Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is most often precipitated by myocardial infarction. However, the molecular changes driving cardiac dysfunction immediately after myocardial infarction remain poorly understood. Myofilament proteins, responsible for cardiac contraction and relaxation, play critical roles in signal reception and transduction in HF. Post-translational modifications of myofilament proteins afford a mechanism for the beat-to-beat regulation of cardiac function. Thus it is of paramount importance to gain a comprehensive understanding of post-translational modifications of myofilament proteins involved in regulating early molecular events in the post-infarcted myocardium. We have developed a novel liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based top-down proteomics strategy to comprehensively assess the modifications of key cardiac proteins in the myofilament subproteome extracted from a minimal amount of myocardial tissue with high reproducibility and throughput. The entire procedure, including tissue homogenization, myofilament extraction, and on-line LC/MS, takes less than three hours. Notably, enabled by this novel top-down proteomics technology, we discovered a concerted significant reduction in the phosphorylation of three crucial cardiac proteins in acutely infarcted swine myocardium: cardiac troponin I and myosin regulatory light chain of the myofilaments and, unexpectedly, enigma homolog isoform 2 (ENH2) of the Z-disc. Furthermore, top-down MS allowed us to comprehensively sequence these proteins and pinpoint their phosphorylation sites. For the first time, we have characterized the sequence of ENH2 and identified it as a phosphoprotein. ENH2 is localized at the Z-disc, which has been increasingly recognized for its role as a nodal point in cardiac signaling. Thus our proteomics discovery opens up new avenues for the investigation of concerted signaling between myofilament and Z-disc in the early molecular events that contribute to cardiac dysfunction and progression to HF.
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the application of biventricular stimulation to correct discoordinate contraction, is the only heart failure treatment that enhances acute and chronic systolic function, increases cardiac work, and reduces mortality. Resting myocyte function also increases after CRT despite only modest improvement in calcium transients, suggesting that CRT may enhance myofilament calcium responsiveness. To test this hypothesis, we examined adult dogs subjected to tachypacing-induced heart failure for 6 weeks, concurrent with ventricular dyssynchrony (HFdys) or CRT. Myofilament force-calcium relationships were measured in skinned trabeculae and/or myocytes. Compared with control, maximal calcium-activated force and calcium sensitivity declined globally in HFdys; however, CRT restored both. Phosphatase PP1 induced calcium desensitization in control and CRT-treated cells, while HFdys cells were unaffected, implying that CRT enhances myofilament phosphorylation. Proteomics revealed phosphorylation sites on Z-disk and M-band proteins, which were predicted to be targets of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). We found that GSK-3β was deactivated in HFdys and reactivated by CRT. Mass spectrometry of myofilament proteins from HFdys animals incubated with GSK-3β confirmed GSK-3β–dependent phosphorylation at many of the same sites observed with CRT. GSK-3β restored calcium sensitivity in HFdys, but did not affect control or CRT cells. These data indicate that CRT improves calcium responsiveness of myofilaments following HFdys through GSK-3β reactivation, identifying a therapeutic approach to enhancing contractile function.
The identification of protein isoforms in complex biological samples is challenging. We, therefore, used a mass spectrometry (MS) approach to unambiguously identify cardiac myofilament protein isoforms based on the observation of a tryptic peptide consisting of a sequence unique to a particular isoform.
Three different workflows were used to isolate and fractionate rat cardiac myofilament subproteomes. All fractions were analyzed on an LTQ-Orbitrap MS, proteins were identified using various search engines (Mascot, X!Tandem, X!Tandem Kscore and OMSSA) with results combined via PepArML Meta-Search Engine, and a post-search analysis was performed by MASPECTRAS.
The combination of multiple workflows and search engines resulted in a larger number of non-redundant proteins identified than with individual methods. A total of 102 myofilament annotated proteins were observed overlapping in two or three of the workflows. Literature search for myofilament presence with manual validation of the MS spectra was carried out for unambiguous identification: 10 cardiac myofilament and 17 cardiac myofilament-associated proteins were identified with 39 isoforms and sub-isoforms.
Conclusion and clinical relevance
We have identified multiple isoforms of myofilament proteins that are present in cardiac tissue using unique tryptic peptides. Changes in distribution of these protein isoforms under pathological conditions could ultimately allow for clinical diagnostics or as therapeutic targets.
An increase in intracellular Ca2+ is the primary trigger of contraction of gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscles. However, increasing the Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments by elevating myosin light chain phosphorylation also plays an essential role. Inhibiting myosin light chain phosphatase activity with protein kinase C-potentiated phosphatase inhibitor protein-17 kDa (CPI-17) and myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation is considered to be the primary mechanism underlying myofilament Ca2+ sensitization. The relative importance of Ca2+ sensitization mechanisms to the diverse patterns of GI motility is likely related to the varied functional roles of GI smooth muscles. Increases in CPI-17 and MYPT1 phosphorylation in response to agonist stimulation regulate myosin light chain phosphatase activity in phasic, tonic, and sphincteric GI smooth muscles. Recent evidence suggests that MYPT1 phosphorylation may also contribute to force generation by reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanisms responsible for maintaining constitutive CPI-17 and MYPT1 phosphorylation in GI smooth muscles are still largely unknown. The characteristics of the cell-types comprising the neuroeffector junction lead to fundamental differences between the effects of exogenous agonists and endogenous neurotransmitters on Ca2+ sensitization mechanisms. The contribution of various cell-types within the tunica muscularis to the motor responses of GI organs to neurotransmission must be considered when determining the mechanisms by which Ca2+ sensitization pathways are activated. The signaling pathways regulating Ca2+ sensitization may provide novel therapeutic strategies for controlling GI motility. This article will provide an overview of the current understanding of the biochemical basis for the regulation of Ca2+ sensitization, while also discussing the functional importance to different smooth muscles of the GI tract.
Gastrointestinal motility; Myosin-light-chain phosphatase; Phosphorylation; Signal transduction; Smooth muscle
Protein phosphorylation is reversibly regulated by the interplay between kinases and phosphatases. Recent developments within the field of proteomics have revealed the extent of this modification in nature. To date there is still a lack of information about phosphatase specificity for different proteomes and their conditions to achieve maximum enzyme activity. This information is important per se, and in addition often requested in functional and biochemical in vitro studies, where a dephosphorylated sample is needed as a negative control to define baseline conditions. In this study, we have addressed the effectiveness of two phosphatases endogenously present in the heart (protein phosphatases 1 and 2A) and two generic phosphatases (alkaline phosphatase and lambda protein phosphatase) on three cardiac subproteomes known to be regulated by phosphorylation. We optimized the dephoshorylating conditions on a cardiac tissue fraction comprising cytosolic and myofilament proteins using 2-DE and MS. The two most efficient conditions were further investigated on a mitochondrial-enriched fraction. Dephosphorylation of specific proteins depends on the phosphatase, its concentration, as well as sample preparation including buffer composition. Finally, we analyzed the efficiency of alkaline phosphatase, the phosphatase with the broadest substrate specificity, using TiO2 peptide enrichment and 2DLC-MS/MS. Under these conditions, 95% of the detected cardiac cytoplasmic-enriched phospho-proteome was dephosphorylated. In summary, targeting dephosphorylation of the cardiac muscle subproteome or a specific protein will drive the selection of the specific phosphatase, and each requires different conditions for optimal performance.
dephosphorylation; phosphatase; phosphorylation; cardiac muscle; 2-DE DIGE
This study was conducted to identify molecular mechanisms which explain interventricular differences in myofilament function in experimental congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF was induced in rats by chronic aortic banding or myocardial infarction for 32–36 weeks. Right and left ventricular (RV, LV) myocytes were mechanically isolated, triton-skinned, and attached to a force transducer and motor arm. Myofilament force–[Ca2+] relations assessed maximal Ca2+-saturated force (Fmax) and the [Ca2+] at 50% of Fmax (EC50). Myofilament protein phosphorylation was determined via ProQ diamond phospho-staining. Protein kinase C (PKC)-α expression/activation and site-specific phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) were measured via immunoblotting. Relative to controls, failing RV myocytes displayed a ~45% decrease in Fmax with no change in EC50, whereas failing LV myocytes displayed a ~45% decrease in Fmax and ~50% increase in EC50. Failing LV myofilaments were less Ca2+-sensitive (37% increase in EC50) than failing RV myofilaments. Expression and activation of PKC-α was increased twofold in failing RV myocardium and relative to the RV, PKC-α was twofold higher in the failing LV, while PKC-β expression was unchanged by CHF. PKC-α-dependent phosphorylation and PP1-mediated dephosphorylation of failing RV myofilaments increased EC50 and increased Fmax, respectively. Phosphorylation of cTnI and cTnT was greater in failing LV myofilaments than in failing RV myofilaments. RV myofilament function is depressed in experimental CHF in association with increased PKC-α signaling and myofilament protein phosphorylation. Furthermore, myofilament dysfunction is greater in the LV compared to the RV due in part to increased PKC-α activation and phosphorylation of cTnI and cTnT.
Heart; Muscle mechanics; Force–pCa relation; Myofilaments; Protein kinase C; Hypertrophy
Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac muscle disease with left ventricular hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. Increased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity could be the underlying cause of diastolic dysfunction. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), a catechin found in green tea, has been reported to decrease myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in HCM models with troponin mutations. However, whether this is also the case for HCM-associated thick filament mutations is not known. Therefore, we evaluated whether EGCg affects the behavior of cardiomyocytes and myofilaments of an HCM mouse model carrying a gene mutation in cardiac myosin-binding protein C and exhibiting both increased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and diastolic dysfunction.
Methods and Results: Acute effects of EGCg were tested on fractional sarcomere shortening and Ca2+ transients in intact ventricular myocytes and on force-Ca2+ relationship of skinned ventricular muscle strips isolated from Mybpc3-targeted knock-in (KI) and wild-type (WT) mice. Fractional sarcomere shortening and Ca2+ transients were analyzed at 37°C under 1-Hz pacing in the absence or presence of EGCg (1.8 μM). At baseline and in the absence of Fura-2, KI cardiomyocytes displayed lower diastolic sarcomere length, higher fractional sarcomere shortening, longer time to peak shortening and time to 50% relengthening than WT cardiomyocytes. In WT and KI neither diastolic sarcomere length nor fractional sarcomere shortening were influenced by EGCg treatment, but relaxation time was reduced, to a greater extent in KI cells. EGCg shortened time to peak Ca2+ and Ca2+ transient decay in Fura-2-loaded WT and KI cardiomyocytes. EGCg did not influence phosphorylation of phospholamban. In skinned cardiac muscle strips, EGCg (30 μM) decreased Ca2+ sensitivity in both groups.
Conclusion: EGCg hastened relaxation and Ca2+ transient decay to a larger extent in KI than in WT cardiomyocytes. This effect could be partially explained by myofilament Ca2+ desensitization.
epigallocatechin-3-gallate; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Mybpc3; myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity; relaxation; Ca2+ transient
Endothelial-dependent regulation of vascular tone occurs in part via protein kinase G1α-mediated changes in smooth muscle myofilament sensitivity to Ca2+. Tissue-specific differences in PKG-dependent relaxation have been attributed to altered expression of myofilament-associated proteins that are substrates for PKG binding. These include the alternative splicing of the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1) of myosin light chain phosphatase to yield leucine zipper positive (LZ+) and negative (LZ−) isovariants, with the former being required for PKG-mediated relaxation, and/or altered expressions of telokin, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) or heat shock protein Hsp20. During human pregnancy the uterine and placental circulations remain distinct entities and, as such, their mechanisms of vascular tone regulation may differ. Indeed, the sensitivity of myometrial arteries to endothelial-dependent agonists has been suggested to be greater than that of placental arteries. We tested the hypothesis that this was related to tissue-specific changes in PKG-mediated myofilament Ca2+-desensitization and/or the expressions of PKG-interacting myofilament-associated proteins. Permeabilized human placental and myometrial arteries were constricted with maximal activating Ca2+ (pCa 4.5), or sub-maximal Ca2+ (pCa 6.7) and the thrombane mimetic U46619, and exposed to 8-Br-cGMP. In each case, relaxation was significantly greater in myometrial arteries (e.g. relaxation in pCa 4.5 to 8-Br-cGMP was 49 ± 9.7%, n = 7) than placental arteries (relaxation of 23 ± 6.6%, n = 6, P < 0.05). MYPT1 protein levels, or MYPT1 LZ+/LZ− mRNA ratios, were similar for both artery types. Of other proteins examined, only Hsp20 expression was significantly elevated in myometrial arteries than placental arteries. These results demonstrate that the reduced human placental artery relaxation to PKG stimulation lies partly at the level of myofilament (de)activation and may be related to a lower expression of Hsp20 than in myometrial arteries.
human placental arteries; human myometrial arteries; PKG; Hsp20
Myofilament calcium sensitivity is an often-used indicator of cardiac muscle function, often assessed in disease states such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). While assessment of calcium sensitivity provides important insights into the mechanical force-generating capability of a muscle at steady-state, the dynamic behavior of the muscle cannot be sufficiently assessed with a force-pCa curve alone. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of the force-pCa curve depends on the ratio of the apparent calcium association rate constant (kon) and apparent calcium dissociation rate constant (koff) of calcium on TnC and as a stand-alone parameter cannot provide an accurate description of the dynamic contraction and relaxation behavior without the additional quantification of kon or koff, or actually measuring dynamic twitch kinetic parameters in an intact muscle. In this review, we examine the effect of length, frequency, and beta-adrenergic stimulation on myofilament calcium sensitivity and dynamic contraction in the myocardium, the effect of membrane permeabilization/mechanical- or chemical skinning on calcium sensitivity, and the dynamic consequences of various myofilament protein mutations with potential implications in contractile and relaxation behavior.
muscle; twitch; kinetics; desensitize; sensitize
Myofilaments are composed of thin and thick filaments which coordinate with each other to regulate muscle contraction and relaxation. Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) together with genetic variations and alternative splicing of the myofilament proteins play essential roles in regulating cardiac contractility in health and disease. Therefore, a comprehensive characterization of the myofilament proteins in physiological and pathological conditions is essential for better understanding the molecular basis of cardiac function and dysfunction. Due to the vast complexity and dynamic nature of proteins, it is challenging to obtain a holistic view of myofilament protein modifications. In recent years, top-down mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a powerful approach to study isoform composition and PTMs of proteins owing to its advantage of complete sequence coverage and its ability to identify PTMs and sequence variants without a priori knowledge. In this review, we will discuss the application of top-down MS to study cardiac myofilaments and highlight the insights it provides into the understanding of molecular mechanisms in contractile dysfunction of heart failure. Particularly, recent results of cardiac troponin and tropomyosin modifications will be elaborated. The limitations and perspectives on the use of top-down MS for myofilament protein characterization will also be briefly discussed.
Sepsis-associated cardiac dysfunction represents an intrinsic impairment of cardiomyocyte function due in part to a decrease in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity associated with a sustained increase in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) phosphorylation at Ser23/24. Dephosphorylation of cTnI is under regulatory control. Thus, muscarinic and adenosine A1-receptor agonists antagonize β-adrenergic stimulation via activation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). The aim of this study was to determine whether modulation of PP2A and thus cTnI phosphorylation could improve sepsis-induced contractile dysfunction.
Methods and results
Cardiomyocytes were isolated from control or septic mice 16–18 h after an injection of vehicle or lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 9 mg/kg ip) respectively. Protein expression and phosphatase activity were determined in homogenates of control and septic hearts. Our data showed that LPS significantly increased cTnI phosphorylation at Ser23/24 in cardiomyocytes and reduced contraction amplitude without affecting Ca2+-transients. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with the A1 agonist cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) or the protein kinase A inhibitor H89 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced contractile dysfunction without effect on Ca2+-transients. Co-treatment with CPA and H89 completely reversed the contractile dysfunction. Increased cTnI phosphorylation in septic hearts was associated with a significant reduction in the protein expression of both the catalytic and regulatory subunits (B56α) of PP2A and a decrease in PP2A activity. CPA treatment of septic hearts increased PP2A activity. An increase in the protein expression of demethylated PP2A and a decrease in the PP2A-methyltransferase (PPMT; the methyltransferase that catalyses this reaction) were also observed.
These data support the hypothesis that sustained cTnI phosphorylation underlies the contractile dysfunction seen in sepsis.
Troponin I; Cardiomyocytes; Myofilaments; Phosphorylation; Protein phosphatase 2A
SR33805, a potent Ca2+ channel blocker, increases cardiac myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in healthy rat cardiomyocytes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of SR33805 on contractile properties in ischaemic failing hearts after myocardial infarction (MI) in vivo and in vitro at the cellular level.
Methods and results
The effect of SR33805 (10 µM) was tested on the excitation–contraction coupling of cardiomyocytes isolated from rat with end-stage heart failure. Cell shortening and Ca2+ transients were measured in intact cardiomyocytes, while contractile properties were determined in Triton X-100 permeabilized myocytes. Acute treatment with SR33805 restored the MI-altered cell shortening without affecting the Ca2+ transient amplitude, suggesting an increase of myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in MI myocytes. Indeed, a SR33805-induced sensitization of myofilament activation was found to be associated with a slight increase in myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation and a more significant decrease on troponin I (TnI) phosphorylation. Decreased TnI phosphorylation was related to inhibition of protein kinase A activity by SR33805. Finally, administration of a single intra-peritoneal bolus of SR33805 (20 mg/kg) improved end-systolic strain and fractional shortening of MI hearts.
The present study indicates that treatment with SR33805 improved contractility of ischaemic failing hearts after MI in the rat by selectively modulating the phosphorylation status of sarcomeric regulatory proteins, which then sensitized the myofilaments to Ca2+. Our results gave a proof of concept that manipulation of the Ca2+ sensitivity of sarcomeric regulatory proteins can be used to improve contractility of a failing heart.
Myocytes; Heart failure; Contractile function; Sarcomere; Ventricular function
Increased vascular smooth muscle contractility has an important role in the development of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity is a major determinant of smooth muscle contractility. We investigated changes in the Ca2+-sensitizing effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the mechanisms underlying ET-1-induced Ca2+ sensitization after SAH using a rabbit SAH model. After SAH, the contractile response to ET-1 was enhanced, and the ETA receptor expression was upregulated in the basilar artery. In α-toxin-permeabilized preparations, ET-1 induced enhanced and prolonged contraction after SAH, suggesting that ET-1-induced Ca2+ sensitization is potentiated after SAH. Endothelin-1-induced Ca2+ sensitization became less sensitive to inhibitors of Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase (ROCK) and protein kinase C (PKC) after SAH. The expression of PKCα, ROCK2, PKC-potentiated phosphatase inhibitor of 17 kDa (CPI-17) and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) was upregulated, and the level of phosphorylation of CPI-17 and MYPT1 was elevated after SAH. This study demonstrated for the first time that the Ca2+-sensitizing effect of ET-1 on myofilaments is potentiated after SAH. The increased expression and activity of PKCα, ROCK2, CPI-17, and MYPT1, as well as the upregulation of ETA receptor expression are suggested to underlie the enhanced and prolonged Ca2+ sensitization induced by ET-1.
calcium; pharmacology; physiology; smooth muscle; subarachnoid hemorrhage; vasospasm
Myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) is a small protein in the myosin complex, regulating muscle contractile function by modulating Ca2+ sensitivity of myofilaments. MLC2 can be modified by phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation, two reversible and dynamic posttranslational modifications. The slow isoform of MLC2 (sMLC2) is dephosphorylated in soleus muscle during in situ loaded shortening contractions, which correlates with reduction in shortening capacity. Here, we hypothesize that exhausting in vivo treadmill running induces dephosphorylation of MLC2 in slow twitch soleus, but not in fast twitch EDL muscle, and that there are reciprocal changes in MLC2 O-GlcNAcylation. At rest, both phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation of MLC2 were lower in slow than fast twitch muscles. One bout of exhausting treadmill running induced dephosphorylation of sMLC2 in soleus, paralleled by reduced levels of the kinase MLCK2 associated to myofilaments, suggesting that the acute reduction in phosphorylation is mediated by dissociation of MLCK2 from myofilaments. O-GlcNAcylation of MLC2 did not change significantly, and seems of limited importance in the regulation of MLC2 phosphorylation during in vivo running. After 6 weeks of treadmill running, the dephosphorylation of sMLC2 persisted in soleus along with reduction in MLCK2 both in myofilament- and total protein fraction. In EDL on the contrary, phosphorylation of MLC2 was not altered after one exercise bout or after 6 weeks of treadmill running. Thus, in contrast to fast twitch muscle, MLC2 dephosphorylation occurs in slow twitch muscle during in vivo exercise and may be linked to reduced myofilament-associated MLCK2 and reduced shortening capacity.
Exercise; myosin light chain; protein O-GlcNAcylation; protein phosphorylation
Estrogens have well-recognized and complex cardiovascular effects, including altering myocardial contractility through changes in myofilament function. The presence of multiple estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms in the heart may explain some discrepant findings about the cardiac effects of estrogens. Most studies examining the impact of estrogens on the heart have focused on chronic changes in estrogen levels, and have not investigated rapid, non-genomic pathways. The first objective of this study was to determine how acute activation of ERα impacts cardiac myofilaments. Nongenomic myocardial estrogen signaling is associated with the activation of a variety of signaling pathways. p38 MAPK has been implicated in acute ER signaling in the heart, and is known to affect myofilament function. Thus, the second objective of this study was to determine if acute ERα activation mediates its myofilament effects through p38 MAPK recruitment. Hearts from female C57Bl/6 mice were perfused with the ERα agonist PPT and myofilaments isolated. Activation of ERα depressed actomyosin MgATPase activity and decreased myofilament calcium sensitivity. Inhibition of p38 MAPK attenuated the myofilament effects of ERα activation. ERα stimulation did not affect global myofilament protein phosphorylation, but troponin I phosphorylation at the putative PKA phosphorylation sites was decreased. Changes in myofilament activation did not translate into alterations in whole heart function. The present study provides evidence supporting rapid, non-genomic changes in cardiac myofilament function following acute ERα stimulation mediated by the p38 MAPK pathway.
Our previous studies demonstrated a relation between glutathionylation of cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) and diastolic dysfunction in a hypertensive mouse model stressed by treatment with salt, deoxycorticosterone acetate, and unilateral nephrectomy. Although these results strongly indicated an important role for S-glutathionylation of myosin binding protein C as a modifier of myofilament function, indirect effects of other post-translational modifications may have occurred. Moreover, we did not determine the sites of thiol modification by glutathionylation. To address these issues, we developed an in vitro method to mimic the in situ S-glutathionylation of myofilament proteins and determined direct functional effects and sites of oxidative modification employing Western blotting and mass spectrometry. We induced glutathionylation in vitro by treatment of isolated myofibrils and detergent extracted fiber bundles (skinned fibers) with oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Immuno-blotting results revealed increased glutathionylation with GSSG treatment of a protein band around 140 kDa. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we identified the 140 kDa band as cMyBP-C and determined the sites of glutathionylation to be at cysteines 655, 479, and 627. Determination of the relation between Ca2+-activation of myofibrillar acto-myosin ATPase rate demonstrated an increased Ca2+-sensitivity induced by the S-glutathionylation. Force generating skinned fiber bundles also showed an increase in Ca-sensitivity when treated with oxidized glutathione, which was reversed with the reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT). Our data demonstrate that a specific and direct effect of S-glutathionylation of myosin binding protein C is a significant increase in myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity. Our data also provide new insights into the functional significance of oxidative modification of myosin binding protein C and the potential role of domains not previously considered to be functionally significant as controllers of myofilament Ca2+-responsiveness and dynamics.
oxidative stress; sarcomeres; C-protein; cardiac relaxation
Aims: The heart responds to physiological and pathophysiological stress factors by increasing its production of nitric oxide (NO), which reacts with intracellular glutathione to form S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a protein S-nitrosylating agent. Although S-nitrosylation protects some cardiac proteins against oxidative stress, direct effects on myofilament performance are unknown. We hypothesize that S-nitrosylation of sarcomeric proteins will modulate the performance of cardiac myofilaments. Results: Incubation of intact mouse cardiomyocytes with S-nitrosocysteine (CysNO, a cell-permeable low-molecular-weight nitrosothiol) significantly decreased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. In demembranated (skinned) fibers, S-nitrosylation with 1 μM GSNO also decreased Ca2+ sensitivity of contraction and 10 μM reduced maximal isometric force, while inhibition of relaxation and myofibrillar ATPase required higher concentrations (≥100 μM). Reducing S-nitrosylation with ascorbate partially reversed the effects on Ca2+ sensitivity and ATPase activity. In live cardiomyocytes treated with CysNO, resin-assisted capture of S-nitrosylated protein thiols was combined with label-free liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to quantify S-nitrosylation and determine the susceptible cysteine sites on myosin, actin, myosin-binding protein C, troponin C and I, tropomyosin, and titin. The ability of sarcomere proteins to form S-NO from 10–500 μM CysNO in intact cardiomyocytes was further determined by immunoblot, with actin, myosin, myosin-binding protein C, and troponin C being the more susceptible sarcomeric proteins. Innovation and Conclusions: Thus, specific physiological effects are associated with S-nitrosylation of a limited number of cysteine residues in sarcomeric proteins, which also offer potential targets for interventions in pathophysiological situations. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1017–1034.
There is over-whelming evidence that protein phosphorylations regulate cardiac function and remodeling. A wide variety of protein kinases, e.g., phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, GSK-3, TGFβ, and PKA, MAPKs, PKC, Erks, and Jaks, as well as phosphatases, e.g., phosphatase I (PP1) and calcineurin, control cardiomyocyte growth and contractility. In the present work, we used global phosphoprotein profiling to identify phosphorylated proteins associated with pressure overload (PO) cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Phosphoproteins from hypertrophic and systolic failing hearts from male hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats, trans-aortic banded (TAC), and spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats were analyzed. Profiling was performed by 2-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) on phospho-enriched proteins. A total of 25 common phosphoproteins with differences in abundance in (1) the 3 hypertrophic and/or (2) the 2 systolic failure heart models were identified (CI>99%) by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and Mascot analysis. Among these were (1) myofilament proteins, including alpha-tropomyosin and myosin regulatory light chain 2, cap Z interacting protein (cap ZIP), and tubulin β5; (2) mitochondrial proteins, including pyruvate dehydrogenase α, branch chain ketoacid dehydrogenase E1, and mitochondrial creatine kinase; (3) phosphatases, including protein phosphatase 2A and protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit; and (4) other proteins including proteosome subunits α type 3 and β type 7, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A (eIF1A). The results include previously described and novel phosphoproteins in cardiac hypertrophy and systolic failure.
Hypertrophy; Heart failure; Pressure overload; Phospho-profiling; 2D-DIGE; Dahl rats
Protein phosphatase (PP) type 2A is a multifunctional serine/threonine phosphatase that is involved in cardiac excitation–contraction coupling. The PP2A core enzyme is a dimer, consisting of a catalytic C and a scaffolding A subunit, which is targeted to several cardiac proteins by a regulatory B subunit. At present, it is controversial whether PP2A and its subunits play a critical role in end-stage human heart failure. Here we report that the application of purified PP2AC significantly increased the Ca2+-sensitivity (ΔpCa50 = 0.05 ± 0.01) of the contractile apparatus in isolated skinned myocytes of non-failing (NF) hearts. A higher phosphorylation of troponin I (cTnI) was found at protein kinase A sites (Ser23/24) in NF compared to failing myocardium. The basal Ca2+-responsiveness of myofilaments was enhanced in myocytes of ischemic (ICM, ΔpCa50 = 0.10 ± 0.03) and dilated (DCM, ΔpCa50 = 0.06 ± 0.04) cardiomyopathy compared to NF. However, in contrast to NF myocytes the treatment with PP2AC did not shift force-pCa relationships in failing myocytes. The higher basal Ca2+-sensitivity in failing myocytes coincided with a reduced protein expression of PP2AC in left ventricular tissue from patients suffering from ICM and DCM (by 50 and 56% compared to NF, respectively). However, PP2A activity was unchanged in failing hearts despite an increase of both total PP and PP1 activity. The expression of PP2AB56α was also decreased by 51 and 62% in ICM and DCM compared to NF, respectively. The phosphorylation of cTnI at Ser23/24 was reduced by 66 and 49% in ICM and DCM compared to NF hearts, respectively. Our results demonstrate that PP2A increases myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity in NF human hearts, most likely via cTnI dephosphorylation. This effect is not present in failing hearts, probably due to the lower baseline cTnI phosphorylation in failing compared to non-failing hearts.
Protein phosphatase 2A; Myofilament function; Protein phosphorylation; Cardiomyocyte; Troponin I
The Beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) stimulation enhances contractility through protein kinase-A (PKA) substrate phosphorylation. This PKA signaling is conferred in part by PKA binding to A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). AKAPs coordinate multi-protein signaling networks that are targeted to specific intracellular locations, resulting in the localization of enzyme activity and transmitting intracellular actions of neurotransmitters and hormones to its target substrates. In particular, mAKAP (muscle-selective AKAP) has been shown to be present on the nuclear envelope of cardiomyocytes with various proteins including: PKA-regulatory subunit (RIIα), phosphodiesterase-4D3, protein phosphatase-2A, and ryanodine receptor (RyR2). Therefore, through the coordination of spatial-temporal signaling of proteins and enzymes, mAKAP controls cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels very tightly and functions as a regulator of PKA-mediated substrate phosphorylation leading to changes in calcium availability and myofilament calcium sensitivity. The goal of this review is to elucidate the critical compartmentalization role of mAKAP in mediating PKA signaling and regulating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by acting as a scaffolding protein. Based on our literature search and studying the structure–function relationship between AKAP scaffolding protein and its binding partners, we propose possible explanations for the mechanism by which mAKAP promotes cardiac hypertrophy.
hypertrophy; protein kinase A (PKA); A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP); contractility
In the heart, lysine acetylation has been implicated in processes ranging from transcriptional control of pathological remodeling, to cardioprotection arising from caloric restriction. Given the emerging importance of this post-translational modification, we used a proteomic approach to investigate the broader role of lysine acetylation in the heart using a guinea pig model. Briefly, hearts were fractionated into myofilament-, mitochondrial- and cytosol-enriched fractions prior to proteolysis and affinity-enrichment of acetylated peptides. LC-MS/MS analysis identified 1075 acetylated peptides, harboring 994 acetylation sites that map to 240 proteins with a global protein false discovery rate <0.8%. Mitochondrial targets account for 59% of identified proteins and 64% of sites. The majority of the acetyl-proteins are enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation or the TCA cycle. Within the cytosolic fraction, the enzymes of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and lipid binding are prominent. Nuclear targets included histones and the transcriptional regulators E1A(p300) and CREB binding protein. Comparison of our dataset with three previous global acetylomic studies uniquely revealed 53 lysine-acetylated proteins. Specifically, newly-identified acetyl-proteins include Ca2+-handling proteins, RyR2 and SERCA2, and the myofilament proteins, myosin heavy chain, myosin light chains and subunits of the Troponin complex, among others. These observations were confirmed by anti-acetyl-lysine immunoblotting. In summary, cardiac lysine acetylation may play a role in cardiac substrate selection, bioenergetic performance, and maintenance of redox balance. New sites suggest a host of potential mechanisms by which excitation-contraction coupling may also be modulated.
Previous studies indicated that the increase in protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated myofilament protein phosphorylation observed in failing myocardium might be detrimental for contractile function. This study was designed to reveal and compare the effects of PKCα- and PKCε-mediated phosphorylation on myofilament function in human myocardium. Isometric force was measured at different [Ca2+] in single permeabilized cardiomyocytes from failing human left ventricular tissue. Activated PKCα and PKCε equally reduced Ca2+ sensitivity in failing cardiomyocytes (ΔpCa50 = 0.08 ± 0.01). Both PKC isoforms increased phosphorylation of troponin I- (cTnI) and myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) in failing cardiomyocytes. Subsequent incubation of failing cardiomyocytes with the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) resulted in a further reduction in Ca2+ sensitivity, indicating that the effects of both PKC isoforms were not caused by cross-phosphorylation of PKA sites. Both isozymes showed no effects on maximal force and only PKCα resulted in a modest significant reduction in passive force. Effects of PKCα were only minor in donor cardiomyocytes, presumably because of already saturated cTnI and cMyBP-C phosphorylation levels. Donor tissue could therefore be used as a tool to reveal the functional effects of troponin T (cTnT) phosphorylation by PKCα. Massive dephosphorylation of cTnT with alkaline phosphatase increased Ca2+ sensitivity. Subsequently, PKCα treatment of donor cardiomyocytes reduced Ca2+ sensitivity (ΔpCa50 = 0.08 ± 0.02) and solely increased phosphorylation of cTnT, but did not affect maximal and passive force. PKCα- and PKCε-mediated phosphorylation of cMyBP-C and cTnI as well as cTnT decrease myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and may thereby reduce contractility and enhance relaxation of human myocardium.
Protein kinase C; Cardiac; Heart failure; Myofilament function; Contractile proteins; Phosphorylation
Aim: Transmural differences in sarcomeric protein composition and function across the left ventricular (LV) wall have been reported. We studied in pigs sarcomeric function and protein phosphorylation in subepicardial (EPI) and subendocardial (ENDO) layers of remote LV myocardium after myocardial infarction (MI), induced by left circumflex coronary artery ligation. Methods: EPI and ENDO samples were taken 3 weeks after sham surgery (n = 12) or induction of MI (n = 12) at baseline (BL) and during β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulation with dobutamine. Isometric force was measured in single cardiomyocytes at various [Ca2+] and 2.2 μm sarcomere length. Results: In sham hearts, no significant transmural differences were observed in myofilament function or protein phosphorylation. Myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity was significantly higher in both EPI and ENDO of MI compared to sham hearts. Maximal force was significantly reduced in MI compared to sham, but solely in ENDO cells. A higher passive force was observed in MI hearts, but only in EPI cells. The proportion of stiff N2B isoform was higher in EPI than in ENDO in both sham and MI hearts, and a trend toward increased N2B-proportion appeared in MI EPI, but not MI Endo. Analysis of myofilament protein phosphorylation did not reveal significant transmural differences in phosphorylation of myosin binding protein C, desmin, troponin T, troponin I (cTnI), and myosin light chain 2 (MLC-2) both at BL and during βAR stimulation with dobutamine infusion. A significant increase in MLC-2 phosphorylation was observed during dobutamine only in sham. In addition, the increase in cTnI phosphorylation upon dobutamine was twofold lower in MI than in sham. Conclusion: Myofilament dysfunction is present in both EPI and ENDO in post-MI remodeled myocardium, but shows a high degree of qualitative heterogeneity across the LV wall. These heterogeneous transmural changes in sarcomeric properties likely contribute differently to systolic vs. diastolic global LV dysfunction after MI.
sarcomere function; myocardial infarction; heart; subendocardium; subepicardium; protein phosphorylation
The highly organized contractile machinery in skeletal and cardiac muscles requires an assembly of myofilament proteins with stringent stoichiometry. To understand the maintenance of myofilament protein stoichiometry under dynamic protein synthesis and catabolism in muscle cells, we investigated the equilibrium of troponin I (TnI) in mouse cardiac muscle during developmental isoform switching and in under- and over-expression models. Compared with the course of developmental TnI isoform switching in normal hearts, the postnatal presence of slow skeletal muscle TnI lasted significantly longer in the hearts of cardiac TnI (cTnI) knockout (cTnI-KO) mice, in which the diminished synthesis was compensated by prolonging the life of myofilamental TnI. Transgenic postnatal expression of an N-terminal truncated cTnI (cTnI-ND) using α-myosin heavy chain promoter effectively rescued the lethality of cTnI-KO mice and shortened the postnatal presence of slow TnI in cardiac muscle. cTnI-KO mice rescued with different levels of cTnI-ND over-expression exhibited similar levels of myocardial TnI comparable to that in wild type hearts, demonstrating that excessive synthesis would not increase TnI stoichiometry in the myofilaments. Consistently, haploid under-expression of cTnI in heterozygote cTnI-KO mice was sufficient to sustain the normal level of myocardial cTnI, indicating that cTnI is synthesized in excess in wild type cardiomyocytes. Altogether, these observations suggest that under wide ranges of protein synthesis and turnover, myofilament incorporation determines the stoichiometry of troponin subunits in muscle cells.
myofilament; troponin; stoichiometry; cardiac troponin I knockout mice; cardiac muscle
High-myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity has been proposed as trigger of disease pathogenesis in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) based on in vitro and transgenic mice studies. However, myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity depends on protein phosphorylation and muscle length, and at present, data in human are scarce.
To investigate whether high-myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity and perturbed length-dependent activation are characteristics for human HCM with mutations in thick- and thin-filament proteins.
Methods and Results
Cardiac samples from patients with HCM harboring mutations in genes encoding thick (MYH7, MYBPC3) and thin (TNNT2, TNNI3, TPM1) filament proteins were compared with sarcomere mutation-negative HCM and nonfailing donors. Cardiomyocyte force measurements showed higher myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity in all HCM samples and low phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA)-targets compared with donors. After exogenous PKA treatment, myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity was either similar (MYBPC3mut, TPM1mut, sarcomere mutation-negative HCM), higher (MYH7mut, TNNT2mut), or even significantly lower (TNNI3mut) compared with donors. Length-dependent activation was significantly smaller in all HCM than in donor samples. PKA treatment increased phosphorylation of PKA-targets in HCM myocardium and normalized length-dependent activation to donor values in sarcomere mutation-negative HCM and HCM with truncating MYBPC3 mutations, but not in HCM with missense mutations. Replacement of mutant by wild-type troponin in TNNT2mut and TNNI3mut corrected length-dependent activation to donor values.
High-myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity is a common characteristic of human HCM and partly reflects hypophosphorylation of PKA-targets compared with donors. Length-dependent sarcomere activation is perturbed by missense mutations, possibly via post-translational modifications other than PKA-hypophosphorylation or altered protein–protein interactions, and represents a common pathomechanism in HCM.
calcium; cardiomyopathy; contractility; hypertrophy; myocardium