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1.  Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA, cagE, iceA, babA2, and oipA genotypes in patients with upper gastrointestinal diseases 
Background and Objectives
Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with peptic ulcer diseases, chronic gastritis, ulcers, and reported as a risk factor for gastric cancer, too. The vaculating cytotoxin (vacA), the cytotoxin associated genes (cagA), the induced by contact with epithelium factor antigen (iceA gene), blood adhesion binding antigen (babA2), and outer membrane protein oipA have been described as different virulence factors of H. pylori. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the vacA, cagA, cagE, iceA, babA2 and oipA genotypes of H. pylori isolates from patients with upper gasterointestinal problem or dyspepsia.
Material and Methods
H. pylori isolated from endoscopic biopsies obtained from 222 studied patients. PCR was done only on cultured positive samples. The vacA alleles, cagA, cagE, iceA, babA2 and oipA genotypes were determined by PCR.
The isolation rate of H. pylori strains from culture of gastric biopsies was 16.7%. The vacA alleles s1, s2, m1 and m2 were detected in 20 (54.1%), 14 (37.8%), 9 (24.3%) and 23 (62.2%) isolates, respectively. VacA s1c genotype was detected in 70.3% of isolates. s1m2 was the most frequent vacA allelic combination in the examined H. pylori strains. The cagA gene was detected in 62.2%, cagE in 40.5%, iceA1 in 48.6%, iceA2 in 16.2%, oipA in 81.1% (95% CI: 0.0902-0.1798) and babA2 in 94.6% (95% CI: 0.113- 0.207). A significant correlation was observed between vacAs1 and cagA genotypes (P<0.008), vacAs1/cagE (P=0.001), vacAs2/cagA (P<0.047), and vacAs2/cagE (P=0.016) with Non-ulcer dyspepsia; but there were not observed any correlation between other virulence markers.
No significant correlation was found between the existence of vacA, cagA, cagE, iceA, babA2, and oipA genes with peptic ulcer diseases and non-ulcer dyspepsia groups of studied patients.
PMCID: PMC4419040  PMID: 25954486
Helicobacter pylori; Prevalence; genotypes; gastrointestinal diseases
2.  Diversity of Helicobacter pylori genotypes in Iranian patients with different gastroduodenal disorders 
AIM: To investigate the diversity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) genotypes and correlations with disease outcomes in an Iranian population with different gastroduodenal disorders.
METHODS: Isolates of H. pylori from patients with different gastroduodenal disorders were analyzed after culture and identification by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Genomic DNA was extracted with the QIAamp DNA mini kit (Qiagen, Germany). After DNA extraction, genotyping was done for cagA, vacA (s and m regions), iceA (iceA1, iceA2) and babA with specific primers for each allele using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All patients’ pathologic and clinical data and their relation with known genotypes were analyzed by using SPSS version 19.0 software. χ2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used to assess relationships between categorical variables. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.
RESULTS: A total of 71 isolates from 177 patients with different gastroduodenal disorders were obtained. Based on analysis of the cagA gene (positive or negative), vacA s-region (s1 or s2), vacA m-region (m1 or m2), iceA allelic type (iceA1 and iceA2) and babA gene (positive or negative), twenty different genotypic combinations were recognized. The prevalence of cagA, vacA s1, vacA s2, vacA m1, vacA m2, iceA1, iceA2, iceA1+iceA2 and babA were 62%, 78.9%, 19.7%, 21.1%, 78.9%, 15.5%, 22.5%, 40.8% and 95.8%, respectively. Interestingly, evaluation of PCR results for cagA in 6 patients showed simultaneous existence of cagA variants according to their size diversities that proposed mixed infection in these patients. The most prevalent genotype in cagA-positive isolates was cagA+/vacAs1m2/iceA1+A2/babA+ and in cagA-negative isolates was cagA-/vacAs1m2/iceA-/babA+. There were no relationships between the studied genes and histopathological findings (H. pylori density, neutrophil activity, lymphoid aggregation in lamina propria and glandular atrophy). The strains which carry cagA, vacAs1/m1, iceA2 and babA genes showed significant associations with severe active chronic gastritis (P = 0.011, 0.025, 0.020 and 0.031, respectively). The vacAs1 genotype had significant correlation with the presence of the cagA gene (P = 0.013). Also, babA genotype showed associations with cagA (P = 0.024). In the combined genotypes, only cagA+/vacAs1m1/iceA2/babA+ genotype showed correlation with severe active chronic gastritis (P = 0.025).
CONCLUSION: This genotyping panel can be a useful tool for detection of virulent H. pylori isolates and can provide valuable guidance for prediction of the clinical outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3769906  PMID: 24039362
Helicobacter pylori; cagA; vacA; iceA; babA
3.  Genotyping CagA, VacA subtype, IceA1, and BabA of Helicobacter pylori isolates from Korean patients, and their association with gastroduodenal diseases. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2001;16(5):579-584.
The genetic status of cagA, vacA subtype, iceA1, and babA, and the relationship to gastroduodenal diseases were assessed in Helicobacter pylori isolates in Korea. Seventy-six strains of H. pylori were isolated from the antrum and the corpus of 41 adult patients (22 with peptic ulcer and 19 with gastritis). The cagA, iceA1, and babA genes were assessed by polymerase chain reaction and the vacA subtypes were determined by reverse hybridization-line probe assay. The positive rates of 349-bp cagA, 208-bp cagA, iceA1, and babA genes were 97.4%, 96.1%, 84.2%, and 36.1%, respectively. The vacA s1a, s1b, s1c, and s2 variants were detected in 11.8%, 3.9%, 80.4%, and 1.3%, respectively. m1 (78.9%) is more prevalent than m2 (5.3%). The most common vacA genotype was s1c/m1 (61.9%), and 14 isolates (18.4%) contained mixed vacA genotypes from a single biopsy specimen. Twenty-one (60%) of 35 patients were infected with more than two strains of different cagA, iceA1, babA, and vacA genotypes. None of cagA, iceA1, babA, and vacA s1/m1 were associated with peptic ulcer. In conclusion, most H. pylori isolates in Korea carry cagA, iceA1, and vacA s1c/m1 genes, and reside with multiple strains. These genes do not correlate with the peptic ulcer in the Korean patients.
PMCID: PMC3057590  PMID: 11641526
4.  Analysis of iceA genotypes in South African Helicobacter pylori strains and relationship to clinically significant disease 
Gut  2001;49(5):629-635.
BACKGROUND—South African Helicobacter pylori isolates are characterised by the universal presence of cagA but have differences in vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA) alleles which correlate with clinically significant disease. However, the candidate virulence marker gene iceA has not been investigated.
AIM—To characterise the genetic organisation and heterogeneity of iceA genotypes in different South African clinical isolates.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—We studied H pylori strains isolated from 86 dyspeptic patients (30 with peptic ulcer disease (PUD), 19 with distal gastric adenocarcinoma (GC), and 37 with non-erosive gastritis) for the presence of iceA1 or iceA2 genes, and for differences in the genetic organisation of iceA2 by polymerase chain reaction, Southern hybridisation analysis, and sequencing.
RESULTS—Genetic analysis of iceA1 demonstrated significant homology (92-95%) with the USA type strain 26695 and probably functions as a transcriptional regulator, while a novel variant (iceA2D') of iceA2 and marked differences in predicted protein secondary structure of the iceA2 protein were defined. iceA1 was detected in 68% and iceA2 in 80% of all clinical isolates. Although approximately 40% of patients had both strains, a higher prevalence (p< 0.01) of GC patients were infected with iceA1 isolates which were invariably vacA s1/iceA1 (p< 0.005 v gastritis). Isolates from PUD patients were distinguished by the structurally altered iceA2D variant (53%; p<0.03 v gastritis) while the iceA2C variant distinguished isolates from patients with gastritis alone (67%; p< 0.005 v PUD).
CONCLUSION—In this study, an association between iceA1 and GC was noted while differences in variants of iceA2 differentiated between PUD and gastritis alone. Combination analyses of iceA genotypes and vacA alleles supported these associations.

Keywords: adenocarcinoma; gastritis; Helicobacter pylori; iceA; peptic ulceration; protein prediction; sequencing; South Africa
PMCID: PMC1728508  PMID: 11600464
5.  Relationship between Helicobacter pylori iceA, cagA, and vacA Status and Clinical Outcome: Studies in Four Different Countries 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1999;37(7):2274-2279.
There is continuing interest in identifying Helicobacter pylori virulence factors that might predict the risk for symptomatic clinical outcomes. It has been proposed that iceA and cagA genes are such markers and can identify patients with peptic ulcers. We compared H. pylori isolates from four countries, looking at the cagA and vacA genotypes, iceA alleles, and presentation of the infection. We used PCR to examine iceA, vacA, and cagA status of 424 H. pylori isolates obtained from patients with different clinical presentations (peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, and atrophic gastritis). The H. pylori isolates examined included 107 strains from Bogota, Colombia, 70 from Houston, Tex., 135 from Seoul, Korea, and 112 from Kyoto, Japan. The predominant genotype differed among countries: the cagA-positive iceA1 vacA s1c-m1 genotype was predominant in Japan and Korea, the cagA-positive iceA2 vacA s1b-m1 genotype was predominant in the United States, and the cagA-positive iceA2 vacA s1a-m1 genotype was predominant in Colombia. There was no association between the iceA, vacA, or cagA status and clinical outcome in patients in the countries studied. iceA status shows considerable geographic differences, and neither iceA nor combinations of iceA, vacA, and cagA were helpful in predicting the clinical presentation of an H. pylori infection.
PMCID: PMC85136  PMID: 10364597
6.  Helicobacter pylori in Vegetables and Salads: Genotyping and Antimicrobial Resistance Properties 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:757941.
From a clinical and epidemiological perspective, it is important to know which genotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns are present in H. pylori strains isolated from salads and vegetables. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to find this purpose. Three hundred eighty washed and unwashed vegetable samples and fifty commercial and traditional salad samples were collected from Isfahan, Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method. Seven out of 50 (14%) salad and 52 out of 380 (13.68%) vegetable samples harbored H. pylori. In addition, leek, lettuce, and cabbage were the most commonly contaminated samples (30%). The most prevalent virulence genes were oipA (86.44%) and cagA (57.625). VacA s1a (37.28%) and iceA1 (47.45%) were the most prevalent genotypes. Forty different genotypic combinations were recognized. S1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (33.89%), s1a/cagA+/iceA2/oipA (30.50%), and m1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (28.81%) were the most prevalent combined genotypes. Bacterial strains had the highest levels of resistance against metronidazole (77.96%), amoxicillin (67.79%), and ampicillin (61.01%). High similarity in the genotyping pattern of H. pylori among vegetable and salad samples and human specimens suggests that vegetable and salads may be the sources of the bacteria.
PMCID: PMC4145543  PMID: 25184146
7.  Virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products in Iran 
Despite the high importance of Helicobacter pylori, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly determined. According to controversial theories and results of previous studies, animal source foods – especially milk – play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of vacA, cagA, iceA and oipA virulence factors in H. pylori strains isolated from milk and dairy products and study their antimicrobial resistance properties.
A total of 520 raw milk and 400 traditional dairy product samples were cultured and tested. Those that were H. pylori-positive were analyzed for the presence of vacA, cagA, iceA and oipA virulence factors. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method.
One hundred and three out of 520 milk samples (19.8%) and 77 out of 400 dairy products samples (19.2%) were contaminated with H. pylori. The most frequently contaminated samples were ovine milk (35%) and traditional cheese (30%). Total prevalence of vacA, cagA, iceA and oipA factors were 75%, 76.6%, 41.6% and 25%, respectively. H. pylori strains of milk and dairy products harbored high levels of resistance to ampicillin (84.4%), tetracycline (76.6%), erythromycin (70.5%) and metronidazole (70%).
High presence of antibiotic-resistant strains of H. pylori suggest that milk and dairy samples may be the sources of bacteria that can cause severe infection. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in H. pylori strains in Iran.
PMCID: PMC4396062  PMID: 25873940
Helicobacter pylori; Virulence factors; Antibiotic resistance properties; Milk; Dairy products; Iran
8.  Association of peptic ulcer with increased expression of Lewis antigens but not cagA, iceA, and vacA in Helicobacter pylori isolates in an Asian population 
Gut  2000;47(1):18-22.
BACKGROUND—Studies in Western populations suggest that cagA, iceA, and vacA gene status in Helicobacter pylori isolates is associated with increased virulence and peptic ulcer disease.
AIM—To investigate the relationship between peptic ulcer and expression of Lewis (Le) antigens as well as cagA, iceA, and vacA in H pylori isolates in Singapore.
METHODS—Expression of Le antigens in H pylori isolates obtained from patients with dyspepsia was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The cagA, iceA, and vacA status was determined by polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS—Of 108 H pylori isolates, 103 (95.4%) expressed Lex and/or Ley, while Lea and Leb were expressed in 23 (21.3%) and 47 (43.5%) isolates, respectively. Expression of two or more Le antigens (Lex, Ley, Lea, or Leb) was significantly higher in H pylori isolated from ulcer patients than in non-ulcer patients (89.6% v 73.2%, p=0.035). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of cagA or iceA1 in H pylori isolates from peptic ulcer and non-ulcer patients (86.6% v 90.2% for cagA; 70.1% v 68.3% for iceA1), and no association of peptic ulcer with any specific vacA genotype.
CONCLUSIONS—The present study indicates that peptic ulcer disease is associated with increased expression of Lewis antigens but not cagA, iceA, or vacA genotype in H pylori isolates in our population. This suggests that cagA, iceA, and vacA are not universal virulence markers, and that host-pathogen interactions are important in determining clinical outcome.

Keywords: Lewis blood group antigens; cagA; iceA; vacA; Helicobacter pylori; peptic ulcer
PMCID: PMC1727977  PMID: 10861258
9.  H pylori iceA alleles are disease-specific virulence factors 
AIM: To characterize and compare genotype profiles of H pylori strains isolated from patients with chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcer in western part of Turkey.
METHODS: A total of 46 patients [30 chronic gastritis (CG) and 16 duodenal ulcer (DU)] who had undergone endoscopy because of dyspeptic complaints were studied. The antral biopsy specimens were evaluated for the presence of H pylori by rapid urease test and culture, and the genotype profiles were determined by real-time PCR.
RESULTS: The cagA gene was observed in 43 (93.5%) isolates. The vacA s1m2 genotype was the predominant subtype, found in 63.3% and 68.7% of isolates in patients with CG and DU, respectively. Twenty (66.6%) isolates from patients with CG were iceA2 positive while the iceA1 was predominant in those with DU (68.8%). In terms of the association of the iceA alleles to other genes, both alleles were significantly associated with the cagA vacA s1m2 genotype.
CONCLUSION: The prevalent circulating genotypes in CG and DU were cagA vacA s1m2 iceA2 and cagA vacA s1m2 iceA1 genotype, respectively. It was found that cagA vacA s1m2 genotype seems to be common virulence factors in both CG and DU while iceA alleles show specificity for gastroduodenal pathologies in this study.
PMCID: PMC4146818  PMID: 17552005
H pylori; Virulence genes; Culture; Real-time PCR
10.  Characterization of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA Genotypes among Alaskans and Their Correlation with Clinical Disease▿ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(9):3114-3121.
Helicobacter pylori infection is common in Alaska. The development of severe H. pylori disease is partially determined by the virulence of the infecting strain. Here we present vacA and cagA genotype data for H. pylori strains isolated from Alaskans and their correlation with clinical disease. We enrolled patients scheduled for esophagogastroduodenoscopy and positive for H. pylori infection. Gastric biopsy specimens from the stomach antrum and fundus were cultured. We performed PCR analysis of the H. pylori vacA gene and for the presence of the cagA gene and cagA empty site. We genotyped 515 H. pylori samples from 220 Native and 66 non-Native Alaskans. We detected the cagA gene in 242/286 (85%) persons; of 222 strains that could be subtyped, 95% (212) were non-Asian cagA and 3% (6) were East Asian cagA. After removing mixed infections (n = 17), 83% of H. pylori strains had either the vacA s1m1 (120/269) or s2m2 (103/269) genotype. Sixty-six percent (68/103) of H. pylori strains with the vacA s2m2 genotype also contained the cagA gene. Infection with an H. pylori strain having the cagA gene or vacA s1m1 genotype (compared with s1m2 and s2m2) was associated with a decreased risk of esophagitis (P = 0.003 and 0.0003, respectively). Infection with an H. pylori strain having the vacA s1m1 genotype (compared with s1m2 and s2m2) was associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) (P = 0.003). The majority of H. pylori strains in this study carried the non-Asian cagA gene and either the vacA s1m1 or s2m2 genotype. A majority of H. pylori strains with the vacA s2m2 genotype also contained the cagA gene. There was an association of H. pylori genotype with esophagitis and PUD.
PMCID: PMC3165571  PMID: 21752979
11.  Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori virulence genotypes among children in Eastern Turkey 
AIM: To identify the virulence genotypes of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) if present in children in Eastern Turkey and if those genotypes are mostly associated with severe clinical presentations.
METHODS: A total of 49 H. pylori positive Turkish children (42 with antral nodularity and 7 with peptic ulcer) who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with abdominal symptoms during the period from March 2011 to September 2012 were enrolled in this study. Antral nodularity was diagnosed endoscopically by two of the authors. We determined for the presence of cagA, vacA, cagE, iceA and babA2 genotypes of H. pylori isolates in DNA obtained directly from frozen gastric biopsy samples by polymerase chain reaction test using specific primers.
RESULTS: Of the 49 H. pylori isolates studied, 61.2%, 91.8%, 22.4%, 28.6%, 57.1% and 40.8% were positive for the cagA, vacA s1, cagE, iceA1, iceA2 and babA2 genes, respectively. We showed that the most common vacA subtype was s1a (79.6%). However, the s2 gene was found less frequently with an isolation rate of 8.2% of the H. pylori isolates. The genotypes iceA2 and vacA s1m2 were the most frequently found types in children with antral nodularity. In addition, the genotypes iceA1, babA2 and vacA s1m1 were found in similar ratios in all the H. pylori isolates obtained from children with peptic ulcer. The genotypes vacA s2m1 and s1c were not observed in any of isolates studied.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that vacA s1m2, cagA and iceA2 were the most common genotypes, and no association between antral nodularity and genotypes was observed.
PMCID: PMC3801372  PMID: 24151385
Helicobacter pylori; Children; Genotype; Polymerase chain reaction
12.  Comparative genomics of Helicobacter pylori isolates recovered from ulcer disease patients in England 
BMC Microbiology  2005;5:32.
Genomic diversity of H. pylori from many different human populations is largely unknown. We compared genomes of 65 H. pylori strains from Nottingham, England. Molecular analysis was carried out to identify rearrangements within and outside the cag-pathogenicity-island (cag PAI) and DNA sequence divergence in candidate genes. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out based on various high-resolution genotyping techniques.
Analyses of virulence genes (cagT, cagE, cagA, vacA, iceA, oipA and babB) revealed that H. pylori strains from England are genetically distinct from strains obtained from other countries. The toxigenic vacA s1m1 genotype was found to be less common and the plasticity region cluster was found to be disrupted in all the isolates. English isolates showed a predominance of iceA1 alleles and a functional proinflammatory oipA gene. The English H. pylori gene pool revealed several Asian/oriental features. This included the predominance of cagA – glr (cagA right junction) motif types III and II (up to 42%), presence of vacA m1c alleles and phylogenetic affinity towards East Asian / Amerindian gene pools based on fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) analysis and glmM sequence analysis.
Overall, our results demonstrated genetic affinities of H. pylori in England with both European and the Asian gene pools and some distinctive genetic features of virulence genes that may have evolved in this important European population.
PMCID: PMC1180443  PMID: 15916705
13.  Regulation of Gastric Carcinogenesis by Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors 
Cancer research  2008;68(2):379-387.
Helicobacter pylori is the strongest known risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, and strains that possess the cag secretion system, which translocates the bacterial effector CagA into host cells, augment cancer risk. H. pylori strains that express the vacuolating cytotoxin or the outer membrane protein OipA are similarly associated with severe pathologic outcomes. We previously reported that an in vivo adapted H. pylori strain, 7.13, induces gastric adenocarcinoma in rodent models of gastritis. In the current study, we used carcinogenic strain 7.13 as a prototype to define the role of virulence constituents in H. pylori–mediated carcinogenesis. Mongolian gerbils were infected with wild-type strain 7.13 or cagA−, vacA−, or oipA− mutants for 12 to 52 weeks. All infected gerbils developed gastritis; however, inflammation was significantly attenuated in animals infected with the cagA− but not the vacA− or oipA− strains. Gastric dysplasia and cancer developed in >50% of gerbils infected with either the wild-type or vacA− strain but in none of the animals infected with the cagA− strain. Inactivation of oipA decreased β-catenin nuclear localization in vitro and reduced the incidence of cancer in gerbils. OipA expression was detected significantly more frequently among H. pylori strains isolated from human subjects with gastric cancer precursor lesions versus persons with gastritis alone. These results indicate that loss of CagA prevents the development of cancer in this model. Inactivation of oipA attenuates β-catenin nuclear translocation and also decreases the incidence of carcinoma. In addition to defining factors that mediate H. pylori–induced cancer, these results provide insight into mechanisms that may regulate the development of other malignancies arising within the context of inflammatory states.
PMCID: PMC3114460  PMID: 18199531
14.  Helicobacter pylori virulence genes in the five largest islands of Indonesia 
Gut Pathogens  2015;7:26.
It remains unclear whether the low incidence of gastric cancer in Indonesia is due to low infection rates only or is also related to low Helicobacter pylori pathogenicity. We collected H. pylori strains from the five largest islands in Indonesia and evaluated genetic virulence factors.
The genotypes of H. pylori virulence factors were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing. Histological severity of the gastric mucosa was classified into 4 grades, according to the updated Sydney system.
A total of 44 strains were analyzed. Forty-three (97.7 %) were cagA-positive: 26 (60.5 %) were East-Asian-type-cagA, 9 (20.9 %) were Western-type-cagA, and 8 (18.6 %) were novel ABB-type, most of which were obtained from Papuan. EPIYT sequences were more prevalent than EPIYA sequences (P = 0.01) in the EPIYA-B motif of all types of cagA. The majority of cagA-positive strains (48.8 %, 21/43) had a 6-bp deletion in the first pre-EPIYA region. Subjects infected with East-Asian-type-cagA strains with a 6-bp deletion had significantly lower inflammation and atrophy scores in the corpus than those infected with Western-type-cagA strains (both P = 0.02). In total, 70.4 % of strains possessed the vacA s1m1 genotype and 29.5 % were m2. All strains from peptic ulcer patients were of the iceA1 genotype, which occurred at a significantly higher proportion in peptic ulcer patients than that in gastritis patients (55.3 %, P = 0.04). The double positive genotype of jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT was predominant (28/44, 63.6 %), and subjects infected with this type had significantly higher inflammation scores in the corpus than those with the jhp0562 negative/β-(1,3)galT positive genotype (mean [median]; 1.43 [1] vs. 0.83 [1], P = 0.04). There were significant differences in cagA and pre-EPIYA cagA type, oipA status, and jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT type among different ethnic groups (P < 0.05).
In addition to a low H. pylori infection rate, the low incidence of gastric cancer in Indonesia might be attributed to less virulent genotypes in predominant strains, which are characterized by the East-Asian-type-cagA with a 6-bp deletion and EPIYT motif, a high proportion of m2, dupA negative or short type dupA, and the jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT double positive genotype.
PMCID: PMC4594740  PMID: 26442711
Helicobacter pylori; Indonesia; Virulence factors
15.  Determination of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genes in Gastric Biopsies by PCR 
ISRN Gastroenterology  2013;2013:606258.
Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of H. pylori in biopsy specimens from symptomatic patients by PCR. In addition, the rate of cagA, vacA, iceA1, and iceA2 virulence genes was determined. Materials and Methods. One hundred antral gastric biopsy specimens were collected during endoscopy from patients suffering from gastroduodenal symptoms. The samples were collected by the gastroenterologists in their own clinics in Ramallah, Palestine. DNA was extracted from the biopsies and subsequently used for PCR identification of H. pylori and the virulence genes using specific primers. Results. The rate of positive H. pylori in the collected biopsies was 44%. The rates of the virulence genes in this sample: cagA, vacA, iceA1, and iceA2 were 65.9%, 40.9%, 63.6%, and 84.1%, respectively. Conclusion. The iceA2 gene was the most frequent in this study. Much research is necessary to determine the presence of an association of this gene with gastric pathology. Variation in the rates of the iceA gene in different countries is a strong indication of its geographical distribution. This study would provide important information regarding the prevalence of virulence genes (vacA, cagA, iceA1, and iceA2) in H. pylori strains in the sample tested in this country.
PMCID: PMC3649278  PMID: 23691338
16.  Helicobacter pylori cagA, iceA and vacA genotypes in patients with gastric cancer in Taiwan 
AIM: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) has been linked to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and MALT-lymphoma. The link of genotypes of H pylori to gastric cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the H pylori vacA alleles, cagA and iceA in patients with gastric cancer in Taiwan.
METHODS: Patients with gastric cancer, peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis were enrolled in this study. We obtained biopsy specimens from the stomach at least 2 cm away from the tumor margin in patients with gastric cancer, and from the antrum of stomach in patients with peptic ulcer or chronic gastritis. DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the presence or absence of cagA and to assess the polymorphism of vacA and iceA.
RESULTS: A total of 168 patients (gastric ulcer: 77, duodenal ulcer: 66, and chronic gastritis: 25) were found to have positive PCR results of the biopsy specimens from patients with peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis. We found positive cagA (139/168, 83%), m2 (84/168, 50%) and iceA1 (125/168, 74%) strains in the majority of patients. In patients with gastric cancer, the vacA s1a and s1c subtypes were less commonly found than those in non-cancer patients (35/66 vs 127/168, P = 0.0001 for s1a and 13/66 vs 93/168, P < 0.0001 for s1c). In the middle region, the m1T strain in patients with gastric cancer was more than that of non-cancer patients (23/66 vs 33/168, P = 0.02).
CONCLUSION: In Taiwan, H pylori with positive vacA s1a, cagA and iceA1 strains are found in the majority of patients with gastric cancer or non-cancer patients. In patients with gastric cancer, the vacA s1a and s1c subtypes are less and m1T is more than in patients with peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis.
PMCID: PMC4572148  PMID: 15300891
17.  Prevalence of genotypes in Helicobacter pyloriisolates from patients in eastern Turkey and the association of these genotypes with clinical outcome 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2012;43(4):1332-1339.
There is not much information available regarding the prevalence of the genotypes of Helicobacter pylori isolates in Turkey, particularly in eastern Turkey. The aims of this study were to detect the prevalence of different genotypes of H. pylori in Turkish patients with gastrointestinal complaints and to determine the relationship of these genotypes with clinical outcome and sex. One hundred forty H. pylori isolates were examined for the presence of its genotypes by the PCR. We found that the prevalence of vacAs1,vacAs2, cagA, cagE, iceA1, iceA2 and babA2 genes were 88.6%, 11.4%, 71.4%, 35.7%, 41.4%, 58.6%, and 62.1%, respectively. The most predominant vacA subtype was s1a (81.4%). The most vacA allelic combination detected were vacAs1m1 (65.2%) and s1m2 (53.9%) in patients with peptic ulcer and gastritis, respectively. The only vacAs1 isolate was significantly associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer (p<0.05). The vacAs1a, ml, slml and babA2 genes were significantly associated with peptic ulcer (p<0.05), whereas m2 gene was significantly associated with only gastritis (p<0.05). The difference between sex and genotypes was statistically significant among the cagA,vacAs1, iceA2 and babA2 genes. This study reported for the first time the prevalence of H. pylori genotypes in patients with gastrointestinal complaints in eastern Turkey. Further studies are needed to understand epidemiological importance of the genotypes of H. pylori isolates in this region and the association between the virulence genes and clinical outcome in different regions.
PMCID: PMC3769024  PMID: 24031961
Helicobacter pylori; prevalence; patient; genotypes; PCR
18.  Analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates 
BMC Gastroenterology  2003;3:20.
In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of primary resistance of Brazilian H. pylori isolates to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and furazolidone. In addition, the vacA, iceA, cagA and cagE genotypes of strains isolated from Brazilian patients were determined and associated with clinical data in an effort to correlate these four virulence markers and antibiotic resistance.
H. pylori was cultured in 155 H. pylori-positive patients and MICs for metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and furazolidone were determined by the agar dilution method. Genomic DNA was extracted, and allelic variants of vacA, iceA, cagA and cagE were identified by the polymerase chain reaction.
There was a strong association between the vacA s1/cagA -positive genotype and peptic ulcer disease (OR = 5.42, 95% CI 2.6–11.3, p = 0.0006). Additionally, infection by more virulent strains may protect against GERD, since logistic regression showed a negative association between the more virulent strain, vacA s1/cagA-positive genotype and GERD (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.08–0.8, p = 0.03). Resistance to metronidazole was detected in 75 patients (55%), to amoxicillin in 54 individuals (38%), to clarithromycin in 23 patients (16%), to tetracycline in 13 patients (9%), and to furazolidone in 19 individuals (13%). No significant correlation between pathogenicity and resistance or susceptibility was detected when MIC values for each antibiotic were compared with different vacA, iceA, cagA and cagE genotypes.
The analysis of virulence genes revealed a specific association between H. pylori strains and clinical outcome, furthermore, no significant association was detected among pathogenicity and resistance or susceptibility.
PMCID: PMC194586  PMID: 12911839
19.  Distribution of Helicobacter pylori cagA, cagE, oipA and vacA in different major ethnic groups in Tehran, Iran 
Background and Aim
There are geographical variations in Helicobacter pylori virulence genes; cagA, cagE, vacA and oipA. The present study compared the distribution of these genotypes in major ethnic groups residing in Tehran, Iran and their association with clinical outcomes.
A total of 124 H. pylori-positive patients living in Tehran were enrolled in this study. The ethnic distribution was 74 Persians, 33 Turks and 17 other ethnics including Kurds, Lurs, Afghanis and Arabs. The presence of the cagA, cagE and oipA genes and vacA alleles (signal [s] and middle [m] region) were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from H. pylori DNA.
The cagA-positive status was predominant in all three ethnic groups (e.g. 65% in Persians and 73% in Turks). In contrast, the cagE-positive status was less than half in Persians (47%) and Turks (30%), whereas it was 77% in other ethnicities (P = 0.008). The predominant vacA genotypes were s1 and m1 in all three ethnic groups (e.g. 68% in Persians and 70% in Turks were s1). There was no significant association between cagA and cagE status or vacA genotypes and clinical outcomes. The oipA-positive strains were more common in non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) (63%) than in peptic ulcer patients (15%) (P = 0.001) in Persians, but the association was not observed in other ethnic groups.
There are some differences in the H. pylori genotypes among the ethnic groups in Iran. However, none of these markers seemed to be clinically helpful in predicting the clinical presentation of a H. pylori infection in Iran.
PMCID: PMC3128249  PMID: 19702906
clinical outcome; ethnic; Helicobacter pylori genotype; Iran; virulence factor
20.  Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA, and iceA Genotypes in Cuban Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Diseases 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:753710.
Virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori can predict the development of different gastroduodenal diseases. There are scarce reports in Cuba about H. pylori isolates genotyping. The aim of the present investigation was to identify allelic variation of the virulence genes vacA, cagA, and iceA in sixty-eight patients diagnosed as H. pylori positive by culture. In seven out of 68 patients, strains from both gastric regions were obtained and considered independent. DNA was extracted from all the H. pylori strains and evaluated by PCR-genotyping. The vacA s1 allele, cagA gene, and iceA2 allele were the most prevalent (72.0%, 56.0%, and 57.3%, respectively). Alleles from m-region showed a similar frequency as s1a and s1b subtypes. The presence of multiple H. pylori genotypes in a single biopsy and two gastric region specimens were found. Significant statistical association was observed between iceA2 allele and patients with non-peptic ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) (P = 0.037) as well as virulence genotypes (s1, s1m2) and patients over 40 years old (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the results demonstrated a high prevalence of H. pylori virulent genotypes in Cuban patients over 40 years old while iceA2 alleles demonstrated a good specificity in patients with NUD.
PMCID: PMC4402555  PMID: 25945344
21.  Clinical and histological associations of cagA and vacA genotypes in Helicobacter pylori gastritis. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1998;51(1):55-61.
AIMS: To determine the relation among the cytotoxin associated gene (cagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA) status of Helicobacter pylori isolates, the associated clinical diseases, and the severity and pattern of chronic gastritis. METHODS: Helicobacter pylori was cultured from gastric biopsies obtained from dyspeptic patients. DNA was extracted from the isolates and the cagA and vacA status determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence of the different cagA and vacA genotypes in three clinical groups, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and non-ulcer dyspepsia was compared. The histological features in sections from two antral and two corpus biopsies were graded by one blinded observer. The grades were compared with age and sex matched groups with different cagA and vacA genotypes, and with duodenal ulcers, or non-ulcer dyspepsia. RESULTS: Isolates from 161 patients were included. One hundred and nine (68%) harboured a cagA+ strain and 143 (89%) harboured a vacA s1 strain. The prevalence of cagA+ strains in duodenal ulcer patients (94%) was highly significantly greater than in those with non-ulcer dyspepsia (56%). However, of the patients infected with a cagA+ strain, almost equal numbers had non-ulcer dyspepsia or peptic ulceration. Chronic inflammation, polymorph activity, surface epithelial degeneration, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia were all significantly more severe in the cagA+ than in the cagA- group, whereas only corpus epithelial degeneration was significantly more severe in the vacA s1 group compared with the vacA s2 group. Patients infected with cagA+ strains were almost four times more likely to have antral intestinal metaplasia than cagA- patients. An antral predominant gastritis was present in duodenal ulcer patients compared with matched non-ulcer dyspepsia patients, but this was not attributable to cagA or vacA status. CONCLUSIONS: Helicobacter pylori strains showing cagA positively and the vacA s1 genotype are associated with more severe gastritis but these virulence factors do not appear to determine the overall pattern. The pattern is closely linked to clinical disease. Therefore, it is likely that the nature of the disease complicating chronic infection is determined by host and environmental factors, while bacterial factors determine the magnitude of the risk of developing such disease.
PMCID: PMC500433  PMID: 9577374
22.  Host Cell Responses to Genotypically Similar Helicobacter pylori Isolates from United States and Japan 
Associations of Helicobacter pylori genotypes with disease differ between Western countries and Asia. Therefore, we directly compared histopathological and in vitro responses to clinical isolates with similar genotypes. Sixty-three cagA+ vacAs1/m1 H. pylori isolates (United States, n = 24; Japan, n = 39) and eight cagA-negative vacAs2/m2 strains were incubated with AGS cells, and supernatants were assayed for interleukin-8 (IL-8) and for DNA fragmentation. CagA tyrosine phosphorylation in AGS cells and the sequence of the putative HP0638 (oipA) signal sequence region were determined for 22 representative strains. HP0638 and/or cag island mutant strains were created and examined in IL-8 and CagA tyrosine phosphorylation assays. Levels of IL-8 induction and DNA fragmentation were similar in the U.S. and Japanese cagA+ vacAs1/m1 isolates. All 10 of the isolates with the highest IL-8 induction and 8 of the 10 isolates with the lowest IL-8 induction had an in-frame oipA open reading frame, and all 10 of the isolates with the highest IL-8 induction and 7 of the 10 isolates with the lowest IL-8 induction induced CagA tyrosine phosphorylation in AGS cells. Eight isolates from gastric ulcer patients induced significantly more apoptosis in vitro, and more severe gastritis and atrophy in vivo, than other Japanese isolates. Disruption of HP0638 did not affect IL-8 induction or CagA tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, H. pylori cagA+ vacAs1/m1 isolates from the United States and Japan induce similar IL-8 and apoptosis levels. Inactivation of HP0638 does not alter epithelial responses mediated by the cag island in vitro. Assessment of apoptosis in vitro identified a group of H. pylori isolates that induce more severe gastric inflammation and atrophy.
PMCID: PMC119904  PMID: 11777849
23.  Evaluation of the Association of Nine Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors with Strains Involved in Low-Grade Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma  
Infection and Immunity  2004;72(2):880-888.
Helicobacter pylori has been associated with the development of two malignant diseases: gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Although the cag pathogenicity island, especially the cagA gene, has been linked with adenocarcinoma, few data concerning H. pylori pathogenic factors involved in low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma are available. The goal of this study was to analyze the prevalence of and correlation between genes coding for seven H. pylori virulence factors (cagA, cagE, vacA, iceA, babA, hopQ, and oipA) and two novel adhesins (sabA and hopZ) by comparing a collection of 43 H. pylori strains isolated from patients with low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma to 39 strains isolated from age-matched patients with gastritis only. Our results show that taken individually, none of the nine genes tested can be considered associated with MALT strains and allow us to conclude that MALT pathogenesis is not linked with more proinflammatory H. pylori strains. We demonstrated that in patients infected with strains harboring the iceA1 allele, sabA functional status, and hopZ “off” status, the odds of developing a MALT lymphoma were 10 times higher. However, the low prevalence of such strains (10 of 43 MALT strains) renders this triple association a low-sensitivity marker for MALT strains. Our data confirmed that H. pylori virulence factors are correlated with one another. If the involvement of H. pylori in MALT lymphoma is well established, the pathomechanism by which gastric lymphoma occurs remains to be identified.
PMCID: PMC321584  PMID: 14742532
24.  Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA Genotypes and Correlation With Clinical Outcome in Patients With Dyspepsia in Hamadan Province, Iran 
Helicobacter pylori is known to be a causative agent of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer in human. Diverse genotypes of H. pylori strains have different virulence potency and geographic distribution.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA), and the various vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes of H. pylori strains and clinical outcomes in patients referred to Shahid-Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan, Iran.
Patients and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, biopsy samples were collected consecutively from 153 patients with gastric cancer (GC), peptic ulcer dyspepsia (PUD) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) in the gastroenterology department of Shahid-Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan province, the west of Iran. H. pylori infection was confirmed in 83 patients (3 with GC, 27 with PUD, and 53 with NUD) by histology, rapid urease test (RUT) and culture. Genomic DNA was extracted from the bacterial isolate and was further confirmed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing as H. pylori, and characterized based on cagA and vacA genotyping using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
In this study, vacA genotypes s1/m2, s1/m1, s2/m2 and s2/m1 were determined in 43.4%, 19.3%, 13.2% and 6% of the isolated H. pylori, respectively. The vacAs1 genotype was detected in 52 (62.6%) isolates, of which the vacAs1a genotype was detected in 45.2, 40.7, and 66.6% of the isolates from patients with NUD, PUD, and GC, respectively. The cagA-positive genotype was determined in 73 (87.9%) isolates and 10 (12.1%) were negative. The frequency rates of cagA gene were 84.9, 92.6 and 100% in isolates of patients with NUD, PUD, and GC, respectively. The cagA-positive genotype is strongly associated with s1a/m2 and s1a/m1 vacA genotypes.
The most predominant VacA genotypes in our areas were s1/m2 and s1/m1, which regard as the genotypes with more virulence intensity. The H. pylori vacAs1a, cagA genotypes have a significant relationship with the presence of PUD and GC in Iranian patients with dyspepsia.
PMCID: PMC4329959  PMID: 25763216
Helicobacter Pylori; VacA; cagA; Genotyping
25.  The Efficacy of Laboratory Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infections in Gastric Biopsy Specimens Is Related to Bacterial Density and vacA, cagA, and iceA Genotypes 
A total of 500 consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy were biopsied and tested for H. pylori infection by the Campylobacter-like organism (CLO) test, culture, histology, and PCR. Serum samples were tested by two different serological assays. Patients were considered H. pylori positive if at least two of the four biopsy specimen-based methods yielded positive results. PCR had the highest diagnostic sensitivity (99.4%), followed by histology (92.2%), culture (89.5%), and the CLO test (89.0%). The specificities of all methods were higher than 98%. Of the organisms from the 181 PCR-positive patients, the vacA (s and m regions), cagA, and iceA genotypes were determined by reverse hybridization (line probe assay) or an allele-specific PCR. Organisms that were detected by PCR but that remained undetected by the CLO test were significantly more often vacA s1 (P = 0.006), m1 (P = 0.028), and cagA positive (P = 0.029) than vacA s2, m2, and cagA negative, respectively. Organisms that were detected by PCR but that remained undetected by culture or histology more often contained iceA1 (P = 0.034 and P = 0.029, respectively) than iceA2. Higher H. pylori density was associated with vacA s2 (P = 0.024), vacA m2 (P = 0.050), and cagA-negative (P = 0.035) genotypes. Also, the diagnostic results of the CLO test (P = 0.001) and culture (P = 0.031) but not those of the PCR (P = 0.130) were significantly associated with the H. pylori density. The rate of detection by the four biopsy specimen-based tests was lower for patients who used proton pump inhibitors, but this was independent of the H. pylori genotypes. These observations may be explained by different bacterial densities, as established by the distinct genotypes of H. pylori, and confirm that the biologies of strains with such genotypes are considerably different.
PMCID: PMC86006  PMID: 10618055

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