The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in people with thyroid disorders.
Materials and Methods:
112 subjects with a history of thyroid disorders were consecutively enrolled for the study. Clinical data were obtained by interviewing the patients and referring to their case folders and prescriptions. The subjects were categorized into three: thyrotoxic, those with hypothyroidism and those with nontoxic goiters, based on clinical parameters and or thyroid function tests. The study subjects were weighed and their anthropometric indices were documented. The laboratory parameters that were analyzed included total cholesterol, high-density and low-density cholesterol and triglyceride. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and chi-square test.
The study subjects were aged between 14 and 76 years, with a mean age of 44.5 years, and the female:male ratio was 97:15. The mean age and anthropometric indices were comparable in subjects with thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 28% and the frequency of occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism and nontoxic goiter was 24%, 40% and 42%, respectively. The commonest occurring metabolic syndrome defining criterion was dysglycemia, while hypertension and elevated triglyceride were the least documented of the criteria.
Metabolic syndrome occurs in 1 in every 4 persons with thyroid disorders, and as such, routine screening for this cardiovascular risk factor may be of benefit in this group of people, especially in those with hypothyroidism.
Metabolic syndrome; Nigeria; thyroid
The risk for cardiovascular events is higher for those with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and it is known that firefighters have a fourfold risk for cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to quantify MetS prevalence and evaluate the effect of a low glycemic nutritional fitness program on the reduction of MetS risk factors among firefighters.
Professional firefighters were screened for MetS then enrolled in a low glycemic nutritional fitness program for a 12-week period. Anthropometric and physiologic measurements were obtained at the start and end of the program. Subjects with ≥3 of the following were positive for MetS: waist ≥40 (men) or ≥35 inches (women), BP≥135 (systole) or ≥85 (diastole) mmHg, fasting blood sugar ≥100mg/dl, triglycerides ≥150mg/dl, and high-density lipoproteins <40 (men) or <50 mg/dl (women). Weekly training was provided with low glycemic nutrition and regular fitness and evaluation of individual progress.
Seventy-five firefighters (age 42+8yrs, mostly Caucasian men) had a total MetS prevalence of 46.7% (p<0.05 vs normal population). One platoon (10 men, age 48±5yrs) was enrolled in the 12-week program. Most (7/10) had MetS at the baseline, but this prevalence decreased significantly after 12 weeks to 3 subjects (p=0.02). On average, subjects had 3.2±1.6 vs 1.9±1.7 MetS risk factors (p<0.01) at baseline and 12 week interval, respectively.
The prevalence of MetS and MetS risk factors are higher among professional firefighters compared to general population. A short-duration low glycemic fitness program can successfully improve anthropometric and physiologic measures and reduce the prevalence of MetS.
metabolic syndrome; low glycemic; firefighters
Childhood obesity is a risk factor for the development of both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). One marker that can be used to predict T2DM is the metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS, a cluster of cardiovascular factors associated with insulin resistance, is defined by central obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, elevated triglycerides (TG), and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Some have advocated using a diagnosis of MetS to trigger increased intervention in children. However, ethnic differences in MetS may hamper identification of at-risk children. For example, non-Hispanic blacks are diagnosed with MetS less frequently than non-Hispanic whites, despite having higher rates of T2DM and CVD. These differences in MetS are predominantly due to a low frequency of hypertriglyceridemia in non-Hispanic blacks. Compared with non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans, non-Hispanic blacks have lower TG levels at baseline but exhibit worsening insulin resistance with increasing TG. Therefore “normal” TG levels appear to be falsely reassuring among insulin-resistant non-Hispanic blacks. Ethnic-specific tools may be needed to more accurately predict risk for T2DM and CVD in minorities.
Metabolic syndrome; Insulin resistance; Ethnic differences; Inflammation; Cardiovascular disease; Diabetes
Elevated serum uric acid levels (SUA) have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and are often reported to be higher in females than in males. The aim of this report is to determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of hyperuricaemia and also to evaluate associations with the MetS in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
This was a cross-sectional study conducted in people with type 2 DM in Lagos, Nigeria. Hyperuricaemia was defined by cut-off values of > 7 mg/dl for men and > 6 mg/dl for women. The diagnosis of MetS was made using the new definition by the American Heart Association and other related bodies. Clinical and biochemical parameters were compared between subjects with hyperuricaemia and normouricaemia. Statistical analysis included usage of Student's t test, Pearson correlation coefficients, multivariate regression analysis and chi square.
601 patients with type 2 DM aged between 34-91 years were recruited for the study. The prevalence rates of hyperuricaemia and the MetS were 25% and 60% respectively. The frequency of occurrence of hyperuricaemia was comparable in both genders (59% vs 41%, p = 0.3). Although, the prevalence of the MetS in subjects with hyperuricaemia and normouricaemia was comparable (61 vs 56%, p = 0.1), a higher proportion of hyperuricaemic subjects had 3 or more components of the Mets compared with normouricaemic subjects. Possible predictors of hyperuricaemia include central obesity, smoking and elevated serum triglycerides (TG). SUA levels were found to be positively and significantly associated with serum TG (r = 0.2, p = 0.0001) and total cholesterol (r = 13, p = 0.001).
The prevalence of hyperuricaemia in subjects with type 2 DM is comparable in both genders and possible predictors of hyperuricaemia are potentially modifiable. SUA is positively and significantly associated with serum TG and total cholesterol.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disorder that is often associated with cardiovascular events and underlying lipid abnormalities. Cardiovascular complications are common causes of DM deaths in Nigeria yet dyslipidaemia is one aspect of DM that is underdiagnosed and undertreated in our patients. This report seeks to determine the prevalence and pattern of lipid abnormalities in Nigerians with types I and 2 DM.
A total of 600 patients with DM aged between 22 – 79 years were evaluated for lipid abnormalities. The anthropometric indices, glycosylated haemoglobin, pattern of DM treatment and co-morbidities were noted. Total cholesterol (TCHOL), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoproteins (HDL-C), low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the atherogenic indices levels were documented. Test statistic used included student's t test and χ2.
Well over half (89%) of the study subjects had lipid abnormalities and there was no statistically significant difference in the proportions of subjects with type 1 and 2 DM with lipid abnormalities. Elevated LDL-C, TCHOL, TG and reduced HDL-C were noted in 74%, 42%, 13%, and 53% respectively of the study subjects. The commonly noted combined lipid abnormalities were elevated TG and reduced HDL-C. Hypertension, significant histories of smoking and alcohol ingestion were found to be potential determinants of the occurrence of dyslipidaemia. Age, sex, type of DM and anthropometric indices were found to be determinants of the the pattern of dyslipidaemia. Only a small proportion – (8%)-of the subjects with dyslipidaemia were on treatment for it.
Having defined the scope of dyslipidaemia in our patients and also highlighting its gross undertreatment, we hope that our data will help sensitize health care practitioners on screening for and treating dyslipidaemia. Elevated LDL-C and reduced HDL-C should be the primary targets of treatment in our patients with dyslipidaemia.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a combination of cardiometabolic risk factors, including visceral obesity, glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol, and hypertension. MetS is rapidly increasing in prevalence worldwide as a consequence of the “epidemic” obesity, with a considerable impact on the global incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. At present, there is a growing interest on the role of visceral fat accumulation in the occurrence of MetS. In this review, the effects of adipocytokines and other proinflammatory factors produced by fat accumulation on the occurrence of the MetS have been also emphasized. Accordingly, the “hypoadiponectinemia” has been proposed as the most interesting new hypothesis to explain the pathophysiology of MetS.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) may contribute to the excess cardiovascular burden observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The prevalence and associations of the MetS in RA remain uncertain: systemic inflammation and anti-rheumatic therapy may contribute. Methotrexate (MTX) use has recently been linked to a reduced presence of MetS, via an assumed generic anti-inflammatory mechanism. We aimed to: assess the prevalence of the MetS in RA; identify factors that associate with its presence; and assess their interaction with the potential influence of MTX.
MetS prevalence was assessed cross-sectionally in 400 RA patients, using five MetS definitions (National Cholesterol Education Programme 2004 and 2001, International Diabetes Federation, World Health Organisation and European Group for Study of Insulin Resistance). Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of the MetS. Further analysis established the nature of the association between MTX and the MetS.
MetS prevalence rates varied from 12.1% to 45.3% in RA according to the definition used. Older age and higher HAQ scores associated with the presence of the MetS. MTX use, but not other disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or glucocorticoids, associated with significantly reduced chance of having the MetS in RA (OR = 0.517, CI 0.33–0.81, P = 0.004).
The prevalence of the MetS in RA varies according to the definition used. MTX therapy, unlike other DMARDs or glucocorticoids, independently associates with a reduced propensity to MetS, suggesting a drug-specific mechanism, and makes MTX a good first-line DMARD in RA patients at high risk of developing the MetS, particularly those aged over 60 years.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) or “Syndrome X” which is a constellation of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and increased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels. It is one of the main threats for public health in the 21st century with its associated risk of cardiovascular disease. This condition affects a major chunk of mankind. International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated that around 20-25% of the adult population of the world has MetS. Several definitions have been put forward by different expert bodies leading to confusion. To overcome this, joint new statement of many expert group have been issued. Serum testosterone (T) has been shown to be associated with MetS. Several studies have shown a higher prevalence of MetS in subjects with low testosterone. There are also several studies showing a significant difference in serum T between those with MetS and those without. Serum T has also been shown to be associated with components of MetS and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) improves various metabolic and anthropometric parameters in MetS. Patients with androgen deprivation for treatment of various cancers have also been reported to have higher prevalence of MetS. But the evidence of association is not sufficient evidence for the causation of MetS by low testosterone and long-term studies are needed to confirm whether T deficiency is the cause or is a feature of MetS.
Androgen deprivation; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; testosterone; testosterone replacement therapy
Aortic distensibility (AD) is a marker of the elastic properties of the aorta. Reduction of AD occurs early in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and it is associated with subclinical generalized atherosclerosis. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is common in subjects with T2DM and predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study examined the potential relationship between MetS and AD in a cohort of subjects with T2DM.
Methods and results
A total of 210 subjects with T2DM were studied. MetS was diagnosed using the NCEP/ATP-III criteria. AD was assessed non-invasively by ultrasonography. The prevalence of MetS was 64.8%. AD was not significantly different between subjects with and without MetS (1.80 ± 0.54 vs. 1.84 ± 0.53 10-6 dyn-1 cm2, p = 0.55). Univariate linear regression analysis showed that AD was associated positively with male sex (p = 0.02) as well as glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.001), and negatively with age (p = 0.04), history of hypertension (p = 0.001), as well as duration of diabetes (p < 0.001). After multivariate adjustment, AD was associated independently and significantly only with age (p = 0.02), duration of diabetes p < 0.001), and history of hypertension (p = 0.004); no significant relationship was found with MetS status, the sum of the components of the MetS or the individual components-besides hypertension-of the MetS.
In subjects with T2DM, MetS status per se is not associated with reduction of AD. In addition, it was shown that besides ageing, duration of glycemia was a strong predictor of AD. From the components of the MetS only hypertension was associated with reduction of the elastic properties of the aorta.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors associated with morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality. Russia has one of the highest CVD mortality rates in the world. However, the prevalence of MetS in Russia remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of MetS and its components in an urban Russian setting.
Altogether, 3705 Russian adults aged 18-90 years were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Arkhangelsk (Northwest Russia). All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Blood samples were taken and analyzed in TromsØ, Norway. Three separate modified definitions of MetS were used, namely, the National Education Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP), the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). To ensure comparability of the findings, the prevalence data were standardized using world and European standard populations and Russian population.
The age-standardized (Segi's world standard population) prevalence rates of the MetS among women were 19.8% (95% CI: 18.1-21.5), 20.6% (95% CI: 18.9-22.3) and 23.1% (95% CI: 21.3-24.9) by the NCEP, AHA/NHLBI and IDF criteria, respectively. The corresponding rates for men were 11.5% (95% CI: 10.1-12.9), 13.7% (95% CI: 12.2-15.2) and 11.0% (95% CI: 9.7-12.4). Among subjects with MetS, central obesity was more common among women, while elevated triglycerides and blood glucose were more common among men. Almost perfect agreement was found between the NCEP and AHA/NHLBI criteria (κ = 0.94). There was less agreement between the used definitions of MetS in men than in women.
While the prevalence of MetS among Russian women is comparable to the data for Europe and the U.S., the prevalence among Russian men is considerably lower than among their European and North-American counterparts. Our results suggest that MetS is unlikely to be a major contributor to the high cardiovascular mortality among Russian men. Further studies of MetS determinants and associated cardiovascular risk are needed for a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to the exceptionally high cardiovascular mortality in Russia.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, and this occurs early in the disease process. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) may contribute to the excess cardiovascular burden observed in RA; however, little information is available regarding MetS in early RA. We aimed to identify the prevalence of MetS and to determine the potential factors associated with the presence of MetS in Vietnamese women with early RA.
A total of 105 consecutive women with early RA (disease duration ≤3 years) and 105 age-matched healthy women were checked for MetS according to six MetS definitions (Joint Consensus, International Diabetes Federation, National Cholesterol Education Program 2004 and 2001, European Group for Study of Insulin Resistance, and World Health Organization). Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to determine independent predictors of MetS in women with RA.
Prevalence of MetS varied from 16.2% to 40.9% according to the definitions used in women with RA, and was higher (P < 0.001) than in healthy controls (from 10.5% to 22.9%). Among individual components of MetS, differences between women with RA and controls were observed for hypertension (P < 0.001), low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (P < 0.001), and abdominal obesity (P = 0.019). After adjusting for age and physical activity, higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (odds ratios (OR) = 1.516, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.073 to 3.195, P = 0.042), disease activity score (DAS28) (OR = 1.736, 95% CI: 1.293 to 2.786, P = 0.019), health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) score (OR = 1.583, 95% CI: 1.195 to 2.367, P = 0.035), and less methotrexate use (OR = 0.736, 95% CI: 0.547 to 0.962, P = 0.024) remained significant independent predictors of the presence of MetS in women with RA.
Women with early RA already had higher prevalence of MetS compared with healthy controls. Higher systemic inflammatory marker, disease activity and disability scores, and less methotrexate use were independent predictors associated with the presence of MetS in women with early RA. These findings suggest that physicians should screen for MetS in women with early RA to control its components and therefore reduce their risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a high risk factor for Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD). We estimated to investigate how MetS prevalence by glucose homeostasis varies across different age and gender groups.
We studied 9257 Chinese subjects over the age of 15 years in two cross-sectional surveys in 2006. With oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) test, 2341 subjects were normal glucose tolerance (NGT), and 5448 were diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes (T2D). All other 1468 subjects were considered to be impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects. Diabetes was diagnosis by WHO99 criteria. We used modified NCEP-III criteria for the diagnosis of MetS.
The prevalences of MetS in the male NGT, IFG/IGT and T2D groups were 25.9% (404/1559), 65.6% (769/1172), and 73.5% (2483/3376), respectively. The prevalences of MetS in the female NGT, IFG/IGT and T2D groups were 13.4% (105/782), 51.0% (151/296), and 75.4% (1563/2072), respectively. The prevalence of MetS in the male IFG/IGT group gradually decreased from 73.26% to 41.08% in subjects over the age of 30 years. The prevalence of MetS in the female IFG/IGT group gradually increased from 30% to 75% with aging.
The prevalence of MetS in subjects with different glucose tolerances in China was high and gradually increased with impaired glucose homeostasis both in males and females.
Metabolic syndrome; Diabetes; Impaired fasting glucose; Impaired glucose tolerance
The atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype is characterized by an increase in plasma triglycerides, a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), and the prevalence of small, dense-low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) particles. The aim of this study was to establish the importance of LDL particle size measurement by gender in a group of patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) attending at a Cardiovascular Risk Unit in Primary Care and their classification into phenotypes.
Subjects and methods
One hundred eighty-five patients (93 men and 92 women) from several areas in the South of Spain, for a period of one year in a health centre were studied. Laboratory parameters included plasma lipids, lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein size and several atherogenic rates were determinated.
We found differences by gender between anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and glucose measures by MS status. Lipid profile was different in our two study groups, and gender differences in these parameters within each group were also remarkable, in HDLc and Apo A-I values. According to LDL particle size, we found males had smaller size than females, and patients with MS had also smaller than those without MS. We observed inverse relationship between LDL particle size and triglycerides in patients with and without MS, and the same relationship between all atherogenic rates in non-MS patients. When we considered our population in two classes of phenotypes, lipid profile was worse in phenotype B.
In conclusion, we consider worthy the measurement of LDL particle size due to its relationship with lipid profile and cardiovascular risk.
Atherosclerosis; LDLC particle size; Metabolic Syndrome
Although designed to predict cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn) under-predicts these conditions in African-Americans (AA). Failure of MetSyn in AA is often attributed to their relative absence of hypertriglyceridemia. It is unknown if the African experience with MetSyn will be similar or different to that in AA. Focusing on the lipid profile, our goal was to determine in West Africans (WA) and AA the pattern of variables that leads to the diagnosis of the MetSyn.
Cross-sectional analysis of 1296 subjects (364 WA, 44% male, 932 AA, 46% male). WA were from urban centers in Nigeria and Ghana and enrolled in the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus Study. AA lived in Washington, DC and participated in the Howard University Family Study.
The prevalence of MetSyn was different in WA women and men: 42% vs.19%, P<0.001, and in AA women and men: 25% vs.17%, P<0.01. The three variables that most often led to the diagnosis of MetSyn in WA and AA were: low HDL-C, central obesity and hypertension. Less than 40% of AA and less than 25% of WA with the MetSyn had hypertriglyceridemia.
Elevated triglyceride levels were uncommon in both WA and AA with MetSyn. As the relative absence of hypertriglyceridemia is associated with a lack of efficacy of MetSyn in AA, caution is warranted in diagnosing MetSyn in WA, the ancestral population of AA. Prospective studies are necessary to determine if an ethnic-specific reformulation of the MetSyn scoring system for lipids might optimize risk identification in black populations.
There are limited data on the prevalence rate of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among college students attending any Historically Black College and University (HBCU), which are mostly attended by young African Americans (AA). We report the prevalence and gender differences in the components of MetS in a sample population from an HBCU campus.
Three hundred and seventy six (218 females and 158 males) first year college students (average age 19.8 years), attending Kentucky State University, Frankfort with no prior diagnosis of illness participated in the cross sectional study. Anthropometric screenings included measurement of height, weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). The clinical screenings included measurement of blood pressure and determination of fasting lipid and glucose concentrations. The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions for MetS were applied. Statistics: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) scores on the Means procedure were used to examine differences between genders for all anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters. Fisher’s exact chi-square tests were used to analyze the prevalence of MetS criteria per gender, the number of MetS criteria per BMI category and the prevalence of MetS criteria. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05 for all tests.
Prevalence rates for MetS criteria varied depending on the definition used. According to the NCEP ATP definition, 31.4% of the sample population had at least 1 criterion for MetS, while 20.7% had 2 criteria. When IDF definition was applied, 21.3% sample population had 1 criterion and 17.5% had at least two criteria. Prevalence was highest for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (37.3%) and elevated fasting glucose (22.1%). On the basis of the NCEP ATP and IDF definitions, overall prevalence of MetS in the total sample was 12%, and 9.3% respectively.
HBCUs offer a unique opportunity to monitor and address the risk factors of MetS in a predominantly young AA population. There is a higher prevalence of MetS in this study population than any other reports on college students.
College students; Lipids; Pre-diabetes; Metabolic syndrome; Young African American adults
Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, glucose intolerance, high triglycerides, and a low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. MetS is known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. In order to diagnose MetS, definitions such as National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, International Diabetes Federation, World Health Organization, European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance and American College of Endocrinology are widely used. However, using different criteria may lead to confusion regarding the diagnosis and treatment of patients with MetS in the primary care setting. Our objected was to review 3 aspects concerning MetS using the Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives study of 123892 healthy Koreans (1994-2001) that had a maximum follow-up of 12 years. The 3 aspects were reviewed by determination of the association of MetS with the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). Based on our findings, each metabolic factor associated with MetS was not weighted equally. The hazard ratio (HR) was higher in individuals with higher glucose compared with the HR in individuals with higher body mass index. Individuals with pre-MetS (having 1 or 2 metabolic factors) had 1.5-2.3 fold higher risk of developing ASCVD and IHD in both genders. In the presence of MetS, both singly and in combination, precede the development of ASCVD and IHD and individuals with pre-MetS must not be ignored as there is no apparent threshold in defining MetS. Furthermore, MetS may complement the Framingham Risk Score and can be used as the first line approach to treat the ASCVD or IHD.
Metabolic cardiovascular syndrome; Atherosclerosis; Ischemic heart disease
The endocannabinoid system participates in food intake, energy balance and lipid and glucose metabolism. The biological effects of cannabinoids are limited by the activation of the endocannabinoid degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). This study aims to analyse whether 385 C/A polymorphism of FAAH is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Chinese Han population.
Material and methods
A total of 112 subjects at risk for MetS and 80 healthy controls from Fuzhou, China were genotyped for 385 C/A polymorphism of FAAH using TaqMan assay. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical assessments such as BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum triglycerides (TG), serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and plasma insulin levels were performed.
CA and AA genotypes of FAAH had higher incidence in MetS subjects than in control subjects. CA and AA genotypes of FAAH in subjects with MetS had relatively elevated levels of waist circumference, body mass index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum triglycerides, and lowered level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) compared with CC genotype in MetS subjects.
Results suggest that 385 C/A polymorphism of the FAAH gene may confer an increased risk of MetS in the Chinese Han population.
polymorphism; fatty acid amide hydrolase; metabolic syndrome
Cardiovascular disease risk factors have a tendency to cluster. The presence of such a cluster in an individual has been designated the metabolic syndrome (MetS). There is a paucity of reports of the prevalence of MetS in hypertensive patients in south east Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria in a tertiary healthcare centre in South East Nigeria.
Materials and Methods:
A population of 250 consecutive newly diagnosed adult hypertensive patients (126 males and 124 females) was evaluated. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were done using standardized techniques. After an overnight fast, blood samples were taken for glucose and lipid profile assays. The NCEP ATP III criteria were then applied for the diagnosis of MetS.
The prevalence of the MetS among the study population was 31.2%. The sex-specific prevalences were 15.1% and 47.6% among male and female patients respectively. A large number of the patients (40.4%) were at a high potential risk of developing the MetS as they already met 2 of the criteria. The MetS prevalence increased progressively from 14.3% through 23.8%, in the patients aged 24-33years and 34-43 years, respectively to a peak (40.4%) among those aged 44-53 years before declining in those aged 54-63 years (31.8%), 64-73 years (33.3%) and 74 years and above (20.6%). Central obesity was the most common component of the MetS being present in 50.4% of patients (28.6% of males and 72.6% of females). Of the other components, low HDL-C was present in 38.8% (26.2% of males and 51.6% of females), elevated FBS in 12.8% (6.3% of males and 19.4% of females) and elevated triglycerides in 8.8% (11.9% of males and 5.6% of females).
The prevalence of the MetS is high among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in Nnewi South East Nigeria. This underscores the importance of routine screening of hypertensive patients for other cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Hypertension; metabolic syndrome; Nnewi; prevalence
Aim. At present, little data exist about incidence and the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objectives of present study were to assess the incidence and risk factors of MetS in people with T2DM. Methods. During the mean (SD) follow-up period of 11.7 (4.8) years, 3,047 patients with T2DM and free of MetS at baseline have been examined to determine incidence and predictors of progression to MetS. A modified the National Cholesterol Education Program—Adult Treatment Panel III definition with body mass index (BMI) instead of waist circumference was used for the MetS. Results. The prevalence of MetS was 63.2% (95% CI: 62.3, 64.1). The incidence of MetS was 28.5 (95% CI: 26.8, 30.2) (25.9 men and 30.9 women) per 1,000 patient-years based on 35,677 patient-years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis revealed that higher BMI and education, lower HbA1c and treatment with oral agent or insulin were associated with MetS. Conclusion. These are the first estimate of incidence and risk factors of MetS in patients with T2DM in Iran. These findings showed that the natural course of MetS is dynamic. The clinical management of patients with T2DM will contribute significantly to MetS prevention.
Based on the AHA/NHLBI-definition three out of five cardiometabolic traits must be present for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), resulting in 16 different combination types. The associated cardiovascular risk may however be different and specific combination may be indicative of an increased risk, furthermore little is known to which extent these 16 combinations contribute to the overall prevalence of MetS. Here we assessed the prevalence of all 16 combination types of MetS, analyzed the impact of age and gender on prevalence rates, and estimated the 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) of each MetS combination type.
We used data of the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Project (GEMCAS), a cross-sectional study, performed during October 2005, including 35,869 participants (aged 18-99 years, 61% women). Age-standardized prevalence and 10-year PROCAM and ESC risk scores for MI were calculated.
In both men and women the combination with elevated waist-circumference, blood pressure and glucose (WC-BP-GL) was the most frequent combination (28%), however a distinct unequal distribution was observed regarding age and sex. Any combination with GL was common in the elderly, whereas any combination with dyslipidemia and without GL was frequent in the younger. Men without MetS had an estimated mean 10-year risk of 4.7% (95%-CI: 4.5%-4.8%) for MI (PROCAM), whereas the mean 10-year risk of men with MetS was clearly higher (age-standardized 7.9%; 7.8-8.0%). In women without MetS the mean 10-year risk for MI was 1.1%, in those with MetS 2.3%. The highest impact on an estimated 10-year risk for MI (PROCAM) was observed with TG-HDL-GL-BP in both sexes (men 14.7%, women 3.9%). However, we could identify combinations with equal risks of non-fatal and fatal MI compared to participants without MetS.
We observed large variations in the prevalence of all 16 combination types and their association to cardiovascular risk. The importance of different combinations of MetS changes with age and between genders putting emphasis on a tailored approach towards very young or very old subjects. This knowledge may guide clinicians to effectively screen individuals and prioritize diagnostic procedures depending on age and gender.
The objective of this study was to determine whether the progressive increase of metabolic syndrome (MetS) score, the number of components of MetS, is correlated significantly with increasing pulse pressure (PP).
Materials and Methods
4,034 subjects were enrolled from the Cardiovascular Genome Center of Yonsei University (M : F = 2344 : 1690, 55.2 ± 10.5). Most of the study population were recruited from hypertension clinics, controlled with medications according to JNC7 guidelines. The Asian modified criteria of MetS were applied and MetS score was estimated. The HOMA index for insulin resistance, cholesterol profiles, and anthropometric measurements were assessed.
Among 4034 participants, 1690 (41.9%) were classified as MetS. Progressive increase in PP was demonstrated for increasing components of the MetS score. Multiple linear regression analysis with PP as the dependent variable showed that age (β = 0.311, p < 0.001), MetS score (β = 0.226, p < 0.001), male gender (β = -0.093, p < 0.001) and HOMA index IR (β = 0.033, p = 0.03) are significantly associated with PP (R2 = 0.207, p < 0.001).
The present results from this study demonstrate that increasing MetS score is an independent determinant of increasing PP. The results also demonstrate the independent role of MetS in increasing arterial stiffness and PP.
Metabolic syndrome; pulse pressure; arterial stiffness; metabolic syndrome scores
Prevalence of obesity is increasing all over the world. ADRB3 Trp64Arg gene polymorphism was proposed to be associated with obesity, although inconsistent findings and differences of the Arg64 allele frequency among various ethnics were reported. Westernization was reported to increase the prevalence of obesity in developing world. In this study we determined the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among urban and rural Balinese, and studied the association of ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism with obesity and MetS.
A total of 528 Balinese (urban 282, rural 246) were recruited. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were measured using standard procedures. BMI and WC classifications were based on WHO classifications for Asian. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined as described in the Joint Interim Statement. Chi-square test was employed to test the association between the ADRB3 Trp64Arg genotype and disease traits.
Urban have higher BMI (p = 2.8 × 10-13), WC ( p < 2.2 × 10-16), TG (p = 0.0028), DBP (p = 1.8 × 10-5), and lower HDL-C (p = 0.0376) when compared to rural. Abdominal obesity and MetS prevalence were significantly higher in urban as compared to rural (both p < 0.001). The Arg64 allele frequency was similar between urban (0.06) and rural (0.05). The Arg64 rural female carriers have higher BMI and WC as compared to their Trp64 counterparts (p = 0.041 for BMI and p = 0.012 for WC), and consequently higher abdominal obesity prevalence (p = 0.007). Comparison between male and female, as well as urban and rural, showed different prevalence of MetS co-morbidities. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were consistently appeared in all groups, suggesting to play a role as determinant of MetS in both urban and rural.
Prevalence of obesity and MetS in urban were two times higher when compared to rural. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia appears to be the key determinant of MetS in both urban and rural Balinese. Our results indicated an association of the ADRB3 Trp64Arg gene polymorphism with obesity in the rural female.
Dyslipidaemia is frequently present in obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The predominant features of dyslipidaemia in these disorders include increased flux of free fatty acids (FFA), raised triglyceride (TG) and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, a predominance of small, dense (atherogenic) low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) particles and raised apolipoprotein (apo) B values Posprandial hyperlipidaemia may also be present. Insulin resistance (IR) appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of dyslipidaemia in obesity, MetS and T2DM. The cornerstone of treatment of this IR-related dyslipidaemia is lifestyle changes and in diabetic patients, tight glycaemic control. In addition to these measures, recent clinical trials showed benefit with statin treatment. Nevertheless, a substantial percentage of patients treated with statins still experience vascular events. This residual vascular risk needs to be addressed. This review summarizes the effects of hypolipidaemic drug combinations (including statins with cholesterol ester protein inhibitors, niacin, fibrates or fish oil, as well as fibrate-ezetimibe combination) on the residual vascular risk in patients with obesity, MetS or T2DM.
Dyslipidaemia; obesity; metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes mellitus; residual vascular risk.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is growing rapidly in China. Tai chi and dancing are common types of exercise among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. It remains unclear whether these activities are associated with a lower risk of MetS.
A total of 15,514 individuals (6,952 men, 8,562 women) aged 50 to 70 years from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort in Shiyan, China participated in a cross-sectional study. Physical activity and other lifestyle factors were assessed with semi-structured questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. MetS was defined by the current National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. The prevalence of MetS was 33.2% in the study population. In the multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses, total physical activity levels were monotonically associated with a lower odds of MetS [OR 0.75 comparing extreme quintiles, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66–0.86, P<0.001]. Compared with non-exercisers in a specific exercise type, jogging (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68–1.00, P = 0.046), tai chi (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60–0.88, P<0.001), and dancing (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.47–0.67, P<0.001) were associated with significantly lower odds of MetS. Furthermore, each 1–h/week increment in tai chi and dancing was associated with a 5% (95% CI 2%–9%) and a 9% (95% CI 6%, 12%) lower risk of MetS.
Jogging, tai chi and dancing are associated with a significantly lower risk of having MetS in middle-aged and older Chinese. Future intervention studies should consider the role of jogging, tai chi and dancing in preventing MetS.