Objective To study secular trends in self reported sexual behaviour among 70 year olds.
Design Cross sectional survey.
Settings Four samples representative of the general population in Gothenburg, Sweden.
Participants 1506 adults (946 women, 560 men) examined in 1971-2, 1976-7, 1992-3, and 2000-1.
Main outcome measures Sexual intercourse, attitudes to sexuality in later life, sexual dysfunctions, and marital satisfaction.
Results From 1971 to 2000 the proportion of 70 year olds reporting sexual intercourse increased among all groups: married men from 52% to 68% (P=0.002), married women from 38% to 56% (P=0.001), unmarried men from 30% to 54% (P=0.016), and unmarried women from 0.8% to 12% (P<0.001). Men and women from later birth cohorts reported higher satisfaction with sexuality, fewer sexual dysfunctions, and more positive attitudes to sexuality in later life than those from earlier birth cohorts. A larger proportion of men (57% v 40%, P<0.001) and women (52% v 35%, P<0.001) reported very happy relationships in 2000-1 compared with those in 1971-2. Sexual debut before age 20 increased in both sexes: in men from 52% to 77% (P<0.001) and in women from 19% to 64% (P<0.001).
Conclusion Self reported quantity and quality of sexual experiences among Swedish 70 year olds has improved over a 30 year period.
Despite the literature's focus on (hetero)sexual initiation, we know little about the degree to which young people are satisfied by their first vaginal intercourse experience, let alone the factors that predict satisfaction. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 1986 non-Hispanic White and Black 18-25 year old respondents from four university campuses. Respondents were asked to rate the degree to which their first vaginal intercourse was physiologically and psychologically satisfying. Both Black and White women were significantly less likely than Black and White men to experience considerable or extreme satisfaction at first vaginal intercourse, particularly physiological satisfaction. Among all four gender-race groups, being in a committed relationship with one's sexual partner greatly increased psychological satisfaction, particularly among women. Experiencing less guilt at first sexual intercourse was also strongly associated with psychological satisfaction for women. Developing sexual relationships with partners they care for and trust will foster satisfaction among young people at first vaginal intercourse. Our findings highlight strong gender asymmetry in affective sexual experience.
sexual debut; sexual initiation; first heterosexual intercourse; sexual satisfaction (physical, psychological); gender differences
To assess changes in sexual behaviour among students at a high school in Denmark from 1982 to 2001.
An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to compare data from three identical cross-sectional surveys performed in 1982, 1996, and 2001.
Girls: More girls reported their first sexual intercourse before their 16th birthday in 2001 (42%) than in 1996 (29%) In 1982 it was also 42% (Chi-square for trend: p = 0.003). Fewer girls with no regular partner used condoms for their personal protection in 2001 (2%) than in 1996 (9%) and 1982 (0%) (Chi-square for trend p = 0.016). The proportion of girls with no regular partner who considered protection from sexually transmitted disease important for their choice of contraception was 39% in 2001 compared with 71% in 1996 and only 10% in 1982 (Chi-square for trend: p < 0.0001).
Boys: More boys reported sexual debut before their 16th birthday in 2001 (40%) than in 1996 (37%) and 1982 (24%) (Chi-square for trend: p = 0.023). For boys with no regular partner, condom was preferred for personal protection by 85% in 2001, 91% in 1996 and 61% in 1982 (Chi-square for trend p = 0.007). Protection against sexually transmitted infection declined, especially among boys with no regular partner, from 51% in 2001 to 72% in 1996 and 21% in 1982 Chi-square for trend: p < 0.0001).
The tendency towards earlier sexual debut and less use of safe sex practices to protect against sexually transmitted infections (STI) was accompanied by a rise in the number of detected STIs during this period.
The period from 1982 to 1996 during which sexual attitudes were directed toward safer sex seems to have given way to a reverse trend in the period from 1996 to 2001. These findings may have significant implications for health care authorities organising preventive strategies for healthy adolescents.
Objectives: To describe recent trends in age at first sex in African countries, identifying and making due allowances for a variety of common reporting errors.
Methods: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data from six African countries conducting three or more surveys since 1985 were analysed using survival analysis techniques, combining information on virginity status and retrospective reporting of age at first sex. Hazard analysis was used to separate the effects of reporting error and compositional change and to estimate true changes in sexual debut over time. A multistate life table analysis incorporating transition to first marriage allowed cohorts to be classified according to person years spent as virgins, as sexually active unmarried, and married.
Results: Intersurvey comparisons generally suggested a slow secular rise in age at first sex. However, tracing birth cohorts between surveys revealed inconsistencies—median ages reported by female members of a birth cohort in their teens were generally higher than those reported when they reached their twenties, even when allowing for residence and education changes—probably a result of young, sexually active women denying they had ever had sex. Male birth cohorts tend to display the opposite kind of bias.
Conclusions: Uganda, Kenya, and Ghana have experienced a more pronounced and unambiguous decline in premarital sexual activity than Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, with statistically significant increases in age at first sex. In addition, Uganda has maintained a very short interval between onset of sexual activity and marriage for both sexes.
This study assesses the role of religion in influencing sexual frequency and satisfaction among older married adults and sexual activity among older unmarried adults. We propose and test several hypotheses about the relationship between religion and sex among these two groups of older Americans, using nationally representative data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). Results suggest that among married older adults, religion is largely unrelated with sexual frequency and satisfaction, although religious integration in daily life shares a weak but positive association with pleasure from sex. For unmarried adults, such religious integration exhibits a negative association with having had sex in the last year among women but not men.
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence against women is common. The prevalence appears to be higher in north America than Europe. However, not all surveys have differentiated the experience of forced sex by a current or former partner. Few women are thought to report these experiences to their general practitioner (GP). AIM: To measure the prevalence of rape, sexual assault, and forced sexual intercourse by a partner among women attending general practices, to test the association between these experiences of sexual violence and demographic factors, and to assess the acceptability to women of screening for sexual violence by GPs. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross-sectional survey. METHOD: A self-administered questionnaire survey of 1207 women aged over 15 years was carried out in 13 general practices in Hackney, east London. RESULTS: Eight per cent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.2 to 9.6) of women have experienced rape, 9% (95% CI = 7.0 to 10.6) another type of sexual assault, and 16% (95% CI = 13.6 to 18.1) forced sex by a partner in adulthood: 24% (95% CI = 21.2 to 26.5) have experienced one or more of these types of sexual violence. Experiences of sexual violence demonstrated high levels of lifetime co-occurrence. Women forced to have sex by partners experienced the most severe forms of domestic violence. One in five women would object to routine questioning about being raped and/or sexually assaulted, and one in nine about being forced to have sex by a partner. CONCLUSION: Experiences of sexual violence are common in the lives of adult women in east London, and they represent a significant public health problem. Those women who have one experience appear to be at risk of being victims again. A substantial minority object to routine questions about sexual violence.
Objective: To identify sociodemographic, sexual, and health behavioural and attitudinal factors associated with reporting sexual function problems.
Methods: A probability sample survey of 11 161 men and women aged 16–44 years resident in Britain in 2000. Data collected by a combination of computer assisted face to face and self interviewing. Outcomes were self report of a range of sexual function problems, considered as "any problems" (1+ lasting 1+ months in the past year) and "persistent problems" (1+ lasting 6+ months in the past year), and associations with sociodemographic, behavioural, and attitudinal variables.
Results: Both "any" and "persistent" sexual function problems were more commonly reported by women than men. A variety of sociodemographic factors were associated with both measures but differed by gender. For example, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for reporting any problems for married v single respondents was 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 0.87) v 1.31 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.56) for men and women, respectively. Sexual behaviours significantly associated with reporting sexual function problems included competence at first sex, paying for sex in the past 5 years, number of occasions of sex and masturbation, both in the past 4 weeks. For men (only), reporting STI diagnosis(es) was significantly associated with reporting "any" problems (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.2) and "persistent" problems (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.9). Both measures were significantly more likely among men and women who reported communication difficulties with their partners, with AORs in excess of 1.9.
Conclusions: Sexual fulfilment is an important part of sexual health. Understanding factors associated with reporting sexual problems, and recognising that such factors maybe partnership specific, is an important step towards improving our understanding of sexual function and thus improving the provision of care and support available.
Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women.
Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15–24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships.
Data Gaps and Recommendations
Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life.
The risk of the HIV epidemic spreading from high-risk groups to the general population in Vietnam depends on sexual risk and bridging behaviors between high- and low-risk individuals. A cross-sectional study was used to describe sexual activities of youth aged 18–29 years. Nearly half (41.4%) were sexually active. Premarital sex was reported by 43.3% of them; 78.3% of sexually active males and 13.5% of sexually active females. Multiple sex partners were reported by 31.0%; 56.7% of males and 9.2% of females. Almost 27% of males and 5% of females engaged in sexual bridging behaviors. Being unmarried was significantly associated with having sex with non-regular partners. Being unmarried and early age at first intercourse were associated with having sex with a sex worker. Consistent condom use was high with commercial sex workers but low with regular partners. Education to delay early sexual debut, increased employment, and strategies to inform young sexually active people to adopt safer behaviors are urgently needed.
Sexual risk; Bridging behaviors; Young people; Hai Phong; Vietnam
Women with disabilities (WWD) face significant barriers accessing healthcare, which may affect rates of routine preventive services. We examined the relationship between disability status and routine breast and cervical cancer screening among middle-aged and older unmarried women and the differences in reported quality of the screening experience.
Data were from a 2003–2005 cross-sectional survey of 630 unmarried women in Rhode Island, 40–75 years of age, stratified by marital status (previously vs. never married) and partner gender (women who partner with men exclusively [WPM] vs. women who partner with women exclusively or with both women and men [WPW]).
WWD were more likely than those without a disability to be older, have a high school education or less, have household incomes <$30,000, be unemployed, and identify as nonwhite. In addition, WWD were less likely to report having the mammogram or Pap test procedure explained and more likely to report that the procedures were difficult to perform. After adjustment for important demographic characteristics, we found no differences in cancer screening behaviors by disability status. However, the quality of the cancer screening experience was consistently and significantly associated with likelihood of routine cancer screening.
Higher quality of cancer screening experience was significantly associated with likelihood of having routine breast and cervical cancer screening. Further studies should explore factors that affect quality of the screening experience, including facility characteristics and interactions with medical staff.
To assess the relationship between men's reported violence against wives and their sexual risk behaviours and sexual health.
Design, setting and participants
Cross‐sectional analyses of a survey of a nationally representative household‐based sample of married men in Bangladesh (n = 3096).
Main outcome measure(s)
Physical and sexual violence against wives during the previous 12 months was assessed and examined for relations to men's extramarital sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms or diagnosis during this same period, as well as to men's disclosure of such infection to wives and condom use while infected.
More than 1 in 3 (36.84%) married Bangladeshi men reported physically and/or sexually abusing their wives in the past year. Men perpetrating such violence were more likely to report both premarital and extramarital sex partners (ORadjs 1.80–3.45; 95% CI 1.20 to 8.23); those reporting physical violence were more likely to report STI symptoms or diagnosis in the past year (ORadjs 1.68–2.52; 95% CI 1.24 to 3.73). Men perpetrating physical violence and contracting an STI were somewhat more likely to fail to disclose infection status to wives (ORadj 1.58; 95% CI 0.93 to 2.70) than infected men not reporting such abuse.
Violence against wives is common among Bangladeshi men. Men who perpetrate such abuse represent increased risk regarding their wives' sexual health because they are more likely to both participate in extramarital sexual behaviour and contract an STI compared with non‐abusive husbands. Given the growing epidemic of HIV infection among monogamous South Asian women based on intercourse with infected non‐monogamous husbands, research and intervention regarding men's violence in marriage and implications of such behaviour for women's sexual health should be prioritised.
Objective: To investigate current levels of sexual activity, enjoyment, condom use, and other factors affecting sexual behaviour in a sample of women living with HIV.
Method: Participants were self selected. A cross sectional design using semi-structured questionnaires was employed. 82 HIV positive women completed questionnaires asking about demographics, relationships, sexual behaviour, and safer sex practices. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) were administered.
Results: 28% of women had had no sexual partners since diagnosis. Mean time diagnosed was 69 months, range 4–191 months. Time since diagnosis was not associated with having had a sexual partner. 59% of women had a current sexual partner, half reporting intercourse in the past month. Infrequent sex (84%), avoidance (84%), non-communication (69%), and dysfunction (60%) were among the most prevalent sexual difficulties. Endorsement of HIV impaired sexual enjoyment was associated with reduced sexual frequency (p = 0.006) and sexual dysfunction (p = 0.042). Sexual dissatisfaction was associated with infrequency of sex (p = 0.037), avoidance (p = 0.02), and non-communication (p = 0.032). Clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression were reported in 60% and 38% of cases, respectively. Depression was associated with avoidance of sex and higher total GRISS scores (p = 0.006 and p = 0.042). 60% of respondents stated that they "always" used condoms; a trend was observed between reduced condom use and higher levels of depression and anxiety (p = 0.09 and p = 0.06, respectively).
Conclusion: Sexual difficulties, including abstinence, were prevalent in this sample indicating the potential for interventions addressing the psychosexual needs of HIV positive women and their partners.
Objectives: To provide data about the sexual histories of a large sample of lesbians and bisexual women, to inform those who provide health care or carry out research with women who may be sexually active with other women.
Design: Cross sectional survey.
Setting/subjects: 803 lesbians and bisexual women attending, as new patients, lesbian sexual health clinics, and 415 lesbians and bisexual women from a community sample.
Main outcome measures: Self reported sexual history and sexual practice with both male and female partners.
Results: 98% of the whole sample gave a history of sexual activity with women, 83% within the past year, with a median of one female partner in that year. 85% of the sample reported sexual activity with men; for most (70%) this was 4 or more years ago. First sexual experience tended to be with a man (median 18 years old), with first sexual experience with a woman a few years later (median 21 years). Oral sex, vaginal penetration with fingers, and mutual masturbation were the most commonly reported sexual practices between women. Vaginal penetration with penis or fingers and mutual masturbation were the most commonly reported sexual activities with men.
Conclusions: These data from the largest UK survey of sexual behaviour between women to date demonstrate that lesbians and bisexual women may have varied sexual histories with both male and female partners. A non-judgmental manner and careful sexual history taking without making assumptions should help clinicians to avoid misunderstandings, and to offer appropriate sexual health advice to lesbians and bisexual women.
Sexual activity is an important part of the human being's life but this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and menopause. But information about that is limited.
The aim of this study is to determine the status of sexual activity among married menopausal women in Amol, Iran.
Materials and Methods:
This descriptive analytical study was conducted to describe the sexual activity and sexual dysfunction of women after menopause. Data were collected from health centers in Amol from 280 married women using a questionnaire (self-completed or by interview).
Mean age of subjects were 55.9 ± 6.02 years. 23.4% of subjects reported that their sexual intercourse had been low. 70% of subjects reported a decrease in their sexual activities after menopause. Sexual dysfunctions includes sexual desire disorder 80% arousal dysfunction 80%, orgasmic dysfunction 25%, dyspareunia 55.6%, and lack of sexual satisfaction 43.2%.
Findings revealed high percentage of sexual desire disorder and sexual arousal disorder in menopausal women. Therefore, we should have emphasis on counseling and education about sexual activities during the menopause period.
Menopause; sexual function; women
Objectives: To estimate changes in sexual behaviour over time. To examine the proportion of undiagnosed HIV infection in a community sample of homosexual men. To explore the relation between HIV status, diagnosis, and sexual behaviour.
Methods: Five cross sectional surveys of men attending selected gay community venues in London between 1996 and 2000 (n = 8052). Men were recruited in 45 to 58 social venues (including bars, clubs, and saunas) across London. Participants self completed an anonymous behavioural questionnaire. In 2000, participants in community venues provided anonymous saliva samples for testing for anti-HIV antibody.
Results: The proportion of men having unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) increased significantly each year from 30% in 1996 to 42% in 2000 (p<<0.001). In 2000, 132 of 1206 (10.9%) saliva samples were HIV antibody positive. Of the HIV saliva antibody positive samples, 43/132 (32.5%) were undiagnosed. Around half of both diagnosed and undiagnosed HIV saliva positive men reported UAI in the past year. Of the 83% of men who reported their current perceived HIV status, 4.1% reported an incorrect status. HIV antibody positivity was associated with increasing numbers of UAI partners, and having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past year (OR 2.15).
Conclusions: Homosexual men continue to report increasing levels of UAI. HIV prevalence is high in this group, with many infections remaining undiagnosed. The high level of risky behaviour in HIV positive men, regardless of whether they are diagnosed, is of public health concern, in an era when HIV prevalence, antiretroviral resistance, and STI incidence are increasing.
The most efficient sexual behavior for HIV transmission is unprotected receptive anal intercourse. However, it is unclear what role heterosexual unprotected anal sex is playing in the world's worst HIV epidemics of southern Africa. The objective is to examine the prevalence of heterosexual unprotected anal intercourse among men and women who drink at informal alcohol serving establishments (shebeens) in South Africa.
Cross-sectional surveys were collected from a convenience sample of 5037 patrons of 10 shebeens in a peri-urban township of Cape Town, South Africa. Analyses concentrated on establishing the rates of unprotected anal intercourse practiced by men and women as well as the factors associated with practicing anal intercourse.
We found that 15% of men and 11% of women reported anal intercourse in the previous month, with 8% of men and 7% of women practicing any unprotected anal intercourse. Multiple logistic regression showed that younger age, having primary and casual sex partners, and meeting sex partners at shebeens were independently associated with engaging in anal intercourse. Mathematical modeling showed that individual risks are significantly impacted by anal intercourse but probably not to the degree needed to drive a generalized HIV epidemic.
Anal intercourse likely plays a significant role in HIV infections among a small minority of South Africans who patronize alcohol serving establishments. Heterosexual anal intercourse, the most risky sexual behavior for HIV transmission, should not be ignored in HIV prevention for South African heterosexuals. However, this relatively infrequent behavior should not become the focus of prevention efforts.
To establish the prevalence of intoxication before sex and its association with risky sexual behavior.
The data were from the 2006 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey which had been designed for a cross-sectional descriptive study.
The study covered the whole country-Uganda.
The respondents were 6,253 women and 1,804 men who had ever had sex.
The key independent variable was intoxication before last sexual intercourse while the major outcome variables were condom use and sex with non-regular partners. Weighted prevalence of intoxication was computed and multivariable logistic regression was applied to assess the independent association of intoxication with risky sexual behavior.
Twelve percent of men and 16% of women reported having been intoxicated before last sexual intercourse. Of the women who reported intoxication before last sexual intercourse, 78% said it was their partners who were intoxicated. Of the men who reported intoxication, 83% said it was they themselves who were intoxicated. Intoxication of the men was associated with having sex with non-regular partners (OR=1.78, 95%CI: 1.04-3.03) and having unprotected sex (OR=1.71, 95%CI: 1.07-2.73). Women who were intoxicated were less likely to have been with non-regular partners (OR=0.55, 95%CI: 0.32-0.95). The women whose partners were intoxicated before last sexual intercourse were more likely to report having had unprotected sex (OR=1.55, 95%CI: 1.12-2.15).
HIV prevention mechanisms should address intoxication before sex. More effort is needed to find ways of helping women avoid unprotected sex with intoxicated partners.
HIV; risky sexual behavior; intoxication; alcohol use; sexual partners
OBJECTIVES: To investigate how age at first sexual intercourse is related to the reported circumstances and to determine how these corresponded to views in early adulthood about its timing. DESIGN: Cross sectional study within a birth cohort using a questionnaire presented by computer. SETTING: Dunedin, New Zealand in 1993-4. SUBJECTS: 477 men and 458 women enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, comprising 92% of survivors of the cohort. RESULTS: The median age at first intercourse was 17 years for men and 16 years for women. Only one man (0.2%) but 30 (7%) women reported being forced to have intercourse on the first occasion. For women, there were increasing rates of coercion with younger age at first intercourse. More men than women reported that they and their partner were equally willing (77% (316/413) v 53% (222/419)). Mutual willingness of both partners was greater for those who reported that it was also the first time for their partner. Timing of first intercourse was considered about right by 49% (200/411) of men and 38% (148/388) of women. Many women (54% (211/388) reported that they should have waited longer, and this rose to 70% (90/129) for women reporting intercourse before age 16. CONCLUSIONS: Most women regretted having sexual intercourse before age 16. First intercourse at younger ages is associated with risks that are shared unequally between men and women. This information is important to young people themselves.
OBJECTIVES: To begin to map the reported behaviours and attitudes of young Britons of south Asian origin that may have implications for sexual health. "South Asian" refers to people able to trace their ancestry from the Indian subcontinent (that is, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh), henceforth referred to as "Asian". DESIGN: A cross sectional study of sexual behaviour using self report measures in a self complete section of a social survey administered by trained interviewers in 1996. SETTING: Greater Glasgow, Scotland. SUBJECTS: Sample (n = 824) originally recruited aged 14-15 in 1992 in secondary schools in Greater Glasgow and subsequently traced through general practitioner registration for 1996 survey. 492 Asians and non-Asians aged 18-20 years old eventually interviewed in their own homes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self reported experience of sexual intercourse, age at first intercourse, and contraceptive practice over year before interview. METHODS: Measures of sexual behaviour and attitudes were elicited through a self complete questionnaire filled out in the presence of, and returned to, a trained social interviewer. RESULTS: Asians, and particularly Asian women, were far less likely to report having had heterosexual intercourse. Those Asian women who had had intercourse were likely to do so for the first time at an older age, and with an older partner, than the non-Asian women. Asian women were less likely to report using the pill than non-Asian women, irrespective of their marital status, and Asian men were less likely than non-Asian men to report using condoms. Asian sexual abstinence was reported to be for religious reasons, which were not important for non-Asians. In contrast with non-Asians, Asians saw themselves as likely to be married with children within the next 5 years. Asian men considered the ideal age to marry for men and women to be younger than the non-Asian men's average estimate. Asian and non-Asian women suggested a similar ideal age for men to marry, but Asian women considered a younger age appropriate for women than did non-Asian women. CONCLUSIONS: The higher level of sexual abstinence among Asians, and particularly women, has implications for the delivery of sexual health services to the minority who are sexually active before marriage. The underreporting of condom use by Asian men compared with their non-Asian counterparts, suggests a failure of the existing sexual health education and health services to reach minority ethnic young men which may be remedied by collaborative work with institutions currently used by the Asian community.
Sexual behaviours among HIV-positive male patients in Cambodia have not been fully evaluated.
The patterns of sexual behaviours and social factors were compared between married and single men.
A retrospective cross-sectional survey of 174 male HIV patients was undertaken during March 1999–June 2000 in Phnom Penh.
Many participants (61%) reported that they were unaware that their sexual behaviours may have put them at risk of HIV infection. Sexual behaviours included having sex with a sex worker (90%), multiple sexual partners (41%), and both of these behaviours (37%). Two-thirds (69%) reported using a condom when having sex with a sex worker. Condom use with multiple sexual partners was low (24%). A history of condom use with a sex worker was less likely to be reported among married men than single men (P = 0.008). Always using condoms with a sex worker did not differ between married men and single men. Social factors that influenced visiting a sex worker included invitation by a friend (88%), alcohol consumption (74%), and having extra spending money (72%). Multivariate analysis suggests that alcohol consumption (P = 0.008) and having extra spending money (P = 0.02) were strongly associated with visiting a sex worker.
In Cambodia, HIV-infected men frequently reported a history of using sex workers. Having multiple sex partners or using a sex worker and multiple sexual partners were not rare. Interventions should target men in settings where alcohol is consumed and to encourage married men to use condoms.
HIV; men; social factors
The age of initiation of sexual intercourse is an increasingly important issue to study given that sexually active young women are at risk of multiple outcomes including early pregnancies, vesico-vaginal fistula, and sexually transmitted infections. Much research has focused on the demographic, familial, and social factors associated with sexual initiation and reasons adolescents begin having consensual intercourse. Less is known, however, about the geographical and contextual factors associated with age of initiation of sexual intercourse. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the extent of regional and state disparities in age of initiation of sexual intercourse and to examine individual- and community-level predictors of early sexual debut.
Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to data on 5531 ever or currently married women who had participated in 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Coital debut at 15 years or younger was used to define early sexual debut. Exploratory spatial data analysis methods were used to study geographic variation in age at first sexual intercourse.
The median age at first sexual intercourse for all women included in the study was 15 years (range; 14 – 19). North West and North East had the highest proportion of women who had reported early sexual debut (61% – 78%). The spatial distribution of age of initiation of sexual intercourse was nonrandom and clustered with a Moran's I = 0.635 (p = .001). There was significant positive spatial relationship between median age of marriage and spatial lag of median age of sexual debut (Bivariate Moran's I = 0.646, (p = .001). After adjusting for both individual-level and contextual factors, the probability of starting sex at an earlier age was associated with respondents' current age, education attainment, ethnicity, region, and community median age of marriage.
The study found that individual-level and community contextual characteristics were independently associated with early sexual debut, suggesting that interventions to reduce adolescent high-risk sexual behaviour should focus on high-risk places as well as high-risk groups of people.
To describe individual, social network and encounter specific factors associated with protected anal intercourse (PAI) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI).
This was a cross sectional survey conducted between April and November 2002. A total of 733 sexual encounters were reported by 202 men recruited from the gay community in Melbourne, Australia. Predictors of self reported PAI and UAI were examined.
Of the 733 sexual events most (56.3%) did not involve anal intercourse, and more involved PAI than UAI (30.6% versus 13.1%). PAI was more likely than no anal intercourse (NAI) if the participant's social network was mostly homosexual, the partner was an occasional or casual partner, or was HIV positive. PAI was less likely if sex took place at a “beat” but more likely if it took place at a sauna. PAI was more likely if the partner was affected by drugs or alcohol. UAI was more likely than NAI if the participant had injected drugs in the year before interview. It was less likely if the partner was occasional or casual or was HIV positive but more likely if the partner's HIV status was unknown. UAI was much more likely than NAI if the encounter took place at a “sex on premises” venue.
In this analysis it is the characteristics of the sexual encounter that predict whether PAI or UAI rather than NAI takes place.
sexual behaviour; HIV; homosexual men
To examine factors influencing sexual activity and functioning in racially- and ethnically-diverse, middle-aged and older women.
Cross-sectional cohort study
Integrated health care delivery system
1,977 women aged 45 to 80 years
Self-administered questionnaires assessed sexual desire, activity, satisfaction, and problems.
Of the 1,977 participants (including 876 White, 388 African American, 347 Latina, and 351 Asian women), 43% reported at least moderate sexual desire, and 60% were sexually active in the previous 3 months. Half of sexually active participants (n=969) described their overall sexual satisfaction as moderate to high. Among sexually inactive women, the most common reason for inactivity was lack of interest in sex (39%), followed by lack of a partner (36%), physical problem of partner (23%), and lack of interest by partner (11%); only 9% were inactive from personal physical problems. In multivariable analysis, African-American women were more likely than white women to report at least moderate desire (OR=1.65, 95%CI=1.25-2.17) but less likely to report weekly sexual activity (OR=0.68, 95%CI=0.48-0.96); sexually active Latina women were more likely than white women to report at least moderate sexual satisfaction (OR=1.75, 95%CI=1.20-2.55).
A substantial proportion of community-dwelling women remain interested and engaged in sexual activity into older age. Lack of a partner capable of or interested in sex may contribute more to sexual inactivity than personal health problems in this population. Racial/ethnic differences in self-reported sexual desire, activity, and satisfaction may influence discussions about sexual difficulties in middle-aged and older women.
female sexual function; aging; race/ethnicity; sexual activity
To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior.
Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya.
Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse.
From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days – of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one’s own children, and lower education.
We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.
The HIV epidemic continues to amplify in southern Africa and there is a growing need for HIV prevention interventions among people who have tested HIV positive.
Anonymous surveys were completed by 413 HIV‐positive men and 641 HIV‐positive women sampled from HIV/AIDS services; 73% were <35 years old, 70% Black African, 70% unemployed, 75% unmarried, and 50% taking antiretroviral treatment.
Among the 903 (85%) participants who were currently sexually active, 378 (42%) had sex with a person to whom they had not disclosed their HIV status in the previous 3 months. Participants who had not disclosed their HIV status to their sex partners were considerably more likely to have multiple partners, HIV‐negative partners, partners of unknown HIV status and unprotected intercourse with non‐concordant sex partners. Not disclosing their HIV status to partners was also associated with having lost a job or a place to stay because of being HIV positive and feeling less able to disclose to partners.
HIV‐related stigma and discrimination are associated with not disclosing HIV status to sex partners, and non‐disclosure is closely associated with HIV transmission risk behaviours. Interventions are needed in South Africa to reduce the AIDS stigma and discrimination and to assist people with HIV to make effective decisions on disclosure.