CCL3L and CCL4L genes encode HIV-suppressive chemokines, colocalize on chromosome 17q12 and have copy number variation. Copy number variation of CCL3L associates with HIV-AIDS susceptibility. Here, we determined the influence of the combinatorial content of distinct CCL3L and CCL4L genes on HIV-AIDS susceptibility.
By designing gene-specific assays, the association between doses of all CCL3L or CCL4L genes or their individual duplicated components (CCL3La/b and CCL4La/b) with HIV-AIDS susceptibility was determined in 298 perinatally exposed Ukrainian children.
The odds of transmission was increased in children with less than two copies of CCL3L or CCL4L, compared with those with at least two copies, and 10-fold higher when both mother and offspring had less than two CCL3L or CCL4L copies, compared with mother–child pairs with at least two copies. The extent of the pair-wise correlations between CCL3La, CCL3Lb, CCL4La and CCL4Lb copy number varied extensively, with an inverse correlation between CCL4L genes that transcribe a classical chemokine (CCL4La) versus aberrantly-spliced transcripts (CCL4Lb). Children possessing only CCL4Lb progressed four times faster to AIDS than those with only CCL4La. A lower content of CCL3L and CCL4L genes that transcribe classical chemokines was associated with enhanced HIV-AIDS susceptibility.
Transmission risk is greatest when mother and offspring both have low CCL3L or CCL4L gene doses. The impact on HIV-AIDS susceptibility of the chemokine gene-rich locus on 17q12 is dependent on the balance between the doses of genes conferring protective (CCL3La and CCL4La) versus detrimental (CCL4Lb) effects. Hence, the combinatorial genomic content of distinct genes within a copy number variable region may determine disease susceptibility.
AIDS; CCL3L; CCL4L; HIV; transmission
Variation in genes underlying host immunity can lead to marked differences in susceptibility to HIV infection among humans. Despite heavy reliance on non-human primates as models for HIV/AIDS, little is known about which host factors are shared and which are unique to a given primate lineage. Here, we investigate whether copy number variation (CNV) at CCL3-like genes (CCL3L), a key genetic host factor for HIV/AIDS susceptibility and cell-mediated immune response in humans, is also a determinant of time until onset of simian-AIDS in rhesus macaques. Using a retrospective study of 57 rhesus macaques experimentally infected with SIVmac, we find that CCL3L CNV explains approximately 18% of the variance in time to simian-AIDS (p<0.001) with lower CCL3L copy number associating with more rapid disease course. We also find that CCL3L copy number varies significantly (p<10−6) among rhesus subpopulations, with Indian-origin macaques having, on average, half as many CCL3L gene copies as Chinese-origin macaques. Lastly, we confirm that CCL3L shows variable copy number in humans and chimpanzees and report on CCL3L CNV within and among three additional primate species. On the basis of our findings we suggest that (1) the difference in population level copy number may explain previously reported observations of longer post-infection survivorship of Chinese-origin rhesus macaques, (2) stratification by CCL3L copy number in rhesus SIV vaccine trials will increase power and reduce noise due to non-vaccine-related differences in survival, and (3) CCL3L CNV is an ancestral component of the primate immune response and, therefore, copy number variation has not been driven by HIV or SIV per se.
Development of vaccines for HIV/AIDS is a pressing global issue. The rhesus monkey remains the primary model for testing potential human vaccines; however, little is known about similarities and differences in host genes involved in HIV/AIDS response in humans and rhesus monkeys. Understanding these similarities and/or differences should allow more efficient testing of vaccines beneficial to humans. Here we describe the role that variation in the number of copies of CCL3-like genes (CCL3L) plays in SIV progression rates in rhesus monkeys. Copy number variation (CNV) of these genes has previously been shown to play a role in susceptibility and progression of HIV in humans. Our results suggest that individual monkeys with lower CCL3L copy number progress more rapidly. Accounting for CCL3L CNV in rhesus vaccine trials will improve researchers' abilities to interpret survival data.
CCL3L1 copy number variation has been implicated as a marker for susceptibility and immunity to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and its pathogenic sequelae. Some of these findings have been confirmed in several, but not all, subsequent independent cohort studies. A three-fold risk for the development of HIV-associated dementia was reported in individuals possessing a CCL3L1 copy number below the ethnic group median combined with a detrimental CCR5 genotype. With the availability of antiretroviral therapy since 1996, there has been a significant decline in HIV-associated dementia, and milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (HAND) are now most prevalent. Moreover, patients are living longer with HIV-1 infection and it is recognized that aging may be a contributory factor to the development of cognitive disorder. Thus, the need for biomarkers that can be used in clinical practice to identify and provide optimal treatment for those at increased risk for HAND is great. HAND affects 20%–30% of HIV-infected individuals, and several genetic loci which have been shown to confer susceptibility to HIV infection may also modulate the development of neurocognitive disorder. The aim of this study was to determine whether CCL3L1 chemokine gene copy number in self-defined ethnic groups could differentiate HIV-infected individuals with and without HAND.
Genomic DNA was isolated from buccal swabs or peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from HIV-infected patients with or without a diagnoses of neurocognitive dysfunction in the Northeast AIDS Dementia Cohort and National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium. To maintain a uniform standard, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction design similar to previous studies using Taqman probes and fixed input DNA between 2 ng and 10 ng was used to determine a CCL3L1 copy number. Standard curves with two-fold dilutions from 25 ng to 1.56 ng were generated. CCL3L1 copy number was determined in triplicate in 262 subjects using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the relative quantitation method. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, with significance defined as P < 0.05 and Bonferroni post hoc tests.
Significant differences as determined by analysis of variance in CCL3L1 copy number between African-Americans and Caucasians (P < 0.0001) were found, highlighting ethnic group differences in the copy number of this gene. However, there were no differences in CCL3L1 copy number across the neurocognitive groups within each ethnic group. The median CCL3L1 copy number in African-Americans of two and Caucasians of one in this study was significantly lower than the previously reported ethnic group means of two and four copies, respectively. A higher prevalence of abnormal cognition with a relative risk of four was seen in African-Americans versus Caucasians.
Based on this nested case-control study, CCL3L1 copy number alone may not be useful for distinguishing between individuals at risk for mild or severe neurocognitive disorder. Additional larger cohort studies are required to determine whether CCL3L1 copy number in combination with polymorphisms in other genes known to contribute to HIV risk will be useful in identifying those at increased risk for HAND.
neurological; HIV-associated dementia; HAND; chemokine; copy number; African-American; Caucasian
CCL3 is a ligand for the HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5. There have recently been conflicting reports in the literature concerning whether CCL3-like gene (CCL3L) copy number variation (CNV) is associated with resistance to HIV-1 acquisition and with both viral load and disease progression following infection with HIV-1. An association has also been reported between CCL3L CNV and clinical sequelae of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in vivo in rhesus monkeys. The present study was initiated to explore the possibility of an association of CCL3L CNV with the control of virus replication and AIDS progression in a carefully defined cohort of SIVmac251-infected, Indian-origin rhesus monkeys. Although we demonstrated extensive variation in copy number of CCL3L in this cohort of monkeys, CCL3L CNV was not significantly associated with either peak or set-point plasma SIV RNA levels in these monkeys when MHC class I allele Mamu-A*01 was included in the models or progression to AIDS in these monkeys. With 66 monkeys in the study, there was adequate power for these tests if the correlation of CCL3L and either peak or set-point plasma SIV RNA levels was 0.34 or 0.36, respectively. These findings call into question the premise that CCL3L CNV is important in HIV/SIV pathogenesis.
Host genetic factors are important in determining why some individuals maintain effective control of HIV-1 replication while others do not. Genes implicated in this control include a number associated with the development of classical immune effector responses against HIV-1 infection and others associated with viral entry. CCL3, formerly known as macrophage inflammatory factor 1α (MIP-1α), is a ligand for the HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5 and a chemokine that inhibits HIV-1 replication. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of CCL3L copy number on the control of virus replication and AIDS progression in SIVmac251-infected, Indian-origin rhesus monkeys. We found that CCL3L copy number varies in rhesus monkeys. However, the copy number is not predictive of SIVmac251 containment following infection.
To dissect the haplotype structure of candidate genes for disease association studies, it is important to understand the nature of genetic variation at these loci in different populations. We present a survey of haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium of chemokine and chemokine receptor genes in 11 geographically-distinct population samples (n = 728). Chemokine proteins are involved in intercellular signalling and the immune response. These molecules are important modulators of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and the progression of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, tumour development and the metastatic process of cancer. To study the extent of genetic variation in this gene family, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 13 chemokine and chemokine receptor genes were genotyped using the 5' nuclease assay (TaqMan).
SNP haplotypes, estimated from unphased genotypes using the Expectation-Maximization-algorithm, are described in a cluster of four CC-chemokine receptor genes (CCR3, CCR2, CCR5 and CCRL2) on chromosome 3p21, and a cluster of three CC-chemokine genes [MPIF-1 (CCL23) PARC (CCL18) and MIP- 1α (CCL3)] on chromosome 17q11-12. The 32 base pair (bp) deletion in exon 4 of CCR5 was also included in the haplotype analysis of 3p21. A total of 87.5 per cent of the variation of 14 biallelic loci scattered over 150 kilobases of 3p21 is explained by 11 haplotypes which have a frequency of at least 1 per cent in the total sample. An analysis of haplotype blocks in this region indicates recombination between CCR2 and CCR5, although long-range pairwise linkage disequilibrium across the region appears to remain intact on two common haplotypes. A reduced-median network demonstrates a clear relationship between 3p21 haplotypes, rooted by the putative ancestral haplotype determined by direct sequencing of four primate species. Analysis of six SNPs on 17q11-12 indicates that 97.5 per cent of the variation is explained by 15 haplotypes, representing at least 1 per cent of the total sample. Additionally, a possible signature of selection at a non-synonymous coding SNP (M106V) in the MPIF-1 (CCL23) gene warrants further study. We anticipate that the results of this study of chemokine and chemokine receptor variation will be applicable to more extensive surveys of long-range haplotype structure in these gene regions and to association studies of HIV-1 disease and cancer.
chemokine; SNP; population genetics; variation; haplotype estimation; linkage disequilibrium
There is an enrichment of immune response genes that are subject to copy number variations (CNVs). However, there is limited understanding of their impact on susceptibility to human diseases. CC chemokine ligand 3 like-1 (CCL3L1) is a potent ligand for the HIV coreceptor, CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), and we have demonstrated previously an association between CCL3L1- gene containing segmental duplications and polymorphisms in CCR5 and HIV/AIDS susceptibility. Here, we determined the association between these genetic variations and risk of developing systemic lupus erythaematosus (SLE), differential recruitment of CD3+ and CD68+ leukocytes to the kidney, clinical severity of SLE reflected by autoantibody titres and the risk of renal complications in SLE.
We genotyped 1084 subjects (469 cases of SLE and 615 matched controls with no autoimmune disease) from three geographically distinct cohorts for variations in CCL3L1 and CCR5.
Deviation from the average copy number of CCL3L1 found in European populations increased the risk of SLE and modified the SLE-influencing effects of CCR5 haplotypes. The CCR5 human haplogroup (HH)E and CCR5-Δ32-bearing HHG*2 haplotypes were associated with an increased risk of developing SLE. An individual’s CCL3L1–CCR5 genotype strongly predicted the overall risk of SLE, high autoantibody titres, and lupus nephritis as well as the differential recruitment of leukocytes in subjects with lupus nephritis. The CCR5 HHE/HHG*2 genotype was associated with the maximal risk of developing SLE.
CCR5 haplotypes HHE and HHG*2 strongly influence the risk of SLE. The copy number of CCL3L1 influences risk of SLE and modifies the SLE-influencing effects associated with CCR5 genotypes. These findings implicate a key role of the CCL3L1–CCR5 axis in the pathogenesis of SLE.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a polygenic disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS), which can be modeled in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The Eae18b locus on rat chromosome 10 has previously been linked to regulation of beta-chemokine expression and severity of EAE. Moreover, the homologous chemokine cluster in humans showed evidence of association with susceptibility to MS. We here established a congenic rat strain with Eae18b locus containing a chemokine cluster (Ccl2, Ccl7, Ccl11, Ccl12 and Ccl1) from the EAE- resistant PVG rat strain on the susceptible DA background and utilized myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE to characterize the mechanisms underlying the genetic regulation. Congenic rats developed a milder disease compared to the susceptible DA strain, and this was reflected in decreased demyelination and in reduced recruitment of inflammatory cells to the brain. The congenic strain also showed significantly increased Ccl11 mRNA expression in draining lymph nodes and spinal cord after EAE induction. In the lymph nodes, macrophages were the main producers of CCL11, whereas macrophages and lymphocytes expressed the main CCL11 receptor, namely CCR3. Accordingly, the congenic strain also showed significantly increased Ccr3 mRNA expression in lymph nodes. In the CNS, the main producers of CCL11 were neurons, whereas CCR3 was detected on neurons and CSF producing ependymal cells. This corresponded to increased levels of CCL11 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of the congenic rats. Increased intrathecal production of CCL11 in congenic rats was accompanied by a tighter blood brain barrier, reflected by more occludin+ blood vessels. In addition, the congenic strain showed a reduced antigen specific response and a predominant anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype. These results indicate novel mechanisms in the genetic regulation of neuroinflammation.
Chemokine signals and their cell-surface receptors are important modulators of HIV-1 disease and cancer. To aid future case/control association studies, aim to further characterise the haplotype structure of variation in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes. To perform haplotype analysis in a population-based association study, haplotypes must be determined by estimation, in the absence of family information or laboratory methods to establish phase. Here, test the accuracy of estimates of haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium by comparing estimated haplotypes generated with the expectation maximisation (EM) algorithm to haplotypes determined from Centre d'Etude Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) pedigree data. To do this, they have characterised haplotypes comprising alleles at 11 biallelic loci in four chemokine receptor genes (CCR3, CCR2, CCR5 and CCRL2), which span 150 kb on chromosome 3p21, and haplotyes of nine biallelic loci in six chemokine genes [MCP-1(CCL2), Eotaxin(CCL11), RANTES(CCL5), MPIF-1(CCL23), PARC(CCL18) and MIP-1α(CCL3) ] on chromosome 17q11-12. Forty multi-generation CEPH families, totalling 489 individuals, were genotyped by the TaqMan 5'-nuclease assay. Phased haplotypes and haplotypes estimated from unphased genotypes were compared in 103 grandparents who were assumed to have mated at random.
For the 3p21 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, haplotypes determined by pedigree analysis and haplotypes generated by the EM algorithm were nearly identical. Linkage disequilibrium, measured by the D' statistic, was nearly maximal across the 150 kb region, with complete disequilibrium maintained at the extremes between CCR3-Y17Y and CCRL2-1243V. D'-values calculated from estimated haplotypes on 3p21 had high concordance with pairwise comparisons between pedigree-phased chromosomes. Conversely, there was less agreement between analyses of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium using estimated haplotypes when compared with pedigree-phased haplotypes of SNPs on chromosome 17q11-12. These results suggest that, while estimations of haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium may be relatively simple in the 3p21 chemokine receptor cluster in population samples, the more complex environment on chromosome 17q11-12 will require a higher resolution haplotype analysis.
chemokine; SNP; haplotype estimation; pedigree analysis; linkage disequilibrium
CCL20 is currently the only known chemokine ligand for the receptor CCR6, and is a mucosal chemokine involved in normal and pathological immune responses. Although nucleotide sequence data are available for ccl20 and ccr6 sequences from multiple species, the ferret ccl20 and ccr6 sequences have not been determined. To increase our understanding of immune function in ferret models of infection and vaccination, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the ferret ccl20 and ccr6 cDNA sequences and functionally characterize the encoded proteins. The open reading frames of both genes were highly conserved across species and mostly closely related to canine sequences. For functional analyses, single cell clones expressing ferret CCR6 were generated, a ferret CCL20/mouse IgG2a fusion protein (fCCL20-mIgG2a) was produced, and fCCL20 was chemically synthesized. Cell clones expressing ferret CCR6 responded chemotactically to fCCL20-mIgG2a fusion protein and synthetic ferret CCL20. Chemotaxis inhibition studies identified the polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate and the murine γ-herpesvirus 68 M3 protein as inhibitors of fCCL20. Surface plasmon resonance studies revealed that EGCG bound directly to fCCL20. These results provide molecular characterization of previously unreported ferret immune gene sequences and for the first time identify a broad-spectrum small molecule inhibitor of CCL20 and reveal CCL20 as a target for the herpesviral M3 protein.
chemokine; CCL20; CCR6; ferret; EGCG; M3 protein
Background: Proteases responsible for a CCL15-(25–92) product have not been elucidated.
Results: All 14 CC monocyte chemoattractants, including CCL15, are processed by multiple MMPs.
Conclusion: MMP-processing of CCL15, CCL23, and CCL16 functional activity is altered by MMP processing.
Significance: This is the first study showing MMPs can activate CC chemokines and hence monoycte chemoattraction with potential to propagate inflammation.
Leukocyte migration and activation is orchestrated by chemokines, the cleavage of which modulates their activity and glycosaminoglycan binding and thus their roles in inflammation and immunity. Early research identified proteolysis as a means of both activating or inactivating CXC chemokines and inactivating CC chemokines. Recent evidence has shown activating cleavages of the monocyte chemoattractants CCL15 and CCL23 by incubation with synovial fluid, although the responsible proteases could not be identified. Herein we show that CCL15 is processed in human synovial fluid by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteases. Furthermore, a family-wide investigation of MMP processing of all 14 monocyte-directed CC chemokines revealed that each is precisely cleaved by one or more MMPs. By MALDI-TOF-MS, 149 cleavage sites were sequenced including the first reported instance of CCL1, CCL16, and CCL17 proteolysis. Full-length CCL15-(1–92) and CCL23-(1–99) were cleaved within their unique 31 and 32-amino acid residue extended amino termini, respectively. Unlike other CCL chemokines that lose activity and become receptor antagonists upon MMP cleavage, the prominent MMP-processed products CCL15-(25–92, 28–92) and CCL23-(26–99) are stronger agonists in calcium flux and Transwell CC receptor transfectant and monocytic THP-1 migration assays. MMP processing of CCL16-(1–97) in its extended carboxyl terminus yields two products, CCL16-(8–77) and CCL16-(8–85), with both showing unexpected enhanced glycosaminoglycan binding. Hence, our study reveals for the first time that MMPs activate the long amino-terminal chemokines CCL15 and CCL23 to potent forms that have potential to increase monocyte recruitment during inflammation.
Arthritis; Chemokines; Chemotaxis; Inflammation; Mass Spectrometry (MS); Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP); Monocytes; Protease
Submicroscopic (less than 2 Mb) segmental DNA copy number changes are a recently recognized source of genetic variability between individuals. The biological consequences of copy number variants (CNVs) are largely undefined. In some cases, CNVs that cause gene dosage effects have been implicated in phenotypic variation. CNVs have been detected in diverse species, including mice and humans. Published studies in mice have been limited by resolution and strain selection. We chose to study 21 well-characterized inbred mouse strains that are the focus of an international effort to measure, catalog, and disseminate phenotype data. We performed comparative genomic hybridization using long oligomer arrays to characterize CNVs in these strains. This technique increased the resolution of CNV detection by more than an order of magnitude over previous methodologies. The CNVs range in size from 21 to 2,002 kb. Clustering strains by CNV profile recapitulates aspects of the known ancestry of these strains. Most of the CNVs (77.5%) contain annotated genes, and many (47.5%) colocalize with previously mapped segmental duplications in the mouse genome. We demonstrate that this technique can identify copy number differences associated with known polymorphic traits. The phenotype of previously uncharacterized strains can be predicted based on their copy number at these loci. Annotation of CNVs in the mouse genome combined with sequence-based analysis provides an important resource that will help define the genetic basis of complex traits.
A major goal of genetics and genomics is to understand how genetic differences between individuals (genotypes) translate into variation in disease susceptibility, behavior, and many other organism-level characteristics (phenotypes). While the sizes of genetic variants range from a single base to whole chromosomes, historically, only the extreme ends of this spectrum have been explored. DNA copy number variants (CNVs) lie between these two extremes, ranging in size from hundreds to millions of bases. The recent application of microarray technology to detect genetic variation in humans has led to the realization that CNVs are common. In fact, rough estimates indicate that CNVs and small-scale variants may constitute similar proportions of total genomic DNA. In this report, the authors characterize 80 CNVs across the genomes of 21 inbred strains of mice. The identification and characterization of mouse CNVs are important because inbred strains of mice are the most widely used model system to explore biomedical genetics. These CNVs are located near another class of genomic features, segmental duplications, more often than would be expected by chance, which supports the hypothesis that CNVs and segmental duplications are causally linked. Importantly, many of the CNVs contain known genes and thus may underlie both gene expression and phenotypic variation between strains.
HuR is a regulator of mRNA turnover or translation of inflammatory genes through binding to adenylate-uridylate–rich elements and related motifs present in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs. We postulate that HuR critically regulates the epithelial response by associating with multiple ARE-bearing, functionally related inflammatory transcripts. We aimed to identify HuR targets in the human airway epithelial cell line BEAS-2B challenged with TNF-α plus IFN-γ, a strong stimulus for inflammatory epithelial responses. Ribonucleoprotein complexes from resting and cytokine-treated cells were immunoprecipitated using anti-HuR and isotype-control Ab, and eluted mRNAs were reverse-transcribed and hybridized to an inflammatory-focused gene array. The chemokines CCL2, CCL8, CXCL1, and CXCL2 ranked highest among 27 signaling and inflammatory genes significantly enriched in the HuR RNP-IP from stimulated cells over the control immunoprecipitation. Among these, 20 displayed published HuR binding motifs. Association of HuR with the four endogenous chemokine mRNAs was validated by single-gene ribonucleoprotein-immunoprecipitation and shown to be 3′ UTR-dependent by biotin pull-down assay. Cytokine treatment increased mRNA stability only for CCL2 and CCL8, and transient silencing and overexpression of HuR affected only CCL2 and CCL8 expression in primary and transformed epithelial cells. Cytokine-induced CCL2 mRNA was predominantly cytoplasmic. Conversely, CXCL1 mRNA remained mostly nuclear and unaffected, as CXCL2, by changes in HuR levels. Increase in cytoplasmic HuR and HuR target expression partially relied on the inhibition of AMP-dependent kinase, a negative regulator of HuR nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. HuR-mediated regulation in airway epithelium appears broader than previously appreciated, coordinating numerous inflammatory genes through multiple posttranscriptional mechanisms.
Infiltration of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) with T-cells has been associated with good prognosis. There are some indications that chemokines could be involved in T-cell infiltration of tumors. Selective modulation of chemokine activity at the tumor site could attract immune cells resulting in tumor growth inhibition. In mouse tumor model systems, gene therapy with chemokines or administration of antibody (Ab)-chemokine fusion proteins have provided potent immune mediated tumor rejection which was mediated by infiltrating T cells at the tumor site. To develop such immunotherapeutic strategies for cancer patients, one must identify chemokines and their receptors involved in T-cell migration toward tumor cells.
To identify chemokine and chemokine receptors involved in T-cell migration toward CRC cells, we have used our previously published three-dimensional organotypic CRC culture system. Organotypic culture was initiated with a layer of fetal fibroblast cells mixed with collagen matrix in a 24 well tissue culture plate. A layer of CRC cells was placed on top of the fibroblast-collagen layer which was followed by a separating layer of fibroblasts in collagen matrix. Anti-CRC specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) mixed with fibroblasts in collagen matrix were placed on top of the separating layer. Excess chemokine ligand (CCL) or Abs to chemokine or chemokine receptor (CCR) were used in migration inhibition assays to identify the chemokine and the receptor involved in CTL migration.
Inclusion of excess CCL2 in T-cell layer or Ab to CCL2 in separating layer of collagen fibroblasts blocked the migration of CTLs toward tumor cells and in turn significantly inhibited tumor cell apoptosis. Also, Ab to CCR2 in the separating layer of collagen and fibroblasts blocked the migration of CTLs toward tumor cells and subsequently inhibited tumor cell apoptosis. Expression of CCR2 in four additional CRC patients' lymphocytes isolated from infiltrating tumor tissues suggests their role in migration in other CRC patients.
Our data suggest that CCL2 secreted by tumor cells and CCR2 receptors on CTLs are involved in migration of CTLs towards tumor. Gene therapy of tumor cells with CCL2 or CCL2/anti-tumor Ab fusion proteins may attract CTLs that potentially could inhibit tumor growth.
Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) play a crucial role in immunity by linking IgG antibody-mediated responses with cellular effector and regulatory functions. Genetic variants in these receptors have been previously identified as risk factors for several chronic inflammatory conditions. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of copy number variations (CNVs) in the FCGR3B gene and its potential association with the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
CNV of the FCGR3B gene was studied using Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) in 518 Dutch RA patients and 304 healthy controls. Surprisingly, three independent MLPA probes targeting the FCGR3B promoter measured different CNV frequencies, with probe#1 and #2 measuring 0 to 5 gene copies and probe#3 showing little evidence of CNV. Quantitative-PCR correlated with the copy number results from MLPA probe#2, which detected low copy number (1 copy) in 6.7% and high copy number (≥3 copies) in 9.4% of the control population. No significant difference was observed between RA patients and the healthy controls, neither in the low copy nor the high copy number groups (p-values = 0.36 and 0.71, respectively). Sequencing of the FCGR3B promoter region revealed an insertion/deletion (indel) that explained the disparate CNV results of MLPA probe#1. Finally, a non-significant trend was found between the novel -256A>TG indel and RA (40.7% in healthy controls versus 35.9% in RA patients; P = 0.08).
The current study highlights the complexity and poor characterization of the FCGR3B gene sequence, indicating that the design and interpretation of genotyping assays based on specific probe sequences must be performed with caution. Nonetheless, we confirmed the presence of CNV and identified novel polymorphisms in the FCGR3B gene in the Dutch population. Although no association was found between RA and FCGR3B CNV, the possible protective effect of the -256A>TG indel polymorphism must be addressed in larger studies.
Recent studies in human have highlighted the importance of the monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP) in leukocyte trafficking and their effects in inflammatory processes, tumor progression, and HIV-1 infection. In European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) one of the prime MCP targets, the chemokine receptor CCR5 underwent a unique structural alteration. Until now, no homologue of MCP-2/CCL8a, MCP-3/CCL7 or MCP-4/CCL13 genes have been reported for this species. This is interesting, because at least the first two genes are expressed in most, if not all, mammals studied, and appear to be implicated in a variety of important chemokine ligand-receptor interactions. By assessing the Rabbit Whole Genome Sequence (WGS) data we have searched for orthologs of the mammalian genes of the MCP-Eotaxin cluster.
We have localized the orthologs of these chemokine genes in the genome of European rabbit and compared them to those of leporid genera which do (i.e. Oryctolagus and Bunolagus) or do not share the CCR5 alteration with European rabbit (i.e. Lepus and Sylvilagus). Of the Rabbit orthologs of the CCL8, CCL7, and CCL13 genes only the last two were potentially functional, although showing some structural anomalies at the protein level. The ortholog of MCP-2/CCL8 appeared to be pseudogenized by deleterious nucleotide substitutions affecting exon1 and exon2. By analyzing both genomic and cDNA products, these studies were extended to wild specimens of four genera of the Leporidae family: Oryctolagus, Bunolagus, Lepus, and Sylvilagus. It appeared that the anomalies of the MCP-3/CCL7 and MCP-4/CCL13 proteins are shared among the different species of leporids. In contrast, whereas MCP-2/CCL8 was pseudogenized in every studied specimen of the Oryctolagus - Bunolagus lineage, this gene was intact in species of the Lepus - Sylvilagus lineage, and was, at least in Lepus, correctly transcribed.
The biological function of a gene was often revealed in situations of dysfunction or gene loss. Infections with Myxoma virus (MYXV) tend to be fatal in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus), while being harmless in Hares (genus Lepus) and benign in Cottontail rabbit (genus Sylvilagus), the natural hosts of the virus. This communication should stimulate research on a possible role of MCP-2/CCL8 in poxvirus related pathogenicity.
Chemokines; Monocyte chemotactic protein; Pseudogene; Poxvirus; Myxomatosis; Oryctolagus; Bunolagus; Sylvilagus; Lepus
CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is the most potent monocyte chemoattractant and inter-individual differences in its expression level have been associated with genetic variants mapping to the cis-regulatory regions of the gene. An A to G polymorphism in the CCL2 enhancer region at position –2578 (rs1024611; A>G), was found in most studies to be associated with higher serum CCL2 levels and increased susceptibility to a variety of diseases such as HIV-1 associated neurological disorders, tuberculosis, and atherosclerosis. However, the precise mechanism by which rs1024611influences CCL2 expression is not known. To address this knowledge gap, we tested the hypothesis that rs1024611G polymorphism is associated with allelic expression imbalance (AEI) of CCL2. We used haplotype analysis and identified a transcribed SNP in the 3′UTR (rs13900; C>T) can serve as a proxy for the rs1024611 and demonstrated that the rs1024611G allele displayed a perfect linkage disequilibrium with rs13900T allele. Allele-specific transcript quantification in lipopolysaccharide treated PBMCs obtained from heterozygous donors showed that rs13900T allele were expressed at higher levels when compared to rs13900C allele in all the donors examined suggesting that CCL2 is subjected to AEI and that that the allele containing rs1024611G is preferentially transcribed. We also found that AEI of CCL2 is a stable trait and could be detected in newly synthesized RNA. In contrast to these in vivo findings, in vitro assays with haplotype-specific reporter constructs indicated that the haplotype bearing rs1024611G had a lower or similar transcriptional activity when compared to the haplotype containing rs1024611A. This discordance between the in vivo and in vitro expression studies suggests that the CCL2 regulatory region polymorphisms may be functioning in a complex and context-dependent manner. In summary, our studies provide strong functional evidence and a rational explanation for the phenotypic effects of the CCL2 rs1024611G allele.
There is considerable evidence that human genetic variation influences gene expression. Genome-wide studies have revealed that mRNA levels are associated with genetic variation in or close to the gene coding for those mRNA transcripts – cis effects, and elsewhere in the genome – trans effects. The role of genetic variation in determining protein levels has not been systematically assessed. Using a genome-wide association approach we show that common genetic variation influences levels of clinically relevant proteins in human serum and plasma. We evaluated the role of 496,032 polymorphisms on levels of 42 proteins measured in 1200 fasting individuals from the population based InCHIANTI study. Proteins included insulin, several interleukins, adipokines, chemokines, and liver function markers that are implicated in many common diseases including metabolic, inflammatory, and infectious conditions. We identified eight Cis effects, including variants in or near the IL6R (p = 1.8×10−57), CCL4L1 (p = 3.9×10−21), IL18 (p = 6.8×10−13), LPA (p = 4.4×10−10), GGT1 (p = 1.5×10−7), SHBG (p = 3.1×10−7), CRP (p = 6.4×10−6) and IL1RN (p = 7.3×10−6) genes, all associated with their respective protein products with effect sizes ranging from 0.19 to 0.69 standard deviations per allele. Mechanisms implicated include altered rates of cleavage of bound to unbound soluble receptor (IL6R), altered secretion rates of different sized proteins (LPA), variation in gene copy number (CCL4L1) and altered transcription (GGT1). We identified one novel trans effect that was an association between ABO blood group and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels (p = 6.8×10−40), but this finding was not present when TNF-alpha was measured using a different assay , or in a second study, suggesting an assay-specific association. Our results show that protein levels share some of the features of the genetics of gene expression. These include the presence of strong genetic effects in cis locations. The identification of protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) may be a powerful complementary method of improving our understanding of disease pathways.
One of the central dogmas of molecular genetics is that DNA is transcribed to RNA which is translated to protein and alterations to proteins can influence human diseases. Genome-wide association studies have recently revealed many new DNA variants that influence human diseases. To complement these efforts, several genome-wide studies have established that DNA variation influences mRNA expression levels. Loci influencing mRNA levels have been termed “eQTLs”. In this study we have performed the first genome-wide association study of the third piece in this jigsaw – the role of DNA variation in relation to protein levels, or “pQTLs”. We analysed 42 proteins measured in blood fractions from the InCHIANTI study. We identified eight cis effects including common variants in or near the IL6R, CCL4, IL18, LPA, GGT1, SHBG, CRP and IL1RN genes, all associated with blood levels of their respective protein products. Mechanisms implicated included altered transcription (GGT1) but also rates of cleavage of bound to unbound soluble receptor (IL6R), altered secretion rates of different sized proteins (LPA) and variation in gene copy number (CCL4). Blood levels of many of these proteins are correlated with human diseases and the identification of “pQTLs” may in turn help our understanding of disease.
The functional contribution of CNV to human biology and disease pathophysiology has undergone limited exploration. Recent observations in humans indicate a tentative link between CNV and weight regulation. Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), manifesting obesity and hypercholesterolemia, results from a deletion CNV at 17p11.2, but is sometimes due to haploinsufficiency of a single gene, RAI1. The reciprocal duplication in 17p11.2 causes Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS). We previously constructed mouse strains with a deletion, Df(11)17, or duplication, Dp(11)17, of the mouse genomic interval syntenic to the SMS/PTLS region. We demonstrate that Dp(11)17 is obesity-opposing; it conveys a highly penetrant, strain-independent phenotype of reduced weight, leaner body composition, lower TC/LDL, and increased insulin sensitivity that is not due to alteration in food intake or activity level. When fed with a high-fat diet, Dp(11)17/+ mice display much less weight gain and metabolic change than WT mice, demonstrating that the Dp(11)17 CNV protects against metabolic syndrome. Reciprocally, Df(11)17/+ mice with the deletion CNV have increased weight, higher fat content, decreased HDL, and reduced insulin sensitivity, manifesting a bona fide metabolic syndrome. These observations in the deficiency animal model are supported by human data from 76 SMS subjects. Further, studies on knockout/transgenic mice showed that the metabolic consequences of Dp(11)17 and Df(11)17 CNVs are not only due to dosage alterations of Rai1, the predominant dosage-sensitive gene for SMS and likely also PTLS. Our experiments in chromosome-engineered mouse CNV models for human genomic disorders demonstrate that a CNV can be causative for weight/metabolic phenotypes. Furthermore, we explored the biology underlying the contribution of CNV to the physiology of weight control and energy metabolism. The high penetrance, strain independence, and resistance to dietary influences associated with the CNVs in this study are features distinct from most SNP–associated metabolic traits and further highlight the potential importance of CNV in the etiology of both obesity and MetS as well as in the protection from these traits.
Genetic factors play a large role in obesity. However, despite recent technical progress in the search for genetic variants, the identities of causative and contributory genetic factors remain largely unknown. Whereas nucleotide sequence variation has been studied extensively with respect to its potential contribution to obesity, copy number variations (CNV), in which genes exist in abnormal numbers of copies mostly due to duplication or deletion, have only more recently been observed to be associated with human obesity. In this report, we utilize chromosome engineered mouse strains harboring a deletion or duplication CNV to address the potential functional impact of CNVs on weight control and metabolism. We show that the duplication CNV leads to lower body weight; it is also metabolically advantageous and protects from diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The deletion CNV causes a “mirror” phenotype with increased body weight and MetS–like phenotypes. Importantly, these effects manifest regardless of the genetic background and do not appear to be attributable to any single gene. These findings demonstrate experimentally that CNV can be causative for weight and metabolic phenotypes and highlight the potential relevance and importance of CNV in the etiology of obesity/MetS and the protection from these traits.
Copy number variation (CNV) contributes to the variation observed between individuals and can influence human disease progression, but the accurate measurement of individual copy numbers is technically challenging. In the work presented here we describe a modification to a previously described paralogue ratio test (PRT) method for genotyping the CCL3L1/CCL4L1 copy variable region, which we use to ascertain CCL3L1/CCL4L1 copy number in 1581 European samples. As the products of CCL3L1 and CCL4L1 potentially play a role in autoimmunity we performed case control association studies with Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis clinical cohorts.
We evaluate the PRT methodology used, paying particular attention to accuracy and precision, and highlight the problems of differential bias in copy number measurements. Our PRT methods for measuring copy number were of sufficient precision to detect very slight but systematic differential bias between results from case and control DNA samples in one study. We find no evidence for an association between CCL3L1 copy number and Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis or psoriasis.
Differential bias of this small magnitude, but applied systematically across large numbers of samples, would create a serious risk of false positive associations in copy number, if measured using methods of lower precision, or methods relying on single uncorroborated measurements. In this study the small differential bias detected by PRT in one sample set was resolved by a simple pre-treatment by restriction enzyme digestion.
Chemokines are likely to play important roles in the pathophysiology of diseases associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Here, we have analyzed the repertoire of chemokines expressed by EBV-infected B cells. EBV infection of B cells induced expression of TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22, which are known to attract Th2 cells and regulatory T cells via CCR4, and also upregulated constitutive expression of MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, and RANTES/CCL5, which are known to attract Th1 cells and cytotoxic T cells via CCR5. Accordingly, EBV-immortalized B cells secreted these chemokines, especially CCL3, CCL4, and CCL22, in large quantities. EBV infection or stable expression of LMP1 also induced CCL17 and CCL22 in a B-cell line, BJAB. The inhibitors of the TRAF/NF-κB pathway (BAY11-7082) and the p38/ATF2 pathway (SB202190) selectively suppressed the expression of CCL17 and CCL22 in EBV-immortalized B cells and BJAB-LMP1. Consistently, transient-transfection assays using CCL22 promoter-reporter constructs demonstrated that two NF-κB sites and a single AP-1 site were involved in the activation of the CCL22 promoter by LMP1. Finally, serum CCL22 levels were significantly elevated in infectious mononucleosis. Collectively, LMP1 induces CCL17 and CCL22 in EBV-infected B cells via activation of NF-κB and probably ATF2. Production of CCL17 and CCL22, which attract Th2 and regulatory T cells, may help EBV-infected B cells evade immune surveillance by Th1 cells. However, the concomitant production of CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 by EBV-infected B cells may eventually attract Th1 cells and cytotoxic T cells, leading to elimination of EBV-infected B cells at latency III and to selection of those with limited expression of latent genes.
A high copy number of CCL3L1, the most potent HIV-suppressive chemokine, associates with reduced HIV susceptibility. Whether CCL3L1 influences acquisition of multiple blood-borne infections (HCV, HIV-1, HBV) that occurs commonly among intravenous drug users (IDUs) is unknown.
We determined CCL3L1 copy number by real-time PCR among 374 Caucasian IDUs from Estonia of whom 285 were HCV-positive, 208 HIV+, 177 HCV+/HIV+, and 57 HCV−/HIV−.
In univariate and multivariate analyses, HCV and HBV seropositivity, and duration of IDU each strongly predicted HIV seropositivity. A high CCL3L1 copy number (>2) associated with a 80% reduced risk of acquiring HIV, after adjusting for age, gender, HCV/HBV status, CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism and IDU duration (OR=0.20; 95% CI=0.09–0.45). By contrast, CCL3L1 gene dose did not influence HCV seropositivity. Among HCV+ IDUs, there was a 3.5-fold over- and 65% under-representation of a high CCL3L1 copy number among HCV+/HIV− and HCV+/HIV+ subjects, respectively.
Among IDUs exposed heavily to HCV/HIV, CCL3L1 copy number is a major determinant of HIV seropositivity, but not HCV seropositivity. The contrasting distribution of a protective high CCL3L1 copy number among HCV+/HIV− vs HCV+/HIV+ IDUs may reflect that HIV preferentially selects for subjects with a low CCL3L1 gene dose.
chemokine copy number; HIV; HCV; IDU
Copy number variants (CNVs) account for substantial variation between genomes and are a major source of normal and pathogenic phenotypic differences. The dog is an ideal model to investigate mutational mechanisms that generate CNVs as its genome lacks a functional ortholog of the PRDM9 gene implicated in recombination and CNV formation in humans. Here we comprehensively assay CNVs using high-density array comparative genomic hybridization in 50 dogs from 17 dog breeds and 3 gray wolves.
We use a stringent new method to identify a total of 430 high-confidence CNV loci, which range in size from 9 kb to 1.6 Mb and span 26.4 Mb, or 1.08%, of the assayed dog genome, overlapping 413 annotated genes. Of CNVs observed in each breed, 98% are also observed in multiple breeds. CNVs predicted to disrupt gene function are significantly less common than expected by chance. We identify a significant overrepresentation of peaks of GC content, previously shown to be enriched in dog recombination hotspots, in the vicinity of CNV breakpoints.
A number of the CNVs identified by this study are candidates for generating breed-specific phenotypes. Purifying selection seems to be a major factor shaping structural variation in the dog genome, suggesting that many CNVs are deleterious. Localized peaks of GC content appear to be novel sites of CNV formation in the dog genome by non-allelic homologous recombination, potentially activated by the loss of PRDM9. These sequence features may have driven genome instability and chromosomal rearrangements throughout canid evolution.
Individuals with more copies of CCL3L1 (CCR5 ligand) than their population median have been found to be less susceptible to HIV infection. We investigated whether maternal or infant CCL3L1 gene copy numbers are associated with perinatal HIV transmission when single-dose nevirapine is given for prevention.
A nested case–control study was undertaken combining data from four cohorts including 849 HIV-infected mothers and their infants followed prospectively in Johannesburg, South Africa. Access to antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of perinatal transmission differed across the cohorts. Maternal and infant CCL3L1 gene copy numbers per diploid genome (pdg) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction for 79 out of 83 transmitting pairs (~10% transmission rate) and 235 randomly selected non-transmitting pairs.
Higher numbers of infant, but not maternal, CCL3L1 gene copies were associated with reduced HIV transmission (P=0.004) overall, but the association was attenuated if mothers took single-dose nevirapine or if the maternal viral load was low. Maternal nevirapine was also associated with reduced spontaneously released CCL3 (P=0.007) and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated CCL3 (P=0.005) production in cord blood mononuclear cells from uninfected infants.
We observed a strong association between higher infant CCL3L1 gene copies and reduced susceptibility to HIV in the absence of maternal nevirapine. We also observed a reduction in newborn CCL3 production with nevirapine exposure. Taken together, we hypothesize that nevirapine may have direct or indirect effects that partly modify the role of the CCR5 ligand CCL3 in HIV transmission, obscuring the relationship between this genetic marker and perinatal HIV transmission.
CCL3/MIP1alpha; chemokines; mother-to-child HIV transmission ; nevirapine
While expression of C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in the central nervous system (CNS) is associated with numerous neuroinflammatory conditions, the critical cellular sources of this chemokine responsible for disease processes – as well as associated pathogenic mechanisms – remain unresolved. As the potential for anti-CCL2 therapeutics in treating neuroinflammatory disease is likely to be contingent upon effective drug delivery to the source(s) and/or target(s) of CCL2 action in the CNS, tools to highlight the course of CCL2 action during neuroinflammation are imperative. In response to this need, we used the Cre/loxP and FLP-FRT recombination system to develop the first two, cell-conditional CCL2 knockout mice – separately targeting CCL2 gene elimination to astrocytes and endothelial cells, both of which have been considered to play crucial though undefined roles in neuroinflammatory disease. Specifically, mice containing a floxed CCL2 allele were intercrossed with GFAP-Cre or Tie2-Cre transgenic mice to generate mice with CCL2-deficient astrocytes (astrocyte KO) or endothelial cells (endothelial KO), respectively. PCR, RT-PCR/qRT-PCR and ELISA of CCL2 gene, RNA and protein, respectively, from cultured astrocytes and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC), established efficiency and specificity of the CCL2 gene deletions and a CCL2 null phenotype in these CNS cells. Effective cell-conditional knockout of CCL2 was also confirmed in an in vivo setting, wherein astrocytes and BMEC were retrieved by immune-guided laser capture microdissection from their in situ positions in the brains of mice experiencing acute, lipopolysaccharide-mediated endotoxemia to induce CCL2 gene expression. In vivo analysis further revealed apparent cross-talk between BMEC and astrocytes, regarding regulation of astrocyte CCL2 expression. Use of astrocyte KO and endothelial KO mice should prove critical in elaborating pathogenic mechanisms of, and optimizing treatments for, neuroinflammatory disease.
astrocytes; endothelial cells; CCL2; neuroinflammation; cell-conditional knockout; blood-brain barrier
The genetic contribution to sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has not been fully elucidated. There are increasing efforts to characterise the role of copy number variants (CNVs) in human diseases; two previous studies concluded that CNVs may influence risk of sporadic ALS, with multiple rare CNVs more important than common CNVs. A little-explored issue surrounding genome-wide CNV association studies is that of post-calling filtering and merging of raw CNV calls. We undertook simulations to define filter thresholds and considered optimal ways of merging overlapping CNV calls for association testing, taking into consideration possibly overlapping or nested, but distinct, CNVs and boundary estimation uncertainty.
Methodology and Principal Findings
In this study we screened Illumina 300K SNP genotyping data from 730 ALS cases and 789 controls for copy number variation. Following quality control filters using thresholds defined by simulation, a total of 11321 CNV calls were made across 575 cases and 621 controls. Using region-based and gene-based association analyses, we identified several loci showing nominally significant association. However, the choice of criteria for combining calls for association testing has an impact on the ranking of the results by their significance. Several loci which were previously reported as being associated with ALS were identified here. However, of another 15 genes previously reported as exhibiting ALS-specific copy number variation, only four exhibited copy number variation in this study. Potentially interesting novel loci, including EEF1D, a translation elongation factor involved in the delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome (a process which has previously been implicated in genetic studies of spinal muscular atrophy) were identified but must be treated with caution due to concerns surrounding genomic location and platform suitability.
Conclusions and Significance
Interpretation of CNV association findings must take into account the effects of filtering and combining CNV calls when based on early genome-wide genotyping platforms and modest study sizes.