A 54 year old lady presented with lethargy and 15 kg weight loss over the past year. CT scan of the head revealed left temporal lobe hypodensity with a discrete area of hemorrhage within the left mesial temporal lobe. Due to concerns about impending central herniation, lumbar puncture was not performed. MRI of the brain showed a large lesion of the left temporal lobe, extending to the left frontal lobe, and very patchy meningeal enhancement. There was a noncontiguous lesion of the right insula. A differential diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and multifocal infiltrative glioma was entertained. MR spectroscopy demonstrated an increased choline peak at the level of the medial left temporal lobe and MR perfusion demonstrated patchy areas of hyperperfusion within the left anterior temporal lobe, both suggestive of neoplastic disease. Following open brain biopsy, pathology revealed herpes simplex virus (HSV) positive nuclei in the cortex and subcortical white matter. As both herpes simplex encephalitis and low-grade glioma demontrate MRI findings of hypointensity on T1 images and hyperintensity on T2 images, the diagnosis of herpes encephalitis can be clouded by confounding factors, especially when cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cannot be obtained.
This case report presents a 66-year-old woman with multiple vertebral hemangiomas causing spinal cord compression at different levels with a long symptom-free interval between episodes of compression. She presented with back pain and progressive weakness and numbness in her lower limbs for 3 months. Ten years earlier, she had had a symptomatic T4 vertebral hemangioma operated successfully, and had made a full recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracic and lumbar spine revealed multiple thoracic and lumbar vertebral hemangiomas. Extraosseous extension of a hemangioma at T9 was causing spinal cord compression. Selective embolization was performed preoperatively, and cord decompression was achieved via anterior T9 corpectomy. The patient’s neurological status improved rapidly after surgery. After a course of radiotherapy, she was neurologically intact and could walk independently. One year later, MRI showed complete resolution of the cord edema at T9, and showed regression of the high signal intensity that had been observed at unoperated levels. These findings indicated diminished vascularity and reduced aggression of the tumor.
Vertebral hemangioma; Cord compression; Embolization; Corpectomy
Primary mediastinal choriocarcinoma is a rare extragonadal germ cell malignancy. We describe the first case of a patient who developed mediastinal choriocarcinoma after treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). A 25-year-old man with classic HL, nodular sclerosis subtype, underwent treatment with splenectomy followed by radiation therapy. Unfortunately, his disease relapsed with a paraspinal mass, and he was subsequently treated with MOPP (mechlorethamine, Oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone) alternating with ABVD (Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine). He achieved a complete remission after 6 cycles. Ten years after treatment, the patient presented with a persistent cough, haemoptysis, right supraclavicular lymphadenopathy, and weight loss. His chest X-ray showed opacification of the lower right hemithorax with a widened mediastinum. Given unresponsiveness to several antibiotics and lack of evidence for lung volume loss, there were concerns over lung infiltration with relapsed lymphoma. Transbronchial fine needle aspiration biopsy suggested recurrence of his HL. MOPP alternating with ABVD was again given. Due to disease progression, brachytherapy as well as a cocktail of dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin were also tried. However, on a subsequent excisional lymph node biopsy, it turned out that the tumour was in fact choriocarcinoma and not relapsed HL. Unfortunately, despite aggressive therapy, the patient's disease rapidly progressed, and he died within 2 weeks.
Germ cell tumour; Choriocarcinoma; Hodgkin lymphoma; Mediastinal tumour
The authors describe a case of choriocarcinoma that metastasized to the cerebral cortex, vertebral body, and intramedullary spinal cord. A 21-year-old woman presented with sudden headache, vomiting and a visual field defect. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance examinations revealed an intracranial hemorrhage in the left temporo-parietal lobe and two enhancing nodules in the left temporal and right frontal lobe. After several days, the size of the hemorrhage increased, and a new hemorrhage was identified in the right frontal lobe. The hematoma and enhancing mass in the left temporo-parietal lobe were surgically removed. Choriocarcinoma was diagnosed after histological examination. At 6 days after the operation, her consciousness had worsened and she was in a state of stupor. The size of the hematoma in the right frontal lobe was enlarged. We performed an emergency operation to remove the hematoma and enhancing mass. Her mental status recovered slowly. Two months thereafter, she complained of paraplegia with sensory loss below the nipples. Whole spine magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-enhancing mass in the thoracic intramedullary spinal cord and L2 vertebral body. Despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the patient died 13 months after the diagnosis.
Choriocarcinoma; Intracerebral hematoma; Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis; Spinal metastasis
Choriocarcinoma is a curable malignancy that occurred approximately 50% after term pregnancies, and prognosis in this form of gestational trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is Poor. The earliest onset choriocarcinoma after term pregnancy in one study was reported 3 weeks after delivery, but in current study, choriocarcinoma was diagnosed 2 weeks after delivery. 28 years-old women gravidity 2, parity 2 delivered a healthy infant at term. Frequent episodes of vaginal bleeding occurred after 10 days of delivery. On admission to hospital, she had lesions in the lungs. The pretreatment human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level was 84,000 mIU/ml and her FIGO risk factor score was 8 (high risk group). The EMA/CO regimen was administered as first line chemotherapy and the patient achieved complete remission after 7 courses. Although early onset postpartum hemorrhage is due to complication of delivery, but gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) may be occurred and assessment of human chorionic gonadotropin could be help to early diagnose of GTD.
GTD; Choriocarcinoma; vaginal bleeding after delivery; EMA/CO
Aspergillus causes a variety of clinical syndromes in the lung including tracheobronchial aspergillosis, invasive aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and aspergilloma. Aspergilloma usually results from ingrowths of colonized Aspergillus in damaged bronchial tree, pulmonary cyst or cavities of patients with underlying lung diseases. There are a few reports on endobronchial aspergilloma without underlying pulmonary lesion. We have experienced a case of endobronchial aspergilloma associated with foreign body developed in an immunocompetent patient without underlying lung diseases. A 59-year-old man is being hospitalized with recurring hemoptysis for 5 months. X-ray and computed tomography scans of chest showed a nodular opacity in superior segment of left lower lobe. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed an irregular, mass-like, brownish material which totally obstructed the sub-segmental bronchus and a foreign body in superior segmental bronchus of the lower left lobe. Histopathologic examinations of biopsy specimen revealed fungal hyphae, characteristic of Aspergillus species.
Aspergillosis; Foreign Bodies; Immunocompetence
Most hypervascular nodules in a cirrhotic liver are hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs); however, some are benign hypervascular hyperplastic nodules. We report a case of benign hypervascular hyperplastic nodules in a 41-year-old male patient without hepatitis B or C virus infection, with a history of alcohol abuse, and diagnosed with an aortic aneurysm. The dynamic computerized tomography of the liver demonstrated multiple nodular lesions on both liver lobes with arterial enhancement and delayed washout. The hepatic angiography showed multiple faint nodular staining of both lobes in the early arterial phase. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed numerous nodules showing high signals on T1 weighted images, with some nodules showing a low central signal portion. The clinical impression was HCC. The ultrasonography-guided liver biopsy, which was performed on the largest nodule (2.5 cm in size), revealed hepatocellular nodules with slightly increased cellularity, unpaired arteries, increased sinusoidal capillarization, and focal iron deposition. However, both cellular and cytological atypia were unremarkable. Although the clinical impression was HCC, the pathological diagnosis was hypervascular hyperplastic nodules in alcoholic cirrhosis. Differential diagnosis of hypervascular nodules in cirrhosis and HCC is difficult with imaging studies; thus, histological confirmation is mandatory.
Hypervascular hyperplastic nodule; alcoholic liver cirrhosis; hepatocellular carcinoma
A 14-year-old girl presented with progressive paraparesis and paresthesia of one-year duration. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a T6 vertebral hemangioma with epidural compression on the spinal cord. Following angiography and embolization, she underwent dorsal laminectomy and excision of the soft tissue component compressing the cord. In the postoperative period she had rapid worsening of lower limb power and imaging demonstrated an epidural haematoma at the operative site. The patient was taken up for urgent re-exploration and evacuation of haematoma. Postoperatively the patient complained of visual failure, headache and had multiple episodes of seizures. An magnetic resonance imaging brain showed characteristic features of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and the patient improved gradually after control of hypertension. This is the first documented case of PRES following spinal cord compression in a patient without any known risk factors. We postulate the possible mechanism involved in its pathogenesis.
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; Magnetic resonance imaging; Hematoma; epidural; spinal
A 40-year-old male presented with mid-thoracic backache and progressive, ascending, spastic, paraparesis for one year. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an extraosseous, extradural mass, without any bone invasion at the T2-T4 vertebral levels, located dorsal to the thecal sac. The spinal cord was compressed ventrally. The lesion was totally excised after a T2-T4 laminectomy. Histopathological examination revealed a cavernous hemangioma. The authors reported this case and reviewed the literature, to explain why extraosseous, extradural, cavernous hemangiomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of extradural thoracic compressive myelopathy.
Cavernous hemangioma; epidural; magnetic resonance imaging; myelopathy; thoracic spine
Pulmonary sequestration is a rare malformation, wherein a portion of lung is non-functional and is not in normal continuity with the tracheo-bronchial tree, and may derive its blood supply from systemic vessels. Two types are described: Intralobar and extralobar types. Intralobar sequestration is more common type, which shares visceral pleura of the involved lobe and is localized within the normal pulmonary parenchyma. Whereas extralobar forms are uncommon and are totally separate from the lung and usually have own covering. Infra-diaphragmatic pulmonary sequestration is of extralobar type and is extremely rare, and usually is associated with other congenital malformations. We present an extremely rare case of isolated infra-diaphragmatic pulmonary sequestration which was antenatally detected and followed up with postnatal CT scan, where it masqueraded as suprarenal mass, and was surgically treated. This case emphasises to add a differential diagnosis of malformation in congenital supra-renal masses, which remain stable in size and appearance, and hence avoid immediate surgery.
Extralobar; intralobar; sequestration; sub-diaphragmatic; suprarenal mass
This study presents a first case of multiple peripheral typical carcinoid tumors associated with sclerosing hemangiomas in the lung. A 52-year-old male presented with incidentally detected multiple pulmonary nodules on a simple chest X-ray during routine health check-up. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest showed multiple nodular lesions in the middle and lower lobes of the right lung. These were initially suspected as inflammatory lesions due to miliary tuberculosis. However, possibility of malignancy could not be excluded and right lower lobe lobectomy was performed. Histopathologically, some nodules including two largest nodules were composed of small round to spindle shaped cells with fine chromatin pattern, whereas the rest of the sclerotic nodules were composed of two epithelial cell types- surface cells and round cells. The final diagnosis of this case was multiple peripheral typical carcinoid tumors associated with sclerosing hemangiomas of the lung. For past three years of post-surgery follow up period, no new lesions or changes in the right middle lobe have been identified.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
Carcinoid tumors; Sclerosing hemangiomas; Lung
A 39 year old female presented with bilateral pneumothoraces and interstitial shadowing on chest x ray. A diagnosis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis was made following an open lung biopsy. Over the next eight years she developed respiratory failure leading to single lung transplantation but she died in the immediate postoperative period. Necropsy examination and review of the previous open lung biopsy revealed multiple pulmonary metastases from a low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the uterus. This case high-lights the importance of an accurate diagnosis before transplantation.
A patient with an intrauterine pregnancy of 27 weeks had a coexisting pulmonary metastatic choriocarcinoma. On the chest radiograph the lung metastases appeared as pulmonary infiltrates, simulating atypical pneumonia. Serum human chorionic gonadotrophin levels were normal for gestational age. Treatment with methotrexate was successful. This is the first reported case of choriocarcinoma in a woman with a pregnancy of less than 35 weeks in which both mother and child survived. The case emphasises the need to consider choriocarcinoma in any pregnant woman who presents with haemoptysis and pulmonary nodules or infiltrates.
Aspergilloma and invasive aspergillosis coexisting with multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the same patient is a rare entity. We report a 50 year old South Indian woman, a diabetic, who presented to us with complaints of productive cough and hemoptysis for the past 2 months. She was diagnosed to have pulmonary tuberculosis 2 years ago for which she took irregular treatment. Lung imaging showed features of a thick walled cavity in the right upper lobe with an indwelling aspergilloma. She underwent a right lung upper lobe resection. Biopsy and culture of the resected specimen showed the coexistence of Aspergillus fumigatus and multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 2 blood cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus. She was successfully treated with Voriconazole and anti tuberculous therapy against MDR-TB.
Hughes-Stovin syndrome is a very rare disease with fewer than 30 cases reported in the literature. The disease is thought to be a variant of Behcet's disease and is defined by the presence of pulmonary artery aneurysm in association with peripheral venous thrombosis.
A previously healthy 23-year-old Saudi woman presented with massive hemoptysis a day prior to her admission to our hospital. She had a six-month history of recurrent fever, cough, dyspnea, and recurrent oral ulceration. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of her chest and pulmonary angiogram demonstrated a single right-lower lobe pulmonary artery aneurysm. She underwent thoracotomy and right lower lobe resection. Her postoperative course was complicated by deep vein thrombosis. She also developed headache and papilledema, while a magnetic resonance imaging of her brain suggested vasculitis. Based on these clinical presentations, she was diagnosed and treated with Hughes-Stovin syndrome.
The majority of cases of Hughes-Stovin syndrome are reported among men, with only two cases occurring in women. A case of Hughes-Stovin syndrome occurring in a woman is presented in this report. She was treated successfully with multimodality treatment that includes surgery, steroids and cytotoxic agents.
Primary leiomyoma of the lung is a rare benign tumor that usually presents as a solitary lesion predominantly in young females. Fewer than 100 cases have been reported. Common symptoms include fever, chronic cough, hemoptysis, chest pain, shortness of breath, and pneumonias.
A 34-year-old, non-smoker female who presented with recurrent pneumonias. She was found to have a primary leiomyoma of the right middle lobe. This was treated by right middle lobectomy. 6-month follow up showed patient doing well without evidence of residual disease on computerized tomography.
Primary pulmonary leiomyoma is a rare tumor distinct from benign metastasizing leiomyoma. Histologic features include absence of mitotic count, low cellularity, lack of cytologic atypia and pleomorphism. Treatment is by conservative surgical resection and carries a favorable prognosis.
This article reports a case of profuse hemoptysis in pulmonary embolism and reviews the literature. A 74-year-old patient with hypertension and dilated cardiomyopathy was admitted to the hospital for exacerbation of congestive heart failure and hemoptysis. During hospitalization, the patient had hemoptysis of 270 cc during a 24-hour period. Chest radiograph showed bilateral lower lobe infiltration. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed and revealed active bleeding from both lower lobes of the lungs. An endobronchial lesion was not seen, and the patient had an open lung biopsy. Histological examination of the lung tissue revealed an organized thrombus.
Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis usually occurs in mildly immune-compromised hosts or those with underlying pulmonary disease. The radiographic pattern of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis is typically a progressive upper lobe cavitary infiltrate with pleural thickening. We report here an atypical case of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis mimicking lung cancer, which developed into a disseminated fatal disease in an older woman with no comorbidity.
An 80-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital for a chest roentgenogram abnormality. Repeated fiber-optic bronchoscopy could not confirm any definite diagnosis, and she refused further examinations. Considering the roentgenogram findings and her age, she was followed-up as a suspected case of lung cancer without any treatment. Then, 10 months later, she complained of visual disturbance and was admitted to our department of ophthalmology. She was diagnosed as having endophthalmitis. After treatment with corticosteroids for 20 days, she developed acute encephalitis and died four weeks later. Autopsy revealed dissemination of Aspergillus hyphae throughout her body, including her brain.
In older patients, even if they do not have any comorbidity, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis should be added to the differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary lesions in a chest roentgenogram.
Cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia is a very rare disorder where mature lung tissues develop in the skin. This is only the second known report of cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia, with the first by Singer et al. in 1998. A newborn infant had a hemangioma-like, freely movable mass connected to the anterior aspect of the sternal manubrium. Pathologic findings showed mature lung tissues with bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli through the dermis and subcutis, and it was diagnosed as cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia. Cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia is hypervascular, so grossly it looks like a hemangioma. It can be differentiated from pulmonary sequestration, teratoma, bronchogenic cyst, and branchial cleft cyst by histology and the location of the mass. We describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings of a cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia, the first reported in Korea.
Choristoma; Bronchogenic Cyst; Branchioma; Skin
A 59-year-old woman presented at the emergency department with cough and weakness that started a few days before. She had a history of breast cancer treated with mastectomy with negative followup. Physical examination revealed tachycardia and tachypnea, normal blood pressure, lower lobe crackles bilaterally, and jugular venous distention. Laboratory data underlined neutrophilic leukocytosis, mild renal failure, and high procalcitonin. Chest radiography revealed bilateral nodular lesions, presumably secondary. Patient was treated with fluid therapy and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy because of suspected sepsis. In clinical revaluation patient showed systolic hypotension unresponsive to fluid resuscitation. Because of suspected pulmonary embolism an echocardiography was performed revealing normal dimensions of right ventricle with presence of a hypoechoic mass involving tricuspid annulus and obstructing the opening of anterior tricuspid flap; inferior vena cava appeared dilated and not collapsible. Subsequently, chest ultrasonography was performed, confirming multiple rounded lesions involving the pleura bilaterally, compatible with metastasis, and absence of interstitial syndrome. Finally a computed tomography scan of chest excluded pulmonary embolism and confirmed the presence of the obstructive mass responsible for hemodynamic instability together with pulmonary sepsis.
Presentation of a case report of hemoptysis in a 24-year-old patient with vascular dysplasia on the background of inferior vena cava aplasia.
Patients and methods
A 24-year-old male patient, with BMI 40, was admitted to our department for the investigation of bloody sputum occurring 2-3 times a week for the last trimester. Course of illness: the clinical examination of the patient showed a widening of the superficial vascular network in abdominal area. The ORL examination showed no focus of bleeding from the upper respiratory system. The patient did not receive any antiplatelet or anticoagulation treatment. Angio-CT of pulmonary artery showed a lesion in the anterior basal segment of the right lower lobe, also an extensive dilated azygos vein. Liver ECHO showed normal organ size and no points of portal hypertension. Inferior vena cava was not depicted under mesogastrium. The absence of inferior vena cava was investigated with abdominal CT which showed aplasia of the inferior vena cava with adjacent vein system development (widening of azygos and lower epigastric veins). Heart ECHO showed normal findings. HRCT showed a lesion on the right lower lobe with ground glass peripheral lesions. The pulmonary vein angiography was not revealing, bronchoscopy showed no pathological findings and gastroscopy-colonoscopy were also normal.
The findings of inferior vena cava aplasia and widening of azygos system combined with the formation of the right lower lobe raised suspicion that the hemoptysis was due to certain vascular malformation. In collaboration with the radiologists an angio-CT of the pulmonary artery was performed, which revealed a lesion that could be attributed to vascular malformation in the right lower lobe. The lesion was surgically removed in 15/7/2011. The histology report showed a vascular malformation of the lung without evidence of lung malignancy.
The patient had a good postoperative course with no complications or a new incident of hemoptysis.
Pulmonary amyloidosis is rare and is often misdiagnosed due a lack of general awareness.
In this case report we describe a 69-year-old Chinese woman who presented with a right lower lobe pulmonary nodule. After video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy, a histopathologic diagnosis of pulmonary nodular amyloidosis was rendered. She has done well postoperatively, showing no local recurrence or distal disease in an 8-month follow-up period.
Distinguishing parenchymal nodular amyloidosis from a malignant lung tumor is often quite difficult. In the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules, nodular amyloidosis should be considered to avoid unnecessary lobectomy.
Amyloidosis; Differential diagnosis; Pulmonary nodules
Primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region is exceedingly rare. We report a case of primary pineal malignant melanoma and review the literature.
Our patient was a 22-year-old Iranian woman without any significant past medical history, who was referred to our center with a four-week history of headache and gait disturbance. A magnetic resonance imaging study showed a solid mass in the pineal region causing obstructive hydrocephalus. A brain biopsy was performed and the histological examination indicated melanoma. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. Our patient underwent gross total resection. At the time of discharge she had fully recovered without any neurological deficits. Three weeks after discharge, she was readmitted to hospital with the diagnosis of distal deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism; 12 weeks after the onset of her illness she died of cardiopulmonary arrest.
We have presented here a rare tumor, a primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second-youngest patient with such a tumor reported in the literature.
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign tumor of the liver, after hemangioma. It is generally found incidentally and is most common in reproductive-aged women, but it also affects males and can be diagnosed at any age. Patients are rarely symptomatic, but FNH sometimes causes epigastric or right upper quadrant pain. The main clinical task is to differentiate it from other hypervascular hepatic lesions such as hepatic adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, or hypervascular metastases, but invasive diagnostic procedures can generally be avoided with the appropriate use of imaging techniques. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is more sensitive and specific than conventional ultrasonography (US) or computed tomography (CT), but Doppler US and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) can greatly improve the accuracy in the diagnosis of FNH. Once a correct diagnosis has been made, in most cases there is no indication for surgery, and treatment includes conservative clinical follow-up in asymptomatic patients.
Focal nodular hyperplasia; Diagnosis; Management; Ultrasonology; Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography
The nodular bronchiectatic form of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease and diffuse panbronchiolits (DPB) show similar clinical and radiographic findings. The present study was performed to clarify the clinicoradiographic similarities as well as the differences between NTM lung disease and DPB. The initial clinicoradiographic features of 78 patients with the nodular bronchiectatic form of NTM lung disease (41 patients with Mycobacterium avium complex infection and 37 patients with Mycobacterium abscessus infection) were compared with those of 35 patients with DPB. Old age, female sex, a history of tuberculosis treatment, and hemoptysis were related to NTM lung disease while exertional dyspnea, coarse crackles, history of sinusitis, obstructive abnormalities in pulmonary function tests, and hypoxemia were related to DPB. The number of lobes involved with bronchiolitis and bronchiectasis on chest computed tomography were more numerous in DPB patients. There is considerable overlap in the clinical and radiographic appearances of the nodular bronchiectatic form of NTM lung disease and DPB, although some clinicoradiographic features differ between two diseases. The correct diagnosis, including aggressive microbiologic evaluation, should be made for the appropriate management of patients presenting with bilateral bronchiectasis and bronchiolitis.
Nontuberculous Mycobacteria; Bronchiectasis; Bronchiolitis; Mycobacterium Avium Complex