The functions of non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in tumorigenesis are just beginning to emerge. Previous studies from our laboratory have identified a number of miRNAs that were deregulated in colon cancer cell lines due to the deletion of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. In this study, the in vivo significance of some of these miRNAs was further evaluated using colorectal clinical samples. Ten miRNAs (hsa-let-7b, hsa-let-7g, hsa-miR-15b, hsa-miR-181b, hsa-miR-191, hsa-miR-200c, hsa-miR-26a, hsa-miR-27a, hsa-miR-30a-5p and hsa-miR-30c) were evaluated for their potential prognostic value in colorectal cancer patients. Forty eight snap frozen clinical colorectal samples (24 colorectal cancer and 24 paired normal patient samples) with detailed clinical follow-up information were selected. The expression levels of 10 miRNAs were quantified via qRT-PCR analysis. The statistical significance of these markers for disease prognosis was evaluated using a two tailed paired Wilcoxon test. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve was generated followed by performing a Logrank test. Among the ten miRNAs, hsa-miR-15b (p = 0.0278), hsa-miR-181b (p = 0.0002), hsa-miR-191 (p = 0.0264) and hsa-miR-200c (p = 0.0017) were significantly over-expressed in tumors compared to normal colorectal samples. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that hsa-miR-200c was significantly associated with patient survival (p = 0.0122). The patients (n = 15) with higher hsa-miR-200c expression had a shorter survival time (median survival = 26 months) compared to patients (n = 9) with lower expression (median survival = 38 months). Sequencing analysis revealed that hsa-miR-181b (p = 0.0098) and hsa-miR-200c (p = 0.0322) expression were strongly associated with the mutation status of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Some of these miRNAs may function as oncogenes due to their over-expression in tumors. hsa-miR-200c may be a potential novel prognostic factor in colorectal cancer.
hsa-miR-200c; micro-RNA; prognosis; colorectal cancer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (~22 nucleotides) that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level via imperfect base pairing to the 3’-UTR of their target mRNAs. Previous studies from our group identified a number of deregulated miRNAs due to the loss of p53 tumor suppressor in colon cancer cell lines. To further investigate the in vivo biological significance of these miRNAs, the expressions of hsa-let-7g, hsa-miR-143, hsa-miR-145, hsa-miR-181b and hsa-miR-200c were investigated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) colon cancer specimens to evaluate the potential relationship with chemosensitivity and tumorigenesis.
Patients and Methods
Forty-six patients with recurrent or residual colon cancer lesions were treated with the 5-fluorouracil-based antimetabolite S-1. This includes twenty-one pairs of tumor and normal samples. Total RNAs were isolated and the expression level of each particular miRNA was quantified using real time qRT-PCR analysis.
The expression levels of hsa-let-7g, hsa-miR-181b and hsa-miR-200c were over-expressed in tumor tissues compared to normal tissues. The expression levels of hsa-let-7g (p=0.03; Mann-Whitney test) and hsa-miR-181b (p=0.02; Mann-Whitney test) were strongly associated with clinical response to S-1. Although hsa-let-7g and hsa-miR-181b are strongly associated with patient’s response to S-1 treatment, they are not significant prognostic factors for predicting survival.
hsa-let-7g, hsa-miR-181b and hsa-miR-200c may be associated with tumorigenesis in colon cancer. In addition, hsa-let-7g and hsa-miR-181b may be potential indicators for chemoresponse to S-1 based chemotherapy.
miRNA; colon cancer; S-1
Relative quantification is the strategy of choice for processing RT-qPCR data in microRNAs (miRNAs) expression studies. Normalisation of relative quantification data is performed by using reference genes. In livestock species, such as pigs, the determination of reference miRNAs and the optimal number of them has not been widely studied. In this study, the stability of ten miRNAs (Ssc-let-7a, Ssc-miR-103, Ssc-miR-17-3p, Hsa-miR-25, Hsa-miR-93, Ssc-miR-106a, Ssc-miR-191, Ssc-miR-16, Ssc-miR-26a and Ssc-miR-17-5p) was investigated by RT-qPCR in different tissues (skeletal muscle, kidney, liver, ovary and uterus) and in different pig breeds (Iberian, Landrace, Large White, Meishan and Vietnamese) as variation factors. Stability values were calculated with geNorm and NormFinder algorithms obtaining high correlation between them (r2 = 0.99). The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in miRNAs expression stability whereas breed is not a determinant factor. All ten miRNAs analysed had good stability values and, therefore, can be used as reference miRNAs. When all tissues were considered, miR-93 was the most stable miRNA. Dividing data set by tissues, let-7a was the most stable in skeletal muscle and ovary, miR-17-5p in kidney, miR-26a in liver and miR-103 in uterus. Moreover, the optimal number of reference miRNAs to be used for proper normalisation data was determined. It is suggested the use of five reference miRNAs (miR-93, miR-25, miR-106a, miR-17-5p and miR-26a) in multi-tissue experimental designs and the use of three reference miRNAs as the optimal number in single tissues studies (let-7a, miR-17-5p and miR-25 in skeletal muscle; miR-17-5p, miR-93 and miR-26a in kidney, miR-26a, miR-103 and let-7a in liver, let-7a, miR-25 and miR-106a in ovary and miR-103, let-7a and miR-93 in uterus). Overall, this study provides valuable information about the porcine reference miRNAs that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by RT-qPCR studies is undertaken.
Deficiencies in the ATM gene are the underlying cause for ataxia telangiectasia, a syndrome characterized by neurological, motor and immunological defects, and a predisposition to cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are useful tools for cancer profiling and prediction of therapeutic responses to clinical regimens. We investigated the consequences of ATM deficiency on miRNA expression and associated gene expression in normal human mammary epithelial cells (HME-CCs). We identified 81 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs in ATM-deficient HME-CCs using small RNA sequencing. Many of these have been implicated in tumorigenesis and proliferation and include down-regulated tumor suppressor miRNAs, such as hsa-miR-29c and hsa-miR-16, as well as over-expressed pro-oncogenic miRNAs, such as hsa-miR-93 and hsa-miR-221. MicroRNA changes were integrated with genome wide gene expression profiles to investigate possible miRNA targets. Predicted mRNA targets of the miRNAs significantly regulated after ATM depletion included many genes associated with cancer formation and progression, such as SOCS1 and the proto-oncogene MAF. While a number of miRNAs have been reported as altered in cancerous cells, there is little understanding as to how these small RNAs might be driving cancer formation or how they might be used as biomarkers for cancer susceptibility. This study provides preliminary data for defining miRNA profiles that may be used as prognostic or predictive biomarkers for breast cancer. Our integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression allows us to gain a better understanding of the signaling involved in breast cancer predisposition and suggests a mechanism for the breast cancer-prone phenotype seen in ATM-deficient patients.
A substantial number of microRNAs (miRNAs) is subject to epigenetic silencing in cancer. Although epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes is an important feature of cervical cancer, little is known about epigenetic silencing of miRNAs. Since DNA methylation-based silencing of hsa-miR-124 occurs in various human cancers, we studied the frequency and functional effects of hsa-miR-124 methylation in cervical carcinogenesis.
Quantitative MSP analysis of all 3 loci encoding the mature hsa-miR-124 (hsa-miR-124-1/-2/-3) showed methylation in cervical cancer cell lines SiHa, CaSki and HeLa as well as in late passages of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or 18 immortalised keratinocytes. Treatment of SiHa cells with a demethylating agent reduced hsa-miR-124 methylation levels and induced hsa-miR-124 expression. In HPV-immortalised keratinocytes increased methylation levels were related to reduced hsa-miR-124 expression and higher mRNA expression of IGFBP7, a potential hsa-miR-124 target gene. Ectopic hsa-miR-124 expression in SiHa and CaSki cells decreased proliferation rates and migratory capacity. Combined hsa-miR-124-1 and/or hsa-miR-124-2 methylation analysis of 139 cervical tissue specimens showed an increasing methylation frequency from 0% in normal tissues up to 93% in cervical carcinomas. Increased methylation levels of hsa-miR-124-1 and hsa-miR-124-2 were significantly correlated with reduced hsa-miR-124 expression in cervical tissue specimens. Combined hsa-miR-124-1 and/or hsa-miR-124-2 methylation analysis of 43 cervical scrapes of high-risk HPV positive women was predictive of underlying high-grade lesions.
DNA methylation-based silencing of hsa-miR-124 is functionally involved in cervical carcinogenesis and may provide a valuable marker for improved detection of cervical cancer and its high-grade precursor lesions.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small 19- to 22-nucleotide sequences of RNA that participate in the regulation of cell differentiation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Although single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA regions are considered unlikely to be functionally important, nucleotide variations within the sequences of primary (pri)- or precursor (pre)-miRNAs may affect miRNA processing and ultimately result in the modification of miRNA expression. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between four SNPs in pre-miRNA genes and the survival of colorectal cancer patients. A total of 407 colorectal patients were consecutively enrolled. DNA was extracted from blood specimens, and the hsa-mir-146aC>G, hsa-mir-149C>T, hsa-mir-196a2C>T and hsa-mir-499A>G polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. We were unable to identify independent prognostic SNPs for colorectal cancer. However, the heterozygous TC genotype of the 196a2C>T polymorphism was a significant risk factor for the overall survival of rectal cancer patients (HR=3.554, 95% CI 1.296–9.747, p=0.014). Further large-population studies are warranted to define the 196a2C>T polymorphism as a prognostic factor of rectal cancer.
colorectal cancer; microRNA; polymorphism; prognosis
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs of ∼20 nt in length that are capable of modulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. Although miRNAs have been implicated in cancer, including breast cancer, the regulation of miRNA transcription and the role of defects in this process in cancer is not well understood. In this study we have mapped the promoters of 93 breast cancer-associated miRNAs, and then looked for associations between DNA methylation of 15 of these promoters and miRNA expression in breast cancer cells. The miRNA promoters with clearest association between DNA methylation and expression included a previously described and a novel promoter of the Hsa-mir-200b cluster. The novel promoter of the Hsa-mir-200b cluster, denoted P2, is located ∼2 kb upstream of the 5′ stemloop and maps within a CpG island. P2 has comparable promoter activity to the previously reported promoter (P1), and is able to drive the expression of miR-200b in its endogenous genomic context. DNA methylation of both P1 and P2 was inversely associated with miR-200b expression in eight out of nine breast cancer cell lines, and in vitro methylation of both promoters repressed their activity in reporter assays. In clinical samples, P1 and P2 were differentially methylated with methylation inversely associated with miR-200b expression. P1 was hypermethylated in metastatic lymph nodes compared with matched primary breast tumours whereas P2 hypermethylation was associated with loss of either oestrogen receptor or progesterone receptor. Hypomethylation of P2 was associated with gain of HER2 and androgen receptor expression. These data suggest an association between miR-200b regulation and breast cancer subtype and a potential use of DNA methylation of miRNA promoters as a component of a suite of breast cancer biomarkers.
MicroRNA; miR-200b; promoter; DNA methylation; breast cancer; prognosis
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as a novel class of non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. More than 1000 miRNAs have been identified in human cells to date, and they are reported to play important roles in normal cell homeostasis, cell metastasis and disease pathogensis and progression. MiR-125, which is a highly conserved miRNA throughout diverse species from nematode to humans, consists of three homologs hsa-miR-125a, hsa-miR-125b-1 and hsa-miR-125-2. Members of this family have been validated to be down-regulated, exhibiting its disease-suppressing properties in many different types of diseases, while they also have disease-promoting functions in certain contexts. MiR-125 targets a number of genes such as transcription factors, matrix-metalloprotease, members of Bcl-2 family and others, aberrance of which may lead to abnormal proliferation, metastasis and invasion of cells, even carcinomas. Furthermore, miR-125 plays a crucial role in immunological host defense, especially in response to bacterial or viral infections. In this review, we summarize the implication of miR-125 family in disease suppression and promotion, focusing on carcinoma and host immune responses. We also discussed the potential of this miRNA family as promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets for different diseases in future.
miR-125 family; Biomarker; Immune response; Therapeutic target; Tumor-suppressor; Tumor-promoter
Two mature microRNAs (miRNAs), hsa-miR-125a-3p and hsa-miR-125a-5p (collectively referred to as hsa-miR-125a-3p/5p), are derived from 3' and 5' ends of pre-miR-125a, respectively. Although impaired regulation of hsa-miR-125a-5p has been observed in some tumors, the role of this miRNA in invasion and metastasis remains unclear, and few studies have examined the function of hsa-miR-125a-3p. In order to characterize the functions of hsa-miR-125a-3p/5p in invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we investigated the relationships between hsa-miR-125a-3p/5p expression and lymph node metastasis in NSCLC tissues. We also explored the impact of expression of these miRNAs on invasive and migratory capabilities of lung cancer cells.
Expression of hsa-miR-125a-3p/5p in NSCLC tissues was explored using real-time PCR. The relationships between hsa-miR-125a-3p/5p expression and pathological stage or lymph node metastasis were assessed using the Spearman correlation test. For in vitro studies, lung cancer cells were transfected with sense and antisense 2'-O-methyl oligonucleotides for gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments. Transwell experiments were performed to evaluate cellular migration and invasion.
Expression of hsa-miR-125a-3p/5p was lower in NSCLC tissues than in adjacent normal lung tissues (LAC). Furthermore, the results from the Spearman correlation test showed a negative relationship between hsa-miR-125a-3p expression and pathological stage or lymph node metastasis and an inverse relationship between hsa-miR-125a-5p expression and pathological stage or lymph node metastasis. In vitro gain-of-function experiments indicated that hsa-miR-125a-3p and hsa-miR-125a-5p function in an opposing manner, suppressing or enhancing cell migration and invasion in A549 and SPC-A-1 cell lines, respectively. These opposing functions were further validated by suppression of hsa-miR-125a-3p and hsa-miR-125a-5p expression in loss-of-function experiments.
Hsa-miR-125a-3p and hsa-miR-125a-5p play distinct roles in regulation of invasive and metastatic capabilities of lung cancer cells, consistent with the opposing correlations between the expression of these miRNAs and lymph node metastasis in NSCLC. These results provide new insights into the roles of miR-125a family members in the development of NSCLC.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNAs) may alter processing, transcription, and expression of miRNAs, and thus contribute to cancer development. We hypothesized that common polymorphisms in pre-miRNAs individually, and more likely, collectively are associated with risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).
We genotyped four common polymorphisms in pre-miRNAs (hsa-mir-146a rs2910164 G>C, hsa-mir-149 rs2292832 G>T, hsa-mir-196a2 rs11614913 C>T, and hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 A>G) in 1109 SCCHN cases and 1130 cancer-free controls in a non-Hispanic white population frequency-matched by age and sex. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Of the four SNPs studied, hsa-mir-499 AG and GG genotypes were associated with reduced risk of SCCHN (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69–0.99). When we combined the four SNPs by putative risk genotypes, we found that the number of observed risk genotypes was associated with increased risk of SCCHN in a dose-response manner: OR=1.0, 1.20 and 1.40 for 0–1, 2–3 and 4 risk genotypes (Ptrend = 0.037). Specifically, the risk was 1.23 fold (95% CI, 0.98–1.56) for subjects with 2–4 risk genotypes and 1.40 fold (95% CI, 1.02–1.92) for subjects with 4 risk genotypes, compared with subjects with 0–1 risk genotypes. This risk was more pronounced in men and patients with oropharyngeal cancer.
The combined risk genotypes of four common SNPs in pre-mircroRNAs were significantly associated with a moderately increased risk of SCCHN. Larger studies are needed to validate our findings.
genetic susceptibility; microRNA; head and neck cancer; polymorphism; molecular epidemiology
Down syndrome (DS) or Trisomy 21 (Ts21) is caused by the presence of an extra copy of all or part of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is the most frequent survivable congenital chromosomal abnormality. Bioinformatic annotation has established that Hsa21 harbors more than 400 genes, including five microRNA (miRNA) genes (miR-99a, let-7c, miR-125b-2, miR-155 and miR-802). MiRNAs are endogenous, single-stranded, small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by interacting with specific recognition elements harbored within the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of mRNAs and subsequently target these mRNAs for translational repression or destabilization. MiRNA expression profiling, miRNA RT-PCR and miRNA in situ hybridization experiments have demonstrated that Hsa21-derived miRNAs were overexpressed in fetal brain and heart specimens isolated from individuals with DS. We now propose that Ts21 gene dosage overexpression of Hsa21-derived miRNAs in DS individuals result in the decreased expression of specific target proteins (i.e., haploinsufficiency) that contribute, in part, to the DS phenotype.
down syndrome; trisomy 21; microRNAs; haploinsufficiency
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a major class of small endogenous RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally inhibit gene expression. Many miRNAs have been implicated in several human cancers, including breast cancer. Here we describe the association between altered miRNA signatures and breast cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis. The loss of several tumor suppressor miRNAs (miR-206, miR-17-5p, miR-125a, miR-125b, miR-200, let-7, miR-34 and miR-31) and the overexpression of certain oncogenic miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-10b, miR-373 and miR-520c) have been observed in many breast cancers. The gene networks orchestrated by these miRNAs are still largely unknown, although key targets have been identified that may contribute to the disease phenotype. Here we report how the observed perturbations in miRNA expression profiles may lead to disruption of key pathways involved in breast cancer.
To investigate the levels for some specified microRNAs in human’s peripheral blood so as to determine whether they can serve as biomarkers for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer.
Use a quantitative stem-loop RT-PCR method to examine the serum levels for certain microRNAs including has-miR-125a-5p, has-miR-126, has-miR-183, has-miR-200, has-miR-221, and has-miR-222 from the patients with Stage IV, Stage I/II non-small-cell lung cancer and the controls.
There was statistical difference in the serum levels for hsa-miR-126, hsa-miR-183, and hsa-miR-222 between the controls and the Stage IV patients, but not for has-miR-125a-5p, has-miR-200 and has-miR-221. It also showed statistical difference for hsa-miR-126 and hsa-miR-183 between the Stage I/II patients and Stage IV patients, but not between the controls and Stage I/II patients.
Hsa-miR-126 and hsa-miR-183 may serve as potential serum biomarkers for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer.
microRNAs; Non-small-cell lung cancer; Stem-loop RT-PCR; Biomarker
Autophagy is a catabolic process that allows cellular macromolecules to be broken down and recycled as metabolic precursors. The influence of non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in autophagy has not been explored in colon cancer. In this study, we discover a novel mechanism of autophagy regulated by hsa-miR-502-5p (miR-502) by suppression of Rab1B, a critical mediator of autophagy. A number of other miR-502 suppressed mRNA targets (e.g. DHODH) are also identified by microarray analysis. Ectopic expression of miR-502 inhibited autophagy, colon cancer cell growth, and cell cycle progression of colon cancer cells in vitro. miR-502 also inhibited in vivo colon cancer growth in a mouse tumor xenografts model. In addition, the expression of miR-502 was regulated by p53 via a negative feedback regulatory mechanism. The expression of miR-502 was down-regulated in colon cancer patient specimens compared to the paired normal control samples. These results suggest that miR-502 may function as a potential tumor suppressor and therefore be a novel candidate for developing miR-502 based therapeutic strategies.
miR-502; autophagy; p53; colon cancer
Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated at the cellular level and is essential for cellular growth. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs, have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, acting predominantly at the posttranscriptional level. Recent work from our group and others has shown that hsa-miR-33a and hsa-miR-33b, miRNAs located within intronic sequences of the Srebp genes, regulate cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in concert with their host genes. Here, we show that hsa-miR-33 family members modulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation. MiR-33 inhibits the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) and cyclin D1 (CCND1), thereby reducing cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Overexpression of miR-33 induces a significant G1 cell cycle arrest in Huh7 and A549 cell lines. Most importantly, inhibition of miR-33 expression using 2′fluoro/methoxyethyl-modified (2′F/MOE-modified) phosphorothioate backbone antisense oligonucleotides improves liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in mice, suggesting an important role for miR-33 in regulating hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. Altogether, these results suggest that Srebp/miR-33 locus may cooperate to regulate cell proliferation and cell cycle progression and may also be relevant to human liver regeneration.
CDK6; cyclin D1; miR-33; cell cycle; microRNA
Increasing evidence has suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in tumorigenesis. As transcriptional regulators, altered miRNA expression may affect many cancer-related biological pathways, indicating that miRNAs can function as tumor suppressors and/or oncogenes. We first performed a genetic association analysis by screening genetic variants in 15 microRNA genes and detected that a common sequence variant in hsa-miR-196a-2 (rs11614913, C→T) was significantly associated with decreased breast cancer risk (for homozygous variant: OR=0.44, 95% CI, 0.28-0.70). Hypermethylation of a CpG island upstream (-700 bp) of the miR-196a-2 precursor was also associated with reduced breast cancer risk (OR=0.35, 95% CI, 0.15-0.81). By delivering expression vectors containing either wild-type or mutant precursors of miR-196a-2 into breast cancer cells, we demonstrated that this variant led to less efficient processing of the miRNA precursor to its mature form, as well as diminished capacity to regulate target genes. A whole genome expression microarray was preformed and a pathway-based analysis identified a cancer-relevant network formed by genes significantly altered following enforced expression of miR-196a-2. Mutagenesis analysis further showed that cell cycle response to mutagen challenge was significantly enhanced in cells treated with variant miR-196a-2 compared to cells treated with the wild-type. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-196a-2 might have a potentially oncogenic role in breast tumorigenesis, and the function genetic variant in its mature region could serve as a novel biomarker for breast cancer susceptibility.
miR-196a-2; Methylation; Network Analysis; Breast Cancer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs responsible for the post-transcriptional regulation of a variety of human genes. To date, their involvement in the regulation of CBR1 is unknown. This study reports for the first time the identification of microRNA-574-5p (hsa-miR-574-5p) and microRNA-921 (hsa-miR-921) as two miRNAs capable of interacting with the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the CBR1 gene and downregulating CBR1 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CBR1 3′-UTR (rs9024, CBR1 1096G>A) differentially impacts the regulation of CBR1 by hsa-miR-574-5p and hsa-miR-921 dependent on genotype. First, four candidate miRNAs were selected based on bioinformatic analyses, and were tested in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with CBR1 3′-UTR constructs harboring either the G or A allele for rs9024. We found that hsa-miR-574-5p and hsa-miR-921 significantly decreased luciferase activity in CHO cells transfected with the CBR1 3′-UTR construct carrying the major rs9024 G allele by 35% and 46%, respectively. The influence of these miRNAs was different in cells transfected with a CBR1 3′-UTR construct containing the minor rs9024 A allele in that only hsa-miR-574-5p had a demonstrable effect (i.e., 52% decrease in lucifersase activity). To further determine the functional effects of miRNA-mediated regulation of polymorphic CBR1, we assessed CBR1 protein expression and CBR1 enzymatic activity for the prototypical substrate menadione in human lymphoblastoid cell lines with distinct rs9024 genotypes. We found that hsa-miR-574-5p and hsa-miR-921 significantly decreased CBR1 protein (48% and 40%, respectively) and CBR1 menadione activity (54% and 18%, respectively) in lymphoblastoid cells homozygous for the major rs9024 G allele. In contrast, only hsa-miR-574-5p decreased CBR1 protein and CBR1 activity in cells homozygous for the minor rs9024 A allele, and did so by 49% and 56%, respectively. These results suggest that regulation of human CBR1 expression by hsa-miR-574-5p and hsa-miR-921 depends upon rs9024 genotype status.
Expression of ABCG2 is normally absent or low in the pancreas, but high in human pancreatic cancer cells. The mechanism by which ABCG2 is altered in human cancers remains unknown.
We investigated ABCG2 expression in four pancreatic cancer cell lines, and used three microRNA (miRNA) target prediction programmes, and information from the existing literature to predict and identify hsa-miR-520h as an miRNA that targets ABCG2. The function of this miRNA was investigated by transient transfection of the pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 with oligonucleotides that mimic hsa-miR-520h.
Results showed that both mRNA and protein levels of ABCG2 were reduced, indicating that it was a target of hsa-miR-520h. Introduction of hsa-miR-520h mimics into PANC-1 cells also resulted in inhibition of cell migration and invasion, and reduction of side population cells. Cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis were not affected.
We propose that the effects of hsa-miR-520h may be, at least in part, caused by its regulation of ABCG2. Thus, our findings provide a new insight into the function of miRNA in the regulation of ABCG2 expression in pancreatic cancer. Gene therapy using miRNA mimics may therefore be useful as a pancreatic cancer therapy.
miRNA; ABCG2; migration; invasion; side population cells
A recurring challenge for brain pathologists is to diagnose whether a brain malignancy is a primary tumor or a metastasis from some other tissue. The accurate diagnosis of brain malignancies is essential for selection of proper treatment. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNA species that regulate gene expression; many exhibit tissue-specific expression and are misregulated in cancer. Using microRNA expression profiling, we found that hsa-miR-92b and hsa-miR-9/hsa-miR-9* are over-expressed, specifically in brain primary tumors, as compared to primary tumors from other tissues and their metastases to the brain. By considering the expression of only these two microRNAs, it is possible to distinguish between primary and metastatic brain tumors with very high accuracy. These microRNAs thus represent excellent biomarkers for brain primary tumors. Previous reports have found that hsa-miR-92b and hsa-miR-9/hsa-miR-9* are expressed more strongly in developing neurons and brain than in adult brain. Thus, their specific over-expression in brain primary tumors supports a functional role for these microRNAs or a link between neuronal stem cells and brain tumorigenesis.
MicroRNA expression; Molecular diagnostics; Tumor classification
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are aberrantly expressed in many types of cancers. In this study, we determined the genome-wide miRNA profiles in bladder urothelial carcinoma by deep sequencing.
We detected 656 differentially expressed known human miRNAs and miRNA antisense sequences (miRNA*s) in nine bladder urothelial carcinoma patients by deep sequencing. Many miRNAs and miRNA*s were significantly upregulated or downregulated in bladder urothelial carcinoma compared to matched histologically normal urothelium. hsa-miR-96 was the most significantly upregulated miRNA and hsa-miR-490-5p was the most significantly downregulated one. Upregulated miRNAs were more common than downregulated ones. The hsa-miR-183, hsa-miR-200b∼429, hsa-miR-200c∼141 and hsa-miR-17∼92 clusters were significantly upregulated. The hsa-miR-143∼145 cluster was significantly downregulated. hsa-miR-182, hsa-miR-183, hsa-miR-200a, hsa-miR-143 and hsa-miR-195 were evaluated by Real-Time qPCR in a total of fifty-one bladder urothelial carcinoma patients. They were aberrantly expressed in bladder urothelial carcinoma compared to matched histologically normal urothelium (p<0.001 for each miRNA).
To date, this is the first study to determine genome-wide miRNA expression patterns in human bladder urothelial carcinoma by deep sequencing. We found that a collection of miRNAs were aberrantly expressed in bladder urothelial carcinoma compared to matched histologically normal urothelium, suggesting that they might play roles as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in the development and/or progression of this cancer. Our data provide novel insights into cancer biology.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are gene regulators involved in numerous diseases including cancer, heart disease, neurological disorders, vascular abnormalities and autoimmune conditions. Although hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism was shown to contribute to the susceptibility of multiple genes to cancer, the data have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, this meta-analysis was performed to provide a comprehensive assessment of potential association between hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and cancer risk. In this meta-analysis, a total of 9 articles regarding 10 eligible case-control studies in English (including 6134 cases and 7141 controls) were analyzed. No significant association between hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and overall cancer risk was demonstrated. However, an increased risk was observed in the subgroup of breast cancer patients (G allele vs A allele: OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.00-1.20; Pheterogeneity = 0.114; I2 = 53.9%) and population-based studies (G allele vs A allele: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.25; Pheterogeneity = 0.062; I2 = 64.0%). The findings suggested an association between hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and increased risk to breast cancer.
cancer; meta-analysis; hsa-mir-499 rs3746444; polymorphism; susceptibility; miRNAs; pre-miRNA
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, cell death and play an important role in a variety of diseases, especially in cancer. Recently, a number of studies have investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the hsa-miR-149 rs2292832 and susceptibility to cancer; however, the results remain inconclusive.
We carried out a meta-analysis of 12 studies including 5937 cases and 6081 controls from PubMed to assess the association between the hsa-miR-149 rs2292832 and cancer risk by pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). However, our results showed that genotype distribution of the hsa-miR-149 rs2292832 was not associated with cancer risk in all genetic models. Subgroup analysis by cancer type, ethnicity or study design showed no significant association either.
Results of this meta-analysis suggest that the hsa-miR-149 rs2292832 polymorphism is not associated with cancer risk in spite of the potentially protective role of C allele in hepatocellular carcinoma and male gastric cancer.
Emerging evidence has shown that miRNAs are involved in human carcinogenesis as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in pre-miRNAs may affect the processing and therefore, influence the expression of mature miRNAs. Previous studies generated conflicting results when reporting association between the hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 common polymorphism and breast cancer.
This study evaluated the hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 SNP in 388 breast cancer cases and 388 controls in Brazilian women. Polymorphism was determined by real-time PCR; control and experimental groups were compared through statistical analysis using the X2 or Fisher’s exact tests.
The analysis of the SNPs frequencies showed a significant difference between the groups (BC and CT) in regards to genotype distribution (χ2: p = 0.024); the homozygous variant (CC) was more frequent in the CT than in the BC group (p = 0.009). The presence of the hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 C/T polymorphism was not associated with histological grades (p = 0.522), axillary lymph node positive status (p = 0.805), or clinical stage (p = 0.670) among the breast cancer patients.
The results of this study indicated that the CC polymorphic genotype is associated with a decreased risk of BC and the presence of the T allele was significantly associated with an increased risk of BC.
Breast; Cancer; Polymorphisms; MicroRNAs
Specificity of interaction between a microRNA (miRNA) and its targets crucially depends on the seed region located in its 5′-end. It is often implicitly considered that two miRNAs sharing the same biological activity should display similarity beyond the strict six nucleotide region that forms the seed, in order to form specific complexes with the same mRNA targets. We have found that expression of hsa-miR-147b and hsa-miR-210, though triggered by different stimuli (i.e. lipopolysaccharides and hypoxia, respectively), induce very similar cellular effects in term of proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Hsa-miR-147b only shares a “minimal” 6-nucleotides seed sequence with hsa-miR-210, but is identical with hsa-miR-147a over 20 nucleotides, except for one base located in the seed region. Phenotypic changes induced after heterologous expression of miR-147a strikingly differ from those induced by miR-147b or miR-210. In particular, miR-147a behaves as a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation and migration. These data fit well with the gene expression profiles observed for miR-147b and miR-210, which are very similar, and the gene expression profile of miR-147a, which is distinct from the two others. Bioinformatics analysis of all human miRNA sequences indicates multiple cases of miRNAs from distinct families exhibiting the same kind of similarity that would need to be further characterized in terms of putative functional redundancy. Besides, it implies that functional impact of some miRNAs can be masked by robust expression of miRNAs belonging to distinct families.
Triple infection (TI) with HIV-1, HCV, and HBV (TI) is highly prevalent in intravenous drug users (IDUs). These TI patients have a faster progression to AIDS, and even after antiretroviral therapy (ART) the prognosis of their disease is poor. The use of microRNA (miRNA) to silence genes holds potential applications for anti-HCV therapy.
We analyzed the role of human miRNAs (hsa-miRs) in TI by computational analyses for HCV, HIV-1, and HBV showing identity to these three viral genomes.
We identified one unique miRNA, hsa-miR-3065-3p, that shares significant mutual identity to these three viral genomes (∼61–83%). In addition, hsa-miR-99, hsa-miR-548, and hsa-miR-122 also showed mutual identity with these three viral genomes, albeit at a lower degree (∼52–88%).
Here, we present evidence using essential components of bioinformatics tools, and hypothesize that utility of hsa-miR-3065-3p and perhaps miR-548 would be potential antiviral therapeutic agents in the treatment of TI patients because it shows near perfect alignment in the seed region for all three viruses. We also make an argument that current proposed therapy with hsa-miR-122 may not be the optimal choice for HCV patients since it lacks essential gene alignment and may be harmful for the patients.
HBV; HCV; HIV-1; homology; identity; inhibition; microRNA-based therapy; RNAi; triple infection