expensive and laborious. Therefore, several methods of inferring haplotypes from unphased genotypic data have been proposed, but it is unclear how accurate each of the methods is or which methods are superior. The accuracy of some of the leading methods of computational haplotype inference (PL-EM, Phase, SNPHAP, Haplotyper) are compared using a large set of 308 empirically determined haplotypes based on 15 SNPs, among which 36 haplotypes were observed to occur. This study presents several advantages over many previous comparisons of haplotype inference methods: a large number of subjects are included, the number of known haplotypes is much smaller than the number of chromosomes surveyed, a range in values of linkage disequilibrium, presence of rare SNP alleles, and considerable dispersion in the frequencies of haplotypes.
Results
In contrast to some previous comparisons of haplotype inference methods, there was very little difference in the accuracy of the various methods in terms of either assignment of haplotypes to individuals or estimation of haplotype frequencies. Although none of the methods inferred all of the known haplotypes, the assignment of haplotypes to subjects was about 90% correct for individuals heterozygous for up to three SNPs and was about 80% correct for up to five heterozygous sites. All of the methods identified every haplotype with a frequency above 1%, and none assigned a frequency above 1% to an incorrect haplotype.
Conclusions
All of the methods of haplotype inference have high accuracy and one can have confidence in inferences made by any one of the methods. The ability to identify even rare (≥ 1%) haplotypes is reassuring for efforts to identify haplotypes that contribute to disease in a significant proportion of a population. Assignment of haplotypes is relatively accurate among subjects heterozygous for up to 5 sites, and this might be the largest number of SNPs for which one should define haplotype blocks or have confidence in haplotype assignments.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-5-22
PMCID: PMC512280  PMID: 15291970

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