Objective To determine the incidence of and mortality from bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris in the United Kingdom.
Design Retrospective historical cohort study.
Setting Computerised medical records from the health improvement network, a large population based UK general practice database.
Participants Patients with pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid diagnostic codes and age, sex, and practice matched controls.
Main outcome measures Incidence and mortality compared with the control population by calendar period, age group, sex, geographical region, and degree of social deprivation.
Results 869 people with bullous pemphigoid and 138 people with pemphigus vulgaris were identified. The median age at presentation for bullous pemphigoid was 80 (range 23-102) years, and 534 (61%) patients were female. The median age at presentation for pemphigus vulgaris was 71 (21-102) years, and 91 (66%) patients were female. Incidences of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris were 4.3 (95% confidence interval 4.0 to 4.6) and 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8) per 100 000 person years. The incidence of bullous pemphigoid increased over time; the average yearly increase was 17% (incidence rate ratio=1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.2). An average yearly increase in incidence of pemphigus vulgaris of 11% (incidence rate ratio=1.1, 1.0 to 1.2) occurred. The risk of death for patients with bullous pemphigoid was twice as great as for controls (adjusted hazard ratio=2.3, 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 2.7). For pemphigus vulgaris, the risk of death was three times greater than for controls (adjusted hazard ratio=3.3, 2.2 to 5.2).
Conclusions Incidences of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris are increasing. The reasons for the changes in incidence are not clearly understood but have implications for identifying causative factors. Both disorders are associated with a high risk of death. Previous estimates may have underestimated the risk of death associated with these diseases.
Although psoriasis and bullous diseases are considered to be completely different disease entities, the literature has reported a few cases of psoriasis associated with bullous diseases, most of which are bullous pemphigoid. In limited cases, pemphigus foliaceus has also been reported in association with psoriasis. In most of them, pemphigus lesions usually developed on an untreated patient with a chronic history of psoriasis. Herein, we report a case of 53-year-old male with a chronic history of psoriasis who first developed generalized erosive lesions after 26 cycles of narrow-band ultraviolet B (NBUVB) therapy. A diagnosis of pemphigus foliaceus was made based on skin biopsy and direct immunofluorescence assay. Pemphigus lesions were well controlled with combination therapy of oral steroid and azathioprine. This is the first case where pemphigus foliaceus co-occurred with psoriasis during NBUVB therapy.
Narrow-band UVB; Pemphigus foliaceus; Psoriasis
Pemphigus and pemphigoid are uncommon dermatological entities in domestic animals and of a presumed autoimmune nature. In one form or another, they have been reported in the dog, cat, horse and goat. Although these diseases are considered to be bullous dermatoses, the clinical presentation may vary from ulcerative to exfoliative to proliferative depending on the individual condition. Currently, four variants of pemphigus are recognized (vulgaris, vegetans, foliaceus, erythematosus) and two of pemphigoid (bullous, cicatricial) although cicatricial pemphigoid has not yet been conclusively demonstrated in animals. Diagnosis is based on history, clinical signs, histopathology and immunopathology. Therapy must be immunosuppressive to be effective and is palliative rather than curative.
Pemphigus; pemphigus vulgaris; pemphigus vegetans; pemphigus foliaceus; pemphigus erythematosus; pemphigoid; bullous pemphigoid; dog; cat; horse; goat
Cyclophosphamide, given in widely spaced doses, was used in the treatment of a patient with pemphigus vulgaris and a patient with bullous pemphigoid. To our knowledge, this form of therapy has not previously been reported in these two diseases. The distinct advantages of the larger intermittent dose method of cyclophosphamide therapy over the more conventional daily dose regimen are discussed.
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease, in which autoantibodies against PV antigen (PVA or Dsg3) play a pathogenic role in inducing blister formation. Bacterial fusion proteins of PVA failed to absorb pathogenic autoantibodies from PV patients' sera probably because they did not represent the proper conformation. Therefore, a chimeric protein, PVIg, consisting of the whole extracellular domain of PVA and the constant region of human IgG1, was produced in either in COS7 or in insect Sf9 eucaryotic cells. Both PVIg-COS7 and PVIg-Sf9 were recognized by all of the 35 PV sera tested, but not by any of 10 pemphigus foliaceus (PF), 16 Brazilian PF, 10 bullous pemphigoid, or five normal control sera. Incubation of PV patients' sera with PVIg-Sf9 removed heterogeneous autoantibodies and significantly reduced their immunofluorescence titers on normal human epidermis, although PVIg-Sf9 did not affect the titers of PF sera at all. Furthermore, PVIg-Sf9 absorbed pathogenic autoantibodies from patients' sera and prevented gross blister formation in a neonatal mouse model for pemphigus. These results indicate that this baculovirus product has the proper conformation of the authentic PVA and that its conformation is important in pathogenicity of pemphigus.
Pemphigus vulgaris is a life threatening, blistering skin disease. It is an autoimmune abnormality. Due to involvement of oral cavity and pharynx, patients are at risk of nutrients deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of selenium, copper, and zinc in these patients.
In a case-control study, 43 newly diagnosed pemphigus vulgaris patients were compared with 58 healthy people from 2009 to 2010. The severity of the disease was estimated according to Harman’s scores. Serum selenium was measured with atomic absorption but serum zinc and copper concentrations were determined spectrophotometrically. Data were compared with independent t test. Correlations were evaluated by Pearson correlation test.
Both groups were the same based on sex, age, and weight and body mass index. The mean duration of disease was 5.6 month. The oral and skin severities were 1.79 and 2.3 respectively, based on Harman’s scores. Serum selenium of pemphigus patients was significantly less than that of healthy people (P<0.001). Serum copper was negatively correlated with duration of disease in males (P=0.02, r=−0.5).
Pemphigus vulgaris negatively affects on serum selenium, copper and zinc. It seems that serum selenium, copper and zinc decrease as the disease lasts longer.
Selenium; Zinc; Copper; Pemphigus vulgaris
Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune intraepithelial blistering disease involving the skin and mucous membranes. Oral mucosa is frequently affected in patients with PV, and oral lesions may be the first sign of the disease in majority of patients. In some patients, oral lesions may also be followed by skin involvement. Therefore, timely recognition and therapy of oral lesions is critical as it may prevent skin involvement. Early oral lesions of PV are, however, often regarded as difficult to diagnose, since the initial oral lesions may be relatively nonspecific, manifesting as superficial erosions or ulcerations, and rarely presenting with the formation of intact bullae. Lesions may occur anywhere on the oral mucosa including gingiva; however; desquamtive gingivitis is less common with PV than other mucocutaneous conditions such as pemphigoid or lichen planus. This paper describes the case of a patient presenting with a one-year history of painful gingival, who is finally diagnosed as having PV.
Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune bullous disease characterized by blistering and erosions within skin and mucous membranes. Lesions appear most commonly on mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity. Ocular involvement in patients with PV has rarely been reported.
A 47-year-old male patient with a 2 month history of oral erosions and dysphagia developed severe conjunctivitis with periodical presence of purulent discharge, photophobia and burning sensations. The diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by histopathology, direct immunofluorescence and detection of anti-desmogelin 3 antibodies in patients' serum. Treatment was introduced with prednisone at a dose of 80 mg per day (1 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide at a dose of 100 mg daily (1.25 mg/kg). After 7 days of therapy a significant reduction of eye symptoms was observed and after 4 weeks of treatment full clinical remission was achieved.
The grounds for rare involvement of conjunctiva in pemphigus vulgaris is unclear. We hypothesize that inactivation of conjunctival desmoglein 3 may be compensated by other desmosomal proteins. Severe conjunctivitis may be the dominating clinical manifestation in pemphigus vulgaris. This implies a need of establishing distinct severity criteria and therapeutic standards for ocular pemphigus. In our patient rapid clinical response was achieved after introducing combined treatment with prednisone and oral cyclophosphamide.
conjunctival diseases; cyclophosphamide; desmoglein 1; desmoglein 3; eye diseases; pemphigus
Pemphigus and pemphigoid are vesicobullous disorders characterized by an autoimmune attack on intercellular or basement membrane antigens, resulting in defective keratinocyte adhesion. Recently there have been reports of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) associated with cases of pemphigus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, in situ hybridization, and serologic data. However, data to date is contradictory, and the relationship between this virus and autoimmune vesiculobullous disorders is unclear. No reports have attempted immunohistochemical localization of HHV8 in tissue affected by PV or BP. We studied immunohistochemical expression of HHV8 on paraffin-embedded tissue in 10 cases of pemphigus vulgaris (PV), 1 case of pemphigus foliaceous (PF) and 14 cases of bullous pemphigoid (BP). Five cases of normal skin were included as controls. Confirmatory PCR for HHV8 was performed on 4 selected cases, including 2 cases of PV and 2 cases of BP. Immunohistochemistry failed to identified the presence of HHV8 in all cases of PV (10 cases), PF (1 case) and BP (14 cases). Molecular detection of HHV8 DNA was not detected in selected PV (2 cases) and BP (2 cases). Published studies have shown contradictory evidence regarding the presence of HHV8 in vesiculobullous diseases such as pemphigus and pemphigoid. Our results refute a causal relationship between HHV8 and PV, PF and BP.
Pemphigus; bullous pemphigoid; human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8); immunohistochemistry; polymerase chain reaction
Psoriasis vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid (BP) represent two clinically well-characterized, chronic, inflammatory skin conditions. The concomitant occurrence of these two entities in a patient is rare. Here we report a 57-year-old male suffering from psoriasis vulgaris for 15 years on irregular medication who noticed eruption of blisters all over the body. We believe that this is the first case report of psoriasis vulgaris coexistent with bullous pemphigoid in Indian literature. Please check where you want bullous pemphigoid and where you want psoriasis pemphigoides.
Methotrexate; bullous pemphigoid; salt split study
The transition between the main subtypes of pemphigus, pemphigus vulgaris (PV), and pemphigus foliaceus (PF) has rarely been reported. Moreover, the development of PV in a patient with PF is much more unusual than that of PF in a patient with PV. We report a 48-year-old man who presented with cutaneous lesions showing the typical clinical and histological features of PF. Five years later, his skin lesions became extensive and he developed oral erosions. His condition did not respond well to steroids and azathioprine. Histological examination of a vesicle disclosed suprabasal acantholysis in contrast to the subcorneal acantholysis discovered upon initial histological evaluation. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed IgG antikeratinocyte cell surface antibodies at a titer of 1:640. The titer was 1:160 at initial diagnosis. Upon immunoblotting, the patient's serum reacted with 130 kiloDalton (kDa) and 160 kDa proteins, suggesting desmoglein (Dsg) 3 and 1, respectively. We herein report an unusual case of PV that developed from PF during the disease's flare-up.
Pemphigus; western blotting
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Genital involvement occurs when most other common sites are concurrently affected or are in remission. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that may affect many parts of the body and the skin with occasional bullous lesions. Pemphigus vulgaris and SLE may be associated, albeit rarely. Here, we report the first case of a woman affected with SLE presenting with early invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from Pemphigus Vulgaris of the vulva.
A 27-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our Gynaecology Unit for bleeding vegetant lesions of the vulva. Her history was characterized by systemic lupus erythematosus and PV. Biopsy showed concomitant PV and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) grade 3. One month later a new biopsy revealed progression from VIN 3 to early SCC. Despite chemotherapy, no remission of disease was observed. She died six months after diagnosis
Our case underlines PV as another chronic inflammatory disease of the lower genital tract predisposing to VIN-SCC. It suggests the need for careful follow-up of patients with chronic inflammatory disease, especially when concomitant autoimmune disorders are present. Moreover, a biopsy should be always performed if there are PV lesions because of the possibility of neoplastic disease.
Various forms of pemphigus have been reported to occur with myasthenia gravis (MG), with and without thymoma. We described two cases of pemphigus vulgaris associated with MG without thymoma.
Case 1. A 44 year-old woman presented with 3 years history of pemphigus vulgaris. Three years later, she developed myasthenic symptoms with elevated level of anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies - 5.2 nmol/L. She was thymectomised and we revealed only hyperplastic thymus.
Case 2. A 64-year-old woman had a general fatigue and intermittent double vision. She was diagnosed as MG three years later. Two months before she diagnosed as MG, she had pruritic erythematous, erosive and bullous lesions on her body and extremities.
Oral prednisolon, pyridostigmine bromide and azathioprine or cyclophosphamide didn`t adequately control MG and pemphigus in our patients, so they received intravenous immunoglobulins of 0.4 g/kg for 5 consecutive days. After that therapy, our patients markedly improved.
Conclusion: The precise pathological mechanisms of the association between pemphigus and MG are not fully understood. The thymus has been suggested to be a possible common origin of autoimmune response in these disorders.
Myasthenia gravis; pemphigus vulgaris; intravenous immunoglobulins
The diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases is based on clinical observation and on the presence of autoantibodies directed to molecules involved in the adhesion systems of the skin. Immunofluorescence assays are the currently accepted method for detection of autoantibodies; such assays depend greatly on the skill of operators and are difficult to standardize. Recombinant desmoglein-1 (Dsg1), Dsg3, and BP180 peptides, the main autoantigens in pemphigus or bullous pemphigoid, have been used to develop new quantitative enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for the detection of specific antibodies. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of these immunoassays and to determine the correlation between the results and the clinical aspects of diseases. Serum samples from patients with pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, bullous pemphigoid, or mucous membrane pemphigoid, from healthy individuals, and from patients with unrelated autoimmune conditions were tested. Anti-desmoglein reactivity was detected in all the patients with pemphigus and in none of the controls. Patients with the more benign form of cutaneous disease had anti-Dsg1 antibodies, while patients with deeper cutaneous lesions or with mucosal involvement had anti-Dsg3 reactivity also, or exclusively. The BP180-based assay was positive for 66.6% of patients with bullous pemphigoid and for none of the patients with mucous membrane pemphigoid, and no reactivity was detected in the control sera. In conclusion, the anti-Dsg1 and anti-Dsg3 assays are useful in the diagnosis of pemphigus and provide information on the clinical phenotype of the disease. However, the sensitivity of EIA for detection of autoantibodies in bullous pemphigoid should be improved by the use of additional antigens or epitopes.
To evaluate the reactivity of indirect immunofluorescence using rat bladder epithelium as a substrate in patients with pemphigus foliaceus and pemphigus vulgaris from the Department of Dermatology, University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil.
Thirty-two patients (8 male and 24 female) from the Department of Dermatology, University of São Paulo Medical School, were selected. Three had mucosal pemphigus vulgaris, 20 had mucocutaneous pemphigus vulgaris, and 9 had pemphigus foliaceus. Patients' sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence performed on human foreskin and rat bladder epithelium and by ELISA assays utilizing baculovirus-expressed recombinant desmoglein 3 and desmoglein 1.
No patients with mucosal pemphigus vulgaris, 5 of 20 patients with mucocutaneous pemphigus vulgaris (25%) and 4 of 9 patients with pemphigus foliaceus (44%) had positive indirect immunofluorescence using rat bladder epithelium as a substrate.
Indirect immunofluorescence using rat bladder epithelium as a substrate is recommended whenever a diagnosis of paraneoplastic pemphigus is considered. The identification of a subset of pemphigus foliaceus and pemphigus vulgaris patients that recognizes desmoplakins by this laboratory tool is critical to avoid the misdiagnosis of paraneoplastic pemphigus.
Pemphigus vulgaris; Paraneoplastic pemphigus; Indirect immunofluorescence; Rat bladder epithelium; Pemphigus foliaceus
Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20 cell surface antigen of B-lymphocytes. Recent studies have demonstrated effectivity in recalcitrant bullous pemphigoid. The data available on other types of autoimmune bullous disease is more scant.
Here we report on the successful adjuvant use of rituximab in mucous membrane pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris in two patients with the most refractory course of disease. Both patients achieved a good clinical response.
Rituximab is a third line treatment of patients with pemphigus vulgaris and mucous membrane pemphigoid. In contrast to bullous pemphigoid, other bullous diseases do not always respond to a monotherapy with this monoclonal antibody. Nevertheless, biological therapy seems to work faster than established treatment in such cases. Risks and benefits of the treatment are discussed.
monoclonal antibody; rituximab; bullous pemphigoid; mucous membrane pemphigoid; pemphigus vulgaris
Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune blistering disease that commonly involves the scalp. Lesions of pemphigus vulgaris that persist on the scalp for a long period may be accompanied by tufted hair folliculitis. Only two previous accounts of tufted hair folliculitis developing in a lesion of pemphigus vulgaris have been reported. We report a 51-year-old-man with erosions and clusters of hair on the scalp. The scalp lesion had persisted for about 20 years. A histopathological examination of the skin lesion on the scalp revealed separation of the epidermis and clusters of several adjacent hair follicles. The patient was diagnosed with persistent pemphigus vulgaris of the scalp showing features of tufted hair folliculitis.
Pemphigus vulgaris; Tufted hair folliculitis
Background and aims
Pemphigus is a chronic autoimmune and vesiculobollous disease that can affect skin and different mucous membrane surfaces. Primary manifestations occur in oral cavity in almost 60% of cases. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the epidemiology of pemphigus in Tehran, Iran in a 20-year period.
Materials and methods
A retrospective study was conducted on the records of 1560 patients diagnosed with different types of pemphigus in Razi Hospital of Dermatology in Tehran from March 1985 to March 2005. A questionnaire was prepared to collect information regarding age, sex, bedridden duration, pemphigus subtype, sites of involvement, recurrence and mortality rate. Data was analyzed using chi-square test with significant level of P < 0.05.
There was a female predominance with a male to female ratio of 1:1.53. In nearly half of the patients, only the oral mucous membranes were affected. One hundred and fifty had only skin lesions and 261 cases had both skin and oral mucosal lesions. Involvement of esophageal and vaginal mucous membranes without skin lesions was observed in 150 patients and 298 cases had esophageal and vaginal mucosal involvement as well as skin lesions. Pemphigus vulgaris was the most common type, with the mean age of 44.6 years. Oral mucous membrane was the most frequent location where pemphigus vulgaris was observed. 1265 patients recovered which 52.2% of them had only oral lesions. Average of bedridden duration was 2.9 months. The highest recurrence rate was seen in patients with skin lesions exclusively. There was a significant difference between recurrences of lesions and location of involvement (P < 0.05). Thirty six patients had died from of the disease.
The mean age of the disease onset in the present study was found to be a decade earlier than the other parts of the world. Recurrence and mortality rates were lower in patients with only oral lesions and their prognosis was better.
Epidemiology; Iran; pemphigus; vesiculobullous
Pemphigus vulgaris is a vesiculobullous disorder that predominantly involves the oral mucous membrane of the canine and human patients. The oral lesions are usually painful erosions and ulcers. This predilection for mucous membrane may reflect the smaller number of desmosomes in the oral epithelium as compared with the epidermis. The discovery of autoantibodies against the intercellular substance of stratified epithelium in patients with pemphigus vulgaris suggests that this disease represents an autoimmune disease. The exact role of these autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris is not clearly understood. The diagnosis is usually based on the presence of the characteristic flaccid bullae and erosions. Biopsy specimen taken from the edge of a fresh blister and adjacent epithelial layers is suitable for routine microscopic examination and direct immunofluorescence study. Combination of corticosteroids and immunosuppresive agents are used for treatment of this disease.
Pemphigus vulgaris is a chronic autoimmune mucocutaneous disease that initially manifests in the form of intraoral lesions, which spread to other mucous membranes and the skin. The etiology of pemphigus vulgaris is still unknown, although the disease has attracted considerable interest. The pemphigus group of disease is characterized by the production of autoantibodies against intercellular substances and is thus classified as autoimmune diseases. Most patients are initially misdiagnosed and improperly treated for months or even years. Dental professionals must be sufficiently familiar with the clinical manifestations of pemphigus vulgaris to ensure early diagnosis and treatment, since this in turn determines the prognosis and course of the disease. This article presents a case report with unknown etiology along with an overview of the disease.
Autoimmune disease; bullae; mucous membrane; pemphigus vulgaris
Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is a devastating autoimmune blistering disease, involving mucocutaneous and internal organs, and associated with underlying neoplasms. PNP is characterized by the production of autoantibodies targeting proteins of the plakin and cadherin families involved in maintenance of cell architecture and tissue cohesion. Nevertheless, the identity of an antigen of Mr 170,000 (p170), thought to be critical in PNP pathogenesis, has remained unknown.
Using an immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry based approach, we identified p170 as alpha-2-macroglobuline-like-1, a broad range protease inhibitor expressed in stratified epithelia and other tissues damaged in the PNP disease course. We demonstrate that 10 PNP sera recognize alpha-2-macroglobuline-like-1 (A2ML1), while none of the control sera obtained from patients with bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus and normal subjects does.
Our study unravels a broad range protease inhibitor as a new class of target antigens in a paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome and opens a new challenging investigation avenue for a better understanding of PNP pathogenesis.
Rituximab is increasingly used in patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) who are nonresponders to conventional therapy.
A PubMed search was conducted using the words pemphigus vulgaris and rituximab therapy from papers published between 2000 and 2012. Two protocols were used. In the lymphoma protocol, patients received four weekly infusions of rituximab (dose 375 mg/m2). The rheumatoid arthritis (RA) protocol consisted of two infusions of 1,000 mg each 15 days apart. The variables recorded from each study included clinical remission off or on therapy, relapse rate, incidence of serious adverse events, concomitant therapies, duration of follow-up, and when available, levels of B cells and autoantibodies.
Forty-two studies were found, which reported 272 patients; 180 were treated by the lymphoma protocol and 92 by the RA protocol. Both protocols were effective in treating recalcitrant PV. The lymphoma protocol had a lower response rate, relapse rate and serious infections, but higher mortality, and there were nonresponders. The RA protocol produced a higher response rate, relapse rate, number of infections, but lower mortality rate, and lacked nonresponders. The cumulative follow-up for patients treated with the lymphoma protocol was 15.44 months (range 1–41) and 21.04 months (range 8.35–29) for the RA protocol. A major concern in both protocols was the high infection rates, some of which were fatal. A different protocol using a combination of rituximab with intravenous immunoglobulin in a defined manner with a definitive endpoint, used in a limited cohort of patients, showed promising results.
Neither protocol produced a sustained clinical remission and both required continued systemic therapy. Before initiation of treatment, physicians should have a specific goal and endpoint and be aware of its potential side effects and lack of information on its long-term effects. Patients should be carefully monitored during and after therapy.
Clinical outcomes; Immunology and inflammatory skin diseases; Lymphoma protocol; Pemphigus vulgaris; Rheumatoid arthritis protocol; Rituximab
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation are seen in many dermatologic disorders, for example, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo, acne vulgaris, pemphigus vulgaris (PV), lichen planus, and alopecia areata. ROS has an important role in the inflammation process. In PV, increased production of ROS leads to decline of antioxidants in plasma and red blood cells which results in oxidative stress. We aimed to evaluate the level of these antioxidants in PV patients and compare it to the controls.
Materials and Methods:
Among patients attending the dermatology clinics, 30 patients with PV, who had never been on treatment, were enrolled to the study. The control group consisted of 30 age- and sex-matched healthy non-smoker individuals. Venous blood was collected from the subjects for the evaluation of plasma levels of glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, selenium, bilirubin, and uric acid.
Age mean and standard deviation of the patients (40.83, 12.74) was comparable to the controls (41.96, 13.08). Mean level of uric acid was significantly lower in PV patients compared to the controls (P = 0.006). Other antioxidants were not different between the two groups. Uric acid of the patients with mucosal involvement was significantly lower than patients with mucocutaneous involvement (P = 0.049).
The blood level of other antioxidants (e.g. malondialdehyde) was not evaluated.
Uric acid as an antioxidant in our study had similar changes to previous studies in the field of other diseases but selenium, bilirubin, and glutathione peroxidase did not differ between patients and controls.
Antioxidants; pemphigus vulgaris; uric acid
A patient of pemphigus vulgaris presented with avascular necrosis of the femur after long-term high-dose corticosteroid therapy. Corticosteroids used on a long-term basis can cause avascular necrosis of bone and this has been seen in various diseases. This is attributable to both the disease process itself and the therapy i.e. corticosteroid usage. In dermatological practice avascular necrosis of bone has been seen more commonly with SLE and also with psoriasis using long-term steroids. Avascular necrosis in a case of pemphigus on steroid therapy is a rare finding. We report such a case of pemphigus vulgaris developing avascular necrosis of bone following corticosteroid therapy.
Avascular necrosis; femur; pemphigus
D-penicillamine is one of the disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Drug-induced pemphigus is not fre-quently associated with D-penicillamine, and to date, the number of reported cases is about a hundred. Most reports of D-penicillamine-induced pemphigus vulgaris are in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It has rarely been reported in patients not taking D-penicillamine. We report a case of pemphigus vulgaris in a 48-year-old female patient with rheumatoid arthri-tis, not taking penicillamine.
D-penicillamine; pemphigus vulgaris; rheumatoid arthritis