Protein phosphorylation is reversibly regulated by the interplay between kinases and phosphatases. Recent developments within the field of proteomics have revealed the extent of this modification in nature. To date there is still a lack of information about phosphatase specificity for different proteomes and their conditions to achieve maximum enzyme activity. This information is important per se, and in addition often requested in functional and biochemical in vitro studies, where a dephosphorylated sample is needed as a negative control to define baseline conditions. In this study, we have addressed the effectiveness of two phosphatases endogenously present in the heart (protein phosphatases 1 and 2A) and two generic phosphatases (alkaline phosphatase and lambda protein phosphatase) on three cardiac subproteomes known to be regulated by phosphorylation. We optimized the dephoshorylating conditions on a cardiac tissue fraction comprising cytosolic and myofilament proteins using 2-DE and MS. The two most efficient conditions were further investigated on a mitochondrial-enriched fraction. Dephosphorylation of specific proteins depends on the phosphatase, its concentration, as well as sample preparation including buffer composition. Finally, we analyzed the efficiency of alkaline phosphatase, the phosphatase with the broadest substrate specificity, using TiO2 peptide enrichment and 2DLC-MS/MS. Under these conditions, 95% of the detected cardiac cytoplasmic-enriched phospho-proteome was dephosphorylated. In summary, targeting dephosphorylation of the cardiac muscle subproteome or a specific protein will drive the selection of the specific phosphatase, and each requires different conditions for optimal performance.
dephosphorylation; phosphatase; phosphorylation; cardiac muscle; 2-DE DIGE
Activation of the β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) pathway is the main mechanism of the heart to increase cardiac output via protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of cellular target proteins, and perturbations therein may contribute to cardiac dysfunction in heart failure. In the present study a comprehensive analysis was made of mediators of the βAR pathway, myofilament properties and cardiac structure in patients with idiopathic (IDCM; n = 13) and ischemic (ISHD; n = 10) cardiomyopathy in comparison to non-failing hearts (donor; n = 10) for the following parameters: βAR density, G-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 5, stimulatory and inhibitory G-proteins, phosphorylation of myofilament targets of PKA, protein phosphatase 1, phospholamban, SERCA2a and single myocyte contractility. All parameters exhibited the expected alterations of heart failure, but for most of them the extent of alteration was greater in IDCM than in ISHD. Histological analysis also revealed higher collagen in IDCM compared to ISHD. Alterations in the βAR pathway are more pronounced in IDCM than in ISHD and may reflect sequential changes in cellular protein composition and function. Our data indicate that cellular dysfunction is more severe in IDCM than in ISHD.
β-Adrenergic receptor; Protein phosphorylation; Myofilament function; Cardiomyocyte; Collagen
Previous studies indicated that the increase in protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated myofilament protein phosphorylation observed in failing myocardium might be detrimental for contractile function. This study was designed to reveal and compare the effects of PKCα- and PKCε-mediated phosphorylation on myofilament function in human myocardium. Isometric force was measured at different [Ca2+] in single permeabilized cardiomyocytes from failing human left ventricular tissue. Activated PKCα and PKCε equally reduced Ca2+ sensitivity in failing cardiomyocytes (ΔpCa50 = 0.08 ± 0.01). Both PKC isoforms increased phosphorylation of troponin I- (cTnI) and myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) in failing cardiomyocytes. Subsequent incubation of failing cardiomyocytes with the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) resulted in a further reduction in Ca2+ sensitivity, indicating that the effects of both PKC isoforms were not caused by cross-phosphorylation of PKA sites. Both isozymes showed no effects on maximal force and only PKCα resulted in a modest significant reduction in passive force. Effects of PKCα were only minor in donor cardiomyocytes, presumably because of already saturated cTnI and cMyBP-C phosphorylation levels. Donor tissue could therefore be used as a tool to reveal the functional effects of troponin T (cTnT) phosphorylation by PKCα. Massive dephosphorylation of cTnT with alkaline phosphatase increased Ca2+ sensitivity. Subsequently, PKCα treatment of donor cardiomyocytes reduced Ca2+ sensitivity (ΔpCa50 = 0.08 ± 0.02) and solely increased phosphorylation of cTnT, but did not affect maximal and passive force. PKCα- and PKCε-mediated phosphorylation of cMyBP-C and cTnI as well as cTnT decrease myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and may thereby reduce contractility and enhance relaxation of human myocardium.
Protein kinase C; Cardiac; Heart failure; Myofilament function; Contractile proteins; Phosphorylation
Chronic pressure overload to the heart leads to cardiac hypertrophy and failure through processes that involve reorganization of subcellular compartments and alteration of established signaling mechanisms. To identify proteins contributing to this process, we examined changes in nuclear-associated myofilament proteins as the murine heart undergoes progressive hypertrophy following pressure overload. Calsarcin-1, a negative regulator of calcineurin signaling in the heart, was found to be enriched in cardiac nuclei and displays increased abundance following pressure overload through a mechanism that is decoupled from transcriptional regulation. Using proteomics, we identified novel processing of this protein in the setting of cardiac injury and identified four residues subject to modification by phosphorylation. These studies are the first to determine mechanisms regulating calsarcin abundance during hypertrophy and failure and reveal the first evidence of post-translational modifications of calsarcin-1 in the myocardium. Overall, the findings expand the roles calsarcins to include nuclear tasks during cardiac growth.
phosphorylation; signal transduction; proteomics; nucleus; cardiac hypertrophy
Sepsis-associated cardiac dysfunction represents an intrinsic impairment of cardiomyocyte function due in part to a decrease in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity associated with a sustained increase in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) phosphorylation at Ser23/24. Dephosphorylation of cTnI is under regulatory control. Thus, muscarinic and adenosine A1-receptor agonists antagonize β-adrenergic stimulation via activation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). The aim of this study was to determine whether modulation of PP2A and thus cTnI phosphorylation could improve sepsis-induced contractile dysfunction.
Methods and results
Cardiomyocytes were isolated from control or septic mice 16–18 h after an injection of vehicle or lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 9 mg/kg ip) respectively. Protein expression and phosphatase activity were determined in homogenates of control and septic hearts. Our data showed that LPS significantly increased cTnI phosphorylation at Ser23/24 in cardiomyocytes and reduced contraction amplitude without affecting Ca2+-transients. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with the A1 agonist cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) or the protein kinase A inhibitor H89 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced contractile dysfunction without effect on Ca2+-transients. Co-treatment with CPA and H89 completely reversed the contractile dysfunction. Increased cTnI phosphorylation in septic hearts was associated with a significant reduction in the protein expression of both the catalytic and regulatory subunits (B56α) of PP2A and a decrease in PP2A activity. CPA treatment of septic hearts increased PP2A activity. An increase in the protein expression of demethylated PP2A and a decrease in the PP2A-methyltransferase (PPMT; the methyltransferase that catalyses this reaction) were also observed.
These data support the hypothesis that sustained cTnI phosphorylation underlies the contractile dysfunction seen in sepsis.
Troponin I; Cardiomyocytes; Myofilaments; Phosphorylation; Protein phosphatase 2A
Sarcomere maintenance, the continual process of replacement of contractile proteins of the myofilament lattice with newly synthesized proteins, in fully differentiated contractile cells is not well understood. Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of epitope-tagged tropomyosin (Tm) and troponin I (TnI) into adult cardiac myocytes in vitro along with confocal microscopy was used to examine the incorporation of these newly synthesized proteins into myofilaments of a fully differentiated contractile cell. The expression of epitope-tagged TnI resulted in greater replacement of the endogenous TnI than the replacement of the endogenous Tm with the expressed epitope-tagged Tm suggesting that the rates of myofilament replacement are limited by the turnover of the myofilament bound protein. Interestingly, while TnI was first detected in cardiac sarcomeres along the entire length of the thin filament, the epitope-tagged Tm preferentially replaced Tm at the pointed end of the thin filament. These results support a model for sarcomeric maintenance in fully differentiated cardiac myocytes where (a) as myofilament proteins turnover within the cell they are rapidly exchanged with newly synthesized proteins, and (b) the nature of replacement of myofilament proteins (ordered or stochastic) is protein specific, primarily affected by the structural properties of the myofilament proteins, and may have important functional consequences.
muscle proteins; tropomyosin; troponin; cardiomyocyte; muscle structure
Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is an effective anti-cancer drug, but its clinical usage is limited by a dose-dependent cardiotoxicity characterized by widespread sarcomere disarray and loss of myofilaments. Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP, ANKRD1) is a transcriptional regulatory protein that is extremely susceptible to doxorubicin; however, the mechanism(s) of doxorubicin-induced CARP depletion and its specific role in cardiomyocytes have not been completely defined. We report that doxorubicin treatment in cardiomyocytes resulted in inhibition of CARP transcription, depletion of CARP protein levels, inhibition of myofilament gene transcription, and marked sarcomere disarray. Knockdown of CARP with small interfering RNA (siRNA) similarly inhibited myofilament gene transcription and disrupted cardiomyocyte sarcomere structure. Adenoviral overexpression of CARP, however, was unable to rescue the doxorubicin-induced sarcomere disarray phenotype. Doxorubicin also induced depletion of the cardiac transcription factor GATA4 in cardiomyocytes. CARP expression is regulated in part by GATA4, prompting us to examine the relationship between GATA4 and CARP in cardiomyocytes. We show in co-transfection experiments that GATA4 operates upstream of CARP by activating the proximal CARP promoter. GATA4-siRNA knockdown in cardiomyocytes inhibited CARP expression and myofilament gene transcription, and induced extensive sarcomere disarray. Adenoviral overexpression of GATA4 (AdV-GATA4) in cardiomyocytes prior to doxorubicin exposure maintained GATA4 levels, modestly restored CARP levels, and attenuated sarcomere disarray. Interestingly, siRNA-mediated depletion of CARP completely abolished the Adv-GATA4 rescue of the doxorubicin-induced sarcomere phenotype. These data demonstrate co-dependent roles for GATA4 and CARP in regulating sarcomere gene expression and maintaining sarcomeric organization in cardiomyocytes in culture. The data further suggests that concurrent depletion of GATA4 and CARP in cardiomyocytes by doxorubicin contributes in large part to myofibrillar disarray and the overall pathophysiology of anthracycline cardiomyopathy.
In the myocardium, redox/cysteine modification of proteins regulating Ca2+ cycling can affect contraction and may have therapeutic value. Nitroxyl (HNO), the one electron reduced form of nitric oxide, enhances cardiac function in a manner that suggests reversible cysteine modifications of the contractile machinery.
To determine the effects of HNO modification in cardiac myofilament proteins.
Methods and Results
The HNO-donor, 1-nitrosocyclohexyl acetate (NCA), was found to act directly on the myofilament proteins increasing maximum force (Fmax) and reducing the concentration of Ca2+ for 50% activation (Ca50) in intact and skinned cardiac muscles. The effects of NCA are reversible by reducing agents and distinct from those of another HNO-donor Angeli’s salt (AS), which was previously reported to increase Fmax without affecting Ca50. Using a new mass spectrometry capture technique based on the biotin switch assay, we identified and characterized the formation by HNO of a disulfide linked actin-tropomyosin and myosin heavy chain (MHC)-myosin light chain 1 (MLC1). Comparison of the NCA and AS effects with the modifications induced by each donor indicated the actin-tropomyosin and MHC-MLC1 interactions independently correlated with increased Ca2+ sensitivity and force generation, respectively.
HNO exerts a direct effect on cardiac myofilament proteins increasing myofilament Ca2+ responsiveness by promoting disulfide bond formation between critical cysteine residues. These findings indicate a novel, redox-based modulation of the contractile apparatus which positively impacts myocardial function, providing further mechanistic insight for HNO as a therapeutic agent.
contractility; nitroxyl; redox-switch; oxidation; calcium; oxidant signalling; redox
The optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) protein is an essential protein involved in the fusion of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Despite its high level of expression, the role of OPA1 in the heart is largely unknown. We investigated the role of this protein in Opa1+/− mice, having a 50% reduction in OPA1 protein expression in cardiac tissue.
Methods and Results
In mutant mice, cardiac function assessed by echocardiography was not significantly different from that of the Opa1+/+. Electron and fluorescence microscopy revealed altered morphology of the Opa1+/− mitochondrial network; unexpectedly, mitochondria were larger with the presence of clusters of fused mitochondria and altered cristae. In permeabilized mutant ventricular fibers, mitochondrial functional properties were maintained, but direct energy channeling between mitochondria and myofilaments was weakened. Importantly, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) opening in isolated permeabilized cardiomyocytes and in isolated mitochondria was significantly less sensitive to mitochondrial calcium accumulation. Finally, 6 weeks after transversal aortic constriction (TAC), Opa1+/− hearts demonstrated hypertrophy almost two-fold higher (p<0.01) than in wild type mice with altered ejection fraction (decrease of 43% versus 22% in Opa1+/+ mice, p<0.05).
These results suggest that, in adult cardiomyocytes, OPA1 plays an important role in mitochondrial morphology and PTP functioning. These properties may be critical for cardiac function under conditions of chronic pressure overload.
Adaptation, Biological; Animals; Down-Regulation; GTP Phosphohydrolases; metabolism; Mice; Mice, Knockout; Mitochondria; genetics; metabolism; ultrastructure; Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins; genetics; metabolism; Mitochondrial Membranes; metabolism; Mitochondrial Proteins; genetics; physiology; Myocytes, Cardiac; cytology; metabolism; Optic Atrophy, Autosomal Dominant; genetics; metabolism; physiopathology; Permeability; Pressure; cardiac energy metabolism; mitochondria; mitochondria dynamics; permeability transition pore; hypertrophy
Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is the inhibitory subunit of cardiac troponin, a key myofilament regulatory protein complex located on the thin filaments of the contractile apparatus. cTnI is uniquely specific for the heart and is widely used in clinics as a serum biomarker for cardiac injury. Phosphorylation of cTnI plays a critical role in modulating cardiac function. cTnI is known to be regulated by protein kinase A and protein kinase C at five sites, Ser22/Ser23, Ser42/44, and Thr143, primarily based on results from in vitro phosphorylation assays by the specific kinase(s). However, a comprehensive characterization of phosphorylation of mouse cTnI occurring in vivo has been lacking. Herein, we have employed top-down mass spectrometry (MS) methodology with electron capture dissociation for precise mapping of in vivo phosphorylation sites of cTnI affinity purified from wild-type and transgenic mouse hearts. As demonstrated, top-down MS (analysis of intact proteins) is an extremely valuable technology for global characterization of labile phosphorylation occurring in vivo without a priori knowledge. Our top-down MS data unambiguously identified Ser22/23 as the only two sites basally phosphorylated in wild-type mouse cTnI with full sequence coverage, which was confirmed by the lack of phosphorylation in cTnI-Ala2 transgenic mice where Ser22/23 in cTnI have been rendered nonphosphorylatable by mutation to alanine.
Phosphorylation of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a regulator of pump function in healthy hearts. However, the mechanisms of regulation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-mediated cMyBP-C phosphorylation have not been completely dissociated from other myofilament substrates for PKA, especially cardiac troponin I (cTnI). We have used synchrotron X-ray diffraction in skinned trabeculae to elucidate the roles of cMyBP-C and cTnI phosphorylation in myocardial inotropy and lusitropy. Myocardium in this study was isolated from four transgenic mouse lines in which the phosphorylation state of either cMyBP-C or cTnI was constitutively altered by site-specific mutagenesis. Analysis of peak intensities in X-ray diffraction patterns from trabeculae showed that cross-bridges are displaced similarly from the thick filament and toward actin (1) when both cMyBP-C and cTnI are phosphorylated, (2) when only cMyBP-C is phosphorylated, and (3) when cMyBP-C phosphorylation is mimicked by replacement with negative charge in its PKA sites. These findings suggest that phosphorylation of cMyBP-C relieves a constraint on cross-bridges, thereby increasing the proximity of myosin to binding sites on actin. Measurements of Ca2+-activated force in myocardium defined distinct molecular effects due to phosphorylation of cMyBP-C or co-phosphorylation with cTnI. Echocardiography revealed that mimicking the charge of cMyBP-C phosphorylation protects hearts from hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction that develops with constitutive dephosphorylation or genetic ablation, underscoring the importance of cMyBP-C phosphorylation for proper pump function.
myosin binding protein C; troponin I; Ca2+-sensitivity; cross-bridge cycling kinetics; protein kinase A; phosphorylation; low-angle x-ray diffraction; myocardium; trabeculae; myofilament structure
This study was conducted to identify molecular mechanisms which explain interventricular differences in myofilament function in experimental congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF was induced in rats by chronic aortic banding or myocardial infarction for 32–36 weeks. Right and left ventricular (RV, LV) myocytes were mechanically isolated, triton-skinned, and attached to a force transducer and motor arm. Myofilament force–[Ca2+] relations assessed maximal Ca2+-saturated force (Fmax) and the [Ca2+] at 50% of Fmax (EC50). Myofilament protein phosphorylation was determined via ProQ diamond phospho-staining. Protein kinase C (PKC)-α expression/activation and site-specific phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) were measured via immunoblotting. Relative to controls, failing RV myocytes displayed a ~45% decrease in Fmax with no change in EC50, whereas failing LV myocytes displayed a ~45% decrease in Fmax and ~50% increase in EC50. Failing LV myofilaments were less Ca2+-sensitive (37% increase in EC50) than failing RV myofilaments. Expression and activation of PKC-α was increased twofold in failing RV myocardium and relative to the RV, PKC-α was twofold higher in the failing LV, while PKC-β expression was unchanged by CHF. PKC-α-dependent phosphorylation and PP1-mediated dephosphorylation of failing RV myofilaments increased EC50 and increased Fmax, respectively. Phosphorylation of cTnI and cTnT was greater in failing LV myofilaments than in failing RV myofilaments. RV myofilament function is depressed in experimental CHF in association with increased PKC-α signaling and myofilament protein phosphorylation. Furthermore, myofilament dysfunction is greater in the LV compared to the RV due in part to increased PKC-α activation and phosphorylation of cTnI and cTnT.
Heart; Muscle mechanics; Force–pCa relation; Myofilaments; Protein kinase C; Hypertrophy
Although bradykinin (BK) is known to exert effects on the myocardium, its intracellular signaling pathways remain poorly understood. Experiments in other cell types indicated that p21-activated kinase-1 (Pak1), a Ser/Thr kinase downstream of small monomeric G proteins, is activated by BK. We previously reported that the expression of active Pak1 in adult cardiac myocytes induced activation of protein phosphatase 2A and dephosphorylation of myofilament proteins (Ke et al. Circ Res 94: 194–200, 2004). In experiments reported here, we tested the hypothesis that BK signals altered protein phosphorylation in adult rat cardiac myocytes through the activation and translocation of Pak1. Treatment of myocytes with BK resulted in the activation of Pak1 as demonstrated by increased autophosphorylation at Thr423 and a diminished striated localization, which is present in the basal state. BK induced dephosphorylation of both cardiac troponin I and phospholamban. Treatment of isolated myocytes with BK also blunted the effect of isoproterenol to enhance peak Ca2+ and relaxation of Ca2+ transients. Protein phosphatase 2A was demonstrated to associate with both Pak 1 and phospholamban. Our studies indicate a novel signaling mechanism for BK in adult rat cardiac myocytes and support our hypothesis that Pak 1 is a significant regulator of phosphatase activity in the heart.
cardiac troponin I; phospholamban; dephosphorylation
After a change in muscle length, there is an immediate intrinsic response in the amount of developed force, followed by a slower response. Although it has been well documented that the slow force response is at least in part generated by modification of calcium handling, it is unclear whether regulation at the myofilament level occurs during the slow force response. We set out to investigate myofilament calcium sensitivity and phosphorylation status of myofilament proteins after a step-wise change in cardiac muscle length. Ultra-thin right ventricular intact trabeculae were isolated from New Zealand White rabbit hearts and iontophoretically loaded with the calcium indicator bis-fura-2. Twitch force-calcium relationships and steady state force-[Ca2+]i relationships were measured at various muscle lengths at 37°C using potassium induced contractures. The EC50 significantly decreased with increase in muscle length and maximal active force development significantly increased, while no significant change in the myofilament cooperativity coefficient was found. Phosphoprotein analysis Pro-Q diamond staining as well as phosphorylation-specific antibodies revealed increased phosphorylation of tropomyosin, troponin I, and myosin light chain-2 at longer muscle lengths. Specifically, TnI phosphorylation at Ser22/23 was increased. Since the immediate response is seen virtually instantaneously and post-translational modifications are thought not to occur within such a very short timeframe, we hypothesize that these increases in phosphorylation occur during the slow response.
myofilament; phosphorylation; calcium; tropomyosin; troponin I; myosin light chain-2; rabbit
The chromatophore membrane of the photosynthetic diazotroph Rhodospirillum rubrum is of vital importance for a number of central processes, including nitrogen fixation. Using a novel amphiphile, we have identified protein complexes present under different nitrogen availability conditions by the use of two-dimensional Blue Native / SDS-PAGE and NSI-LC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We have identified several membrane protein complexes, including components of the ATP synthase, reaction center, light harvesting and NADH dehydrogenase complexes. Additionally, we have identified differentially expressed proteins, such as subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex and other TCA cycle enzymes that are usually found in the cytosol, thus hinting at a possible association to the membrane in response to nitrogen deficiency. We propose a redox sensing mechanism that can influence the membrane subproteome in response to nitrogen availability.
Rhodospirillum rubrum; nitrogen metabolism; Blue Native; chromatophore sub-proteome; amphiphile; Orbitrap
SR33805, a potent Ca2+ channel blocker, increases cardiac myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in healthy rat cardiomyocytes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of SR33805 on contractile properties in ischaemic failing hearts after myocardial infarction (MI) in vivo and in vitro at the cellular level.
Methods and results
The effect of SR33805 (10 µM) was tested on the excitation–contraction coupling of cardiomyocytes isolated from rat with end-stage heart failure. Cell shortening and Ca2+ transients were measured in intact cardiomyocytes, while contractile properties were determined in Triton X-100 permeabilized myocytes. Acute treatment with SR33805 restored the MI-altered cell shortening without affecting the Ca2+ transient amplitude, suggesting an increase of myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in MI myocytes. Indeed, a SR33805-induced sensitization of myofilament activation was found to be associated with a slight increase in myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation and a more significant decrease on troponin I (TnI) phosphorylation. Decreased TnI phosphorylation was related to inhibition of protein kinase A activity by SR33805. Finally, administration of a single intra-peritoneal bolus of SR33805 (20 mg/kg) improved end-systolic strain and fractional shortening of MI hearts.
The present study indicates that treatment with SR33805 improved contractility of ischaemic failing hearts after MI in the rat by selectively modulating the phosphorylation status of sarcomeric regulatory proteins, which then sensitized the myofilaments to Ca2+. Our results gave a proof of concept that manipulation of the Ca2+ sensitivity of sarcomeric regulatory proteins can be used to improve contractility of a failing heart.
Myocytes; Heart failure; Contractile function; Sarcomere; Ventricular function
Between 30% and 60% of clinical cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) can be attributed to mutations in the genes encoding cardiac myofilament proteins. Interestingly, it appears that the likelihood of an underlying myofilament mutation can be predicted by echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular morphology. However, it is not known whether genotypically characterized HC exists as a separate entity with discrete phenotypic morphology and histology or to what extent recognized polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) influence this relationship. The presence of cardiac myofilament and mutations and RAAS polymorphisms will have a strong association with the severity of histologic features of HC and characteristic septal shape.
We conducted a retrospective review of histology specimens, obtained at septal myectomy among 181 patients with medically refractory symptomatic HC. All patients underwent comprehensive genetic analysis for mutations in 8 myofilament-encoding genes; a subset was genotyped for 6 known RAAS-polymorphisms. Patients underwent comprehensive echocardiography by an expert blinded to genotype and microscopic status.
Microscopically, severity of myocyte hypertrophy appears to be associated with the presence of recognized HC cardiac myofilament mutations (P = .03). Other histologic features characteristic of HC were not consistently associated with myofilament mutation status. A higher burden of pro-LVH RAAS polymorphisms also appeared to predict only myocyte hypertrophy (P = .01). The presence of RAAS polymorphisms was not associated with the development of a specific septal morphology (P = .6).
Myofilament-positive HC does not appear to represent a distinct clinical phenotypic entity as evidenced by specific histologic characteristics and septal shape.
Mutations in myofilament proteins, most commonly MYBPC3-encoded myosin binding protein C and MYH7-encoded β-myosin heavy chain, can cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Despite significant advances in structure-function relationships pertaining to the cardiac sarcomere, there is limited knowledge of how a mutation leads to clinical HCM. We therefore set out to study expression and localization of myofilament proteins in left ventricular tissue of patients with HCM.
Methods and Results
Frozen surgical myectomy specimens from 47 patients with HCM were examined and genotyped for mutations involving 8 myofilament-encoding genes. Myofilament protein levels were quantified by western blot with localization graded from immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections. Overall, 25/47 (53%) patients had myofilament-HCM including 12 with MYBPC3-HCM and 9 with MYH7-HCM. Compared to healthy heart tissue, levels of myofilament proteins were increased in patients manifesting a mutation in either gene. Patients with a frameshift mutation predicted to truncate MYBPC3 exhibited marked disturbances in protein localization as compared to missense mutations in either MYBPC3 or MYH7.
In this first expression study in human HCM tissue, increased myofilament protein levels in patients with either MYBPC3 or MYH7-mediated HCM suggest a poison peptide mechanism. Specifically, the mechanism of dysfunction may vary according to the genetic subgroup suggested by a distinctly abnormal distribution of myofilament proteins in patients manifesting a truncation mutation in MYBPC3.
Cardiomyopathy; Hypertrophy; Genetics; Protein
Protein kinase Cα (PKCα) is one of the predominant PKC isoforms that phosphorylate cardiac troponin. PKCα is implicated in heart failure and serves as a potential therapeutic target, however, the exact consequences for contractile function in human myocardium are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PKCα phosphorylation of cardiac troponin (cTn) on myofilament function in human failing cardiomyocytes and to resolve the potential targets involved.
Methods and Results
Endogenous cTn from permeabilized cardiomyocytes from patients with end-stage idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy was exchanged (∼69%) with PKCα-treated recombinant human cTn (cTn (DD+PKCα)). This complex has Ser23/24 on cTnI mutated into aspartic acids (D) to rule out in vitro cross-phosphorylation of the PKA sites by PKCα. Isometric force was measured at various [Ca2+] after exchange. The maximal force (Fmax) in the cTn (DD+PKCα) group (17.1±1.9 kN/m2) was significantly reduced compared to the cTn (DD) group (26.1±1.9 kN/m2). Exchange of endogenous cTn with cTn (DD+PKCα) increased Ca2+-sensitivity of force (pCa50 = 5.59±0.02) compared to cTn (DD) (pCa50 = 5.51±0.02). In contrast, subsequent PKCα treatment of the cells exchanged with cTn (DD+PKCα) reduced pCa50 to 5.45±0.02. Two PKCα-phosphorylated residues were identified with mass spectrometry: Ser198 on cTnI and Ser179 on cTnT, although phosphorylation of Ser198 is very low. Using mass spectrometry based-multiple reaction monitoring, the extent of phosphorylation of the cTnI sites was quantified before and after treatment with PKCα and showed the highest phosphorylation increase on Thr143.
PKCα-mediated phosphorylation of the cTn complex decreases Fmax and increases myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity, while subsequent treatment with PKCα in situ decreased myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity. The known PKC sites as well as two sites which have not been previously linked to PKCα are phosphorylated in human cTn complex treated with PKCα with a high degree of specificity for Thr143.
In isolated, aequorin-injected ferret cardiac muscle we measured the apparent myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and its relationship to twitch relaxation time in the presence of autonomic perturbations. The Ca2+- tension relation was determined from the peak aequorin luminescence and peak twitch tension measured in muscles across a broad range of bathing [Ca2+] in the presence and absence of acetylcholine (ACh) (1 microM) or isoproterenol (ISN) (1 microM), or both drugs. ACh shifted the relationship of peak tension to (peak) aequorin light leftward, which suggests an increase in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity, but it did not alter relaxation, which was measured as the time for peak tension to decay by 50% (t 1/2 R). ISN produced its previously documented effects, i.e., a rightward shift of the relationship of peak tension to peak aequorin light and a decrease in t1/2R. ACh abolished the ISN effect on the peak tension-aequorin light relationship but did not reverse the effect of ISN to decrease t1/2R. The effects of ACh and ISN of modulating the apparent myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in intact muscles, corroborate findings of previous studies in isolated myofibrillar preparations. However, these perturbations of myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in the intact muscle do not relate to twitch relaxation, measured as t1/2R, since (a) ACh affects the former but not the later and (b) the effect of ISN on the Ca2+-tension relationship is abolished by ACh, while the relaxant effect persists.
The phosphorylation status of myofibrillar proteins influences the Ca2+ responsiveness of the myofilaments,but the contribution of and the interaction between the individual components is poorly characterized. Therefore, in Langendorff perfused rat hearts (n=30), the phosphorylation levels of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C), troponin I and T (cTnI, cTnT) and myosin light chain 1 and 2 (MLC-1, MLC-2) were determined by 1- and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Isometric force development, its Ca2+-sensitivity, the rate of tension redevelopment (ktr) and passive force (Fpas) were studied at optimal sarcomere length (2.2 μm) in mechanically isolated,permeabilized cardiomyocytes at 15 °C. Protein phosphorylation was varied by: 1) blocking spontaneous cardiac activity by lidocaine (0.35 mM; Quiescence); 2) electrical stimulation of the hearts at 5 Hz (Contraction) and 3. treatment of contracting hearts with Isoprenaline (1 μM). MLC-2 phosphorylation was increased in the Contraction group almost 2-fold, relative to the Quiescence group, whereas cMyBP-C and cTnI phosphorylation remained the same. Isoprenaline resulted in 3.7-fold increases in both cMyBP-C and cTnI phosphorylation, but did not result in a further increase in MLC-2 phosphorylation.No significant differences were found in maximum force and ktr between groups, both before and after protein kinase A (PKA) treatment. Ca2+-sensitivity in the Contraction and Isoprenaline groups was significantly reduced in comparison to the Quiescence group. These differences were largely abolished by PKA and Fpas was reduced. These results highlight the impact of PKA-dependent phosphorylation on Ca2+-sensitivity and provide evidence for an interaction between the effects of TnI and MLC-2 phosphorylation.
contractile function; Ca2+-sensitivity; cardiac; myocyte; phosphorylation
The quantitative analysis of complex biological samples has emerged as a key research area in the field of proteomics. Although quantitative proteomic experiments remain challenging, these strategies have been greatly facilitated by the development of newer high-performance mass spectrometers. In this work, we have evaluated the use of the LTQ-Orbitrap, a hybrid mass spectrometer in which a linear ion trap is coupled to an Orbitrap mass analyzer, for quantitative analyses. By analyzing a range of yeast protein standards, we found that the high mass accuracy, high resolution, large ion capacity, and large dynamic range of the LTQ-Orbitrap led to a significant improvement in the number and quality of the peptide ratio measurements compared to similar analyses done on the LTQ. We also successfully quantified protein expression differences that occur in metabolically labeled rat synapses during brain development to further demonstrate the suitability of the LTQ-Orbitrap for the comparative analysis of complex tissue samples.
Aim: Transmural differences in sarcomeric protein composition and function across the left ventricular (LV) wall have been reported. We studied in pigs sarcomeric function and protein phosphorylation in subepicardial (EPI) and subendocardial (ENDO) layers of remote LV myocardium after myocardial infarction (MI), induced by left circumflex coronary artery ligation. Methods: EPI and ENDO samples were taken 3 weeks after sham surgery (n = 12) or induction of MI (n = 12) at baseline (BL) and during β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulation with dobutamine. Isometric force was measured in single cardiomyocytes at various [Ca2+] and 2.2 μm sarcomere length. Results: In sham hearts, no significant transmural differences were observed in myofilament function or protein phosphorylation. Myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity was significantly higher in both EPI and ENDO of MI compared to sham hearts. Maximal force was significantly reduced in MI compared to sham, but solely in ENDO cells. A higher passive force was observed in MI hearts, but only in EPI cells. The proportion of stiff N2B isoform was higher in EPI than in ENDO in both sham and MI hearts, and a trend toward increased N2B-proportion appeared in MI EPI, but not MI Endo. Analysis of myofilament protein phosphorylation did not reveal significant transmural differences in phosphorylation of myosin binding protein C, desmin, troponin T, troponin I (cTnI), and myosin light chain 2 (MLC-2) both at BL and during βAR stimulation with dobutamine infusion. A significant increase in MLC-2 phosphorylation was observed during dobutamine only in sham. In addition, the increase in cTnI phosphorylation upon dobutamine was twofold lower in MI than in sham. Conclusion: Myofilament dysfunction is present in both EPI and ENDO in post-MI remodeled myocardium, but shows a high degree of qualitative heterogeneity across the LV wall. These heterogeneous transmural changes in sarcomeric properties likely contribute differently to systolic vs. diastolic global LV dysfunction after MI.
sarcomere function; myocardial infarction; heart; subendocardium; subepicardium; protein phosphorylation
The present study examined the contribution of myofilament contractile proteins to regional function in guinea pig myocardium. We investigated the effect of stretch on myofilament contractile proteins, Ca2+ sensitivity, and cross-bridge cycling kinetics (Ktr) of force in single skinned cardiomyocytes isolated from the sub-endocardial (ENDO) or sub-epicardial (EPI) layer. As observed in other species, ENDO cells were stiffer, and Ca2+ sensitivity of force at long sarcomere length was higher compared with EPI cells. Maximal Ktr was unchanged by stretch, but was higher in EPI cells possibly due to a higher α-MHC content. Submaximal Ca2+-activated Ktr increased only in ENDO cells with stretch. Stretch of skinned ENDO muscle strips induced increased phosphorylation in both myosin-binding protein C and myosin light chain 2. We concluded that transmural MHC isoform expression and differential regulatory protein phosphorylation by stretch contributes to regional differences in stretch modulation of activation in guinea pig left ventricle.
Frank-Starling; Myocyte; Contractility; Kinetics; Heart; Signaling; Sarcomere length
Here we describe the modification of a quadrupole linear ion trap-orbitrap hybrid (QLT-orbitrap) mass spectrometer to accommodate a negative chemical ionization (NCI) source. The NCI source is used to produce fluoranthene radical anions for imparting electron transfer dissociation (ETD). The anion beam is stable, robust, and intense so that a sufficient amount of reagents can be injected into the QLT in only 4 - 8 ms. Following ion/ion reaction in the QLT, ETD product ions are mass-to-charge (m/z) analyzed in either the QLT (for speed and sensitivity) or the orbitrap (for mass resolution and accuracy). Here we describe the physical layout of this device, parametric optimization of anion transport, an evaluation of relevant ETD figures of merit, and the application of this instrument to protein sequence analysis. Described proteomic applications include complex peptide mixture analysis, post-translational modification (PTM) site identification, isotope-encoded quantitation, large peptide characterization, and intact protein analysis. From these experiments we conclude the ETD-enabled orbitrap will provide the proteomic field with several new opportunities and represents an advance in protein sequence analysis technologies.