To describe patterns of infant, childhood and adolescent body mass index (BMI) and weight associated with adult metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
Research Design and Methods:
We measured waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (NCEP-ATPIII definition) in 1,492 men and women aged 26-32 years in Delhi, India, whose weight and height were recorded 6-monthly throughout infancy (0-2 years), childhood (2-11 years) and adolescence (11 years-adult).
Men and women with metabolic syndrome (29% overall), any of its component features, or higher (>upper quartile) insulin resistance (HOMA) had more rapid BMI or weight gain than the rest of the cohort throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence. Glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes) was, like metabolic syndrome, associated with rapid BMI gain in childhood and adolescence, but with lower BMI in infancy.
In this Indian population, patterns of infant BMI and weight gain differed for people who developed metabolic syndrome (rapid gain) compared with those who developed glucose intolerance (low infant BMI). Rapid BMI gain during childhood and adolescence was a risk factor for both disorders.
Metabolic syndrome; diabetes; birthweight; infant weight; child growth
OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of infant, childhood, and adolescent BMI and weight associated with adult metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We measured waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition) in 1,492 men and women aged 26–32 years in Delhi, India, whose weight and height were recorded every 6 months throughout infancy (0–2 years), childhood (2–11 years), and adolescence (11 years–adult).
RESULTS—Men and women with metabolic syndrome (29% overall), any of its component features, or higher (greater than upper quartile) insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment) had more rapid BMI or weight gain than the rest of the cohort throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes) was, like metabolic syndrome, associated with rapid BMI gain in childhood and adolescence but with lower BMI in infancy.
CONCLUSIONS—In this Indian population, patterns of infant BMI and weight gain differed for individuals who developed metabolic syndrome (rapid gain) compared with those who developed glucose intolerance (low infant BMI). Rapid BMI gain during childhood and adolescence was a risk factor for both disorders.
To study the relationship of newborn size and post-natal growth to glucose intolerance in south Indian adults.
Research design and Methods
2,218 men and women (mean age 28 years) were studied from a population-based birth cohort born in a large town and adjacent rural villages. The prevalence of adult diabetes mellitus [DM] and impaired glucose tolerance [IGT], and insulin resistance and insulin secretion (calculated) were examined in relation to BMI and height at birth, and in infancy, childhood and adolescence and changes in BMI and height between these stages.
Sixty-two (2.8%) subjects had type 2 diabetes (DM) and 362 (16.3%) had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). IGT and DM combined (IGT/DM) and insulin resistance were associated with low childhood body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001 for both) and above-average BMI gain between childhood or adolescence and adult life (p<0.001 for both). There were no direct associations between birthweight or infant size and IGT/DM; however, after adjusting for adult BMI, lower birthweight was associated with an increased risk.
The occurrence of IGT and Type 2 DM is associated with thinness at birth and in childhood followed by accelerated BMI gain through adolescence.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; impaired glucose tolerance; insulin resistance; childhood body mass index; young adulthood
Multiple definitions of the metabolic syndrome (MS) have been proposed for children, adolescents and adults. The aim of this study was to analyse the variations in the MS prevalence using different definitions and to examine which factors influence the frequency of the MS in childhood and adolescence.
Methods and design
The prevalence of the MS according to eight proposed definitions was studied in 1205 Caucasian overweight children and adolescents aged 4–16 years (mean body mass index (BMI) 27.3 kg/m2, mean age 11.8 years, 46% males, 39% prepubertal). Blood pressure, waist circumference and fasting triglycerides, HDL‐cholesterol, total cholesterol, insulin and glucose concentrations were determined. Overweight was defined according to the International Task Force of Obesity in Childhood. Degree of overweight was calculated as standard deviation score of BMI (SDS‐BMI). Insulin resistance was estimated based on the HOMA model.
The prevalence of the MS varied significantly (p<0.001), being between 6% and 39% depending on the different definitions. Only 2% of the children fulfilled the criteria of the MS in all definitions. Insulin resistance and degree of overweight were associated with the MS. In most definitions, pubertal stage did not influence the occurrence of the MS. In a principal component analysis, total cholesterol, triglycerides and waist circumference showed high final communality estimates.
Since the prevalence of the MS varied widely in overweight children and adolescents depending on the proposed definition used, an internationally accepted uniform definition of the MS is necessary to compare different populations and studies.
Impaired glucose regulation (IGR) is associated with detrimental cardiovascular outcomes such as cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD risk factors) or intima-media thickness (IMT). Our aim was to examine whether these associations are mediated by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (waist) or fasting serum insulin (insulin) in a population in the African region.
Major CVD risk factors (systolic blood pressure, smoking, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol,) were measured in a random sample of adults aged 25–64 in the Seychelles (n = 1255, participation rate: 80.2%).
According to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association, IGR was divided in four ordered categories: 1) normal fasting glucose (NFG), 2) impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and normal glucose tolerance (IFG/NGT), 3) IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT), and 4) diabetes mellitus (DM). Carotid and femoral IMT was assessed by ultrasound (n = 496).
Age-adjusted levels of the major CVD risk factors worsened gradually across IGR categories (NFG < IFG/NGT < IFG/IGT < DM), particularly HDL-cholesterol and blood pressure (p for trend < 0.001). These relationships were marginally attenuated upon further adjustment for waist, BMI or insulin (whether considered alone or combined) and most of these relationships remained significant. With regards to IMT, the association was null with IFG/NGT, weak with IFG/IGT and stronger with DM (all more markedly at femoral than carotid levels). The associations between IMT and IFG/IGT or DM (adjusted by age and major CVD risk factors) decreased only marginally upon further adjustment for BMI, waist or insulin. Further adjustment for family history of diabetes did not alter the results.
We found graded relationships between IGR categories and both major CVD risk factors and carotid/femoral IMT. These relationships were only partly accounted for by BMI, waist and insulin. This suggests that increased CVD-risk associated with IGR is also mediated by factors other than the considered markers of adiposity and insulin resistance. The results also imply that IGR and associated major CVD risk factors should be systematically screened and appropriately managed.
The increasing incidence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), gestational diabetes (GDM) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) during pregnancy was hypothesized to be associated with increases in pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). The aims were to 1) determine the prevalence of IGT/GDM/T2 D over a 10 year period; 2) examine the relationship between maternal overweight/obesity and IGT/GDM/T2D; and 3) examine the extent to which maternal metabolic complications impact maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes.
Data arose from a perinatal database which contains maternal characteristics and perinatal outcome for all singleton infants born in London, Canada between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009. Univariable and multivariable odds ratios (OR) were estimated using logistic regression with IGT/GDM/T2 D being the outcome of interest.
A total of 36,597 women were included in the analyses. Population incidence of IGT, GDM and T2 D rose from 0.7%, 2.9% and 0.5% in 2000 to 1.2%, 4.2% and 0.9% in 2009. The univariable OR for IGT, GDM and T2 D were 1.65, 1.52 and 2.06, respectively, over the ten year period. After controlling for maternal age, parity and pre-pregnancy BMI the OR did not decrease. Although there was a positive relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and prevalence of IGT/GDM/T2 D, this did not explain the time trends in the latter. Diagnosis of IGT/GDM/T2 D increased the risk of having an Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes, which was partially explained by gestational hypertension, high placental ratio, gestational age and large for gestational age babies.
We found a significant increase in the incidence of IGT/GDM/T2 D for the decade between 2000-2009 which was not explained by rising prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity.
Central arterial stiffness represents a well-established predictor of cardiovascular disease. Decreased circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), increased asymmetric dimethyl-arginine (ADMA) levels, traditional cardiovascular risk factors and insulin resistance have all been associated with increased arterial stiffness. The correlations of novel and traditional cardiovascular risk factors with central arterial stiffness in prediabetic individuals were investigated in the present study.
The study population consisted of 53 prediabetic individuals. Individuals were divided into groups of isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and combined IGT-IFG. Age, sex, family history of diabetes, smoking history, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, lipid profile, levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and history of antihypertensive or statin therapy were obtained from all participants. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR). Carotid -femoral pulse wave velocity was used as an index of arterial stiffness. Circulating EPC count and ADMA serum levels were also determined.
Among studied individuals 30 (56.6%) subjects were diagnosed with isolated IFG, 9 (17%) with isolated IGT (17%) and 14 with combined IFG-IGT (26.4%). In univariate analysis age, mean blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and ADMA levels positively correlated with pulse-wave velocity while exercise and GFR correlated negatively. EPC count did not correlate with PWV. In multivariate stepwise regression analysis PWV correlated independently and positively with LDL-Cholesterol (low density lipoprotein) and ADMA levels and negatively with exercise.
Elevated ADMA and LDL-C levels are strongly associated with increased arterial stiffness among pre-diabetic subjects. In contrast exercise inversely correlated with arterial stiffness.
Pre-diabetes; ADMA; Pulse wave velocity; Endothelial progenitor cells
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes), and its relationship to body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Chinese and Europid adults. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study. SETTING: Newcastle upon Tyne. SUBJECTS: These comprised Chinese and Europid men and women, aged 25-64 years, and resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two hour post load plasma glucose concentration, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio. METHODS: Population based samples of Chinese and European adults were recruited. Each subject had a standard WHO oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 375 Chinese and 610 Europid subjects. The age adjusted prevalences of glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid men were 13.0% (p = 0.04). Mean BMIs were lower in Chinese men (23.8 v 26.1) and women (23.5 v 26.1) than in the Europids (p values < 0.001), as were waist circumferences (men, 83.3 cm v 90.8, p < 0.001; women, 77.3 cm v 79.2, p < 0.05). Mean waist-hip ratios were lower in Chinese men (0.90 v 0.91, p = 0.02) but higher in Chinese women (0.84 v 0.78, p < 0.001) compared with Europids. In both Chinese and Europid adults, higher BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were associated with glucose intolerance. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of glucose intolerance in Chinese men and women, despite lower BMIs, is similar to or higher than that in local Europid men and women and intermediate between levels found in China and those in Mauritius. It is suggested that an increase in mean BMI to the levels in the Europid population will be associated with a substantial increase in glucose intolerance in Chinese people.
To estimate sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) during childhood for MetS and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adulthood.
Data from 3 major studies—the Fels Longitudinal Study, the Muscatine Study, and the Princeton Follow-up Study—were combined to examine how thresholds of metabolic components during childhood determine adult MetS and T2D. Available metabolic components examined in the 1789 subjects included high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride levels, glucose, and percentiles for body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for a refined set of component threshold values were examined individually and in combination.
Sensitivity and positive predictive values remained low for adult MetS and T2D for individual components. However, specificity and negative predictive values were fairly high for MetS and exceptionally so for T2D. In combination, having 1 or more of the components showed the highest sensitivity over any individual component and high negative predictive value. Overall, specificity and negative predictive values remained high whether considering individual or combined components for T2D.
Sensitivity and positive predictive values on the basis of childhood measures remained relatively low, but specificity and negative predictive values were consistently higher, especially for T2D. This indicates that these components, when examined during childhood, may provide a useful screening approach to identifying children not at risk so that further attention can be focused on those who may be in need of future intervention.
The metabolic syndrome is a major public health challenge and identifies persons at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the association between age at menarche and the metabolic syndrome (IDF and NCEP ATP III classification) and its components.
1536 women aged 32 to 81 years of the German population based KORA F4 study were investigated. Data was collected by standardized interviews, physical examinations, and whole blood and serum measurements.
Young age at menarche was significantly associated with elevated body mass index (BMI), greater waist circumference, higher fasting glucose levels, and 2 hour glucose (oral glucose tolerance test), even after adjusting for the difference between current BMI and BMI at age 25. The significant effect on elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure was attenuated after adjustment for the BMI change. Age at menarche was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome adjusting for age (p-values: <0.001 IDF, 0.003 NCEP classification) and additional potential confounders including lifestyle and reproductive history factors (p-values: 0.001, 0.005). Associations remain significant when additionally controlling for recollected BMI at age 25 (p-values: 0.008, 0.033) or the BMI change since age 25 (p-values: 0.005, 0.022).
Young age at menarche might play a role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. This association is only partially mediated by weight gain and increased BMI. A history of early menarche may help to identify women at risk for the metabolic syndrome.
The aim of this study is to investigate the need for diabetes primary prevention program in isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG) of the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetics.
In a cross sectional study, 793 individuals with prediabetes [543 with i-IFG and 250 with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT)] who were the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients, were enrolled. Isolated IFG was considered as fasting plasma glucose between 100-125 mg/dl and 2 hour plasma glucose < 140 mg/dl and isolated IGT as FPG < 100 mg/dl and 2 hour plasma glucose between 140-199 mg/dl during an overnight fasting 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Mean of the age, weight, waist circumference, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, HbA1C, and lipid profile were compared between two groups (i-IFG and i-IGT). The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, hypertension, cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl, LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dl, HDL-C ≤ 40 mg/dl, and triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dl) adjusted by age, sex and BMI were compared.
The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors is higher in i-IFG group than i-IGT. The mean level of LDL-C is significantly higher in i-IFG than i-IGT group.
First degree relatives of T2DM with isolated impaired fasting glucose should probably be included in the primary preventive program for diabetes. However, longitudinal cohort study is required to show high progression of i-IFG to T2DM.
Prediabetic States; Diabetes Mellitus; Type II; Oral Glucose Tolerance Test; Primary Prevention; Dyslipidemia; Risk Factor; Iran
To assess the predictive values of various adiposity indices for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults using baseline data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) cohort.
In a cross-sectional study, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and metabolic risk factors such as triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, uric acid and C-reactive protein were measured. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression analyses were conducted.
1,981 White and African-American US adults, aged 30-64 years.
In predicting risk of MetS using obesity-independent National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, % body fat mass (TtFM) assessed using DXA measuring overall adiposity had no added value over WC. This was true among both men (Areas under curve; AUC=0.680 vs. 0.733 for TtFM and WC, respectively, p<0.05) and women (AUC=0.581 vs. 0.686). Rib fat mass (RbFM) was superior to TtFM only in women for MetS (AUC=0.701 and 0.581 for RbFM and TtFM, respectively, p<0.05), particularly among African-American women. Elevated Leg fat mass (LgFM) was protective against MetS among African-American men. Among White men, BMI was inferior to WC in predicting MetS. Optimal WC cut points varied across ethnic-sex groups and differed from those recommended by the NIH/NAASO.
We provide evidence that WC is among the most powerful tools to predict MetS, and that optimal cut-points for various indices including WC may differ by sex and race.
Metabolic syndrome; percent body fat mass; central obesity; body mass index
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Studies have shown a strong association between excess weight and risk of incident diabetes in Iranian women. Therefore, we investigated anthropometric indices in the prediction of diabetes in Iranian women.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
We examined 2801 females aged ≥220 years (mean [SD] age, 45.2 [12.9] years) in an Iranian urban population who were non-diabetic or had abnormal glucose tolerance at baseline. We estimated the predictive value of central obesity parameters (waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR], body mass index [BMI]) in the prediction of diabetes. We classified each parameter in quartiles and compared the lowest with the highest quartile after adjusting for confounding variables, including age, hypertension, triglyceride levels, HDL-cholesterol, family history of diabetes, and abnormal glucose tolerance in a multivariate model. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the predictive power of each variable.
Over a median follow up of 3.5 years (11 months-6.3 years), 114 individuals developed diabetes (4.1%). The risk for developing diabetes was significantly higher for the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR, respectively, compared to the lowest quartile, and the risk decreased but remained statistically significant when abnormal glucose tolerance was included in the multivariate model. WHtR had the highest area under the ROC curve.
In Iranian women, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR were predictive of development of type 2 diabetes, but WHtR was a better predictor than BMI.
Introduction. The present study aimed to assess the metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women in Gorgan, Iran. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted on hundred postmenopausal women who were referred to the health centers in Gorgan. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines. Results. The mean body mass index, waist circumference, hip, circumference waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly high among postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome, but the mean HDL-cholesterol was significantly low (P < 0.05). Overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 31%. Body mass index and waist circumference had a positive correlation with a number of metabolic syndrome factors (P < 0.001). Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio had a positive correlation with each other (P < 0.001). BMI had relatively high correlation with WC (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Our results show that postmenopausal status might be a predictor of metabolic syndrome. Low HDL-cholesterol level and high abdominal obesity are the most frequent characteristics in comparison to other metabolic components. Our study also showed some related factors of metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women. These factors may increase cardiovascular risk among postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.
Metabolic syndrome is increasing among adolescents. We examined the utility of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to identify metabolic syndrome in adolescent girls.
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 185 predominantly African American girls who were a median age of 14 years. Participants were designated as having metabolic syndrome if they met criteria for 3 of 5 variables: 1) high blood pressure, 2) low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 3) high fasting blood glucose level, 4) high waist circumference, and 5) high triglyceride level. We predicted the likelihood of the presence of metabolic syndrome by using previously established cutpoints of BMI and waist circumference. We used stepwise regression analysis to determine whether anthropometric measurements significantly predicted metabolic syndrome.
Of total participants, 18% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. BMI for 118 (64%) participants was above the cutpoint. Of these participants, 25% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, whereas only 4% of participants with a BMI below the cutpoint met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (P <.001). Girls with a BMI above the cutpoint were more likely than girls with a BMI below the cutpoint to have metabolic syndrome (P = .002). The waist circumference for 104 (56%) participants was above the cutpoint. Of these participants, 28% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, whereas only 1% of participants with a waist circumference below the cutpoint met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (P <.001). Girls with a waist circumference above the cutpoint were more likely than girls with a waist circumference below the cutpoint to have metabolic syndrome (P = .002). Stepwise regression showed that only waist circumference significantly predicted metabolic syndrome.
Both anthropometric measures were useful screening tools to identify metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference was a better predictor of metabolic syndrome than was BMI in our study sample of predominantly African American female adolescents living in an urban area.
We evaluated insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion across the entire range of fasting (FPG) and 2-h plasma glucose (PG), and we investigated the differences in insulin sensitivity and insulin release in different glucose tolerance categories.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 6,414 Finnish men (aged 57 ± 7 years, BMI 27.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2) from our ongoing population-based METSIM (Metabolic Syndrome in Men) study were included. Of these subjects, 2,168 had normal glucose tolerance, 2,859 isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 217 isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 701 a combination of IFG and IGT, and 469 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
The Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity decreased substantially within the normal range of FPG (−17%) and 2-h PG (−37%) and was approximately −65 and −53% in the diabetic range of FPG and 2-h PG, respectively, compared with the reference range (FPG and 2-h PG <5.0 mmol/l). Early-phase insulin release declined by only approximately −5% within the normal range of FPG and 2-h PG but decreased significantly in the diabetic range of FPG (by 32–70%) and 2-h PG (by 33–51%). Changes in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in relation to hyperglycemia were independent of obesity. The predominant feature of isolated IGT was impaired peripheral insulin sensitivity. Isolated IFG was characterized by impaired early and total insulin release.
Peripheral insulin sensitivity was already decreased substantially at low PG levels within the normoglycemic range, whereas impairment in insulin secretion was observed mainly in the diabetic range of FPG and 2-h PG. Obesity did not affect changes in insulin sensitivity or insulin secretion in relation to hyperglycemia.
This study evaluated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and investigated its association with being overweight in Korean adolescents. Data were obtained from 1,393 students between 12 and 13 yr of age in a cross-sectional survey. We defined the metabolic syndrome using criteria analogous to the Third Report of the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) as having at least three of the following: fasting triglycerides ≥100 mg/dL; HDL <50 mg/dL; fasting glucose ≥110 mg/dL; waist circumference >75th percentile for age and gender; and systolic blood pressure >90th percentile for age, gender, and height. Weight status was assessed using the age- and gender-specific body mass index (BMI), and a BMI ≥85th percentile was classified as overweight. Of the adolescents, 5.5% met the criteria for the metabolic syndrome, and the prevalence increased with weight status; it was 1.6% for normal weight and 22.3% in overweight (p<0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses among adolescents, overweight status was independently associated with the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio, 17.7; 95% confidence interval, 10.0-31.2). Since childhood metabolic syndrome and obesity likely persist into adulthood, early identification helps target interventions to improve future cardiovascular health.
Metabolic Syndrome; Overweight; Adolescents
Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is an early pathophysiological change in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) during prediabetes mellitus. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that exercise intervention contributes to the reversal of vascular endothelium-dependent dysfunction in middle-aged patients with IGT. Following exercise intervention, significant changes in endothelin (ET)-1, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), ΔDia-P, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)2h, fasting insulin, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), body fat percentage, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio were measured. However, no marked changes in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), fasting blood glucose and BMI were observed following exercise intervention. Validity analysis of index changes in the two exercise intervention groups further confirmed there was no change. Exercise intervention increased CNP levels, decreased ET-1 levels and increased ΔDia-P, indicating improved vascular endothelium function. Decreased HOMA-IR following exercise suggests enhanced insulin sensitivity. Exercise intervention also improved glucose metabolism via decreased OGTT2h and fasting insulin. In addition, decreased waist circumference, ratio of waist to hip and body fat percentage following exercise intervention improved changes of body composition, including BMI, body fat and waist circumference. These results indicate that exercise intervention may reverse vascular endothelium-dependent dysfunction in middle-aged patients with IGT. This study also provided direct clinical data supporting the use of exercise intervention to prevent diabetes mellitus (DM) during the early stage.
exercise intervention; impaired glucose tolerance; diabetes mellitus
Metabolic risk varies within adult body mass index (BMI) categories; however, the development of BMI-specific metabolic risk from childhood is unknown.
The sample included 895 adults (20–38 years of age; 43% male, 34% black) from the Bogalusa Heart Study (1995–2002), who had been measured as children (5–18 years of age) in 1981–1982. Adult metabolic risk was assessed using two definitions: Cardiometabolic risk factor clustering (RFC) included two or more abnormal risk factors [blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and fasting glucose] and insulin resistance (IR), comprising the top quartile of the homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) distribution. Logistic regression, within BMI categories, was used to predict adult metabolic risk from childhood mean arterial pressure (MAP), HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), glucose, and triglycerides. Covariates included childhood age, race, sex, adult BMI, and length of follow-up.
The prevalence of the adult abnormal metabolic risk profile varied by definitions of metabolic risk (normal weight, 5%–9%; overweight, 15%–23%; and obese, 40%–53%). The adult abnormal profile was associated with higher childhood LDL-C [IR, odds ratio (OR), 1.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06–3.58) and insulin (IR, OR, 1.69; CI, 1.10–2.58) in normal-weight adults; lower childhood HDL-C in overweight adults (RFC, OR, 0.61; CI, 0.40–0.94); and higher childhood MAP (RFC, OR, 1.75; CI, 1.24–2.47) and glucose (IR, OR,1.38; CI, 1.06–1.81) in obese adults.
Some childhood metabolic risk factors are moderately associated with adult BMI-specific metabolic risk profiles. The ability to identify children with high future adult cardiovascular risk may initiate early treatment options.
Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has recently been developed based on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides (TGs), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). We examined predictive performances for incident diabetes of the VAI per se and as compared to the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR).
Participants free of diabetes at baseline with at least one follow-up examination (5,964) were included for the current study. Weibull regression models were developed for interval-censored survival data. Absolute and relative integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI) and cut-point-based and cut-point-free net reclassification improvement index (NRI) were used as measures of predictive ability for incident diabetes added by VAI, as compared to the MetS and WHtR.
The annual incidence rate of diabetes was 0.85 per 1000 person. Mean VAI was 3.06 (95%CIs 2.99-3.13). Diabetes risk factors levels increased in stepwise fashion across VAI quintiles. Risk gradient between the highest and lowest quintile of VAI was 4.5 (95%CIs 3.0-6.9). VAI significantly improved predictive ability of the MetS. The relative IDI and cut-point free NRI for predictive ability added to MetS by VAI were 30.3% (95%CIs 18.8-41.8%) and 30.7% (95%CIs 20.8-40.7%), respectively. WHtR, outperformed VAI with cut-point-free NRI of 24.6% (95%CIs 14.1-35.2%).
In conclusion, although VAI could be a prognostic tool for incident diabetes events, gathering information on its components (WC, BMI, TGs, and HDL-C) is unlikely to improve the prediction ability beyond what could be achieved by the simply assessable and commonly available information on WHtR.
The mechanisms related to cognitive impairment in older persons with Type 2 diabetes (DM) remains unclear. We tested if adiposity parameters and body fat distribution could predict cognitive decline in older persons with DM vs. normal glucose tolerance (NGT).
693 older persons with no dementia were enrolled: 253 with DM in good metabolic control; 440 with NGT (age range:65–85 years). Longitudinal study comparing DM and NGT individuals according to the association of baseline adiposity parameters (body mass index (BMI), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC) and total body fat mass) to cognitive change (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), a composite score of executive and attention functioning (CCS) over time.
At baseline, in DM participants, MMSE correlated with WHR (β = −0.240; p = 0.043), WC (β = −0.264; p = 0.041) while CCS correlated with WHR (β = −0.238; p = 0.041), WC (β = −0.326; p = 0.013) after adjusting for confounders. In NGT subjects, no significant correlations were found among any adiposity parameters and MMSE, while CCS was associated with WHR (β = −0.194; p = 0.036) and WC (β = −0.210; p = 0.024). Participants with DM in the 3rd tertile of total fat mass showed the greatest decline in cognitive performance compared to those in 1st tertile (tests for trend: MMSE(p = 0.007), CCS(p = 0.003)). Logistic regression models showed that 3rd vs. 1st tertile of total fat mass, WHR, and WC predicted an almost two-fold decline in cognitive function in DM subjects at 2nd yr (OR 1.68, 95%IC 1.08–3.52).
Total fat mass and central adiposity predict an increased risk for cognitive decline in older person with DM.
To analyze insulin resistance (IR) and determine the need for a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the identification of IR and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in lean nondiabetic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
This was a cross-sectional analysis of treatment-naive women with PCOS who enrolled in a university-based clinical trial. Nondiabetic women with PCOS based on the Eunice Kennedy Shriven National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) definition, aged 18–43 years and weighing ≤113 kg, were evaluated. Glucose and insulin levels were assessed at times 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after a 75-g glucose load. Lean was defined as body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2. Multiple linear regression was performed.
A cohort of 78 women was studied. The prevalence of IR was 0% among lean women vs. 21% among nonlean subjects based on fasting insulin I0 and 40%–68% based on two different homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) cutoff points (p < 0.005). All women with IR had a BMI ≥ 28. Controlling for age and race, BMI explained over 57% of the variation in insulin fasting (Io), glucose fasting/Io (Go/Io), the qualitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and HOMA and was a highly significant predictor of these outcomes (p < 0.0001). Only 1 of 31 (3%) of the lean PCOS women had IGT based on a 2-hour OGTT, and no lean subjects had IGT based on their fasting blood glucose.
Diabetes mellitus, IGT, and IR are far less common in young lean women with PCOS compared with obese women with PCOS. These data imply that it is unnecessary to routinely perform either IR testing or 2-hour OGTT in lean women with PCOS; however, greater subject accumulation is needed to determine if OGTT is necessary in lean women with PCOS. BMI is highly predictive of both insulin and glucose levels in women with PCOS.
This study examined whether change in Body Mass Index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between CVD specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by gender or baseline body mass status. The paper is a longitudinal analysis of pre and post data collected in the HEALTHY trial. Participants were 4603 ethnically diverse adolescents who provided complete data at 6th and 8th grade assessments. The main outcome measures were percent change in the following cardiometabolic risk factors: fasting triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C, and glucose as well as a clustered metabolic risk score. Main exposures were change in BMI or WC z-score. Models were run stratified by gender; secondary models were additionally stratified by baseline body mass index group (normal, overweight or obese). Analysis showed that when cardiometabolic risk factors were treated as continuous variables, there was strong evidence (p<0.001) that change in BMI z-score was associated with change in the majority of the cardiovascular risk factors, except fasting glucose and the combined risk factor score for both boys and girls. There was some evidence that change in WC z-score was associated with some cardiovascular risk factors, but change in WC z-score was consistently associated with changes in fasting glucose. In conclusion, routine monitoring of BMI should be continued by health professionals, but additional information on disease risk may be provided by assessing waist circumference.
Obesity; risk; monitoring; Pediatric; Prevention
We aimed to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with cardiometabolic risk.
In this cross-sectional study, 21,038 men and 15,604 women who participated in a health check-up were included.
In both men and women, the area under the curve (AUC) of WHtR was significantly greater than that of BMI or WC in the prediction of diabetes, hypertension, high total cholesterol, high triglycerides, and low HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05 for all). The AUC for WHtR in the prediction of metabolic syndrome (MS) was also highest in the women (P < 0.05). After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for MS for each standard deviation increase in BMI, WHtR, and WC were 1.47 (1.46–1.49), 1.32 (1.31–1.33), and 1.19 (1.18–1.19), respectively. Finally, patients of either sex with a normal BMI or WC level, but with an elevated WHtR, had higher levels of various cardiometabolic risk factors in comparison with their normal BMI or WC, but low WHtR, counterparts (P < 0.05 for all).
Among Taiwanese adults, a WHtR greater than 0.5 is a simple, yet effective indicator of centralized obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk, even among individuals deemed ‘healthy’ according to BMI and WC.
Waist-to-height ratio; Waist circumference; Obesity; Diabetes; Body mass index; Asian
OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in two native Indian communities. DESIGN: Population-based study. SETTING: Two Algonquin communities in Quebec: River Desert and Lac Simon. PARTICIPANTS: All native Indian residents aged at least 15 years were eligible; 621 (59%) of them volunteered to enroll in the study. The participation rate was 49% in River Desert and 76% in Lac Simon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fasting blood glucose level and serum glucose level 2 hours after 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, as described by the World Health Organization, in all subjects except those with confirmed diabetes. Other measures included body mass index (BMI), fat distribution and blood pressure. MAIN RESULTS: The age-sex standardized prevalence rate of NIDDM was 19% in Lac Simon (95% confidence interval [CI] 16% to 21%); this was more than twice the rate of 9% in River Desert (95% CI 7% to 11%). The IGT rates were comparable in the two communities (River Desert 5%, Lac Simon 6%). NIDDM and IGT were uncommon under the age of 35 years. Only in Lac Simon was the NIDDM prevalence rate significantly higher among the women than among the men (23% v. 14%); almost half of the women aged 35 years or more had diabetes. In Lac Simon the rate of marked obesity (BMI greater than 30) was significantly higher among the women than among the men (37% v. 19%; p < 0.001); this sex-related difference was not found in River Desert (rates 31% and 23% respectively). Previously undiagnosed NIDDM accounted for 25% of all the cases. NIDDM and IGT were significantly associated with high BMI, sum of skinfold thicknesses and waist:hip circumference ratio (p < 0.001). The subscapular:triceps skinfold ratio, however, did not display such an association, nor did the age-adjusted systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of NIDDM is high in Algonquin communities and may vary markedly between communities. Although widespread, particularly in women, obesity cannot entirely explain the much higher rate of NIDDM in Lac Simon. Family and lifestyle risk factors, in particular diet and activity patterns, are being analysed in the two communities.