The clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors is known as metabolic syndrome (MetS). The risk of having MetS is strongly associated with increased adiposity and can be further modified by smoking behavior. Apolipoproteins (apo) associated with low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) may be altered in MetS. This study aimed to examine the association between smoking and the following parameters: MetS and its components, levels of apolipoproteins and estimated lipoprotein particle size, separately for men and women, and in different body mass index (BMI) classes.
We included 24,389 men and 35,078 women aged between 18 and 80 years who participated in the LifeLines Cohort Study between December 2006 and January 2012; 5,685 men and 6,989 women were current smokers. Participants were categorized into three different body mass index (BMI) classes (BMI <25; BMI 25 to 30; BMI ≥30 kg/m2). MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP:ATPIII) criteria. Blood pressure, anthropometric and lipid measurements were rigorously standardized, and the large sample size enabled a powerful estimate of quantitative changes. The association between smoking and the individual MetS components, and apoA1 and apoB, was tested with linear regression. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of smoking and daily tobacco smoked on risk of having MetS. All models were age adjusted and stratified by sex and BMI class.
Prevalence of MetS increased with higher BMI levels. A total of 64% of obese men and 42% of obese women had MetS. Current smoking was associated with a higher risk of MetS in both sexes and all BMI classes (odds ratio 1.7 to 2.4 for men, 1.8 to 2.3 for women, all P values <0.001). Current smokers had lower levels of HDL cholesterol and apoA1, higher levels of triglycerides and apoB, and higher waist circumference than non-smokers (all P <0.001). Smoking had no consistent association with blood pressure or fasting blood glucose. In all BMI classes, we found a dose-dependent association of daily tobacco consumption with MetS prevalence as well as with lower levels of HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels and lower ratios of HDL cholesterol/apoA1 and, only in those with BMI <30, LDL cholesterol/apoB (all P <0.001).
Smoking is associated with an increased prevalence of MetS, independent of sex and BMI class. This increased risk is mainly related to lower HDL cholesterol, and higher triglycerides and waist circumference. In addition, smoking was associated with unfavorable changes in apoA1 and apoB, and in lipoprotein particle size.
Please see related commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/196.
Metabolic syndrome; Smoking; HDL; Cholesterol; Apolipoproteins; Triglycerides; Obesity; Cross-sectional; BMI classes
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity and hypertension. An effective detection of MetS not only reflects the prediction risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases but also helps to plan for management strategy which could reduce the healthcare burden of the society. This study aimed to compare the use of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as the hyperglycemic component in MetS diagnosis.
Waist circumference, blood pressure, blood triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, FPG, and HbA1c were examined in 120 Hong Kong Chinese adults with MetS and 120 without MetS. After reviewing the subject basal characteristics, 11 of them were found with undiagnosed diabetes (FPG ≧7.0 mmol/L) and were excluded for further analysis.
The most prevalent MetS components among the included subjects were elevated systolic blood pressure and central obesity. Significant correlation relationships existed between FPG and HbA1c in both subject pools diagnosed with and without MetS (p < 0.001). The diagnostic rate of MetS using HbA1c was compared to FPG by the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis which suggested an area under curve of 0.807 (95% CI: 0.727 to 0.887). The agreement was 90.7% in MetS-positive group with increased FPG as one of the criterion co-existed with elevated HbA1c. If including HbA1c as an additional criterion to FPG in the MetS diagnosis, 30 more participants in MetS-negative group would be MetS-positive leading to an increase in detection rate. Furthermore, 47 subjects (38 from MetS-positive group and 9 from MetS-negative group) were found having HbA1c ≧6.5%, who would have been diagnosed with diabetes based on the diagnostic criteria implemented by the Expert Group in 2009.
These findings suggest that HbA1c enhances the detection of hyperglycemia for the diagnosis of MetS.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of factors that are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate the proportion of patients with MetS in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation (CR), and to describe differences between patients with MetS compared to those without MetS with regard to (1) patient characteristics including demographics, risk factors, and comorbidities, (2) risk factor management including drug treatment, and (3) control status of risk factors at entry to CR and discharge from CR.
Post-hoc analysis of data from 27,904 inpatients (Transparency Registry to Objectify Guideline-Oriented Risk Factor Management registry) that underwent a CR period of about 3 weeks were analyzed descriptively in total and compared by their MetS status.
In the total cohort, mean age was 64.3 years, (71.7% male), with no major differences between groups. Patients had been referred after a ST elevation of myocardial infarction event in 41.1% of cases, non-ST elevation of myocardial infarction in 21.8%, or angina pectoris in 16.7%. They had received a percutaneous coronary intervention in 55.1% and bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass graft) in 39.5%. Patients with MetS (n = 15,819) compared to those without MetS (n = 12,085) were less frequently males, and in terms of cardiac interventions, more often received coronary artery bypass surgery. Overall, statin use increased from 79.9% at entry to 95.0% at discharge (MetS: 79.7% to 95.2%). Patients with MetS compared to those without MetS received angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, oral antidiabetics, and insulin at entry and discharge more frequently, and less frequently clopidogrel and aspirin/clopidogrel combinations. Mean blood pressure was within the normal range at discharge, and did not differ substantially between groups (124/73 versus 120/72 mmHg). Overall, between entry and discharge, levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were substantially lowered, in particular in MetS patients. Thus, control rates of lipid parameters improved substantially, with the exception of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol rates <100 mg/dL increased from 38.7% at entry to 73.8% at discharge (MetS: from 39.4% to 74.6%) and triglycerides control rates (<150 mg/dL) from 58.1% to 70.4% (MetS: 43.7% to 62.2%). Physical fitness on exercise testing improved substantially in both groups.
Patients with and without MetS benefited substantially from the participation in CR, as their lipid profile, blood pressure, and physical fitness improved. Treatment effects were similar in the two groups.
cardiac rehabilitation; registry; metabolism; diabetes; dyslipidemia; control rates; risk factor; lipids
AIM: To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the development of gallstone disease (GSD).
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 7570 subjects (4978 men aged 45.0 ± 8.8 years, and 2592 women aged 45.3 ± 9.5 years) enrolled from the physical check-up center of the hospital. The subjects included 918 patients with gallstones (653 men and 265 women) and 6652 healthy controls (4325 men and 2327 women) without gallstones. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and serum lipids and lipoproteins levels were measured. Colorimetric method was used to measure cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Dextrose oxidizing enzyme method was used to measure FPG. Subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire that enquired about the information on demographic data, age, gender, histories of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic liver disease and so on. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Gallstones were defined by the presence of strong intraluminal echoes that were gravity-dependent or attenuated ultrasound transmission.
RESULTS: Among the 7570 subjects, the prevalence of the gallstone disease was 12.1% (13.1% in men and 10.2% in women). BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and serum triglyceride (TG) in cases group were higher than in controls, while serum high-density lipid was lower than in controls. There were significant differences in the waist circumference, blood pressure, FPG and TG between cases and controls. In an age-adjusted logistic regression model, metabolic syndrome was associated with gallstone disease. The age-adjusted odds ratio of MetS for GSD in men was 1.29 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.52; P = 0.0030], and 1.68 (95% CI, 1.26-2.25; P = 0.0004) in women; the overall age-adjusted odds ratio of MetS for GSD was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.23-1.64; P < 0.0001). The men with more metabolic disorders had a higher prevalence of gallstone disease, the trend had statistical significance (P < 0.0001). The presence of 5 components of the MetS increased the risk of gallstone disease by 3.4 times (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of GSD in women who had 5 components of MetS was 5 times higher than in those without MetS component. The more the components of MetS, the higher the prevalence of GSD (P < 0.0001). The presence of 5 components of the MetS increased the risk of gallstone disease by 4.0 times.
CONCLUSION: GSD appears to be strongly associated with MetS, and the more the components of MetS, the higher the prevalence of GSD.
Gallstone disease; Obesity; Hypertension; Dyslipidemia; Metabolic syndrome
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of clinical indices that signals increased risk for cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. The diagnosis of MetS is typically based on cut-off points for various components, e.g. waist circumference and blood pressure. Because current MetS criteria result in racial/ethnic discrepancies, our goal was to use confirmatory factor analysis to delineate differential contributions to MetS by sub-group.
Research Design and Methods
Using 1999–2010 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we performed a confirmatory factor analysis of a single MetS factor that allowed differential loadings across sex and race/ethnicity, resulting in a continuous MetS risk score that is sex and race/ethnicity-specific.
Loadings to the MetS score differed by racial/ethnic and gender subgroup with respect to triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. ROC-curve analysis revealed high area-under-the-curve concordance with MetS by traditional criteria (0.96), and with elevations in MetS-associated risk markers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (0.71), uric acid (0.75) and fasting insulin (0.82). Using a cut off for this score derived from ROC-curve analysis, the MetS risk score exhibited increased sensitivity for predicting elevations in ≥2 of these risk markers as compared with traditional pediatric MetS criteria.
The equations from this sex- and race/ethnicity-specific analysis provide a clinically-accessible and interpretable continuous measure of MetS that can be used to identify children at higher risk for developing adult diseases related to MetS, who could then be targeted for intervention. These equations also provide a powerful new outcome for use in childhood obesity and MetS research.
Metabolic syndrome; Factor analysis, Statistical; Insulin resistance; Pediatrics; Adolescents; Epidemiology; Clinical studies; Obesity; Risk factors
Elevated serum uric acid levels (SUA) have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and are often reported to be higher in females than in males. The aim of this report is to determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of hyperuricaemia and also to evaluate associations with the MetS in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
This was a cross-sectional study conducted in people with type 2 DM in Lagos, Nigeria. Hyperuricaemia was defined by cut-off values of > 7 mg/dl for men and > 6 mg/dl for women. The diagnosis of MetS was made using the new definition by the American Heart Association and other related bodies. Clinical and biochemical parameters were compared between subjects with hyperuricaemia and normouricaemia. Statistical analysis included usage of Student's t test, Pearson correlation coefficients, multivariate regression analysis and chi square.
601 patients with type 2 DM aged between 34-91 years were recruited for the study. The prevalence rates of hyperuricaemia and the MetS were 25% and 60% respectively. The frequency of occurrence of hyperuricaemia was comparable in both genders (59% vs 41%, p = 0.3). Although, the prevalence of the MetS in subjects with hyperuricaemia and normouricaemia was comparable (61 vs 56%, p = 0.1), a higher proportion of hyperuricaemic subjects had 3 or more components of the Mets compared with normouricaemic subjects. Possible predictors of hyperuricaemia include central obesity, smoking and elevated serum triglycerides (TG). SUA levels were found to be positively and significantly associated with serum TG (r = 0.2, p = 0.0001) and total cholesterol (r = 13, p = 0.001).
The prevalence of hyperuricaemia in subjects with type 2 DM is comparable in both genders and possible predictors of hyperuricaemia are potentially modifiable. SUA is positively and significantly associated with serum TG and total cholesterol.
To assess the effect of weight loss by bariatric surgery on metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence and to examine predictors of MetS resolution.
Patients and Methods
We performed a population-based, retrospective study between January 1st,1990 and December 31st,2003 of patients evaluated for bariatric surgery with AHA/NHLBI-defined MetS (increased triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein, increased blood pressure, increased fasting glucose, and a measure of obesity). There were 180 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients and 157 non-operative patients assessed in a weight-reduction program. We determined the change in MetS prevalence and used logistic regression models to determine predictors of MetS resolution.
Mean follow-up was 3.4 years. All MetS components improved in the surgical group and medication use decreased. Non-operative patients had improvements in high density lipoprotein. Of the 180 surgical patients, MetS prevalence decreased from 156 patients (87%) to 53 (29%), and from 133 patients (85%) to 117 (75%) in the non-operative group. There was a relative risk reduction of 0.59 (95% CI 0.48-0.67; p<0.001)] with bariatric surgery patients having MetS at follow-up. The number needed to treat with surgery to resolve one case of MetS was 2.1. Results were similar after excluding patients with diabetes or cardiovascular disease or after using non-BMI diagnostic criteria for MetS. Significant predictors of MetS resolution included a 5% loss in excess weight (OR 1.26; 95%CI 1.19-1.34;p<0.001) and diabetes (OR 0.32; 95%CI 0.15-0.68;p=0.003).
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass induces considerable and persistent improvement in MetS prevalence. Our results suggest that reversibility of MetS depends more on the amount of excess weight lost than on other parameters.
Bariatric Surgery; Metabolic Syndrome; Weight Loss; Obesity
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is composed of cardiovascular risk factors including insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Most of the components of MetS have been linked to the development of neoplasm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between individual components of MetS and colorectal adenoma.
The study subjects were recruited from a pool of 4872 individuals who underwent a health check-up examination during the period January 2006 to May 2008. Each participant fulfilled a structured questionnaire. MetS was defined based on the America Heart Association and National Heart Lung Blood Institute criteria. Subjects with history of colon cancer, colon polyps, colitis, or prior colonic surgery were excluded.
A total of 4122 subjects were included for final analysis (2367 men and 1755 women; mean age, 49.6 ± 11.7 years). Of them, MetS was diagnosed in 708 men (29.9%) and in 367 women (20.9%). Among the patients with MetS, 34.6% had adenoma, 31.7% had hyperplastic polyps and 23.3% were polyp-free (p < 0.0001, Chi-square test). The adjusted OR for colorectal adenoma was significantly higher in the subjects with MetS (OR, 1.31, CI: 1.09-1.57). A stronger association between MetS and colorectal adenoma was found in men (OR:1.44, CI:1.16-1.80) than in women (OR:1.04, CI:0.74-1.46). The adjusted OR for adenoma increased as the number of MetS components increased (p for trend = 0.0001 ). When the individual components of MetS were analyzed separately, only central obesity (OR:1.36, CI:1.14-1.63), low HDL cholesterol levels (OR:1.30, CI:1.10-1.54) and high triglyceride levels (OR:1.26, CI:1.04-1.53) were independently associated with colorectal adenoma.
Of the components of MetS analyzed in this study, central obesity and dyslipidemia are independent risk factors for colorectal adenoma. With regard to the prevention of colorectal neoplasm, life-style modification such as weight reduction is worthwhile.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) or “Syndrome X” which is a constellation of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and increased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels. It is one of the main threats for public health in the 21st century with its associated risk of cardiovascular disease. This condition affects a major chunk of mankind. International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated that around 20-25% of the adult population of the world has MetS. Several definitions have been put forward by different expert bodies leading to confusion. To overcome this, joint new statement of many expert group have been issued. Serum testosterone (T) has been shown to be associated with MetS. Several studies have shown a higher prevalence of MetS in subjects with low testosterone. There are also several studies showing a significant difference in serum T between those with MetS and those without. Serum T has also been shown to be associated with components of MetS and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) improves various metabolic and anthropometric parameters in MetS. Patients with androgen deprivation for treatment of various cancers have also been reported to have higher prevalence of MetS. But the evidence of association is not sufficient evidence for the causation of MetS by low testosterone and long-term studies are needed to confirm whether T deficiency is the cause or is a feature of MetS.
Androgen deprivation; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; testosterone; testosterone replacement therapy
Hyperandrogenism (HA) has been linked with several components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Few studies in Asian women have evaluated the important risk factors for and prevalence of MetS according to PCOS subtype. In this study, we investigated differences in metabolic parameters and the prevalence of MetS in two major phenotypic subgroups of PCOS in Korea. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between HA-associated parameters and MetS.
Materials and Methods
This cross-sectional observational study was conducted from May 2010 to December 2011 in Korea. A total of 837 females with PCOS, aged 15–40, were recruited from Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology at 13 hospitals. Of those, 700 subjects with either polycystic ovaries (PCO)+HA+oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (O) or PCO+O were eligible for this study. MetS was diagnosed according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria.
MetS was more prevalent in the PCO+HA+O group (19.7%) than in the PCO+O (11.9%) group. There were statistically significant trends for an increased risk of MetS in the PCO+HA+O group compared to the PCO+O group. After adjustment for age, the odds ratio of MetS was 2.192 in non-obese subjects with PCO+HA+O compared to those with PCO+O, whereas the risk of MetS was not different in obese patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high free androgen index and low sex hormone-binding globulin were significantly associated with MetS in non-obese women with PCOS, with odds ratios of 4.234 (95% CI, 1.893–9.474) and 4.612 (95% CI, 1.978–10.750), respectively. However, no associations were detected between MetS and SHBG and FAI in obese PCOS subjects.
Our results indicate that HA and its associated parameters (FAI and SHBG) are significantly associated with MetS in non-obese PCOS subjects, whereas this association was not observed in obese subjects.
Based on the AHA/NHLBI-definition three out of five cardiometabolic traits must be present for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), resulting in 16 different combination types. The associated cardiovascular risk may however be different and specific combination may be indicative of an increased risk, furthermore little is known to which extent these 16 combinations contribute to the overall prevalence of MetS. Here we assessed the prevalence of all 16 combination types of MetS, analyzed the impact of age and gender on prevalence rates, and estimated the 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) of each MetS combination type.
We used data of the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Project (GEMCAS), a cross-sectional study, performed during October 2005, including 35,869 participants (aged 18-99 years, 61% women). Age-standardized prevalence and 10-year PROCAM and ESC risk scores for MI were calculated.
In both men and women the combination with elevated waist-circumference, blood pressure and glucose (WC-BP-GL) was the most frequent combination (28%), however a distinct unequal distribution was observed regarding age and sex. Any combination with GL was common in the elderly, whereas any combination with dyslipidemia and without GL was frequent in the younger. Men without MetS had an estimated mean 10-year risk of 4.7% (95%-CI: 4.5%-4.8%) for MI (PROCAM), whereas the mean 10-year risk of men with MetS was clearly higher (age-standardized 7.9%; 7.8-8.0%). In women without MetS the mean 10-year risk for MI was 1.1%, in those with MetS 2.3%. The highest impact on an estimated 10-year risk for MI (PROCAM) was observed with TG-HDL-GL-BP in both sexes (men 14.7%, women 3.9%). However, we could identify combinations with equal risks of non-fatal and fatal MI compared to participants without MetS.
We observed large variations in the prevalence of all 16 combination types and their association to cardiovascular risk. The importance of different combinations of MetS changes with age and between genders putting emphasis on a tailored approach towards very young or very old subjects. This knowledge may guide clinicians to effectively screen individuals and prioritize diagnostic procedures depending on age and gender.
The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS.
Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components.
Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS.
Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose, all components of MetS.
The aim of this study was to examine the composition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components among middle-aged and older Koreans.
A total of 263 participants (age 40 + years) in a lifestyle modification intervention program who met the MetS definition of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) – Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria were included in the study. The frequent patterns and clustering of MetS components were investigated. Clustering of changes in individual components, through a lifestyle modification intervention, was also identified. All characteristics were stratified by and compared between sexes.
Approximately 80% of the participants had three of five MetS risk factors at baseline. The prevalence of each risk differed by sex. MetS composition patterns that do not include low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were more noticeable in men because of the low prevalence of low HDL cholesterol. In women, with higher prevalence of low HDL cholesterol, more patterns that include low HDL cholesterol were observed. The most common combination was “elevated blood pressure + abdominal obesity + impaired fasting glucose” in both sexes. Clustering of MetS risks was also found with most of the frequent combinations of MetS components. Through the lifestyle intervention, the greatest change was observed in HDL cholesterol among men and blood pressure among women. Triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were likely to be improved with blood pressure in men and abdominal obesity in women.
Differences in the prevalent patterns of MetS compositions were observed prior to and after the intervention, along with during-intervention changes. It is recommended that intervention strategies and guidelines for MetS management consider the MetS composition patterns for effectiveness.
clustering; CVD risk factors; lifestyle intervention; metabolic syndrome
Obesity is associated with the rise of noncommunicable diseases worldwide. The pathophysiology behind this disease involves the increase of adipose tissue, being inversely related to adiponectin, but directly related to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between adiponectin levels with each component of MetS in eutrophic and obese Mexican children.
A cross sectional study was conducted in 190 school-age children classified as obese and 196 classified as eutrophic. Adiponectin, glucose, insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides were determined from a fasting blood sample. Height, weight, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP) were measured; MetS was evaluated with the IDF definition. The study groups were divided according to tertiles of adiponectin, using the higher concentration as a reference. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between adiponectin and components of the MetS. Finally, stepwise forward multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, basal HOMA-IR values and BMI was performed to determine the odds ratio of developing MetS according to adiponectin tertiles.
Anthropometric and metabolic measurements were statistically different between eutrophic and obese children with and without MetS (P <0.001). The prevalence of MetS in obese populations was 13%. Adiponectin concentrations were 15.5 ± 6.1, 12.0 ± 4.8, 12.4 ± 4.9 and 9.4 ± 2.8 μg/mL for eutrophic and obese subjects, obese without MetS, and obese with MetS, respectively (P <0.001). Obese children with low values of adiponectin exhibited a higher frequency of MetS components: abdominal obesity, 49%; high systolic BP, 3%; high diastolic BP, 2%; impaired fasting glucose, 17%; hypertriglyceridemia, 31%; and low HDL-C values, 42%. Adjusted odds ratio of presenting MetS according to adiponectin categories was 10.9 (95% CI 2.05; 48.16) when the first tertile was compared with the third.
In this sample of eutrophic and obese Mexican children we found that adiponectin concentrations and MetS components have an inversely proportional relationship, which supports the idea that this hormone could be a biomarker for identifying individuals with risk of developing MetS.
Obesity; Adiponectin; Child; Insulin resistance; Metabolic syndrome; Biomarker
South Asians are more prone to develop metabolic syndrome (MetS). The additive predictive value of components of MetS for cardiovascular diseases is still debated. We undertook this study to evaluate the association of MetS and its components with severity of coronary artery disease (CAD).
Materials and Methods:
Three hundred patients with known coronary disease above the age of 25 years were included in this study. Blood samples were collected for biochemical markers. Patients were stratified into subjects with and without MetS (International Diabetes Federation, IDF, criteria) and severity of CAD (number of vessel involved).
Mean age of the patient in the study was 60.9 ± 12.4 years (male, M: 72%; female, F: 28%). MetS was present in 64% patients. Patients with MetS had more severe CAD compared to those without MetS. Triple vessel disease (TVD) was present in 62.5% of patients with MetS compared to 34.3% among without MetS (P < 0.0001). The percent number of patients with TVD showed increasing trend with increasing number of components of MetS (0-0%; 1-20%; 2-27.5%; 3-47.8%; 4-72.6%; 5-78.3%; Chi square for trend < 0.0001). Inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL) 6: 77.67 ± 79.48 vs. 41.21 ± 60.72 pg/ml, P < 0.0001; tumor nuclear factor (TNF)-α: 28.0 ± 47.49 vs 20.43 ± 24.5 pg/ml, P < 0.0001; high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP): 14.30 ± 9.91 vs. 7.02 ± 7.18 mg/L, P < 0.0001], insulin resistance [homeostatic model analysis insulin resistance (HOMA-IR): 22.33 ± 23.37 vs. 10.86 ± 13.90, P < 0.0001] were higher and insulin sensitivity [quantitative insulin check index (QUICKI): 0.26 ± 0.03 vs. 0.30 ± 0.04, P < 0.0001] was significantly lower in subjects with MetS compared to subjects without MetS. Among lipids, total cholesterol were comparable but triglyceride (175 ± 42 vs. 179 ± 48 vs. 180 ± 47 mg/dl, P < 0.0001) was high and high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 44.72 ± 7.63 vs. 39.96 ± 8.70 vs. 36.05 ± 8.84, P < 0.0001) was low in subjects with TVD compared to others. Similarly, percentage of patients with diabetes (7.5% vs. 26.3% vs. 63.7%, P < 0.0001) and hypertension (34.3% vs. 56.6% vs. 77.7%, P < 0.0001) were higher in subjects with TVD compared to others.
There is a strong correlation of MetS and its components with severity of CAD.
Coronary artery disease; inflammatory markers; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome
Although the association of weight gain and developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been reported in the Western and Asian populations, data on the gender-stratified effects of weight change (including weight loss) on incident MetS and its components in the Middle East Caucasians is still scarce.
A total of 1431 men and 2036 women aged ≥ 20 years with BMI > 18.5 kg/m2 were followed over 3 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of MetS and its components (the Adult Treatment Panel III definition) associated with gender-stratified quintiles of percent weight change. Subjects with MetS at baseline were excluded for analyzing the RR of MetS.
There was 20.4% (95% CI, 19.6–21.2) age-adjusted incident MetS (18.4% male vs. 23.1% women). In men, mild weight gain (WG) predicted high waist circumference (WC) and high triglyceride; moderate WG predicted MetS (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.3), high WC and high blood pressure (BP); large WG predicted MetS (RR 3.2, 95% CI 1.8–5.7) and its components, except for high fasting plasma glucose. In women, mild WG predicted MetS (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.3), high WC and high BP; moderate WG predicted Mets (RR 4.6, 95% CI 2.7–8.0), high WC and high triglyceride; large WG predicted MetS (RR 6.6, 95% CI 3.8–11.3) and its components except for low HDL-cholesterol. Mild weight loss had protective effect on high WC in both genders and MetS in men (RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.26–0.97, P = 0.04).
Weight change showed different effects on MetS in men and women. In women, mild WG predicted MetS; however, mild weight loss was protective against MetS in men and high WC in both genders.
There are limited data on the prevalence rate of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among college students attending any Historically Black College and University (HBCU), which are mostly attended by young African Americans (AA). We report the prevalence and gender differences in the components of MetS in a sample population from an HBCU campus.
Three hundred and seventy six (218 females and 158 males) first year college students (average age 19.8 years), attending Kentucky State University, Frankfort with no prior diagnosis of illness participated in the cross sectional study. Anthropometric screenings included measurement of height, weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). The clinical screenings included measurement of blood pressure and determination of fasting lipid and glucose concentrations. The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions for MetS were applied. Statistics: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) scores on the Means procedure were used to examine differences between genders for all anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters. Fisher’s exact chi-square tests were used to analyze the prevalence of MetS criteria per gender, the number of MetS criteria per BMI category and the prevalence of MetS criteria. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05 for all tests.
Prevalence rates for MetS criteria varied depending on the definition used. According to the NCEP ATP definition, 31.4% of the sample population had at least 1 criterion for MetS, while 20.7% had 2 criteria. When IDF definition was applied, 21.3% sample population had 1 criterion and 17.5% had at least two criteria. Prevalence was highest for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (37.3%) and elevated fasting glucose (22.1%). On the basis of the NCEP ATP and IDF definitions, overall prevalence of MetS in the total sample was 12%, and 9.3% respectively.
HBCUs offer a unique opportunity to monitor and address the risk factors of MetS in a predominantly young AA population. There is a higher prevalence of MetS in this study population than any other reports on college students.
College students; Lipids; Pre-diabetes; Metabolic syndrome; Young African American adults
AIM: To investigate whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) confers cardiovascular risk.
METHODS: A non-diabetic population-based sample representative of middle-aged and elderly Turks was studied at 8.5 years’ follow-up for incident diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined by ATP-III criteria modified for male abdominal obesity, and IFG and type 2 diabetes were identified by criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Stratification by presence of MetS was used. Outcomes were predicted providing estimates for hazard ratio (HR) obtained by use of Cox proportional hazards regression analysis in models that controlled for potential confounders.
RESULTS: In 3181 adults (aged 52 ± 11.5 years at baseline), analysis stratified by MetS, gender and IFG status distinguished normoglycemic subjects by a “hypertriglyceridemic waist” phenotype consisting of significantly higher waist circumference, fasting triglyceride and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, regardless of gender and MetS. Additionally, lipoprotein (Lp) (a) tended to be lower in (especially female) participants with MetS. Multivariable linear regression in a subset of the sample demonstrated decreased Lp (a) levels to be associated with increased fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, again particularly in women. In Cox regression analysis, compared with normoglycemia, baseline IFG adjusted for major confounders significantly predicted incident diabetes at a 3-fold HR in men and only women with MetS. Cox models for developing CHD in 339 individuals, adjusted for conventional risk factors, revealed that IFG status protected against CHD risk [HR = 0.37 (95%CI: 0.14-0.998)] in subjects free of MetS, a protection that attenuated partly in male and fully in female participants with MetS.
CONCLUSION: IFG status in non-diabetic people without MetS displays reduced future CHD risk, yet is modulated by MetS, likely due to autoimmune activation linked to serum Lp (a).
Autoimmune activation; Coronary disease risk; Diabetes, type 2; Impaired fasting glucose; Lipoprotein (a); Metabolic syndrome
This study aims to determine the potential impact of positive family history of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among two generations, on developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and the potential relation of consanguineous marriage among patients with MetS to the risk of developing T2DM among a sample of Qataris.
A cross-sectional study.
Primary healthcare (PHC) centers.
Materials and Methods:
The survey and measurement were conducted from April 2011 to December 2012 among Qatari nationals above 20 years of age. Of the 2,182 subjects, who were approached to participate in the study, 1,552 (71%) gave their consent. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire followed by anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) as well as International Diabetes Federation (IDF).
Overall, the prevalence of MetS was 26.2% according to ATP III and 36.9% according to IDF (P < 0.0001). The mean age of MetS patients with T2DM was significantly higher than those without T2DM (Mean 48 ± 9.9 vs. 42.5 ± 9.2; P < 0.001). The proportion of females was higher among MetS patients with T2DM as compared to those without T2DM (61% vs. 51%; P = 0.053). In addition, there were significant differences between MetS patients with and without DM in terms of co-morbidities of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and high cholesterol. The proportion of MetS patients with positive family history for MetS was significantly higher in MetS patients with T2DM as compared to those without T2DM (46.7% vs. 33.8%; P = 0.009). The proportion of positive family history of MetS among fathers (35% vs. 21.9%; P = 0.005), mothers (30.5% vs. 18.8%; P = 0.008), maternal aunt (18.3% vs. 11.2%; P = 0.055), and maternal grand father (19.5% vs. 10%; P = 0.010) were significantly higher in MetS patients with T2DM as compared to the counterpart. The proportion of consanguineous marriages was almost two times higher among MetS patients with T2DM as compared to those without T2DM (80.9% vs. 41.9%; P < 0.001). The proportion of MetS patients with T2DM was lower than MetS patients without DM below 45 years, but after 45 years, the proportion of MetS patients with T2DM remained higher than their counterparts.
Family history of MetS among parents, maternal aunt, maternal grandfather, and consanguineous marriages among patients of MetS are significantly associated with the development of T2DM in Qatar. These results support the necessity of earlier screening for T2DM among MetS patients with positive family history of MetS.
Consanguinity; correlates; diabetes mellitus; genetics; metabolic syndrome; prevalence
To determine the predictors of incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (Adult Treatment Panel III criteria) and to determine if longitudinal changes in specific MetS components differ by age or gender in participants who developed versus those who did not develop MetS.
A total of 506 men and 461 women (baseline age 52.4 ± 17.5 years) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging (BLSA) were followed longitudinally (at least two study visits), and censored when they developed the MetS or reported use of antihypertensive or lipid-lowering medications.
After a follow-up period of 6 years, the incidence of the MetS was 25.5% in men and 14.8% in women. As many as 66% of men and 73% of women with one or two altered MetS components at baseline did not develop the MetS. Predictors of developing MetS were higher baseline abdominal obesity or triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (area under receiver-operated curve [AUC] = 0.84 in men, 0.88 in women). Addition of the rate of changes in MetS components over time slightly improved predictive accuracy (AUC = 0.94 in men, 0.92 in women). Men were more likely than women to have the MetS without obesity, whereas women were more likely than men to have the MetS without an altered glucose metabolism.
The patterns of MetS components and the longitudinal changes that lead to the MetS are different in men and women. Interestingly, components with the highest prevalence prior to MetS development, such as elevated blood pressure, are not necessarily the stronger risk factors.
Metabolic syndrome; Incidence; Longitudinal studies; Abdominal obesity
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of conditions that occur together, increasing the risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes. Since pathways implicated in different diseases reveal surprising insights into shared genetic bases underlying apparently unrelated traits, we hypothesize that there are common genetic components involved in the clustering of MetS traits. With the aim of identifying these common genetic components, we have performed a genetic association study by integrating MetS traits in a continuous MetS score.
A cross-sectional study developed in the context of the Portuguese Component of the European Health Examination Survey (EHES) was used. Data was collected through a detailed questionnaire and physical examination. Blood samples were collected and biochemical analyses were performed. Waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels were used to compute a continuous MetS score, obtained by Principal Component Analysis. A total of 37 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and individually tested for association with the score, adjusting for confounding variables.
A total of 206 individuals were studied. Calculated MetS score increased progressively with increasing number of risk factors (P < 0.001). We found a significant association between CYP2C19 rs4244285 and the MetS score not detected using the MetS dichotomic approach. Individuals with the A allelic variant seem to be protected against MetS, displaying a lower MetS score (Mean difference: 0.847; 95%CI: 0.163-1.531; P = 0.015), after adjustment for age, gender, smoking status, excessive alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. An additive genetic effect of GABRA2 rs279871, NPY rs16147 and TPMT rs1142345 in the MetS score variation was also found.
This is the first report of a genetic association study using a continuous MetS score. The significant association found between the CYP2C19 polymorphism and the MetS score but not with the individual associated traits, emphasizes the importance of lipid metabolism in a MetS common etiological pathway and consequently on the clustering of different cardiovascular risk factors. Despite the sample size limitation of our study, this strategy can be useful to find genetic factors involved in the etiology of other disorders that are defined in a dichotomized way.
Metabolic syndrome; CYP2C19 gene; Genetic association study; Continuous MetS score
The Family Blood Pressure Program is an ongoing, NHLBI-sponsored, multi-center program to study the genetic determinants of high blood pressure. The goal of this particular study was to study patterns of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in four ethnic groups: African Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics, and Asians.
A major part of participants in three networks GENOA, HyperGEN and SAPPHIRe were recruited mainly through hypertensive probands. MetS was defined as a categorical trait following the National Cholesterol Education Program definition (c-MetS). MetS was also characterized quantitatively through multivariate factor analyses (FA) of 10 risk variables (q-MetS). Logistic regression and frequency tables were used for studying associations among traits.
Using the NCEP definition, the Hispanic sample, which by design was enriched for type 2 diabetes (T2D), had a very high prevalence of MetS (73%). In contrast, its prevalence in Chinese was the lowest (17%). In African Americans and Hispanics, c-MetS was more prevalent in women than in men. Association of c-MetS with type 2 diabetes (T2D) was prominent in the Hispanics and African Americans, less pronounced in the Whites and Japanese, (although still significant), and weakest in the Chinese sample.
Using FA without rotation, we found that the main factor loaded obesity (OBS) and blood pressure (BP) in African Americans; OBS and insulin (INS) in Hispanics, in Japanese, and in Whites; and OBS alone in Chinese. In Hispanics, Whites, and Japanese, BP loaded as a separate factor. Lipids in combination with INS also loaded in a separate factor. Using FA with Varimax rotation, 4 independent factors were identified: "Obesity-INS," "Blood pressure," "Lipids-INS," and "Central obesity." They explained about 60% of the variance present in the original risk variables.
MetS ethnic differences were identified. Ascertaining for hypertension or T2D increased the MetS prevalence in networks compared with the one in the US general population. Obesity was the most prominent risk factor contributing to both c-MetS and q-MetS. INS contributed in two important factors (obesity and lipids). The information imbedded into c-MetS trait /q-MetS factors scores can contribute in future research of the MetS, especially its utilization in the genetic analysis.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risks of diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). Despite the controversial inclusion of established diabetes in MetS, the association between MetS and CAD according to diabetes status has not been elucidated in the Asian population.
We evaluated the association between MetS and CAD using the parameters including any plaque, obstructive plaque, and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) >100 according to diabetes status in 2,869 symptomatic Korean subjects who underwent cardiac computed tomographic angiography.
The prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in the diabetic subjects than in the non-diabetic subjects (69% vs. 34%, P <0.001). The incidence of any plaque (64% vs. 43%, P <0.001), obstructive plaque (26% vs. 13%, P = 0.006), and CACS >100 (23% vs. 12%, P = 0.012) was significantly higher in diabetic subjects than in non-diabetic subjects. Among the MetS components, decreased high-density lipoprotein level was significantly associated with any plaque (odds ratio [OR] 1.35), obstructive plaque (OR 1.55), and CACS >100 (OR 1.57) in the non-diabetic subjects (P <0.01, respectively). However, none of the MetS components were associated with all the parameters in the diabetic subjects. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that MetS and the number of MetS components (MetSN) were independently associated with any plaque (MetS: OR 1.55, P <0.001; MetSN: OR 1.22, P <0.001), obstructive plaque (MetS: OR 1.52, P = 0.003; MetSN: OR 1.25, P <0.001), and CACS >100 (MetS: OR 1.46, P = 0.015; MetSN: OR 1.21, P = 0.004) only in the non-diabetic subjects, respectively.
MetS was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAD only in the non-diabetic subjects among the symptomatic Korean population.
Metabolic syndrome; Diabetes; Coronary artery disease; Coronary computed tomographic angiography
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of factors known to increase the risk for
cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most
common endocrine disorder among reproductive-aged women, is also closely linked to MetS. Limited
information is available pertaining to the prevalence of MetS in Iranian PCOS women; therefore this
study assesses the frequency of MetS and its components among PCOS women from Tabriz, Iran.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated a total of 200 women with
PCOS who referred to the only specialty and subspecialty gynecological center in Northwestern Iran.
PCOS was diagnosed according to Rotterdam criteria. This study defined clinical and biochemical
parameters for MetS by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III
(NCEP ATP III) criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with descriptive-analytical methods
using SPSS software version 16.
MetS was identified in 39.5% of PCOS women. The frequencies of individual components
of MetS among studied subjects were: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C)<50 mg/
dL (99.5%), waist circumference(WC) ≥88cm (65%), triglycerides (TG) ≥150 mg/dL(98%), and
blood pressure≥130/85 mmHg(34%).There were no fasting glucose concentrations≥110 mg/dL. The
frequency of MetS increased with body mass index (BMI)as follows: normal (5.4%), overweight
(41.5%) and obese (85.7%) women (p<0.0001).
The PCOS women in this study had a high frequency of MetS and its individual
components, particularly decreased HDL-C and increased triglyceride levels. These data can useful
for lifestyle modification programs.
Metabolic Syndrome; ATP III Criteria; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examine if metabolic syndrome predicts progression of atherosclerosis over 13 years.
Participants were 1442 men and 1532 women in the population-based Tromsø Study who underwent carotid ultrasound examinations at baseline in the 4th (1994–5) and at follow-up in the 6th survey (2007–8). Of these, 278 men and 273 women fulfilled the criteria for the MetS, defined according to a modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP, ATPIII). Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed as total plaque area (TPA) and mean intima-media thickness (IMT) at follow-up and as change in IMT and TPA from baseline to follow-up. Associations between MetS and its components and carotid atherosclerosis were assessed in linear regression models adjusted for age, total cholesterol and daily smoking, stratified by sex.
IMT and TPA levels at follow-up (p < 0.0001) and progression of TPA (p = 0.02) were higher in the MetS group compared to the non-MetS group. In stepwise multivariable models, MetS was associated with TPA (β = 0.372 mm2, p = 0.009) and IMT (β = 0.051 mm, p < 0.0001) in men, and with IMT (β = 0.045 mm, p = 0.001) in women after 13 years of follow-up, but not with progression of IMT or TPA. In analyses stratified by age, MetS predicted progression of IMT (β = 0.043 mm, p = 0.046) and TPA (β = 1.02 mm2, p = 0.002) in men below 50 years of age. Hypertension was predictive of follow-up TPA and IMT in both genders and of progression of TPA in women. Impaired glucose tolerance was associated with follow up levels of IMT and TPA as well as progression in IMT in men. None of the other components of MetS were associated with progression of atherosclerosis.
Subjects with MetS had higher levels of IMT and TPA at follow up than those without MetS. Mets predicted progression of IMT and TPA in those below 50 years of age, but not in other age groups, indicating that MetS may be involved in the initiation of the atherosclerotic process.
Metabolic syndrome; Carotid artery; Atherosclerosis; Intima-media thickness; Plaque; Progression; Risk factor; Prospective; Population study