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1.  Deltoid detachment consequent to open surgical repair of massive rotator cuff tears 
International Orthopaedics  2007;32(1):81-84.
Deltoid detachment is one of the complications in open rotator cuff repair. Although it is often described, the actual prevalence, time at which it occurs and the predisposing causes are still unknown. We prospectively studied 112 patients with massive rotator cuff tears with a mean age of 67. The surgical approach was performed with a lateral para-acromial incision. Clinical assessment was performed with Constant’s method. Of the 112 patients, 9 (8%) had deltoid detachment. It occurred about 3 months after surgery. Of the nine patients, two underwent revision surgery for the deltoid trans-bone reattachment. At the follow-up, the patients with deltoid detachment had a mean increase of only 5.5 points in the Constant score compared to that of 16.9 obtained by the control group. Deltoid reattachment, performed on the two patients, provided a mean increase of 7 points only with respect to the post-operative control at the 4th month. Considering the unsatisfactory functional result consequent to deltoid detachment and the slight improvement obtained with the reattachment, we recommend the following: use suture thread thicker than #2, do not use a simple stitch and avoid extending acromioplasty to the lateral margin of the acromion.
PMCID: PMC2219931  PMID: 17410365
2.  Deltoid muscle shape analysis with magnetic resonance imaging in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears 
It seems appropriate to assume, that for a full and strong global shoulder function a normally innervated and active deltoid muscle is indispensable. We set out to analyse the size and shape of the deltoid muscle on MR-arthrographies, and analyse its influence on shoulder function and its adaption (i.e. atrophy) for reduced shoulder function.
The fatty infiltration (Goutallier stages), atrophy (tangent sign) and selective myotendinous retraction of the rotator cuff, as well as the thickness and the area of seven anatomically defined segments of the deltoid muscle were measured on MR-arthrographies and correlated with shoulder function (i.e. active abduction). Included were 116 patients, suffering of a rotator cuff tear with shoulder mobility ranging from pseudoparalysis to free mobility. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine the distribution of the data before either Spearman or Pearson correlation and a multiple regression was applied to reveal the correlations.
Our developed method for measuring deltoid area and thickness showed to be reproducible with excellent interobserver correlations (r = 0.814–0.982).
The analysis of influencing factors on active abduction revealed a weak influence of the amount of SSP tendon (r = −0.25; p < 0.01) and muscle retraction (r = −0.27; p < 0.01) as well as the stage of fatty muscle infiltration (GFDI: r = −0.36; p < 0.01). Unexpectedly however, we were unable to detect a relation of the deltoid muscle shape with the degree of active glenohumeral abduction. Furthermore, long-standing rotator cuff tears did not appear to influence the deltoid shape, i.e. did not lead to muscle atrophy.
Our data support that in chronic rotator cuff tears, there seems to be no disadvantage to exhausting conservative treatment and to delay implantation of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, as the shape of deltoid muscle seems only to be influenced by natural aging, but to be independent of reduced shoulder motion.
PMCID: PMC3751864  PMID: 23957805
Rotator cuff tear; Pseudoparalysis; Deltoid muscle; Myotendinous retraction
3.  Deltoid contracture: A study of nineteen cases 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(2):188-191.
Deltoid contracture is not uncommon in India. Contractures of deltoid often do not have definite etiology. We have critically analyzed the condition as regards the etiopathogenesis and its surgical results.
Materials and Methods:
Nineteen patients with deltoid contracture operated between June 1990 and September 2001 were enrolled for a unicentric retrospective study. The surgery was indicated in patients with abduction deformity of more than 30° at the shoulder. The etiology of deltoid contracture was idiopathic (n = 13) intramuscular injection in deltoid muscle (n = 5) and blunt trauma (n = 1). All were operated by distal release (incision near the insertion of the deltoid muscle). The average follow-up was of 9.5 years (range 6-17 years). They were evaluated based on parameters like pain, persistence of deformity, range of shoulder movements and strength of deltoid.
All patients recovered painless full range of shoulder motion except one. The correction of deformity was achieved in all patients and there was no loss of strength of deltoid compared to the opposite side. Histology of excised tissue showed features of chronic inflammation. The complications observed were hypertrophic scar (n = 1), painful terminal restriction of shoulder movements (n = 1) and prominent vertebral border of scapula (n = 1).
Deltoid contracture has features of chronic inflammation, and the intramuscular deltoid injection is the most incriminating factor in its etiopathogenesis. The condition can be effectively managed surgically by distal release of the deltoid muscle combined with excision of the muscular fibrotic contracture band.
PMCID: PMC2759614  PMID: 19826526
Deltoid contracture; surgical release of deltoid contracture; eitopathogenesis of deltoid contracture
4.  Restoration of Anterior-Posterior Rotator Cuff Force Balance Improves Shoulder Function in a Rat Model of Chronic Massive Tears 
The rotator cuff musculature imparts dynamic stability to the glenohumeral joint. In particular, the balance between the subscapularis anteriorly and the infraspinatus posteriorly, often referred to as the rotator cuff “force couple,” is critical for concavity compression and concentric rotation of the humeral head. Restoration of this anterior-posterior force balance after chronic, massive rotator cuff tears may allow for deltoid compensation, but no in vivo studies have quantitatively demonstrated an improvement in shoulder function. Our goal was to determine if restoring this balance of forces improves shoulder function after two-tendon rotator cuff tears in a rat model. Forty-eight rats underwent detachment of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus. After four weeks, rats were randomly assigned to three groups: no repair, infraspinatus repair, and two-tendon repair. Quantitative ambulatory measures including medial/lateral forces, braking, propulsion, and step width were significantly different between the infraspinatus and no repair group and similar between the infraspinatus and two-tendon repair groups at almost all time points. These results suggest that repairing the infraspinatus back to its insertion site without repair of the supraspinatus can improve shoulder function to a level similar to repairing both the infraspinatus and supraspinatus tendons. Clinically, a partial repair of the posterior cuff after a two tendon tear may be sufficient to restore adequate function. An in vivo model system for two-tendon repair of massive rotator cuff tears is presented.
PMCID: PMC3094494  PMID: 21308755
5.  Single-row vs. double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: clinical and 3 Tesla MR arthrography results 
Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become popular in the last few years because it avoids large skin incisions and deltoid detachment and dysfunction. Earlier arthroscopic single-row (SR) repair methods achieved only partial restoration of the original footprint of the tendons of the rotator cuff, while double-row (DR) repair methods presented many biomechanical advantages and higher rates of tendon-to-bone healing. However, DR repair failed to demonstrate better clinical results than SR repair in clinical trials. MR imaging at 3 Tesla, especially with intra-articular contrast medium (MRA), showed a better diagnostic performance than 1.5 Tesla in the musculoskeletal setting. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and 3 Tesla MRA results in two groups of patients operated on for a medium-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tear with two different techniques.
The first group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the SR technique; the second group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the DR technique. All patients were evaluated at a minimum of 3 years after surgery. The primary end point was the re-tear rate at 3 Tesla MRA. The secondary end points were the Constant-Murley Scale (CMS), the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, surgical time and implant expense.
The mean follow-up was 40 months in the SR group and 38.9 months in the DR group. The mean postoperative CMS was 70 in the SR group and 68 in the DR group. The mean SST score was 9.4 in the SR group and 10.1 in the DR group. The re-tear rate was 60% in the SR group and 25% in the DR group. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in all patients.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3 Tesla MRA in the evaluation of two different techniques of rotator cuff repair. DR repair resulted in a statistically significant lower re-tear rate, with longer surgical time and higher implant expense, despite no difference in clinical outcomes. We think that leakage of the contrast medium is due to an incomplete tendon-to-bone sealing, which is not a re-tear. This phenomenon could have important medicolegal implications.
Level of evidence III. Treatment study: Case–control study.
PMCID: PMC3576341  PMID: 23351978
Shoulder; Rotator cuff tear; Arthroscopic repair; MR arthrography; Clinical result
6.  Comparison of muscle activity in the empty-can and full-can testing positions using 18 F-FDG PET/CT 
There has been much controversy over specific tests for diagnosis of supraspinatus tendon tear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic activity of the deltoid and rotator cuff muscles while maintaining the full-can and empty-can testing positions using 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT).
Ten healthy volunteers without shoulder pain or diabetes mellitus participated in this study. Following FDG injection, both arms were maintained in either the empty-can or full-can position for 10 min. PET/CT was performed 40 min after injection. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVs) were measured in the deltoid and rotator cuff muscles on axial PET images.
The middle deltoid exhibited the most significant increase in muscle activity at both testing positions. Additionally, a significant increase in muscle activity was observed in the middle deltoid compared with the supraspinatus (P < 0.05) in the empty-can testing position. SUVs of the middle deltoid, supraspinatus, and subscapularis showed a significant increase in the empty-can testing position compared with the full-can testing position (P < 0.05).
Significantly increased activity of the supraspinatus in conjunction with the middle deltoid and subscapularis after empty-can testing may result in decreased specificity of the empty-can test in detecting isolated supraspinatus activity. The full-can test, however, may be used to test the function of the supraspinatus with the least amount of surrounding middle deltoid and subscapularis activity.
PMCID: PMC4189674  PMID: 25269645
Fluoro-D-glucose; Positron emission tomography; Empty-can test; Full-can test; Muscle activity; Rotator cuff
7.  Anterolateral approach for mini-open rotator cuff repair 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(1):95-100.
This study was undertaken to introduce an anterolateral approach for mini-open rotator cuff repair and evaluate its clinical outcome and effectiveness.
We evaluated 128 consecutive cases that were repaired by mini-open repair using an anterolateral approach. There were 80 men and 48 women, with an average age of 56.2 years. Average follow-up was 25.7 months. There were eight partial-thickness, 26 small, 40 medium, 39 large and 15 massive tears. After arthroscopic glenohumeral examination and subacromial decompression, we made a 3- to 4-cm skin incision from anterolateral edge of the acromion and dissected to the raphe between the anterior and middle deltoid. The torn tendon was repaired with single- or double-row technique using suture anchors. To prevent avulsion of the deltoid from the acromion, additional suturing within the bone tunnel was performed. We retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon (ASES) scoring system.
The average visual analogue scale (VAS), activity of daily living (ADL) and ASES scores improved, respectively, from 6.6, 12.0 and 36.7 preoperatively to 1.2, 26.6 and 88.2 postoperatively. There were 71 excellent, 39 good, ten fair and eight poor results. There were no statistically significant difference between final ASES scores and age, symptom duration, tear size or preoperative stiffness, but men had significantly higher final ASES scores than women (P = 0.014).
Anterolateral approach for mini-open rotator cuff repair produces satisfactory results. It may also provide better visualisation for rotator cuff tears of all sizes.
PMCID: PMC3251680  PMID: 21717201
8.  Subacromial Injection Improves Deltoid Firing in Subjects with Large Rotator Cuff Tears 
HSS Journal  2009;6(1):30-36.
Previous studies demonstrate that scapulohumeral mechanics improve after subacromial injection. However, it is unclear how injection affects muscle firing. Forty-one subjects with two-tendon rotator cuff tears and 23 volunteer subjects with normal rotator cuffs documented by ultrasonography were examined. Electromyographic activity from 12 muscles was collected during ten functional tasks. Nine symptomatic subjects with rotator cuff tears underwent subacromial injection of anesthetic and underwent repeat electromyographic examination. Subjects with rotator cuff tears demonstrate global electromyographic differences when compared to normal controls. Asymptomatic subjects with rotator cuff tears had significantly increased anterior deltoid firing when compared to symptomatic counterparts during forward shoulder elevation. After subacromial injection, symptomatic subjects demonstrate increased anterior deltoid firing. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that pain leads to deltoid inhibition and that subacromial injection leads to improved deltoid firing and, subsequently, improved shoulder function. This study provides direct evidence that subacromial injection improves deltoid firing in symptomatic subjects with rotator cuff tears. These findings reinforce the concept that deltoid inhibition resulting from pain is an important component of the motor disability associated with rotator cuff tears.
PMCID: PMC2821485  PMID: 19763696
rotator cuff injuries; intra-articular injection; local anesthetics; electromyography; biomechanics; shoulder joint; muscle; tendon injuries; pain; adult; human
9.  Muscle activation in coupled scapulohumeral motions in the high performance tennis serve 
British Journal of Sports Medicine  2007;41(11):745-749.
To evaluate muscle activation patterns in selected scapulohumeral muscles in the tennis serve. These patterns of muscle activation have not been evaluated in other studies of the tennis serve. Fine wire and surface EMG was used to calculate onset and offset timing of muscle activation.
Controlled laboratory study.
Biomechanical laboratory.
16 tennis players (age 18–40) with rated skills (National Tennis Rating Program (NTRP) rating 4.5–6.5; club tournament level or higher) were subjects.
Main outcomes measure
Dependent variables of muscle activation onset and offset as well as sequencing of the stabilising muscles of the scapula (upper trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior; the muscles that position the arm) anterior deltoid and posterior deltoid; and the muscles of the rotator cuff muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor) during the tennis serve motion.
Patterns of muscle activation were observed during the tennis serve motion. The serratus anterior (−287 ms before ball impact) and upper trapezius (−234 ms) were active in the early cocking phase, while the lower trapezius (−120 ms) was activated in the late cocking phase just before the acceleration phase. The anterior deltoid (−250 ms) was activated in early cocking, while the posterior deltoid (−157 ms) was activated later. The teres minor (−214 ms) was activated early in the cocking phase. The supraspinatus (−103 ms) was activated in late cocking. The infraspinatus (+47 ms after ball impact) was activated in follow‐through. All muscles except infraspinatus were activated in duration of more than 50% of the service motion.
This study demonstrates that there are patterns of activation of muscles around the scapulohumeral articulation in the normal accomplished tennis serve. Rehabilitation and conditioning programs for tennis players should be structured to restore and optimise the activation sequences (scapular stabilisers before rotator cuff), task specific functions (serratus anterior as a retractor of the scapula, lower trapezius as a scapular stabiliser in the elevated rotating arm) and duration of activation of these muscles.
PMCID: PMC2465270  PMID: 17957010
10.  Deltoid muscular flap transfer for the treatment of irreparable rotator cuff tears 
Orthopedic Reviews  2009;1(2):e15.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of deltoid muscle flap transfer for the treatment of irreparable rotator cuff tears. In a retrospective study 20 consecutive patients were evaluated. The index procedure took place between 2000 and 2003. Fifteen patients were male, mean age was 62 years. Inclusion criterion was a rotator cuff defect Bateman grade IV. Exclusion criteria were smaller defects, shoulder instability and fractures of the injured shoulder. An open reconstruction with acromioplasty and a pedicled delta flap was performed. Follow up period was mean 42 months. Follow-up included clinical examination, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and the Constant and Simple (CS) shoulder tests. According to the Constant shoulder test the results were good in 13 patients, fair in 5 and unsatisfactory in 2. The pre-operative Constant Score improved from mean 25.7 points (±5.3) to 72.3 (±7.8) at follow-up. The mean values for the subcategories of CS increased significantly from 3.9 to 14.4 points for pain and from 4.2 to 15.9 points for activities daily routine (p<0.05). The change in range of motion and strength were not significant (p>0.05). Results of the Simple Shoulder Test showed a significant increase of the mean values from pre-operative 4.3 to 14.7 points post-operatively. MRI showed a subacromial covering of the defect in all cases, all flaps where intact on MRI but always the flap showed marked fatty degeneration. In conclusion, the delta flap is a simple method for the repair of large defects of the rotator cuff leading to satisfying medium results.
PMCID: PMC3143977  PMID: 21808677
shoulder; rotator cuff; massive rotator cuff tear; deltoid muscle flap.
11.  Variation in External Rotation Moment Arms among Subregions of Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, and Teres Minor Muscles 
A rotator cuff tear causes morphologic changes in rotator cuff muscles and tendons and reduced shoulder strength. The mechanisms by which these changes affect joint strength are not understood. This study’s purpose was to empirically determine rotation moment arms for subregions of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and for teres minor, and to test the hypothesis that subregions of the cuff tendons increase their effective moment arms through connections to other subregions. Tendon excursions were measured for full ranges of rotation on 10 independent glenohumeral specimens with the humerus abducted in the scapular plane at 10 and 60°. Supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons were divided into equal width subregions. Two conditions were tested: tendon divided to the musculotendinous junction, and tendon divided to the insertion on the humerus. Moment arms were determined from tendon excursion via the principle of virtual work. Moment arms for the infraspinatus (p < 0.001) and supraspinatus (p < 0.001) were significantly greater when the tendon was only divided to the musculotendinous junction versus division to the humeral head. Moment arms across subregions of infraspinatus (p < 0.001) and supraspinatus (p < 0.001) were significantly different. A difference in teres minor moment arm was not found for the two cuff tendon conditions. Moment arm differences between muscle subregions and for tendon division conditions have clinical implications. Interaction between cuff regions could explain why some subjects retain strength after a small cuff tear. This finding helps explain why a partial cuff repair may be beneficial when a complete repair is not possible. Data presented here can help differentiate between cuff tear cases that would benefit from cuff repair and cases for which cuff repair might not be as favorable.
PMCID: PMC1551907  PMID: 16779813
shoulder; external rotation; moment arm; infraspinatus; teres minor; supraspinatus
12.  Recurrent anterior shoulder instability: Review of the literature and current concepts 
The purpose of this review article is to discuss the clinical spectrum of recurrent traumatic anterior shoulder instability with the current concepts and controversies at the scientific level. Because of increasing participation of people from any age group of the population in sports activities, health care professionals dealing with the care of trauma patients must have a thorough understanding of the anatomy, patho-physiology, risk factors, and management of anterior shoulder instability. The risk factors for recurrent shoulder dislocation are young age, participation in high demand contact sports activities, presence of Hill-Sachs or osseous Bankart lesion, previous history of ipsilateral traumatic dislocation, ipsilateral rotator cuff or deltoid muscle insufficiency, and underlying ligamentous laxity. Achieving the best result for any particular patient depends on the procedure that allows observation of the joint surfaces, provides the anatomical repair, maintains range of motion, and also can be applied with low rates of complications and recurrence. Although various surgical techniques have been described, a consensus does not exist and thus, orthopedic surgeons should follow and try to improve the current evidence-based treatment modalities for the patients.
PMCID: PMC4233422  PMID: 25405191
Recurrent instability; Glenohumeral joint; Dislocation; Shoulder; Review
13.  MRI findings in Painful Post-stroke Shoulder 
Background and Purpose
Describe the structural abnormalities in the painful shoulder of stroke survivors and their relationships to clinical characteristics.
Eight-nine chronic stroke survivors with post-stroke shoulder pain underwent T1 and T2 weighed multiplanar, multisequence magnetic resonance imaging of the painful paretic shoulder. All scans were reviewed by one radiologist for the following abnormalities: rotator cuff, biceps and deltoid tears, tendonopathies and atrophy, subacromial bursa fluid, labral ligamentous complex abnormalities, and acromio-clavicular capsular hypertrophy. Clinical variables included subject demographics, stroke characteristics and the Brief Pain Inventory Questions 12 (BPI 12). The relationship between MRI findings and clinical characteristics were assessed via logistic regression.
Thirty-five percent of subjects exhibited a tear of at least 1 rotator cuff, biceps or deltoid muscle. Fifty-three percent of subjects exhibited tendonopathy of at least 1 rotator cuff, bicep or deltoid muscle. The prevalence of rotator cuff tears increased with age. However, rotator cuff tears and rotator cuff and deltoid tendonopathies were not related to severity of post-stroke shoulder pain. In approximately 20% of cases, rotator cuff and deltoid muscles exhibited evidence of atrophy. Atrophy was associated with reduced motor strength and reduced severity of shoulder pain.
Rotator cuff tears and rotator cuff and deltoid tendonopathies are highly prevalent in post-stroke shoulder pain. However, their relationship to shoulder pain is uncertain. Atrophy is less common, but is associated with less severe shoulder pain.
PMCID: PMC2398766  PMID: 18388345
Shoulder pain; Magnetic Resonance Imaging
14.  Comparison of the Effects of Local Cryotherapy and Passive Cross-Body Stretch on Extensibility in Subjects with Posterior Shoulder Tightness 
The objective was to compare the immediate effects of local cryotherapy (LC) and passive cross-body stretch on the extensibility of the posterior shoulder muscle in individuals with posterior shoulder tightness. Eighty-seven healthy subjects with a between-shoulder difference in internal rotation (IR) range of motion (ROM) greater than 10° were randomly divided into three groups: LC group, stretching group, and control group (n = 29 in each group). Subjects in the LC group received LC on infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and subjects in the stretching group performed passive cross-body stretch. Stretch sensation was measured at the end range of passive IR and horizontal adduction (HA) using numerical rating scale, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles was measured using pressure algometry. Passive and active ROM of IR and HA of the glenohumeral joint were measured using an inclinometer. All measurements were performed at pre-intervention, post- intervention, and 10-min follow-up. Stretch sensation was significantly decreased and PPT was significantly increased in the LC and stretching groups at post-intervention, and these effects were maintained at 10-min follow-up, compared to the control group. Both the LC group and stretching group had a significantly greater increase in passive and active ROM of IR and HA, compared to the control group at post-intervention and 10-min follow-up. However, there were no significant differences in stretch sensation, PPT, or ROM of IR and HA between the LC group and stretching group. LC can be used to decrease the stretch sensation and increase PPT and ROM of IR and HA as much as a stretching exercise. LC could be an alternative method for increasing the restricted ROM of glenohumeral IR and HA for individuals with posterior shoulder tightness, especially for patients and sports players who have severe stretching discomfort.
Key PointsLocal cryotherapy (LC) decreased the uncomfortable stretch sensation, and increased the pressure pain threshold (PPT) of infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles in subjects with posterior shoulder tightness.Decreased stretch sensation by LC without passive stretching could improve the passive and active ROM of internal rotation and horizontal adduction in subjects with posterior shoulder tightness, similar to cross-body stretch.LC can be an alternative method to increase extensibility when individuals with posterior shoulder tightness have high stretch sensitivity and low PPT in the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles.
PMCID: PMC3918572  PMID: 24570610
Cryotherapy; muscle stretching exercise; shoulder
15.  Electromyographic Analysis of the Supraspinatus and Deltoid Muscles During 3 Common Rehabilitation Exercises 
Journal of Athletic Training  2007;42(4):464-469.
Context: Investigators have observed electromyographic (EMG) activity of the supraspinatus muscle and reported conflicting results.
Objective: To quantify EMG activity of the supraspinatus, middle deltoid, and posterior deltoid muscles during exercises commonly used in rehabilitation.
Design: One-factor, repeated-measures design.
Setting: Controlled laboratory.
Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-two asymptomatic subjects (15 men, 7 women) with no history of shoulder injury participated.
Main Outcomes Measure(s): The dominant shoulder was tested. Fine-wire EMG electrodes were inserted into the supraspinatus, middle deltoid, and posterior deltoid muscles. The EMG data were collected at 960 Hz for analysis during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and 5 repetitions of 3 exercises: standing elevation in the scapular plane (“full can”), standing elevation in the scapular plane with glenohumeral internal rotation (“empty can”), and prone horizontal abduction at 100° with glenohumeral external rotation (“prone full can”). We calculated 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (P < .05) and post hoc 2-tailed, paired t tests to detect significant differences in muscle activity among exercises.
Results: No statistical difference existed among the exercises for the supraspinatus. The middle deltoid showed significantly greater activity during the empty-can exercise (77 ± 44% MVIC) and prone full-can exercise (63 ± 31% MVIC) than during the full-can exercise (52 ± 27% MVIC) (P = .001 and .017, respectively). The posterior deltoid showed significantly greater activity during the prone full-can exercise (87 ± 53% MVIC) than during the full-can (P = .001) and the empty-can (P = .005) exercises and significantly greater activity during the empty-can exercise (54 ± 24% MVIC) than during the full-can exercise (38 ± 32% MVIC) (P = .012).
Conclusions: While all 3 exercises produced similar amounts of supraspinatus activity, the full-can exercise produced significantly less activity of the deltoid muscles and may be the optimal position to recruit the supraspinatus muscle for rehabilitation and testing. The empty-can exercise may be a good exercise to recruit the middle deltoid muscle, and the prone full-can exercise may be a good exercise to recruit the posterior deltoid muscle.
PMCID: PMC2140071  PMID: 18174934
shoulder; dynamic stabilization; empty-can exercises; full-can exercises; prone full-can exercises; rotator cuff; scaption
16.  Clinical and Radiological Evaluation after Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Using Suture Bridge Technique 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2013;5(4):306-313.
We retrospectively assessed the clinical outcomes and investigated risk factors influencing retear after arthroscopic suture bridge repair technique for rotator cuff tear through clinical assessment and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA).
Between January 2008 and April 2011, sixty-two cases of full-thickness rotator cuff tear were treated with arthroscopic suture bridge repair technique and follow-up MRA were performed. The mean age was 56.1 years, and mean follow-up period was 27.4 months. Clinical and functional outcomes were assessed using range of motion, Korean shoulder score, Constant score, and UCLA score. Radiological outcome was evaluated with preoperative and follow-up MRA. Potential predictive factors that influenced cuff retear, such as age, gender, geometric patterns of tear, size of cuff tear, acromioplasty, fatty degeneration, atrophy of cuff muscle, retraction of supraspinatus, involved muscles of cuff and osteolysis around the suture anchor were evaluated.
Thirty cases (48.4%) revealed retear on MRA. In univariable analysis, retear was significantly more frequent in over 60 years age group (62.5%) than under 60 years age group (39.5%; p = 0.043), and also in medium to large-sized tear than small-sized tear (p = 0.003). There was significant difference in geometric pattern of tear (p = 0.015). In multivariable analysis, only age (p = 0.036) and size of tear (p = 0.030) revealed a significant difference. The mean active range of motion for forward flexion, abduction, external rotation at the side and internal rotation at the side were significantly improved at follow-up (p < 0.05). The mean Korean shoulder score, Constant score, and UCLA score increased significantly at follow-up (p < 0.01). The range of motion, Korean shoulder score, Constant score, and UCLA score did not differ significantly between the groups with retear and intact repairs (p > 0.05). The locations of retear were insertion site in 10 cases (33.3%) and musculotendinous junction in 20 cases (66.7%; p = 0.006).
Suture bridge repair technique for rotator cuff tear showed improved clinical results. Cuff integrity after repair did not affect clinical results. Age of over 60 years and size of cuff tear larger than 1 cm were factors influencing rotator cuff retear after arthroscopic suture bridge repair technique.
PMCID: PMC3858092  PMID: 24340151
Rotator cuff tear; Suture bridge technique; Retear; Magnetic resonance arthrography
17.  Evaluation of cartilage degeneration in a rat model of rotator cuff tear arthropathy 
Rotator cuff tears are the most common injury seen by shoulder surgeons. Many late stage rotator cuff tear patients develop glenohumeral osteoarthritis as a result of torn cuff tendons, termed cuff tear arthropathy. However, the mechanisms of cuff tear arthropathy have not been fully established. It has been hypothesized that a combination of synovial and mechanical factors contribute equally to the development of cuff tear arthropathy. The goal of this study was to assess the utility of this model in investigating cuff-tear arthropathy.
We utilized a rat model which accurately reflects rotator cuff muscle degradation after massive rotator cuff tears through either infraspinatus and supraspinatus tenotomy or suprascapular nerve transection. Using a Modified-Mankin Scoring System (MMS), we found significant glenohumeral cartilage damage following both rotator cuff tenotomy and suprascapular nerve transection after only 12 weeks.
Cartilage degeneration was similar between groups, and was present on both the humeral head and the glenoid. Denervation of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles without opening the joint capsule caused cartilage degeneration similar to that found in the tendon transection group.
These results suggest that altered mechanical loading after rotator cuff tears is the primary factor in cartilage degeneration after rotator cuff tears. Clinically, understanding the process of cartilage degeneration after rotator cuff injury will help guide treatment decisions in the setting of rotator cuff tears.
Level of evidence
Basic Science Study, Animal Model
PMCID: PMC3806888  PMID: 23664745
massive rotator cuff tear; arthropathy; osteoarthritis; histology; articular cartilage
18.  Anatomic Deltoid Ligament Repair with Anchor-to-Post Suture Reinforcement: Technique Tip 
The Iowa Orthopaedic Journal  2012;32:227-230.
The deltoid ligament is the primary ligamentous stabilizer of the ankle joint. Both superficial and deep components of the ligament can be disrupted with a rotational ankle fracture, chronic ankle instability, or in late stage adult acquired flatfoot deformity. The role of deltoid ligament repair in these conditions has been limited and its contribution to arthritis is largely unknown. Neglect of the deltoid ligament in the treatment of ankle injuries may be due to difficulties in diagnosis and lack of an effective method for repair. Most acute repair techniques address the superficial deltoid ligament with direct end-to-end repair, fixation through bone tunnels, or suture anchor repair of avulsion injuries. Deep deltoid ligament repair has been described using direct end-to-end repair with sutures, as well as by autograft and allograft tendon reconstruction utilizing various techniques. Newer tenodesis techniques have been described for late reconstruction of both deep and superficial components in patients with stage 4 adult acquired flatfoot deformity.
We describe a technique that provides anatomic ligament-to-bone repair of the superficial and deep bundles of the deltoid ligament while reducing the talus toward the medial malleolar facet of the tibiotalar joint with anchor-to-post reinforcement of the ligamentous repair. This technique may protect and allow the horizontally oriented fibers of the deep deltoid ligament to heal with the appropriate resting length while providing immediate stability of the construct.
PMCID: PMC3565408  PMID: 23576946
19.  Massive tears of the rotator cuff treated with a deltoid flap 
International Orthopaedics  2004;28(4):226-230.
We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 29 patients younger than 65 years at surgery treated with deltoid flap reconstruction for massive postero-superior rotator cuff tears. All tears involved supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons and were associated with tendon stump retraction to the glenoid rim, a preservable long biceps tendon, and an intact subscapularis tendon. Mean follow-up was 10.5 years. Patient satisfaction rate was 89%. Mean global Constant score improved from 43 to 71.5 points, mean pain score from 6.3 to 13.2, mean anterior flexion from 100 to 157°, and force in elevation from 2.3 to 3 kg. Two thirds of patients had no humeral head migration. Of the 18 patients whose flap was examined by magnetic resonance imaging, 15 had no tear and 12 had a flap signal of muscle intensity; mean flap thickness was 5 mm. Pre-operative factors associated with poorer outcomes were upwards humeral head migration with a subacromial space smaller than 6 mm, presence of glenohumeral osteoarthritis, and supraspinatus amyotrophy greater than 40%. Deltoid flap reconstruction is a valid option in this patient population.
PMCID: PMC3456937  PMID: 15168082
20.  Shoulder pain 
Clinical Evidence  2010;2010:1107.
Shoulder pain is a common problem with an estimated prevalence of 4% to 26%. About 1% of adults aged over 45 years consult their GP with a new presentation of shoulder pain every year in the UK. The aetiology of shoulder pain is diverse and includes pathology originating from the neck, glenohumeral joint, acromioclavicular joint, rotator cuff, and other soft tissues around the shoulder girdle. The most common source of shoulder pain is the rotator cuff, accounting for over two-thirds of cases.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatment, topical drug treatment, local injections, non-drug treatment, and surgical treatment? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, arthroscopic subacromial decompression, autologous whole blood injection, corticosteroids (oral, subacromial injection, or intra-articular injection), electrical stimulation, excision of distal clavicle, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, ice, laser treatment, manipulation under anaesthesia, suprascapular nerve block, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (oral, topical or intra-articular injection), opioid analgesics, paracetamol, physiotherapy (manual treatment, exercises), platelet-rich plasma injection, rotator cuff repair, shoulder arthroplasty, and ultrasound.
Key Points
Shoulder pain encompasses a diverse array of pathologies and can affect as many as one quarter of the population depending on age and risk factors. Shoulder pain may be due to problems with the neck, glenohumeral joint, acromioclavicular joint, rotator cuff, or other soft tissues around the shoulder.
Rotator cuff problems are the most common source of shoulder pain, accounting for more than two-thirds of cases. Rotator cuff disorders are associated with musculoskeletal problems that affect the joints and muscles of the shoulder, cuff degeneration due to ageing and ischaemia, and overloading of the shoulder.
Frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis) accounts for 2% of cases of shoulder pain. Risk factors for frozen shoulder include female sex, older age, shoulder trauma and surgery, diabetes, and cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and thyroid disease.
In many people, the cornerstone of treatment is achieving pain control to permit a return to normal functional use of the shoulder and encourage this with manual exercises. In people with acute post-traumatic tear, an early surgical option is warranted.
We don't know whether topical NSAIDs, oral corticosteroids, oral paracetamol, or opioid analgesics improve shoulder pain, although oral NSAIDs may be effective in the short term in people with acute tendonitis/subacromial bursitis. If pain control fails, the diagnosis should be reviewed and other interventions considered.
Physiotherapy may improve pain and function in people with mixed shoulder disorders compared with placebo.
Intra-articular corticosteroid injections may reduce pain in the short term compared with physiotherapy and placebo for people with frozen shoulder, but their benefit in the long term and when compared with local anaesthetic is unclear.
Platelet-rich plasma injections may improve the speed of recovery in terms of pain and function in people having open subacromial decompression for rotator cuff impingement, but further evidence is needed.
Acupuncture may not improve pain or function in people with rotator cuff impingement compared with placebo or ultrasound.
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy may improve pain in calcific tendonitis.
We found some evidence that suprascapular nerve block, laser treatment, and arthroscopic subacromial decompression may be effective in some people with shoulder pain.
We don't know whether autologous blood injections, intra-articular NSAID injections, subacromial corticosteroid injections, electrical stimulation, ice, ultrasound, rotator cuff repair, manipulation under anaesthesia, or shoulder arthroplasty are effective as we found insufficient evidence on their effects.
PMCID: PMC3217726  PMID: 21418673
21.  Surgical technique and clinical results for scapular allograft reconstruction following resection of scapular tumors 
Progress in developing effective surgical techniques, such as scapular allograft reconstruction, enhance shoulder stability and extremity function, in patients following scapular tumor resection.
Case details from seven patients who underwent scapular allograft reconstruction following scapular tumor resection were reviewed. A wide marginal resection (partial scapulectomy) was performed in all patients and all affected soft tissues were resected to achieve a clean surgical margin. The glenoid-resected and glenoid-saved reconstructions were performed in three and four patients, respectively. The residual host scapula were fixed to the size-matched scapular allografts with plates and screws. The rotator cuff was affected frequently and was mostly resected. The deltoid and articular capsule were infrequently involved, but reconstructed preferentially. The remaining muscles were reattached to the allografts.
The median follow-up was 26 months (range, 14–50 months). The average function scores were 24 points (80%) according to the International Society of Limb Salvage criteria. The range of active shoulder abduction and forward flexion motion were 40°–110° and 30°–90°, respectively. There was no difference between the glenoid-saved and glenoid-resected reconstructions in the total scores (mean, 24.5 points/81% versus 24 points/79%), but the glenoid-saved procedure was superior to the later in terms of abduction/flexion motion (mean, 72°/61° versus 55°/43°). During the study follow-up period, one patient died following a relapse, one patient lived despite of local recurrence, and five patients survived with no evidence of recurrence of the original cancer. Post-surgical complications such as shoulder dislocations, non-unions, and articular degeneration were not noted during this study period.
Scapular allograft reconstruction had a satisfactory functional, cosmetic, and oncological outcome in this case series. Preservation and reconstruction of the articular capsule and deltoid are proposed to be a prerequisite for using scapular allografts and rotator cuff reconstruction is recommended, although technically challenging to perform.
PMCID: PMC2670817  PMID: 19338652
22.  Long-term outcome and structural integrity following open repair of massive rotator cuff tears 
Surgical repair of massive rotator cuff tears is associated with less favorable clinical results and a higher retear rate than repair of smaller tears, which is attributed to irreversible degenerative changes of the musculotendinous unit.
Materials and Methods:
During the study period, 25 consecutive patients with a massive rotator cuff tear were enrolled in the study and the tears were repaired with an open suture anchor repair technique. Preoperative and postoperative clinical assessments were performed with the Constant score, the simple shoulder test (SST) and a pain visual analog scale (VAS). At the final follow-up, rotator cuff strength measurement was evaluated and assessment of tendon integrity, fatty degeneration and muscle atrophy was done using a standardized magnetic resonance imaging protocol.
The mean follow-up period was 70 months. The mean constant score improved significantly from 42.3 to 73.1 points at the final follow-up. Both the SST and the pain VAS improved significantly from 5.3 to 10.2 points and from 6.3 to 2.1, respectively. The overall retear rate was 44% after 6 years. Patients with an intact repair had better shoulder scores and rotator cuff strength than those with a failed repair, and also the retear group showed a significant clinical improvement (each P<0.05). Rotator cuff strength in all testing positions was significantly reduced for the operated compared to the contralateral shoulder. Muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles did not recover in intact repairs, whereas both parameters progressed in retorn cuffs.
Open repair of massive rotator tears achieved high patient satisfaction and a good clinical outcome at the long-term follow-up despite a high retear rate. Also, shoulders with retorn cuffs were significantly improved by the procedure. Muscle atrophy and fatty muscle degeneration could not be reversed after repair and rotator cuff strength still did not equal that of the contralateral shoulder after 6 years.
Level of evidence:
Level IV
PMCID: PMC3326749  PMID: 22518073
Magnetic resonance imaging; massive rotator cuff tear; open rotator cuff repair; rotator cuff strength; subscapularis function
23.  Open reduction of proximal humerus fractures in the adolescent population 
Proximal humerus fractures in the pediatric population are a relatively uncommon injury, with the majority of injuries treated in a closed fashion due to the tremendous remodeling potential of the proximal humerus in the skeletally immature. Yet, in adolescent patients, open treatment is, at times, necessary due to unsatisfactory alignment following a closed reduction, loss of previously achieved closed reduction, and limited remodeling when close to skeletal maturity. The purpose of our study was to examine the open reduction of adolescent proximal humerus fractures.
A retrospective review of the outcomes of proximal humerus fractures in the adolescent population which were consecutively treated at our institution with open reduction was performed.
Ten children met the inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 14.3 years (±1.3) and a mean weight of 60.7 kg (±14.9) at the time of injury. There were seven Salter-Harris 2 fractures and three Salter-Harris 1 fractures. The largest mean angulation was 55.0° (±33.9) and the largest mean displacement was 87.0 % (±22.8). Intra-operatively, impediments to closed reduction within the fracture site which were found included: periosteum (90.0 %), biceps tendon (90.0 %), deltoid muscle (70.0 %), and comminuted bone (10.0 %). K-wire fixation was most commonly used (70.0 %), followed by flexible nails (20.0 %) and cannulated screws (10.0 %) for fixation. All patients achieved radiographic union at a mean of 4.0 weeks (±0.7), had non-painful full shoulder range of motion and rotator cuff strength at final follow-up (mean 7.7 ± 4.6 months), and returned to pre-injury sporting activities.
The operative treatment of proximal humerus fracture, particularly in adolescents with severe displacement/angulation having failed closed methods of treatment, is increasingly considered to be an acceptable modality of treatment. In addition to the long head of the biceps, periosteum, deltoid muscle, and bone fragments in combination can prevent fracture reduction. Surgeon preference and skill should dictate implant choice, and the risk of physeal damage utilizing these implants in this age group is low.
PMCID: PMC3364342  PMID: 23730341
Proximal humerus; Pediatric; Adolescent; Open reduction; Operative
24.  Acromionectomy and Deltoid Deficiency: A Solution 
Deltoid insufficiency after iatrogenic or traumatic acromionectomy results from separation of the deltoid from its origin and mechanical fulcrum. Subsequent retraction of the tendon and formation of subdeltoid adhesions to the cuff and humerus result in stiffness and pain. We evaluated clinical outcomes of patients treated with autogenous tricortical iliac crest bone graft combined with deltoid reconstruction or deltoidplasty for deltoid insufficiency after acromionectomy. We retrospectively reviewed four patients, three males, and one female treated with deltoidplasty reconstructions as revision surgery. Their mean age was 41 years, and the minimum followup was 41 months (mean, 50 months; range, 41–66 months). There were three work-related injuries. Outcomes evaluated were pain relief (visual analog score), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, cosmesis, and complications. The mean pain score improved from 8 (range, 3–10) preoperatively to 1 (range, 0–3) postoperatively. The mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score improved from 31 ± 14 to 68 ± 13. One patient required revision deltoidplasty for abductor weakness. Three patients underwent hardware removal. One patient who underwent concurrent latissimus dorsi transfer had limited functional improvement but decreased pain. Two patients had improved cosmesis. All had CT scans with three-dimensional reconstructions documenting union. All patients stated they would undergo the procedure again.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC2664414  PMID: 19037708
25.  Arthroscopic Posterior Bone Block Procedure: A New Technique Using Suture Anchor Fixation 
Arthroscopy Techniques  2013;2(4):e473-e477.
We present a novel all-arthroscopic technique of posterior shoulder stabilization that uses suture anchors for both bone block fixation and capsulolabral repair. The bone graft, introduced inside the glenohumeral joint through a cannula, is fixed with 2 suture anchors. The associated posteroinferior capsulolabral repair places the bone block in an extra-articular position. In this article we present the detailed arthroscopic technique performed in a consecutive series of 15 patients and report the early results. We also report the positioning, healing, and remodeling of the bone block using postoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography. The benefits of this new technique are as follows: (1) it is all arthroscopic, preserving the posterior deltoid and posterior rotator cuff muscles; (2) it is accurate, resulting in appropriate bone block positioning; (3) it is efficient, allowing for consistent bone graft healing; (4) it is anatomic, both restoring the glenoid bone stock and repairing the injured posterior labrum; and (5) it is safe, limiting hardware-related complications and eliminating the risk of injury to vital structures associated with drilling or screw insertion from posterior to anterior. We believe that this technique is advantageous because it does not use screws for fixation and may be safer for the patient.
PMCID: PMC4040011  PMID: 24892011

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