AIM: To investigate the expression of leukemia related protein 16 (LRP16), and the possible relationship between LRP16 expression and clinicopathological indices in 336 gastric carcinoma patients.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect LRP16 expression in 336 cases of paraffin-embedded gastric carcinoma tissues and 60 cases of distal normal mucosa. The relationships between LRP16 expression and patients’ age, tumor size, histological grade, clinical stage, metastatic status and prognosis were analysed.
RESULTS: The expression of LRP16 was 58.6% (197/336) in gastric carcinoma and 31.7% (19/60) in distal normal gastric mucosa. The expression of LRP16 in carcinoma was significantly higher than that in normal mucosa tissues (χ2 = 14.929, P = 0.001). LRP16 protein expression was found in 44.1% (63/143) carcinomas at stage I and II, and 69.4% (134/193) carcinomas at stage III and IV (χ2 = 21.804, P = 0.001), and in 56.9% (182/320) of cancers without metastasis but 93.8% (15/16) of those with metastasis (χ2 = 8.543, P = 0.003). The expression of LRP16 was correlated with tumor size, infiltrative depth, clinical stage, lymphatic invasion and distant metastasis (all P < 0.05). Follow-up data showed that there was a significant difference in median survival time between cancer patients with expression of LRP16 (27.0 mo) and those without (48.0 mo, Log rank =31.644, P = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The expression of LRP16 may be associated with invasion, metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer.
Gastric neoplasms; Immunohistochemistry; Leukemia related protein 16; Prognosis
Prion protein (PrPc) has been previously reported to be involved in gastric cancer (GC) development and progression. However, the association between expression of PrPc and GC prognosis is yet poorly characterized. In the present study, the expressions of PrPc and MGr1-Ag/37LRP, a protein interacting with PrPc, were detected using the tissue microarray technique and immunohistochemical method to compare clinicopathological parameters of 238 GC patients. We found that the expressions of PrPc and MGr1-Ag/37LRP were upregulated in GC lesions compared with their expressions in adjacent noncancerous tissues (p < 0.01). High expression of PrPc was detected in 37.39% (89/238) of GC patients and positively correlated with the expression of MGr1-Ag/37LRP (r = 0.532, p < 0.001). PrPc expression was associated with a number of clinicopathological parameters including depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis of the tumor (p < 0.001). High expression of PrPc brought a poorer prognosis than low PrPc expression. Moreover, GC patients with high level of PrPc and high level of MGr1-Ag/37LRP had the poorest prognosis. Multivariate survival analysis suggested that, along with other parameters, combined expression of PrPc and MGr1-Ag/37LRP was independent prognostic factors for GC patients. These data indicates that overexpression of PrPc, combined with MGr1-Ag/37LRP, is predictive of poor prognosis in GC and thereby could be used to guide the clinical decision.
Prion protein was originally exclusively associated with prion disease but has now been linked to other processes such as cancer and inflammation. Here the authors examined the role of prion protein and its receptor MGr1-Ag/37LRP in gastric cancer. They found that both factors were upregulated in gastric cancer, and not in neighboring healthy, tissues and established the combined expression of prion protein and MGr1-Ag/37LRP as an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. These studies support a new role of prion protein in cancer and identify a new biomarker for a more accurate prediction of prognosis in gastric cancer patients.
PrPc; MGr1-Ag/37LRP; gastric cancer; prognosis
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a multifunctional receptor involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis and cell signaling. The aim of this study was to elucidate the expression and mechanism of LRP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
LRP1 expression in 4 HCC cell lines and 40 HCC samples was detected. After interruption of LRP1 expression in a HCC cell line either with specific lentiviral-mediated shRNA LRP1 or in the presence of the LRP1-specific chaperone, receptor-associated protein (RAP), the role of LRP1 in the migration and invasion of HCC cells was assessed in vivo and in vitro, and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 in cells and the bioactivity of MMP9 in the supernatant were assayed. The expression and prognostic value of LRP1 were investigated in 327 HCC specimens.
Low LRP1 expression was associated with poor HCC prognosis, with low expression independently related to shortened overall survival and increased tumor recurrence rate. Expression of LRP1 in non-recurrent HCC samples was significantly higher than that in early recurrent samples. LRP1 expression in HCC cell lines was inversely correlated with their metastatic potential. After inhibition of LRP1, low-metastatic SMCC-7721 cells showed enhanced migration and invasion and increased expression and bioactivity of MMP9. Correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between LRP1 and MMP9 expression in HCC patients. The prognostic value of LRP1 expression was validated in the independent data set.
LRP1 modulated the level of MMP9 and low level of LRP1 expression was associated with aggressiveness and invasiveness in HCCs. LRP1 offered a possible strategy for tumor molecular therapy.
Axillary node status after induction chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer has been shown on multivariate analysis to be an independent predictor of relapse. However, it has been postulated that responders to induction chemotherapy with a clinically negative axilla could be spared the burden of lymphadenectomy, because most of them will not show histological nodal invasion. P-glycoprotein expression in the rescue mastectomy specimen has finally been identified as a significant predictor of patient survival.
We studied the expression of the genes encoding multidrug resistance associated protein (MDR1) and lung cancer associated resistance protein (LRP) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 52 patients treated for locally advanced breast cancer by means of induction chemotherapy followed by rescue mastectomy. P-glycoprotein expression was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry before treatment in 23 cases, and by means of reverse-transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treatment in 46 (6 failed). LRP expression was detected by means of immunohistochemistry, with the LRP-56 monoclonal antibody, in 31 cases before treatment. Immunohistochemistry for detecting the expression of c-erb-B2, p53, Ki67, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor are routinely performed in our laboratory in every case, and the results obtained were included in the study. All patients had received between two and six cycles of standard 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (FAC) chemotherapy, with two exceptions [one patient received four cycles of a docetaxel-adriamycin combination, and the other four cycles of standard cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-5-fluorouracil (CMF) polychemotherapy]. Response was assessed in accordance with the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST). By these, 2 patients achieved a complete clinical response, 37 a partial response, and the remaining 13 showed stable disease. This makes a total clinical response rate of 75.0%. None achieved a complete pathological response.
MDR1 mRNA expression detected by RT-PCR was associated with the presence of invaded axillary nodes at surgery in 18/22 cases (81.8%), compared with 13/24 (54.2%) in the group with undetectable MDR1 expression. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). LRP expression in more than 20% of tumor cells before any treatment was associated with axillary nodal metastasis after chemotherapy and rescue mastectomy in 17/23 cases, compared with 3/8 in nonexpressors. Again, this difference was highly significant (P < 0.01). LRP expression before treatment and MDR1 mRNA expression after treatment were significantly interrelated (P < 0.001), which might reflect the presence of chemoresistant clones liable to metastasize to the regional nodes. Persistence of previously detected MDR1-positivity after treatment (7/9 compared with 0/2 cases) was significantly associated with axillary node metastasis (P < 0.05). Finally, in a logistic regression multivariate model, histology other than ductal, a Ki67 labeling index of at least 20% and the combination of LRP and MDR1 positivity emerged as independent predictors of axillary node invasion at the time of rescue mastectomy.
The expression of different genes involved in resistance to chemotherapy, both before and after treatment with neoadjuvant, is associated with the presence of axillary node invasion at rescue surgery in locally advanced breast cancer. This might reflect the presence of intrinsically resistant clones before any form of therapy, which persist after it, and could be helpful both for prognosis and for the choice of individual treatment.
axillary nodes; chemotherapy; LRP; multidrug resistant; neoadjuvant
The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a critical family of signaling enzymes that participate in many cellular processes that promote the transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. These processes include cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. However, the correlation between PI3Ks and multidrug resistance (MDR) remains unclear. The prognostic value of PI3Ks has not been previously evaluated. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the association between PIK3CA and PIK3CB expression and the MDR gene in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the expressions of PIK3CA, PIK3CB, MDR-1, LRP, GST-π, and Topo II in 316 CRC specimens. Patients were followed-up annually by telephone or at an outpatient clinic. Results revealed that PIK3CA and PIK3CB expression was correlated with the degree of tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). The overexpression of MDR-1, LRP, Topo II, and GST-π was found to be 72.78%, 70.89%, 77.53%, and 76.58% of CRC, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that PIK3CA and PIK3CB expression exhibits a positive correlation with MDR-1, LRP, and GST-π with correlation coefficients of 0.288, 0.128, and 0.197, respectively (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the five-year survival rate of patients without lymph node metastasis, positive expression of PIK3CA and PIK3CB, and negative expression of GST-π and MDR-1 was higher than those with these characteristics. Multivariate analysis revealed that GST-π, MDR-1 expression, and lymph node metastasis could serve as independent predictive factors of overall survival. The expression of both PIK3CA and PIK3CB is increased and related to the development and progress of colorectal carcinoma and MDR. The combined detection of PIK3CA andPIK3CB is important for patients with colorectal carcinoma in prognosis and optimal therapy.
Colorectal cancer; MDR; PIK3CA; PIK3CB; prognosis
The aim of the present study was to explore a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) mRNA and protein expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its association with clinicopathological factors and prognosis. Through semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the ADAM17 mRNA expression in 50 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and corresponding normal esophageal mucosa were detected. Using streptavidin peroxidase conjugated immunohistochemistry, ADAM17 protein levels were detected in 80 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and corresponding normal esophageal mucosa. A log rank test and the Cox proportional hazards model were used for the esophageal cancer survival analysis. ADAM17 mRNA expression levels in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and corresponding normal esophageal mucosa were 0.937±0.241 and 0.225±0.077, respectively (P<0.01). ADAM17 mRNA expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was correlated with lymph node metastasis (P<0.01) and tumor, node and metastasis (TNM) staging (P<0.05), however, it was not correlated with gender, age or histological grade (P>0.05). ADAM17 protein expression rates in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and corresponding normal esophageal mucosa were 66.25 and 6.25% respectively, a difference that was statistically significant (P<0.01). In addition, ADAM17 protein expression in esophageal squamous cells was correlated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (P<0.05), while it was not correlated with gender, age or histological grade (P>0.05). ADAM17 protein expression and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression were positively correlated (P<0.01). Lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, ADAM17 and EGFR protein expression may be used as independent prognostic indicators of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (all P<0.05). ADAM17 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; they have important roles in invasion and metastasis and a certain value in judging the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
esophageal cancer; a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 mRNA; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; immunohistochemistry; prognosis
Bmi-1, a putative proto-oncogene, is a core member of the polycomb gene family, which is expressed in many human tumors. The p16 protein negatively regulated cell proliferation, whereas CD44v6 is associated with proliferation as an important protein. Additionally, CD44v6 is an important nuclear antigen closely correlated to tumor metastasis. The present study aims to investigate the expression and significance of Bmi-1, p16, and CD44v6 in uterine cervical carcinoma (UCC).
A total of 62 UCC, 30 cervical neoplasic, and 20 normal cervical mucosal tissues were used in the current study. The expression of Bmi-1, p16, and CD44v6 in these tissues was determined using immunohistochemical assay. The relationships among the expression of these indices, the clinicopathologic features of UCC, and the survival rate of UCC patients were also discussed. The correlation between Bmi-1 protein expression and p16 or CD44v6 protein in UCC was analyzed.
The expression of Bmi-1, p16, and CD44v6 was significantly high in cervical carcinoma compared with that in the cervical neoplasia and normal colorectal mucosa (P<0.05). The over-expression of Bmi-1 protein in UCC was apparently related to the distant metastasis (P<0.01) and the tumor, nodes and metastasis-classification, i.e. the TNM staging, World Health Organization (P<0.05). Nevertheless, the positive expression of p16 protein in UCC was not significantly associated with the clinicopathologic features (P>0.05). The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that the over-expression of Bmi-1 significantly decreased the survival rate of UCC patients (P<0.05). A strong correlation indicated that there was statistical significance between the expression of Bmi-1 and CD44V6 proteins in UCC (r=0.419, P=0.001).
The over-expression of Bmi-1 and CD44v6 protein closely correlate to the tumorigenesis, metastasis, and prognosis of UCC. Bmi-1 and CD44v6 may be used to predict the prognosis of cervical carcinoma. Bmi-1 may indirectly regulate the expression of CD44v6 in UCC patients. The positive expression of p16 protein is possibly associated with the tumorigenesis, but not with the metastasis or prognosis of UCC.
Bmi-1 protein; P16 protein; CD44v6; uterine cervical carcinoma; immunohistochemistry
The chemokine CXCL14 has been reported to play an important role in the progression of many malignancies such as breast cancer and papillary thyroid carcinoma, but the role of CXCL14 in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) remains to be established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression pattern and significance of CXCL14 in CRC progression.
265 colorectal carcinoma specimens and 129 matched adjacent normal colorectal mucosa specimens were collected. Expression of CXCL14 in clinical samples was examined by immunostaining. The effect of CXCL14 on colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay, BrdU incorporation assay and colony formation assay. The impact of CXCL14 on migration and invasion of colorectal carcinoma cells was determined by transwell assay and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively.
CXCL14 expression was significantly up-regulated in tumor tissues compared with adjacent nontumorous mucosa tissues (P < 0.001). Tumoral CXCL14 expression levels were significantly correlated with TNM (Tumor-node-metastasis) stage, histodifferentiation, and tumor size. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, high CXCL14 expression in tumor specimens (n = 91) from stage I/II patients was associated with increased risk for disease recurrence (risk ratio, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.15-7.40; P = 0.024). Elevated CXCL14 expression in tumor specimens (n = 135) from stage III/IV patients correlated with worse overall survival (risk ratio, 3.087; 95% CI, 1.866-5.107; P < 0.001). Functional studies demonstrated that enforced expression of CXCL14 in SW620 colorectal carcinoma cells resulted in more aggressive phenotypes. In contrast, knockdown of CXCL14 expression could mitigate the proliferative, migratory and invasive potential of HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells.
Taken together, CXCL14 might be a potential novel prognostic factor to predict the disease recurrence and overall survival and could be a potential target of postoperative adjuvant therapy in CRC patients.
Colorectal carcinoma; CXCL14; Disease-free survival; Overall survival; Prognosis
Lrp4, the muscle receptor for neuronal Agrin, is expressed in the hippocampus and areas involved in cognition. The function of Lrp4 in the brain, however, is unknown, as Lrp4−/− mice fail to form neuromuscular synapses and die at birth. Lrp4−/− mice, rescued for Lrp4 expression selectively in muscle, survive into adulthood and showed profound deficits in cognitive tasks that assess learning and memory. To learn whether synapses form and function aberrantly, we used electrophysiological and anatomical methods to study hippocampal CA3–CA1 synapses. In the absence of Lrp4, the organization of the hippocampus appeared normal, but the frequency of spontaneous release events and spine density on primary apical dendrites were reduced. CA3 input was unable to adequately depolarize CA1 neurons to induce long-term potentiation. Our studies demonstrate a role for Lrp4 in hippocampal function and suggest that patients with mutations in Lrp4 or auto-antibodies to Lrp4 should be evaluated for neurological deficits.
LRP4 is a muscle protein that is found in the hippocampus, a region of the brain that controls cognitive processes such as learning and memory. However, we know very little about what exactly LRP4 does in the hippocampus, and how it affects learning and memory.
A standard way to figure out what a protein does is to study mice that have been genetically modified so that they cannot produce that protein. However, deleting the gene for LRP4 leads to muscle problems that kill these mutant mice at birth.
To get around this problem, Gomez et al. have developed a method to restore the production of LRP4 in the muscles of mutant mice but not in their brains. These mutant mice were then subjected to a battery of tests to measure their ability to learn and recall new memories. These tests showed that LRP4 must be present in the brain, otherwise learning and memory are impaired.
Gomez et al. also explored a process known as long-term potentiation. This process, which involves strengthening the functional connections between neurons, is believed to be essential for learning and other cognitive process. Gomez et al. demonstrated that long-term potentiation was disrupted by the lack of LRP4.
Further experiments are needed to work out how LRP4 controls the learning process in the hippocampus and to explore the connection between LRP4 and various neuromuscular and neurological diseases.
synapse; low-density lipoprotein-related receptor; behavior; learning; hippocampus; long-term potentiation; mouse
LRP1 is a broadly-expressed receptor that binds multiple extracellular ligands and participates in protein clearance. LRP1 is expressed numerous cancers, but its role in lung cancer has not been characterized. Here, we investigate the relationship between LRP1 and lung cancer.
LRP1 mRNA levels were determined in lung tumors from several large, multicenter studies. LRP1 protein localization was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of lung tumor microarrays. Normal fibroblasts, fibroblasts treated with the LRP1 inhibitor RAP, and LRP1 null fibroblasts were co-cultured with three independent lung cancer cell lines to investigate the role of LRP1 on tumor cell proliferation.
LRP1 mRNA levels are significantly decreased in lung tumors relative to non-tumorous lung tissue. Lower expression of LRP1 in lung adenocarcinomas correlates with less favorable clinical outcome in a cohort of 439 patients. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrates that LRP1 is primarily expressed in stromal cells in 94/111 lung cancers, with very little protein found in cancer cells. A growth suppressive function of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEF) was observed in three lung cancer cell lines tested (H460, H2347, and HCC4006 cells); growth suppression was blocked by the LRP1 inhibitor, RAP. LRP1 deletion in fibroblasts reduced the ability of MEF cells to suppress tumor cell mitosis. In a validation set of adenocarcinomas, we confirmed a significant positive correlation between both LRP1 mRNA and protein levels and favorable clinical outcomes.
LRP1 expression is associated with improved lung cancer outcomes. Mechanistically, stromal LRP1 may non-cell autonomously suppress lung tumor cell proliferation.
Background/aim: Retinoblastoma is the commonest primary intraocular tumour in children. Chemotherapy now plays a big part in the treatment of these tumours. There is not much information about the role of the multidrug resistance proteins (MDR)—P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and vault protein lung resistance protein (LRP)—in retinoblastoma. The authors investigated the expression of P-gp and LRP in retinoblastoma and correlated them clinicopathologically.
Methods: Among 60 retinoblastomas, 40 tumours were not subjected to preoperative or postoperative chemotherapy and 20 tumours were subjected to postoperative chemotherapy. In this cohort 27 tumours had no invasion and 33 tumours had invasion of choroid, optic nerve, and orbit. P-gp and LRP expression were studied by immunohistochemistry. Immunoanalysis was done semiquantitatively.
Results: Among the 60 tumours P-gp was expressed in 23 (38%) tumours and LRP was expressed in 35 (58%). P-gp was expressed in 11/27 (40%) tumours with no invasion and in 12/33 (36%) tumours with invasion. LRP was expressed in 15/27 (55%) tumours with no invasion and in 20/33 (60%) tumours with invasion. Both P-gp and LRP were negative in three tumours with invasion, which had later developed bone marrow metastasis. There was no correlation between P-gp and LRP expression with invasion, differentiation and laterality of the tumours and response to treatment.
Conclusion: Retinoblastoma expresses P-gp and LRP intrinsically before chemotherapy and none of these proteins predicted the response to chemotherapy. Thus, further studies are needed to understand the significance of the expression of the P-gp and LRP proteins in retinoblastoma.
lung resistance protein; P-glycoprtein; multidrug resistance; retinoblastoma; immunohistochemistry; chemotherapy
AIM: To investigate the relationships between the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the degree of vascularization, clinicopathologic feature, survival time of patients with gallbladder carcinomas.
METHODS: Sixty-four gallbladder carcinoma specimens were evaluated for COX-2, VEGF expression by immunohi-stochemical methods. Microvessel counts (MVC) were determined using CD34. The relationships between COX-2, VEGF expression, CD34-stained MVC, clinicopathologic features and survival time were analyzed. The correlations between COX-2 and VEGF expression, CD34-stained MVC were also investigated.
RESULTS: COX-2, VEGF immunoreactivity were observed in 71.9% (46/64) and 54.7% (35/64) specimens, respectively. The average MVC in 64 cases of gallbladder carcinoma was 57±14 per high power vision field. The status of MVC was closely correlated with Nevin staging, tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis (P<0.01, 0.002, and 0.003, 0.000, respectively). Increased VEGF expression was significantly correlated with tumor differentiation (poorly and moderately>well differentiated, P<0.05, P = 0.016). Clinical stages had no relation with the expression of VEGF (P>0.05, P = 0.612). There was a positive correlation between COX-2 expression and clinical stages. The positive rate of COX-2 was higher in cases of Nevin stages S4-S5 (81.8%) than in those of Nevin stages S1-S3 (50.0%) with a statistical significance (P<0.01, P = 0.009). The expression of COX-2 did not vary with differentiation (P>0.05, P = 0.067). Statistically significant differences were also observed according to lymph node metastasis, COX-2 expression and VEGF expression (P<0.01, 0.000, and 0.001, respectively). There was no relation between VEGF, COX-2 expression, MVC and the age and sex of patients. MVC and VEGF positive rate in the COX-2 positive gallbladder carcinoma tissue was higher than that in the COX-2 negative tissue (P<0.05, 0.000, and 0.032, respectively). Patients with VEGF, COX-2 positive tumors had a significantly shorter survival time than those with negative tumors (P<0.05, 0.004, 0.01, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Augmented tumor neovascularization induced by VEGF may be one of the several effects of COX-2 responsible for poor prognosis of human gallbladder carcinoma. COX-2 inhibitor, either in combination therapy with other agents, or for chemoprevention, may be effective via suppression of angiogenesis in this fatal disease.
Gallbladder neoplasms; Neovascularization; Cyclooxygenase; Vascular endothelial growth factor
Splicing processes might play a major role in carcinogenesis and tumour progression. The Wnt pathway is of crucial relevance for cancer progression. Therefore we focussed on the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway in order to validate the expression of sequences predicted as alternatively spliced by bioinformatic methods. Splice variants of its key molecules were selected, which may be critical components for the understanding of colorectal tumour progression and may have the potential to act as biological markers. For some of the Wnt pathway genes the existence of splice variants was either proposed (e.g. β-Catenin and CTNNB1) or described only in non-colon tissues (e.g. GSK3β) or hitherto not published (e.g. LRP5).
Both splice variants – normal and alternative form – of all selected Wnt pathway components were found to be expressed in cell lines as well as in samples derived from tumour, normal and healthy tissues. All splice positions corresponded totally with the bioinformatical prediction as shown by sequencing. Two hitherto not described alternative splice forms (CTNNB1 and LRP5) were detected. Although the underlying EST data used for the bioinformatic analysis suggested a tumour-specific expression neither a qualitative nor a significant quantitative difference between the expression in tumour and healthy tissues was detected. Axin-1 expression was reduced in later stages and in samples from carcinomas forming distant metastases.
We were first to describe that splice forms of crucial genes of the Wnt-pathway are expressed in human colorectal tissue. Newly described splicefoms were found for β-Catenin, LRP5, GSK3β, Axin-1 and CtBP1. However, the predicted cancer specificity suggested by the origin of the underlying ESTs was neither qualitatively nor significant quantitatively confirmed. That let us to conclude that EST sequence data can give adequate hints for the existence of alternative splicing in tumour tissues. That no difference in the expression of these splice forms between cancerous tissues and normal mucosa was found, may indicate that the existence of different splice forms is of less significance for cancer formation as suggested by the available EST data. The currently available EST source is still insufficient to clearly deduce colon cancer specificity. More EST data from colon (tumour and healthy) is required to make reliable predictions.
AIM: To investigate the role of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression in colorectal carcinogenesis and evaluate the correlation with clinicopathological parameters and apoptosis-activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) expression in colorectal adenocarcinomas.
METHODS: We used tissue microarrays consisting of 26 normal mucosa, 50 adenomas, 515 adenocarcinomas, and 127 metastatic lesions. Medical records were reviewed and clinicopathological analysis was performed.
RESULTS: GLUT1 expression was absent in normal mucosa and low or moderately apparent in 19 cases (38.0%) of 50 adenomas. However, GLUT1 expression was detected in 423 (82.1%) of 515 adenocarcinomas and in 96 (75.6%) of 127 metastatic lesions. GLUT1 expression was significantly correlated with female gender (P = 0.009), non-mucinous tumor type (P = 0.045), poorer differentiation (P = 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), higher AJCC and Dukes stage (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). There was a significant inverse correlation between GLUT1 expression and Apaf-1 expression (P = 0.001). In univariate survival analysis, patients with GLUT1 expression demonstrated poor overall survival and disease-free survival (P = 0.047 and P = 0.021, respectively, log-rank test).
CONCLUSION: GLUT1 expression was frequently increased in adenocarcinomas and metastatic lesions. GLUT1 expression was significantly correlated with poorer clinicopathologic phenotypes and survival of patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas.
Adenocarcinoma; Colorectum; Glucose transporter 1; Apoptosis-activating factor-1; Prognosis; Survival
Recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is activated by a serum-derived, macrophage stimulating protein (MSP) growth factor and is expressed in many malignant tumors. The aim of the present study was to reveal the protein expression profile of RON and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics of gastric carcinoma and prognosis.
Gastric carcinoma tissue from 98 patients, along with 29 specimens of paraneoplastic tissue and 10 specimens of normal gastric mucosa, were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Western blot analysis of 19 samples of gastric carcinoma tissue and corresponding paraneoplastic tissue, 8 specimens of normal gastric mucosa, and 2 specimens of normal lymph node samples also detected expression of a splice variant of RON, RONΔ165. All samples obtained were accompanied by patient follow-up data that ranged from 3 to 89 months (median time: 22 months).
The rate of positive RON expression differed significantly between gastric carcinoma tissues [56.1%, (55/98)] and paraneoplastic tissues [25.6%, (8/29)] (p = 0.007). In contrast, RON expression was absent in normal gastric mucosa samples. RON expression positively correlated with the invasive depth of the tumor (p = 0.019), perigastric lymph nodes metastasis (p = 0.019), and TNM stage (p = 0.001). However, RON expression was independent of tumor growth pattern according to Bormann criteria (p = 0.209), histopathological grade (p = 0.196), and incidence of distant metastasis (p = 0.400). RON expression was not related to a patient's survival rate (p = 0.195). RONΔ165 was strongly expressed in fresh gastric carcinoma tissue, corresponding paraneoplastic tissue, and perigastric lymph nodes with metastatic carcinoma. In contrast, expression of RONΔ165 was not observed in normal gastric mucosa and normal lymph node tissue samples.
RON expression is significant in gastric carcinoma tissue and corresponding paraneoplastic tissue, but is not expressed in normal gastric mucosa. Expression of RONΔ165 was similarly observed in gastric carcinoma tissue and in metastases present in lymph node tissues. We hypothesize that RON and its splice variant play an important role in the occurrence, progression, and metastasis of gastric carcinoma, and therefore may represent a useful marker to evaluate the biological activity of gastric carcinoma.
To detect the expression of multidrug resistance molecules P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Lung resistnce protein (LRP) and Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and analyze the relationship between them and the clinico-pathological features.
The expressions of P-gp, LRP and MRP in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 59 gastric cancer patients were determined by a labbelled Streptavidin-Peroxidase (SP) immunohistochemical technique, and the results were analyzed in correlation with clinicopathological data. None of these patients received chemotherapy prior to surgery.
The positive rates of P-gp, LRP, MRP were 86.4%, 84.7% and 27.1%, respectively. The difference between the positive rate of P-gp and MRP was significant statistically, as well as the difference between the expression of MRP and LRP. No significant difference was observed between P-gp and LRP, but the positively correlation between the expression of P-gp and LRP had been found. No significant correlation between the expression of P-gp, LRP, MRP and the grade of differentiation were observed. The expression of P-gp was correlated with clinical stages positively (r = 0.742), but the difference with the expression of P-gp in different stages was not significant.
The expressions of P-gp, LRP and MRP in patients with gastric cancer without prior chemotherapy are high, indicating that innate drug resistance may exist in gastric cancer.
The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family is a highly conserved group of membrane receptors with diverse functions in developmental processes, lipoprotein trafficking, and cell signaling. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1b (LRP1B) was reported to be deleted in several types of human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer. Our group has previously reported that a distal extracellular truncation of murine Lrp1b that is predicted to secrete the entire intact extracellular domain (ECD) is fully viable with no apparent phenotype.
Methods and Principal Findings
Here, we have used a gene targeting approach to create two mouse lines carrying internally rearranged exons of Lrp1b that are predicted to truncate the protein closer to the N-terminus and to prevent normal trafficking through the secretary pathway. Both mutations result in early embryonic lethality, but, as expected from the restricted expression pattern of LRP1b in vivo, loss of Lrp1b does not cause cellular lethality as homozygous Lrp1b-deficient blastocysts can be propagated normally in culture. This is similar to findings for another LDL receptor family member, Lrp4. We provide in vitro evidence that Lrp4 undergoes regulated intramembraneous processing through metalloproteases and γ-secretase cleavage. We further demonstrate negative regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by the soluble extracellular domain.
Conclusions and Significance
Our results underline a crucial role for Lrp1b in development. The expression in mice of truncated alleles of Lrp1b and Lrp4 with deletions of the transmembrane and intracellular domains leads to release of the extracellular domain into the extracellular space, which is sufficient to confer viability. In contrast, null mutations are embryonically (Lrp1b) or perinatally (Lrp4) lethal. These findings suggest that the extracellular domains of both proteins may function as a scavenger for signaling ligands or signal modulators in the extracellular space, thereby preserving signaling thresholds that are critical for embryonic development, as well as for the clear, but poorly understood role of LRP1b in cancer.
Recruitment of monocytes into sites of inflammation is essential in the immune response. In cancer, recruited monocytes promote invasion, metastasis, and possibly angiogenesis. LDL receptor-related protein (LRP1) is an endocytic and cell-signaling receptor that regulates cell migration. In this study, we isografted PanO2 pancreatic carcinoma cells into mice in which LRP1 is deleted in myeloid lineage cells. Recruitment of monocytes into orthotopic and subcutaneous tumors was significantly increased in these mice, compared with control mice. LRP1-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) expressed higher levels of multiple chemokines, including, most prominently, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/CCL3, which is known to amplify inflammation. Increased levels of CCL3 were detected in LRP1-deficient tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), isolated from PanO2 tumors, and in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells in which LRP1 was silenced. LRP1-deficient BMDMs migrated more rapidly than LRP1-expressing cells in vitro. The difference in migration was reversed by CCL3-neutralizing antibody, by CCR5-neutralizing antibody, and by inhibiting NFκB with JSH-23. Inhibiting NFκB reversed the increase in CCL3 expression associated with LRP1 gene-silencing in RAW 264.7 cells. Tumors formed in mice with LRP1-deficient myeloid cells demonstrated increased angiogenesis. Although VEGF mRNA expression was not increased in LRP1-deficient TAMs, at the single-cell level, the increase in TAM density in tumors with LRP1-deficient myeloid cells may have allowed these TAMs to contribute an increased amount of VEGF to the tumor microenvironment. Our results demonstrate that macrophage density in tumors is correlated with cancer angiogenesis in a novel model system. Myeloid cell LRP1 may be an important regulator of cancer progression.
There is growing evidence implicating that neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin (NGAL) plays a role in the development and progression of cancers. However, the effect of NGAL in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of NGAL in the tumorigenesis and progression of CRC and evaluated the clinical value of NGAL expression.
We examined NGAL expression in 526 colorectal tissue samples, including 53 sets of matched specimens (histologically normal mucosa, adenomas, and carcinomas) using immunohistochemical analysis. In CRCs, correlations between NGAL expression and clinicopathologic parameters were analyzed, and survival analysis was conducted. The role of NGAL was further tested using mouse xenograft models.
NGAL expression was elevated during the colorectal adenoma–carcinoma sequence both among the 526 cases (rs = 0.66, P < 0.001) and in the 53 sets of matched specimens (rs = 0.60, P < 0.001). In CRCs, NGAL expression was associated with cancer stage (P = 0.041) and tumor recurrence in stage II patients (P = 0.037). Survival analysis revealed that NGAL expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR = 1.84, P = 0.004) and for disease-free survival of stage II patients (HR = 5.88, P = 0.021). In mouse models, the xenografts in cecum and spleen were heavier and more numerous in the group injected with NGAL-overexpressing CRC cells (P < 0.05).
NGAL overexpression may promote the tumorigenesis and progression of CRC. Detecting NGAL expression in tumor tissues may be useful for evaluating prognosis of patients with CRC.
TAZ is a downstream agent of Hippo signal pathway. β-catenin is a cell adhesion molecule associated with the invasion and metastasis of carcinomas as well as a critical component of Wnt pathway. TAZ and β-catenin have long been thought to play a vital role in tumour development and progression. This study aimed to detect expression of TAZ and β-catenin in adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) and explore their clinicopathological significance.
The expression of TAZ and β-catenin were detected by immunohistochemistry of 135 AEG samples, and analyzed with complete clinicopathological features. Overall survival rates were also calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazard model was performed to assess the prognostic values. 37 normal mucosa and 41 dysplasia samples of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) were studied comparably.
TAZ protein showed a strictly nuclear staining pattern in AEG and dysplasia with IHC. Expression of TAZ was higher in dysplasia and AEG compared with normal mucosa (P < 0.001, 0.008). The positive expression rate of nuclear β-catenin was significantly higher in carcinoma and dysplasia than that in normal mucosa (P < 0.001, =0.046). Abnormal expression rate of membranous β-catenin in AEG was significantly higher than that in normal mucosa tissues and dysplasia (P = 0.001, 0.002). In AEG, over expression of TAZ was directly correlated with abnormal nuclear β-catenin expression (r = 0.298, P < 0.001) and membranous β-catenin (r = 0.202, P = 0.019). Patients with abnormal TAZ or β-catenin expression of AEG exhibited a shorter overall survival (OS) and lower overall survival rate than those with normal TAZ or β-catenin expression (P < 0.05). In addition, patients with abnormal expression of both TAZ and β-catenin exhibited worst overall survival. In multivariate survival analysis, abnormal expression of TAZ, TAZ & β-catenin (nuclear and membranous) and tumour differentiation were found to be independent prognostic factors related to OS of AEG patients.
Over expression of TAZ was associated with abnormal expression of β-catenin, which is correlated with poor prognosis of patients with AEG. Abnormal expression of TAZ and TAZ & β-catenin (nuclear and membranous) are independent prognostic factors, so targeting TAZ and β-catenin could prove to be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AEG.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2558852841276335
TAZ; β-catenin; Correlation; Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction; Esophagogastric junction; Prognosis; Immunohistochemistry
Lgr5 (leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5) has recently been identified as an intestinal stem cell marker. In order to determine whether Lgr5 is a potential marker of cancer stem cells, we investigated whether Lgr5 expression correlated with Ki-67 expression and prognosis in colorectal carcinoma.
Lgr5 and Ki-67 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 192 colorectal carcinoma specimens. Selection of side population (SP) cells was performed by staining with Hoechest 33342, and Lgr5 expression in Colo205 SP cells was then detected by immunofluorescence.
Lgr5 expression was significantly higher in carcinoma than in normal mucosa (P=0.001). Lgr5 was positively correlated with histological grade (P=0.001), depth of invasion (P=0.001), lymph node metastasis (P=0.001), distant metastasis (P=0.004), pTNM stage (P=0.001), and Ki-67 (r=0.446, P=0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the effect of Lgr5 on survival was independent of Ki-67 (P=0.037). In the in vitro study, Hoechst low-staining cells were counted in 7% of the Colo205 colon cancer cell line population, and Lgr5 expression was strikingly stronger in Hoechst low-staining cells than in high-staining cells (P=0.001).
These findings suggest that Lgr5 may play an important role in the progression and prognosis of colorectal carcinoma, and may be a potential new therapeutic target for the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. It may also be considered as a potential marker for colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs).
Colorectal cancer; Lgr5; Prognosis; Cancer stem cells
Activation of MEK5 in many cancers is associated with carcinogenesis through aberrant cell proliferation. In this study, we determined the level of phosphorylated MEK5 (pMEK5) expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and correlated it with clinicopathologic data.
pMEK5 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 335 clinicopathologic characterized CRC cases and 80 cases of nontumor colorectal tissues. pMEK5 expression of 19 cases of primary CRC lesions and paired with normal mucosa was examined by Western blotting. The relationship between pMEK5 expression in CRC and clinicopathologic parameters, and the association of pMEK5 expression with CRC survival were analyzed respectively.
pMEK5 expression was significantly higher in CRC tissues (185 out of 335, 55.2%) than in normal tissues (6 out of 80, 7.5%; P < 0.001). Western blotting demonstrated that pMEK5 expression was upregulated in 12 of 19 CRC tissues (62.1%) compared to the corresponding adjacent nontumor colorectal tissues. Overexpression of pMEK5 in CRC tissues was significantly correlated to the depth of invasion (P = 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), distant metastasis (P < 0.001) and high preoperative CEA level (P < 0.001). Consistently, the pMEK5 level in CRC tissues was increased following stage progression of the disease (P < 0.001). Analysis of the survival curves showed a significantly worse 5-year disease-free (P = 0.002) and 5-year overall survival rate (P < 0.001) for patients whose tumors overexpressed pMEK5. However, in multivariate analysis, pMEK5 was not an independent prognostic factor for CRC (DFS: P = 0.139; OS: P = 0.071).
pMEK5 expression is correlated with the staging of CRC and its expression might be helpful to the TNM staging system of CRC.
AIM: To investigate the expression of myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 (MR-1) in relation to clinicopathological parameters and postoperative survival in a group of Chinese patients with gastric cancer.
METHODS: In our previous study of human whole-genome gene expression profiling, the differentially expressed genes were detected in the gastric cancer and its adjacent noncancerous mucosa. We found that MR-1 was associated with the location and differentiation of tumors. In this study, MR-1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in specimens of primary cancer and the adjacent noncancerous tissues from gastric cancer patients. A set of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays based on the Universal ProbeLibrary-a collection of 165 presynthesized, fluorescence-labeled locked nucleic acid hydrolysis probes-was designed specifically to detect the expression of MR-1 mRNA. The correlation was analyzed between the expression of MR-1 and other tumor characteristics which may influence the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study on the prognosis was carried out and clinical data were collected from medical records.
RESULTS: MR-1 mRNA and protein could be detected in gastric cancer tissues as well as in matched noncancerous tissues. MR-1 was up-regulated at both mRNA (5.459 ± 0.639 vs 1.233 ± 0.238, P < 0.001) and protein levels (34.2% vs 13.2%, P = 0.003) in gastric cancer tissues. Correlation analysis demonstrated that high expression of MR-1 in gastric cancer was significantly correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.034). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the postoperative survival of the MR-1 positive group tended to be poorer than that of the MR-1 negative group, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.002). Among all the patients with stage I-IV carcinoma, the 5-year survival rates of MR-1 positive and negative groups were 50.40% and 12.70%, respectively, with respective median survival times of 64.27 mo (95%CI: 13.41-115.13) and 16.77 mo (95%CI: 8.80-24.74). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare the impact of MR-1 expression and other clinicopathological parameters on prognosis. In a univariate analysis on all 70 specimens, 6 factors were found to be significantly associated with the overall survival statistically: including MR-1 expression, depth of invasion, distant metastasis, lymph node metastasis, vascular invasion and the tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage based on the 7th edition of the International Union against Cancer TNM classification. To avoid the influence caused by univariate analysis, the expressions of MR-1 as well as other parameters were examined in multivariate Cox analysis. Clinicopathological variables that might affect the prognosis of gastric cancer patients were analyzed by Cox regression analysis, which showed that MR-1 expression and TNM stage were independent predictors of postoperative survival. The best mathematical multivariate Cox regression model consisted of two factors: MR-1 expression and TNM stage. Our results indicated that MR-1 protein could act as an independent marker for patient overall survival [Hazard ratio (HR): 2.215, P = 0.043].
CONCLUSION: MR-1 is an important variable that can be used to evaluate the outcome, prognosis and targeted therapy of gastric cancer patients.
Myofibrillogenesis regulator-1; Gastric cancer; Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; Immunohistochemistry; Poor prognosis
Beclin 1 participates in development, autophagy, differentiation, anti- apoptosis, neurodegeneration, tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The roles of Beclin 1 in colorectal carcinogenesis and its subsequent progression are still unclear. Here, the mRNA and protein expression of Beclin 1 were determined in colorectal carcinoma and matched mucosa by Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH) were performed on tissue microarryer with colorectal carcinoma, adenoma and mucosa. The expression of Beclin 1 mRNA and protein was found to be higher in colorectal carcinoma than matched mucosa by real-time PCR and Western blot (p < 0.05). According to the ISH data, Beclin 1 expression was lower in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM) than adenoma and carcinoma (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemically, primary carcinoma showed stronger Beclin 1 expression than NNM and metastatic carcinoma in the liver (p < 0.05). Beclin 1 protein expression was negatively related to liver and distant metastasis (p < 0.05), but not correlated with age, sex, depth of invasion, lymphatic or venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging, differentiation or serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration (p > 0.05). Survival analysis indicated that Beclin 1 expression was not linked to favorable prognosis of the patients with colorectal carcinoma (p > 0.05). Cox’s model indicated that depth of invasion and distant metastasis were independent prognostic factors for colorectal carcinomas (p < 0.05). It was suggested that Beclin 1 expression is closely linked to colorectal carcinogenesis and distant metastasis of colorectal carcinoma.
colorectal carcinoma; Beclin 1; tumorigenesis; pathogenesis; prognosis
AIM: To evaluate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and death decoy receptor (DcR3) as colorectal cancer prognostic indicators.
METHODS: Colorectal carcinoma specimens from 300 patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to detect the staining patterns of HER2 and DcR3. Classification of HER2 staining was carried out using the United States Food and Drug Administration semi-quantitative scoring system, with scores of 0 or 1+ indicating a tumor-negative (normal expression) status and scores of 2+ and 3+ indicating a tumor-positive (overexpression) status. Classification of DcR3 was carried out by quantitating the percentage of positive cells within the stained section, with < 10% indicating a tumor-negative status and ≥ 10% indicating a tumor-positive status. Correlation of the HER2 and DcR3 staining status with clinicopathological parameters [age, sex, tumor size, differentiation, and the tumor, node, metastasis (pTNM) classification] and survival was statistically assessed.
RESULTS: Tumor-positive status for HER2 and DcR3 was found in 18.33% and 58.33% of the 300 colorectal carcinoma specimens, respectively. HER2 tumor-positive status showed a significant correlation with tumor size (P = 0.003) but not with other clinicopathological parameters. DcR3 tumor-positive status showed a significant correlation with tumor differentiation (P < 0.001), pTNM stage (P < 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). However, correlation coefficient analysis did not indicate that a statistically significant correlation exists between tumor-positive status for the HER2 and DcR3 overexpression (P = 0.236). Patients with specimens classified as DcR3-overexpressing had a significantly worse overall survival (OS) rate than those without DcR3 overexpression (median OS: 42.11 vs 61.21 mo; HR = 50.27, 95%CI: 44.90-55.64, P < 0.001). HER2 overexpression had no significant impact on median OS (35.10 mo vs 45.25 mo; HR = 44.40, 95%CI: 39.32-49.48, P = 0.344). However, patients with specimens classified as both HER2- and DcR3-overexpressing had a significantly poorer median OS than those with only HER2 overexpression (31.80 mo vs 52.20 mo; HR = 35.10, 95%CI: 22.04-48.16, P = 0.006).
CONCLUSION: HER2 overexpression is not an independent prognostic marker of colorectal cancer, but DcR3 overexpression is highly correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor OS.
Colorectal carcinoma; Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; Death decoy receptor; Immunohistochemistry; Prognosis