Mouse breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39; Chi3l1) and its human homologue YKL-40 are chitinase-like proteins that lack chitinase activity. Although YKL-40 is expressed in exaggerated quantities and correlates with disease activity in asthma and many other disorders, the biological properties of BRP-39/YKL-40 have only been rudimentarily defined. We describe the generation and characterization of BRP-39−/− mice, YKL-40 transgenic mice, and mice that lack BRP-39 and produce YKL-40 only in their pulmonary epithelium. Studies of these mice demonstrated that BRP-39−/− animals have markedly diminished antigen-induced Th2 responses and that epithelial YKL-40 rescues the Th2 responses in these animals. The ability of interleukin13 to induce tissue inflammation and fibrosis was also markedly diminished in the absence of BRP-39. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that BRP-39 and YKL-40 play an essential role in antigen sensitization and immunoglobulin E induction, stimulate dendritic cell accumulation and activation, and induce alternative macrophage activation. These proteins also inhibit inflammatory cell apoptosis/cell death while inhibiting Fas expression, activating protein kinase B/AKT, and inducing Faim 3. These studies establish novel regulatory roles for BRP-39/YKL-40 in the initiation and effector phases of Th2 inflammation and remodeling and suggest that these proteins are therapeutic targets in Th2- and macrophage-mediated disorders.
Rationale: Prolonged exposure to 100% O2 causes hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI), characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury and death. We previously demonstrated that the murine chitinase-like protein, breast regression protein (BRP)–39 and its human homolog, YKL-40, inhibit cellular apoptosis. However, the regulation and roles of these molecules in hyperoxia have not been addressed.
Objectives: We hypothesized that BRP-39 and YKL-40 (also called chitinase-3–like 1) play important roles in the pathogenesis of HALI.
Methods: We characterized the regulation of BRP-39 during HALI and the responses induced by hyperoxia in wild-type mice, BRP-39–null (−/−) mice, and BRP-39−/− mice in which YKL-40 was overexpressed in respiratory epithelium. We also compared the levels of tracheal aspirate YKL-40 in premature newborns with respiratory failure.
Measurements and Main Results: These studies demonstrate that hyperoxia inhibits BRP-39 in vivo in the murine lung and in vitro in epithelial cells. They also demonstrate that BRP-39−/− mice have exaggerated permeability, protein leak, oxidation, inflammatory, chemokine, and epithelial apoptosis responses, and experience premature death in 100% O2. Lastly, they demonstrate that YKL-40 ameliorates HALI, prolongs survival in 100% O2, and rescues the exaggerated injury response in BRP-39−/− animals. In accord with these findings, the levels of tracheal aspirate YKL-40 were lower in premature infants treated with hyperoxia for respiratory failure who subsequently experienced bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death compared with those that did not experience these complications.
Conclusions: These studies demonstrate that hyperoxia inhibits BRP-39/YKL-40, and that BRP-39 and YKL-40 are critical regulators of oxidant injury, inflammation, and epithelial apoptosis in the murine and human lung.
BRP-39; YKL-40; hyperoxygen; BPD; HALI
The chitinase-like protein YKL-40 was found to be increased in patients with severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), two disease conditions featuring neutrophilic infiltrates. Based on these studies and a previous report indicating that neutrophils secrete YKL-40, we hypothesized that YKL-40 plays a key role in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, a prototypic neutrophilic disease. The aim of this study was (i) to analyze YKL-40 levels in human and murine CF lung disease and (ii) to investigate whether YKL-40 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modulate CF lung disease severity. YKL-40 protein levels were quantified in serum and sputum supernatants from CF patients and control individuals. Levels of the murine homologue BRP-39 were analyzed in airway fluids from CF-like βENaC-Tg mice. YKL-40SNPs were analyzed in CF patients. YKL-40 levels were increased in sputum supernatants and in serum from CF patients compared to healthy control individuals. Within CF patients, YKL-40 levels were higher in sputum than in serum. BRP-39 levels were increased in airways fluids from βENaC-Tg mice compared to wild-type littermates. In both CF patients and βENaC-Tg mice, YKL-40/BRP-39 airway levels correlated with the severity of pulmonary obstruction. Two YKL-40 SNPs (rs871799 and rs880633) were found to modulate age-adjusted lung function in CF patients. YKL-40/BRP-39 levelsare increased in human and murine CF airway fluids, correlate with pulmonary function and modulate CF lung disease severity genetically. These findings suggest YKL-40 as a potential biomarker in CF lung disease.
The exaggerated expression of chitinase-like protein YKL-40, the human homologue of breast regression protein–39 (BRP-39), was reported in a number of diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the in vivo roles of YKL-40 in normal physiology or in the pathogenesis of specific diseases such as COPD remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that BRP-39/YKL-40 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke (CS)–induced emphysema. To test this hypothesis, 10-week-old wild-type and BRP-39 null mutant mice (BRP-39−/−) were exposed to room air (RA) and CS for up to 10 months. The expression of BRP-39 was significantly induced in macrophages, airway epithelial cells, and alveolar Type II cells in the lungs of CS-exposed mice compared with RA-exposed mice, at least in part via an IL-18 signaling–dependent pathway. The null mutation of BRP-39 significantly reduced CS-induced bronchoalveolar lavage and tissue inflammation. However, CS-induced epithelial cell apoptosis and alveolar destruction were further enhanced in the absence of BRP-39. Consistent with these findings in mice, the tissue expression of YKL-40 was significantly increased in the lungs of current smokers compared with the lungs of ex-smokers or nonsmokers. In addition, serum concentrations of YKL-40 were significantly higher in smokers with COPD than in nonsmokers or smokers without COPD. These studies demonstrate a novel regulatory role of BRP-39/YKL-40 in CS-induced inflammation and emphysematous destruction. These studies also underscore that maintaining physiologic concentrations of YKL-40 in the lung is therapeutically important in preventing excessive inflammatory responses or emphysematous alveolar destruction.
YKL-40/BRP-39; COPD; emphysema; cigarette smoke
The chitinase-like protein YKL-40 is involved in inflammation and tissue remodeling. We recently showed that serum YKL-40 levels were elevated in patients with asthma and were correlated with severity, thickening of the subepithelial basement membrane, and pulmonary function. We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that affect YKL-40 levels also influence asthma status and lung function.
We carried out a genomewide association study of serum YKL-40 levels in a founder population of European descent, the Hutterites, and then tested for an association between an implicated SNP and asthma and lung function. One associated variant was genotyped in a birth cohort at high risk for asthma, in which YKL-40 levels were measured from birth through 5 years of age, and in two populations of unrelated case patients of European descent with asthma and controls.
A promoter SNP (−131C→G) in CHI3L1, the chitinase 3–like 1 gene encoding YKL-40, was associated with elevated serum YKL-40 levels (P = 1.1×10−13), asthma (P = 0.047), bronchial hyperresponsiveness (P = 0.002), and measures of pulmonary function (P = 0.046 to 0.002) in the Hutterites. The same SNP could be used to predict the presence of asthma in the two case–control populations (combined P = 1.2×10−5) and serum YKL-40 levels at birth (in cord-blood specimens) through 5 years of age in the birth cohort (P = 8.9×10−3 to 2.5×10−4).
CHI3L1 is a susceptibility gene for asthma, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and reduced lung function, and elevated circulating YKL-40 levels are a biomarker for asthma and decline in lung function.
The chitinase-like proteins YKL-39 (chitinase 3-like-2) and YKL-40 (chitinase 3-like-1) are highly expressed in a number of human cells independent of their origin (mesenchymal, epithelial or haemapoietic). Elevated serum levels of YKL-40 have been associated with a negative outcome in a number of diseases ranging from cancer to inflammation and asthma. YKL-39 expression has been associated with osteoarthritis. However, despite the reported association with disease, the physiological or pathological role of these proteins is still very poorly understood. Although YKL-39 is homologous to the two family 18 chitinases in the human genome, it has been reported to lack any chitinase activity. In the present study, we show that human YKL-39 possesses a chitinase-like fold, but lacks key active-site residues required for catalysis. A glycan screen identified oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine as preferred binding partners. YKL-39 binds chitooligosaccharides and a newly synthesized derivative of the bisdionin chitinase-inhibitor class with micromolar affinity, through a number of conserved tryptophan residues. Strikingly, the chitinase activity of YKL-39 was recovered by reverting two non-conservative substitutions in the active site to those found in the active enzymes, suggesting that YKL-39 is a pseudo-chitinase with retention of chitinase-like ligand-binding properties.
chitinase; chitinase-like proteins; glycan; glycan array; glycobiology; protein structure; lectin; X-ray crystallography
While the presence of the chitinase-like molecule YKL40 has been reported in COPD and asthma, its relevance to inflammatory processes elicited by cigarette smoke and common environmental allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), is not well understood. The objective of the current study was to assess expression and function of BRP-39, the murine equivalent of YKL40 in a murine model of cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and contrast expression and function to a model of HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation.
CD1, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice were room air- or cigarette smoke-exposed for 4 days in a whole-body exposure system. In separate experiments, BALB/c mice were challenged with HDM extract once a day for 10 days. BRP-39 was assessed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. IL-13, IL-1R1, IL-18, and BRP-39 knock out (KO) mice were utilized to assess the mechanism and relevance of BRP-39 in cigarette smoke- and HDM-induced airway inflammation.
Cigarette smoke exposure elicited a robust induction of BRP-39 but not the catalytically active chitinase, AMCase, in lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages of all mouse strains tested. Both BRP-39 and AMCase were increased in lung tissue after HDM exposure. Examining smoke-exposed IL-1R1, IL-18, and IL-13 deficient mice, BRP-39 induction was found to be IL-1 and not IL-18 or IL-13 dependent, while induction of BRP-39 by HDM was independent of IL-1 and IL-13. Despite the importance of BRP-39 in cellular inflammation in HDM-induced airway inflammation, BRP-39 was found to be redundant for cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation and the adjuvant properties of cigarette smoke.
These data highlight the contrast between the importance of BRP-39 in HDM- and cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. While functionally important in HDM-induced inflammation, BRP-39 is a biomarker of cigarette smoke induced inflammation which is the byproduct of an IL-1 inflammatory pathway.
Several inflammatory cytokines are involved in vascular inflammation resulting in endothelial dysfunction which is the earliest event in the atherosclerotic process leading to manifest cardiovascular disease. YKL-40 is an inflammatory glycoprotein involved in endothelial dysfunction by promoting chemotaxis, cell attachment and migration, reorganization and tissue remodelling as a response to endothelial damage. YKL-40 protein expression is seen in macrophages and smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaques with the highest expression seen in macrophages in the early lesion of atherosclerosis. Several studies demonstrate, that elevated serum YKL-levels are independently associated with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease and even higher YKL-40 levels are documented in patients with myocardial infarction. Moreover, elevated serum YKL-40 levels have also been found to be associated with all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality. Finally, YKL-40 levels are elevated both in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, known to be at high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, when compared to non-diabetic persons. A positive association between elevated circulating YKL-40 levels and increasing levels of albuminuria have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes indicating a role of YKL-40 in the progressing vascular damage resulting in microvascular disease.
This review describes the present knowledge about YKL-40 and discusses its relation to endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and diabetes and look ahead on future perspectives of YKL-40 research.
YKL-39 is a Glyco_18 domain containing chitinase-like protein which is currently recognized as a biomarker for the activation of chondrocytes and the progress of the osteoarthritis in human. YKL-39 was identified as an abundantly secreted protein in primary culture of human articular chondrocytes. Two biological activities of YKL-39 might contribute to the disease progression. One is the induction of autoimmune response and second is the participation in tissue remodeling. Other mammalian chitinase-like proteins including chitotriosidase, SI-CLP, YKL-40 and YM1 are expressed by macrophages in various pathological conditions. In contrast, YKL-39 was never reported to be produced by macrophages. We used in vitro model of human monocyte-derived macrophage differentiation to analyse regulation of YKL-39 expression. Expression of YKL-39 was examined by real-time RT-PCR. CD14+ MACS sorted human monocytes differentiated for 6 days under different stimulations including IFNγ, IL-4, dexamethasone and TGF-β. We found that both IL-4 and TGF-β have weak stimulatory effect on YKL-39 expression in all donors tested (3.2 ± 1.7 fold, p = 0.006 and 6.3 ± 3.1 fold, p = 0.014 respectively). However the combination of IL-4 and TGF-β had strong stimulatory effect on the expression of YKL-39 in all analysed individual macrophage cultures (34 ± 36 fold, p = 0.05). IFN-γ did not show statistically significant effect of YKL-39 mRNA expression. Presence of dexamethasone almost completely abolished the stimulatory effects of IL-4 and TGF-β. In summary, we show here for the first time, that human cells of monocyte origin are able to produce YKL-39. Maturation of monocyte derived macrophages in the presence of Th2 cytokine IL-4 and TGF-β leads to the strong activation of YKL-39 expression. Thus elevated levels of YKL-39 observed during chronic inflammations can not be attributed solely to the activity of chondrocytes. In perspective, YKL-39 might serve as a useful biomarker to detect macrophage-specific response in pathologies like tumour, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer disease.
osteoarthritis; chitinase; YKL-39; macrophage; TGF-beta; IL-4
YKL-40 is a mammalian member of the chitinase protein family. Although the function of YKL-40 is unknown, the pattern of its expression suggests a function in remodelling or degradation of extracellular matrix. High serum YKL-40 has been found in patients with recurrent breast cancer and has been related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three hundred and forty patients died. Sixteen per cent of the patients with Dukes' A, 26% with Dukes' B, 19% with Dukes' C and 39% with Dukes' D had high serum YKL-40 levels (adjusted for age). Analysis of serum YKL-40 as a continuous variable showed an association between increased serum YKL-40 and short survival (P < 0.0001). Patients with high preoperative serum YKL-40 concentration had significantly shorter survival than patients with normal YKL-40 (HR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3–2.1, P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox analysis including serum YKL-40, serum CEA, Dukes' stage, age and gender showed that high YKL-40 was an independent prognostic variable for short survival (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1–1.8, P = 0.007). These results suggest that YKL-40 may play an important role in tumour invasion. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign
carcinoembryonic antigen; colorectal cancer; metastasis; tumour invasiveness; YKL-40/HC gp-39
YKL-40 (chitinase-3-like-1) is a member of "mammalian chitinase-like proteins". The protein is expressed in many types of cancer cells and the highest plasma YKL-40 levels have been found in patients with metastatic disease, short recurrence/progression-free intervals, and short overall survival. The aim of the study was to determine the expression of YKL-40 in tumor tissue and plasma in patients with borderline ovarian tumor or epithelial ovarian cancer (OC), and investigate prognostic value of this marker.
YKL-40 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in tissue arrays from 181 borderline tumors and 473 OC. Plasma YKL-40 was determined by ELISA in preoperative samples from 19 patients with borderline tumor and 76 OC patients.
YKL-40 protein expression was found in cancer cells, tumor associated macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells. The tumor cell expression was higher in OC than in borderline tumors (p = 0.001), and associated with FIGO stage (p < 0.0001) and histological subtype (p = 0.0009). Positive YKL-40 expression (≥ 5% staining) was not associated with reduced survival. Plasma YKL-40 was also higher in patients with OC than in patients with borderline tumors (p < 0.0001), and it was positively correlated to serum CA-125 (p < 0.0001) and FIGO stage (p = 0.0001). Univariate Cox analysis of plasma YKL-40 showed association with overall survival (p < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox analysis, including plasma YKL-40, serum CA125, FIGO stage, age and radicality after primary surgery as variables, showed that elevated plasma YKL-40 was associated with a shorter survival (HR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.40–3.25, p = 0.0004).
YKL-40 in OC tissue and plasma are related to stage and histology, but only plasma YKL-40 is a prognostic biomarker in patients with OC.
YKL-40 is a chitinase-like glycoprotein encoded by the chitinase 3-like 1 gene, CHI3L1, localized at chromosome 1q32.1. Increased levels of serum YKL-40 have been reported to be a biomarker for asthma and a reduced lung function. Interestingly, the C-allele of the -131 C→G (rs4950928) polymorphism of CHI3L1 has been shown to associate with bronchial hyperresponsiveness and reduced lung function suggesting that variations in CHI3L1 may influence risk of asthma. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of common variation in the CHI3L1 locus with asthma, atopy and lung function in a large population-based sample of adults.
Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CHI3L1 including rs4950928 were genotyped in 6514 individuals. Asthma was defined as self-reported history of physician-diagnosed asthma. Total IgE and specific IgE to inhalant allergens were measured on serum samples. Lung function was measured by spirometry. Homozygosity of the rs4950928 G allele as compared to homozygosity of the C allele was associated with self-reported physician diagnosed asthma (OR 1.5 (95% CI, 1.00–2.26)) and with prevalence of atopic asthma (OR 1.93 (95% CI, 1.21–3.07)) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic class and BMI. Carriers of rs883125 G allele had a significantly lower prevalence of atopy (OR 0.82 (CI, 0.72; 0.94)) as compared to homozygosity of the C allele. None of the SNPs examined were significantly associated with FEV1. However, two SNPs (rs10399931and rs4950930) appeared to be significantly associated with FEV1/FVC-ratio. Subgroup analyses of never-smokers did not consistently influence the associations in an either positively og negatively way.
In contrast to previous studies, the rs4950928 G allele, and not the C allele, was found to be associated with asthma. A few other SNPs of the CHI3L1 was found to be significantly associated with atopy and FEV1/FVC ratio, respectively. Thus, more studies seem warranted to establish the role of CHI3L1 gene in asthma and atopy.
Purpose of Review
This review provides an overview of the chitinase and chitinase-like proteins, chitotriosidase (CHIT1), YKL-40, and acid mammalian chitinase (AMCase), and to summarize the genetic studies of asthma and immune mediated diseases with polymorphisms in the genes encoding these proteins: CHIT1, CHI3L1, and CHIA, respectively.
Polymorphisms in the CHIT1, CHIA, and CHI3L1 genes influence chitotriosidase enzyme activity, AMCase activity, and YKL-40 levels, respectively. Regulatory SNPs in CHI3L1 were also associated with asthma, atopy, and immune-mediated diseases, and nonsynonymous SNPs in CHIA were associated with asthma. No CHIT1 polymorphisms, including a common nonfunctional 24-bp duplication allele, have been associated with asthma.
These genes represent novel asthma susceptibility genes. Variation in CHI3L1 and CHIA have been associated with asthma risk. Polymorphisms in CHIT1 have not yet been associated with asthma, but few studies have been reported. Given that chitotriosidase is the major chitinase in the airways and a common nonfunctional allele is present in many populations, additional studies of this gene are also warranted. Lastly, studies of all three genes need to be conducted in populations of diverse ancestries.
Chitotriosidase; CHIT1; YKL-40; CHI3L1; AMCase; CHIA
CHI3LI encoding the inflammatory glycoprotein YKL-40 is located on chromosome 1q32.1. YKL-40 is involved in inflammatory processes and patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) have elevated circulating YKL-40 levels which correlate with their level of insulin resistance. Interestingly, it has been reported that rs10399931 (−329 G/A) of CHI3LI contributes to the inter-individual plasma YKL-40 levels in patients with sarcoidosis, and that rs4950928 (−131 C/G) is a susceptibility polymorphism for asthma and a decline in lung function. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or haplotypes thereof the CHI3LI locus might influence risk of T2D. The aim of the present study was to investigate the putative association between SNPs and haplotype blocks of CHI3LI and T2D and T2D related quantitative traits.
Eleven SNPs of CHI3LI were genotyped in 6514 individuals from the Inter99 cohort and 2924 individuals from the outpatient clinic at Steno Diabetes Center. In cas-control studies a total of 2345 T2D patients and 5302 individuals with a normal glucose tolerance test were examined.
We found no association between rs10399931 (OR, 0.98 (CI, 0.88–1.10), p = 0.76), rs4950928 (0.98 (0.87–1.10), p = 0.68) or any of the other SNPs with T2D. Similarly, we found no significant association between any of the 11 tgSNPs and T2D related quantitative traits, all p>0.14. None of the identified haplotype blocks of CHI3LI showed any association with T2D, all p>0.16.
None of the examined SNPs or haplotype blocks of CHI3LI showed any association with T2D or T2D related quantitative traits. Estimates of insulin resistance and dysregulated glucose homeostasis in T2D do not seem to be accounted for by the examined variations of CHI3LI.
YKL-40 (chitinase 3-like protein 1) is expressed in a broad spectrum of inflammatory conditions and cancers. We have previously reported that YKL-40 levels are elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of macaques and humans with lentiviral encephalitis, as well as multiple sclerosis (MS). The current study assessed temporal CSF YKL-40 levels in subjects with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI; Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤8). We also evaluated temporal expression of YKL-40 after parasagittal controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury over the parietal cortex (2.8 mm deep, 4 m/sec). We demonstrate that CSF YKL-40 levels are elevated after acute TBI, and that YKL-40 levels are higher in patients who died following injury than in patients who survived. YKL-40 levels significantly correlate with CSF levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP). After CCI, in situ hybridization (ISH) showed that YKL-40 transcription is primarily associated with reactive astrocytes in pericontusional cortex. Tissue YKL-40 transcription time course analysis after CCI showed that YKL40 transcription in astrocytes began 1 day after injury, remained elevated for several days, and then declined by day 12. Similarly to our temporal CSF measurements in humans, YKL-40 induction after CCI is coincident with IL-1β expression. Taken together these findings demonstrate that YKL-40 is induced in astrocytes during acute neuroinflammation, is temporally related to inflammatory mediator expression, and may be a useful biomarker for understanding secondary injury and for patient prognosis.
chitinase; controlled cortical impact; cytokine; gliosis; neuroinflammation; traumatic brain injury; YKL-40
Plasma levels of YKL-40 are elevated in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that affects YKL-40 plasma levels is associated to the risk of lone AF.
We included 178 young patients with lone AF and the first episode before the age of 40 years, and a control group of 875 healthy individuals. We analyzed a promoter SNP (−131CG) (rs4950928) in the Chitinase 3–like 1 (CHI3L1) gene encoding YKL-40, which had previously been associated with elevated levels of YKL-40.
The (−131CG) genotype was not associated with increased risk of AF. Genetically increased YKL-40 levels were not associated to AF.
YKL-40; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Inflammation; Atrial fibrillation
YKL-40 has been implicated as a mediator of collagen synthesis and extracellular matrix re-modeling as well as mitogenesis. Elevated serum levels of YKL-40 have been associated with worse survival in a variety of malignancies including breast cancer. We wished to determine if immunohistochemically detected expression had prognostic implications in breast cancer.
A prospectively collected database of breast cancer patients treated at the University Hospital of Newark was used for analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed on archived tumor tissue from 109 patients for whom full clinical information and follow up was available.
YKL-40 expression was noted in 37 patients (34%). YKL-40 immunoreactivity significantly correlated with larger tumor size, poorer tumor differentiation, and a greater likelihood of being estrogen and/or progesterone receptor negative. No significant correlation was demonstrated between YKL-40 status and nodal stage. At a mean follow up of 3.2 years, disease-free survival was significantly worse in the subset of patients whose tumors demonstrated YKL-40 expression compared to the non-expressors. In multivariate analysis, YKL-40 status was independent of T-stage and N-stage in predicting disease recurrence.
Immunoreactivity for YKL-40 was a significant predictor of breast cancer relapse in this subset of patients. This was independent of T or N-stage and suggests that tumor immunohistochemistry for this protein may be a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer.
OBJECTIVE—YKL-40 is produced by macrophages, and plasma YKL-40 is elevated in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation. In the present study, YKL-40 was examined in relation to obesity, inflammation, and type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Plasma YKL-40 and adipose tissue YKL-40 mRNA levels were investigated in 199 subjects who were divided into four groups depending on the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and obesity. In addition, plasma YKL-40 was examined in healthy subjects during a hyperglycemic clamp, in which the plasma glucose level was kept at 15 mmol/l for 3 h, and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp.
RESULTS—Patients with type 2 diabetes had higher plasma YKL-40 (76.7 vs. 45.1 ng/ml, P = 0.0001) but not higher expression in adipose tissue YKL-40 mRNA (1.20 vs. 0.98, P = 0.2) compared with subjects with a normal glucose tolerance. Within the groups with normal glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes, obesity subgroups showed no difference with respect to either plasma YKL-40 or adipose tissue YKL-40 mRNA levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that plasma YKL-40 was associated with fasting plasma glucose (β = 0.5, P = 0.0014) and plasma interleukin (IL)-6 (β = 0.2, P = 0.0303). Plasma YKL-40 was not related to parameters of obesity. There were no changes in plasma YKL-40 in healthy subjects during either hyperglycemic or hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps.
CONCLUSIONS—Plasma YKL-40 was identified as an obesity-independent marker of type 2 diabetes related to fasting plasma glucose and plasma IL-6 levels.
The inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 seems to play a role in atherosclerosis and is elevated in patients with obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the YKL-40 encoding gene, CHI3L1, are associated with inter-individual YKL-40 levels. One study has described an association between a promoter polymorphism of CHI3L1 and levels of low density lipoprotein. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of YKL-40 on lipid parameters by determining the association between polymorphisms of CHI3L1, serum YKL-40 and levels of the differentiated lipid profile in a Danish general population.
12 SNPs of CHI3L1 were genotyped, and serum YKL-40 and parameters of the lipid profile were measured in 2,656 Danes. Lipid profile and genotypes were available in another Danish population (n = 6,784) for replication. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels increased with increasing YKL-40 quartile (both p<0.0001), and YKL-40 correlated with triglyceride levels (β = 0.15, p<0.0001). Low density lipoprotein levels increased slightly from the 1st to the 3rd quartile (p = 0.006). The highest YKL-40 quartile was associated with a greater risk of hypercholesterolemia compared to the lowest YKL-40 quartile (odds ratio 1.36, p = 0.009). Minor homozygosity of rs12123883 was associated with higher triglyceride levels (p = 0.022) and a higher prevalence of low high density lipoprotein (p = 0.012), but these associations could not be confirmed in the replication population.
Serum YKL-40 correlates with triglyceride levels in a representative group of the general Danish population. No consistent associations between SNPs of CHI3L1 and lipid levels could be documented.
Serum YKL-40 has been linked to several human cancers. We investigated the potential role of serum YKL-40 as a marker of hepatobiliary malignancies.
Archived serum samples of patients undergoing liver transplantation evaluation at the Mayo Clinic Rochester were used to measure YKL-40 levels. Patients were divided into three groups: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), and end-stage liver disease (ESLD) without malignancies. The Model for ESLD (MELD) score was used to quantify the severity of liver disease.
The median serum YKL-40 level was highest in the ESLD group at 296 ng/mL, compared to 259 ng/mL in the HCC group and 80 ng/mL in the CCA group (p<0.01). There was a significant correlation between the MELD score and serum YKL-40 level (r=0.50, p<0.01). In a multivariate analysis, there was no significant difference in serum YKL-40 level between ESLD and HCC. CCA was associated with lower YKL-40 levels, a finding that was attributable to a lower prevalence of cirrhosis.
The serum YKL-40 level has little utility as a cross-sectional screening tool for hepatobiliary malignancies, namely HCC and CCA. The role of YKL-40 as a surveillance marker in the follow-up of individual patients remains to be determined.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Cholangiocarcinoma; End stage liver disease; Model for end-stage liver disease; YKL-40
BACKGROUND—YKL-40 is a 40 kDa glycoprotein secreted by chondrocytes and synoviocytes. It has been suggested that it is a surrogate marker of synovial inflammation and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) and related to C reactive protein (CRP) serum levels in RA.
OBJECTIVE—To study serum levels of YKL-40 in patients with hip OA and its relation with CRP.
METHODS—YKL-40 and CRP were assayed in serum samples from 45 patients (24 women, 21 men, mean age 65) with symptomatic OA of the hip and 33 healthy controls. YKL-40 was assayed by immunoassay and CRP by ultrasensitive immunonephelometry. OA severity was assessed by the measurement of joint space width with a computer analysis system of digitised hip radiographs. Statistical analysis was performed to determine correlations between serum markers and radiological joint space width.
RESULTS—The mean (standard error) YKL-40 level was 90.3 (8.2) ng/ml in patients with hip OA and 66.9 (8.2) ng/ml in controls (p=0.03). The mean CRP level was 2.93 (3.03) mg/l in OA and 1.40 (1.61) mg/l in controls (p=0.006). The serum levels of YKL-40 and CRP increased with age and were significantly correlated (Spearman test: rs=0.42, p=0.005) in patients but not in controls. Neither YKL-40 nor CRP correlated with radiographic joint space width.
CONCLUSIONS—Serum YKL-40 was significantly increased in patients with hip OA. The correlation between YKL-40 and CRP suggests that YKL-40 may be a marker of joint inflammation in OA. Longitudinal studies are required to assess the usefulness of YKL-40 in the monitoring of patients with hip OA.
YKL-40 and C-reactive protein (CRP) are biomarkers that may reflect cancer-related subclinical inflammation. We assessed elevated YKL-40 and CRP levels as combined risk predictors for cancer.
We measured plasma YKL-40 and CRP at baseline in 8706 individuals from the Danish general population.
Hazard ratio (HR) of gastrointestinal cancer for a doubling of YKL-40 levels was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.17–1.61) and indifferent to adjustment for CRP levels. Hazard ratio of lung cancer for a doubling of CRP levels was 1.35 (1.17–1.56) and indifferent to adjustment for YKL-40 levels. Compared to individuals with both low CRP (<1.7 mg l−1) and YKL-40 (<154 μg l−1), individuals with high YKL-40 but low CRP had an HR of gastrointestinal cancer of 3.36 (1.70–6.64), whereas individuals with high CRP but low YKL-40 had an HR of lung cancer of 2.19 (1.24–3.87). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.68 for the ability of YKL-40 to predict gastrointestinal cancer and 0.67 for the ability of CRP to predict lung cancer.
Elevated YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer, independently of CRP levels, whereas elevated CRP levels are associated with increased risk of lung cancer, independently of YKL-40 levels.
biomarker; inflammation; risk prediction
Numerous inflammatory conditions are associated with elevated YKL-40 expression by infiltrating macrophages. Thus, we were surprised to observe minimal macrophage and abundant astrocyte expression of YKL-40 in neuroinflammatory conditions. The aims of the current study were to better delineate this discrepancy, characterize the factors that regulate YKL-40 expression in macrophages and astrocytes and study whether YKL-40 expression correlates with cell morphology and/or activation state. In vitro, macrophages expressed high levels of YKL-40 that was induced by classical activation and inhibited by alternative activation. Cytokines released from macrophages induced YKL-40 transcription in astrocytes that was accompanied by morphological changes and altered astrocytic motility. Because coculturing of astrocytes and macrophages did not reverse this in vitro expression pattern, additional components of the in vivo central nervous system (CNS) milieu must be required to suppress macrophage and induce astrocyte expression of YKL-40.
astrocytes; macrophages; neuroinflammation; YKL-40
Tumor angiogenesis is of paramount importance in solid tumor development. Elevated serum levels of YKL-40, a secreted heparin-binding glycoprotein have been associated with a worse prognosis from a variety of advanced human cancers. Yet the role of YKL-40 activity in these cancers is still missing. Here, we have shown that ectopic expression of YKL-40 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and HCT-116 colon cancer cells led to larger tumor formation with an extensive angiogenic phenotype than did control cancer cells in mice. Affinity purified recombinant YKL-40 protein promoted vascular endothelial cell angiogenesis in vitro, the effects similar to the activities observed using MDA-MB-231 and HCT-116 cell conditioned medium after transfection with YKL-40. Further, YKL-40 was found to induce the coordination of membrane-bound receptor syndecan-1 and integrin αvβ3 and activate an intracellular signaling cascade including focal adhesion kinase and MAP kinase Erk1/2 in endothelial cells. Also, blockade of YKL-40 using siRNA gene knockdown suppressed tumor angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemical analysis of human breast cancer revealed a correlation between YKL-40 expression and blood vessel density. These findings provide novel insights into angiogenic activities and molecular mechanisms of YKL-40 in cancer development.
Methods: cDNA array and online quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to measure mRNA expression levels of YKL-39 and YKL-40 in chondrocytes in normal, early degenerative, and late stage osteoarthritic cartilage samples.
Results: Expression analysis showed high levels of both proteins in normal articular chondrocytes, with lower levels of YKL-39 than YKL-40. Whereas YKL-40 was significantly down regulated in late stage osteoarthritic chondrocytes, YKL-39 was significantly up regulated. In vitro both YKLs were down regulated by interleukin 1ß.
Conclusions: The up regulation of YKL-39 in osteoarthritic cartilage suggests that YKL-39 may be a more accurate marker of chondrocyte activation than YKL-40, although it has yet to be established as a suitable marker in synovial fluid and serum. The decreased expression of YKL-40 by osteoarthritic chondrocytes is surprising as increased levels have been reported in rheumatoid and osteoarthritic synovial fluid, where it may derive from activated synovial cells or osteophytic tissue or by increased matrix destruction in the osteoarthritic joint. YKL-39 and YKL-40 are potentially interesting marker molecules for arthritic joint disease because they are abundantly expressed by both normal and osteoarthritic chondrocytes.