Despite their extensive clinical and pathological heterogeneity, all malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs) are thought to originate from primordial germ cells. However, no common biological abnormalities have been identified to date. We profiled 615 microRNAs (miRNAs) in pediatric malignant GCTs, controls and GCT cell lines (48 samples in total) and re-analyzed available miRNA expression data in adult gonadal malignant GCTs. We applied the bioinformatic algorithm Sylamer to identify miRNAs that are of biological importance by inducing global shifts in mRNA levels. The most significant differentially expressed miRNAs in malignant GCTs were all from the miR-371~373 and miR-302 clusters (adjusted p<0.00005), which were over-expressed regardless of histological subtype [yolk sac tumor (YST)/seminoma/embryonal carcinoma (EC)], site (gonadal/extragonadal) or patient age (pediatric/adult). Sylamer revealed that the hexamer GCACTT, complementary to the 2-7 nucleotide miRNA seed AAGUGC shared by six members of the miR-371~373 and miR-302 clusters, was the only sequence significantly enriched in the 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) of mRNAs down-regulated in pediatric malignant GCTs (as a group), YSTs and ECs; and in adult YSTs (all versus non-malignant tissue controls; p<0.05). For the pediatric samples, down-regulated genes containing 3′UTR GCACTT showed significant over-representation of Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to cancer–associated processes, whereas for down-regulated genes lacking GCACTT, GO terms generally represented metabolic processes only, with few genes per term (adjusted p<0.05). We conclude that the miR-371~373 and miR-302 clusters are universally over-expressed in malignant GCTs and coordinately down-regulate mRNAs involved in biologically significant pathways.
AAGUGC; embryonic stem cell; germ cell tumor; miRNA; mRNA
Aberrant DNA methylation is a prominent feature of many cancers, and may be especially relevant in germ cell tumors (GCTs) due to the extensive epigenetic reprogramming that occurs in the germ line during normal development.
We used the Illumina GoldenGate Cancer Methylation Panel to compare DNA methylation in the three main histologic subtypes of pediatric GCTs (germinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor (YST); N = 51) and used recursively partitioned mixture models (RPMM) to test associations between methylation pattern and tumor and demographic characteristics. We identified genes and pathways that were differentially methylated using generalized linear models and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. We also measured global DNA methylation at LINE1 elements and evaluated methylation at selected imprinted loci using pyrosequencing.
Methylation patterns differed by tumor histology, with 18/19 YSTs forming a distinct methylation class. Four pathways showed significant enrichment for YSTs, including a human embryonic stem cell pluripotency pathway. We identified 190 CpG loci with significant methylation differences in mature and immature teratomas (q < 0.05), including a number of CpGs in stem cell and pluripotency-related pathways. Both YST and germinoma showed significantly lower methylation at LINE1 elements compared with normal adjacent tissue while there was no difference between teratoma (mature and immature) and normal tissue. DNA methylation at imprinted loci differed significantly by tumor histology and location.
Understanding methylation patterns may identify the developmental stage at which the GCT arose and the at-risk period when environmental exposures could be most harmful. Further, identification of relevant genetic pathways could lead to the development of new targets for therapy.
Germ Cell Tumor; Teratoma; DNA Methylation; Imprinting
We reviewed the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) experience with salvage high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) in paediatric patients with extragonadal germ-cell tumour (GCT). A total of 23 children with extragonadal GCT, median age 12 years (range 1–20), were treated with salvage HDC with haematopoietic progenitor cell support. The GCT primary location was intracranial site in nine cases, sacrococcyx in eight, retroperitoneum in four, and mediastinum in two. In all, 22 patients had a nongerminomatous GCT and one germinoma. Nine patients received HDC in first- and 14 in second- or third-relapse situation. No toxic deaths occurred. Overall, 16 of 23 patients (70%) achieved a complete remission. With a median follow-up of 66 months (range 31–173 months), 10 (43%) are continuously disease-free. Of six patients who had a disease recurrence after HDC, one achieved a disease-free status with surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In total, 11 patients (48%) are currently disease-free. Eight of 14 patients (57%) with extracranial primary and three of nine patients (33%) with intracranial primary GCT are currently disease-free. HDC induced impressive long-term remissions as salvage treatment in children with extragonadal extracranial GCTs. Salvage HDC should be investigated in prospective trials in these patients.
extragonadal germ cell tumour; high-dose chemotherapy; salvage therapy; children
We hypothesised that differences in microRNA expression profiles contribute to the contrasting natural history and clinical outcome of the two most common types of malignant germ cell tumour (GCT), yolk sac tumours (YSTs) and germinomas.
By direct comparison, using microarray data for paediatric GCT samples and published qRT-PCR data for adult samples, we identified microRNAs significantly up-regulated in YSTs (n = 29 paediatric, 26 adult, 11 overlapping) or germinomas (n = 37 paediatric). By Taqman qRT-PCR we confirmed differential expression of 15 of 16 selected microRNAs and further validated six of these (miR-302b, miR-375, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-122, miR-205) in an independent sample set. Interestingly, the miR-302 cluster, which is over-expressed in all malignant GCTs, showed further over-expression in YSTs versus germinomas, representing six of the top eight microRNAs over-expressed in paediatric YSTs and seven of the top 11 in adult YSTs. To explain this observation, we used mRNA expression profiles of paediatric and adult malignant GCTs to identify 10 transcription factors (TFs) consistently over-expressed in YSTs versus germinomas, followed by linear regression to confirm associations between TF and miR-302 cluster expression levels. Using the sequence motif analysis environment iMotifs, we identified predicted binding sites for four of the 10 TFs (GATA6, GATA3, TCF7L2 and MAF) in the miR-302 cluster promoter region. Finally, we showed that miR-302 family over-expression in YST is likely to be functionally significant, as mRNAs down-regulated in YSTs were enriched for 3' untranslated region sequences complementary to the common seed of miR-302a~miR-302d. Such mRNAs included mediators of key cancer-associated processes, including tumour suppressor genes, apoptosis regulators and TFs.
Differential microRNA expression is likely to contribute to the relatively aggressive behaviour of YSTs and may enable future improvements in clinical diagnosis and/or treatment.
Primary intracranial germ cell tumors are rare (ICGCTs) and usually localized in the pineal and suprasellar regions of the brain. They are divided into histologic types: Germinoma, teratoma choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and malignant mixed germ cell tumors (MMGCTs). Neuroimaging evaluation is useful to distinguish between the types of ICGCTs. Germinoma is highly sensitive to radiotherapy or/and chemotherapy, and is potentially curable without surgery. MMGCTs are treated with the combination of chemotherapy and radiation, with a poorer prognosis. ICGCTs warrant correct pre-operative diagnosis in order to decide on appropriate management.
To report the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings in three cases of primary intracranial germ-cell tumor.
Materials and Methods:
Three cases of intracranial germ cell tumors inclusive of both genders and all brain regions were retrieved from the archives of the Anatomical Pathology Department at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah between the years, 1995-2011, through a computerized search.
Based on histological examination, they were respectively diagnosed as MMGCTs (two cases) and germinoma. Clinical, radiological, pathological characteristics and immunohistochemical profile of the three ICGCTs are presented along with the review of recent literature.
ICGCTs are rare tumors affecting males more than females, and at the end of three years follow-up in the present study, treatment morbidity appears to be low with no recurrence observed among surviving patients, indicating that suprasellar and basal ganglia ICGCTs may have a favorable prognosis regardless of histological type. Pineal MMGCTs may have an aggressive course.
Germinoma; immunohistochemical; intracranial; mixed; pineal
The Third International Central Nervous System (CNS) Germ Cell Tumour (GCT) Symposium brought together over 100 delegates from all over the world to learn about the latest developments in these tumours and discuss future strategies for their management. Some areas of consensus were agreed upon, and controversies were discussed. Among these, the classification of GCTs and the surgical approach to their management were among the greatest areas of difference between different parts of the world. The need for radiotherapy (RT) as a part of standard first-line management for all malignant CNS GCTs was agreed, as well as the need for additional chemotherapy to maximise the cure in nongerminomatous malignant GCTs; the benefit of the addition of chemotherapy in localised germinoma to reduce the RT burden was also accepted as a good practice. The potential of biological parameters to assist the future diagnosis, treatment stratification, and disease monitoring for CNS GCTs was discussed. Such biological parameters may also represent targets for the development of novel therapies. The need for further collaboration between groups engaged in biological studies was agreed. The merits of proton beam RT were debated, and the importance of mitigating the long-term side effects of the treatment was underlined by a session on late effects.
Third International CNS GCT Symposium; central nervous system; germ cell tumour; germinoma; nongerminoma
In order to predict whether tumor markers assist in the histopathologic diagnosis of germ cell tumors (GCTs), we analyzed the correlation of beta human chorionic gonadotropin (bHCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples at baseline and subsequent follow-up examinations.
A retrospective study of patients diagnosed with intracranial GCTs between July 1985 and February 2011 at our institution was conducted to review clinical, surgical, radiological, laboratory and histopathologic data.
Of 67 patients eligible for the study, 42 had germinomas and 25 non germinomatous GCTs. At baseline, serum and CSF AFP agreed in 97.9% of patients (Cohen’s Kappa 0.93). Baseline bHCG samples agreed in only 72.5% of patients (Cohen’s Kappa 0.46). In most cases, values were higher in serum for AFP and in CSF for bHCG. ROC curves estimated from logistic regression model indicated that CSF and serum samples had almost equal diagnostic utility, and the DeLong test showed that the difference in area under curves was not statistically significant. During follow-up (185 paired CSF and serum values from 43 patients), 90.3% of AFP values correlated between CSF and serum (Cohen’s Kappa 0.22, showing fair agreement). For bHCG, 96.2% of values agreed in serum and CSF (Cohen’s Kappa 0.61).
In some patients, intracranial GCTs can be diagnosed based solely upon positive serum AFP values. In addition, marker values from serum only may be sufficient to predict tumor relapse at interval follow-up examinations.
germ cell tumors; tumor markers; beta human chorionic gonadotropin; alpha-fetoprotein; correlation of markers; diagnostic utility
Cisplatin (CDDP) resistance in testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) is still a clinical challenge, and one associated with poor prognosis. The purpose of this work was to test pazopanib, an anti-tumoral and anti-angiogenic multikinase inhibitor, and its combination with lapatinib (an anti-ErbB inhibitor) in mouse orthotopic models of human testicular GCTs.
We used two different models of human testicular GCTs orthotopically grown in nude mice; a CDDP-sensitive choriocarcinoma (TGT38) and a new orthotopic model generated from a metastatic GCT refractory to first-line CDDP chemotherapy (TGT44). Nude mice implanted with these orthotopic tumors were treated with the inhibitors and the effect on tumoral growth and angiogenesis was evaluated.
TGT44 refractory tumor had an immunohistochemical profile similar to the original metastasis, with characteristics of yolk sac tumor. TGT44 did not respond when treated with cisplatin. In contrast, pazopanib had an anti-angiogenic effect and anti-tumor efficacy in this model. Pazopanib in combination with lapatinib in TGT38, an orthotopic model of choriocarcinoma had an additive effect blocking tumor growth.
We present pazopanib as a possible agent for the alternative treatment of CDDP-sensitive and CDDP-refractory GCT patients, alone or in combination with anti-ErbB therapies.
Pazopanib; Lapatinib; Testicular cancer; Germ-cell tumors; Cisplatin; Refractory
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has been commonly used for the treatment of intracranial germ cell tumors (IC-GCTs). However, this treatment exhibits some adverse effects such as renal problems and hearing difficulty. Carboplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to pediatric patients with IC-GCTs from August 2004 at the Samsung Medical Center. In this study, we assessed the responses and adverse effects of carboplatin-based chemotherapy in pediatric IC-GCTs patients according to the risk group, and compared the results with those of the previous cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
We examined 35 patients (27 men and 8 women) diagnosed with IC-GCTs between August 2004 and April 2008 and received risk-adapted carboplatin-based chemotherapy at the Samsung Medical Center. Patients were divided into either low-risk (LR) or high-risk (HR) groups and a retrospective analysis was performed using information from the medical records.
Although hematological complications were common, hearing difficulties or grade 3 or 4 creatinine level elevation were not observed in patients who underwent carboplatin-based chemotherapy. The frequency of febrile neutropenia did not differ between the risk groups. The overall survival was 100% and event-free survival (EFS) was 95.7%. The EFS rate was 100% in the LR group and 90% in the HR group, respectively.
Despite their common occurrence in high-risk patients, no lethal hematological complications were associated with carboplatin-based treatment. The current carboplatin-based chemotherapy protocol is safe and effective for the treatment of pediatric patients with IC-GCTs.
Intracranial germ cell tumor; Carboplatin; Adverse effects
Giant cell tumor (GCT) is usually a benign but locally aggressive primary bone neoplasm in which monocytic macrophage/osteoclast precursor cells and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells infiltrate the tumor. The etiology of GCT is unknown, however the tumor cells of GCT have been reported to produce chemoattractants that can attract osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. Rarely, GCT can originate at extraosseous sites. More rarely, GCT may exhibit a much more aggressive phenotype. The role of chemotherapy in metastatic GCT is not well defined.
We report a case of an aggressive GCT of the uterus with rapidly growing lung metastases, and its response to chemotherapy with pegylated-liposomal doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and bevacizumab, along with a review of the literature.
Aggressive metastasizing GCT may arise in the uterus, and may respond to combination chemotherapy.
Human male germ cell tumors (GCTs) arise from undifferentiated primordial germ cells (PGCs), a stage in which extensive methylation reprogramming occurs. GCTs exhibit pluripotentality and are highly sensitive to cisplatin therapy. The molecular basis of germ cell (GC) transformation, differentiation, and exquisite treatment response is poorly understood.
To assess the role and mechanism of promoter hypermethylation, we analyzed CpG islands of 21 gene promoters by methylation-specific PCR in seminomatous (SGCT) and nonseminomatous (NSGCT) GCTs. We found 60% of the NSGCTs demonstrating methylation in one or more gene promoters whereas SGCTs showed a near-absence of methylation, therefore identifying distinct methylation patterns in the two major histologies of GCT. DNA repair genes MGMT, RASSF1A, and BRCA1, and a transcriptional repressor gene HIC1, were frequently methylated in the NSGCTs. The promoter hypermethylation was associated with gene silencing in most methylated genes, and reactivation of gene expression occured upon treatment with 5-Aza-2' deoxycytidine in GCT cell lines.
Our results, therefore, suggest a potential role for epigenetic modification of critical tumor suppressor genes in pathways relevant to GC transformation, differentiation, and treatment response.
Germ cell tumor; promoter hypermethylation; MGMT; RASSF1A; BRCA1; gene expression
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the testis are rare, but are the most common cancer in young men. GCTs may consist of one predominant histologic pattern or may represent a mixture of multiple histologic types. For treatment purposes, two broad categories are recognized: 1) pure seminoma and 2) others, which together are termed nonseminomatous GCTs (NSGCTs). In general, seminoma tends to be less aggressive, to be diagnosed at an earlier stage, and to spread predictably along lymphatic channels to the retroperitoneum before spreading hematogenously to the lung or other organs. Compared with NSGCTs, seminoma is exquisitely sensitive to radiation therapy and platinum-based chemotherapy. NSGCTs are usually mixed tumors and teratoma often exists at the sites of metastasis with other GCT elements; cure often requires chemotherapy to kill the chemosensitive-components and surgery to remove the teratomatous components. The main factors contributing to excellent cure rates of GCTs are careful staging at diagnosis; adequate early treatment using chemotherapeutic combinations, with or without radiotherapy and surgery; and very strict follow-up and salvage therapy. We review several clinical studies and summarize the current trends in the management of GCTs.
Neoplasms; Testis; Therapeutics
Germ cell tumor (GCT) of the liver is extremely rare. Here, we describe a case of hepatic mixed GCT with significant sarcomatous components and elevated serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) in a 34-year-old man. Histopathologically, the tumor was composed of two GCTs components: yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma. The predominant components of immature teratoma consisted of several types of tissue that represented different germinal layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm) and showed varying degrees of differentiation with significant sarcomatous components. The yolk sac component showed positivity for AFP and cytokeratin (AE1/AE3). The immature teratoma components showed positivity for varying differentiation markers. Interphase cytogenetic analysis revealed that the yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma were positive for i(12p) and 12p over-representation. In particular, the rhabdomyoblastic components also showed typical i(12p) and 12p overrepresentation. This suggested that sarcomatous components may be associated with dedifferentiation or malignant transformation of certain mesenchymal components within teratoma.
Germ cell tumor; Teratoma; Sarcoma; Liver neoplasms
Background and purpose
Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the small bones (small-bone GCT) is usually rare and considered somewhat different from conventional GCT. The purpose of this study was to investigate and report the clinicopathological features of 11 cases with small-bone GCT.
Materials and methods
Patient information was obtained with the help of questionnaires. X-rays and paraffin blocks obtained from several institutions were clinically, radiographically, and histologically evaluated.
Small-bone GCT was observed in younger patients compared to conventional GCT; 5 of the 11 (45%) patients were below 20 years of age, whereas the corresponding figure for all GCT patients is 16% in Japan. Excessive cortical bone expansion is a special feature. There were two cases of recurrence and one case of lung metastasis; the primary lesion was in the hand for all three cases. In contrast, no primary lesion of the foot recurred or metastasized. Varying degrees of positive p63 immunostaining were observed in all examined cases (n = 9) of small-bone GCT but were negative in case of giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) and solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). One case that demonstrated high-intensity positive staining had two episodes of recurrence.
Small-bone GCT tends to develop in younger patients than does conventional GCT. Primary GCTs of the hand may be biologically more aggressive than those of the feet. The p63 immunostaining may be useful not only for differential diagnosis but also for prognostication of small-bone GCT.
clinicopathological study; giant cell tumor; p63 immunostaining; small bone
Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is a destructive neoplasm of uncertain etiology that affects the epiphyseal ends of long bones in young adults. GCT stromal cells (GCTSCs) are the primary neoplastic cells of this tumor and are the only proliferating cell component in long-term culture, which recruits osteoclast-like giant cells that eventually mediate bone destruction. The oncogenesis of GCT and factors driving the neoplastic stromal cells to proliferate extensively and pause at an early differentiation stage of pre-osteoblast lineage remain unknown. Overexpression of p63 was observed in GCTSCs and there is growing evidence that p63 is involved in oncogenesis through different mechanisms. This study aimed to understand the specific role of p63 in cell proliferation and oncogenesis of GCTSCs. We confirmed p63 expression in the mononuclear cells in GCT by immunohistochemical staining. By real-time PCR analysis, we showed a higher level (>15-fold) of TAp63 expression in GCTSCs compared to that in mesenchymal stem cells. Furthermore, we observed that knockdown of the p63 gene by siRNA transfection greatly reduced cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at S phase in GCTSCs. We found that the mRNA expression of CDC2 and CDC25C was substantially suppressed by p63 knockdown at 24–72 h. Moreover, p63 was found to be recruited on the regulatory regions of CDC2 and CDC25C, which contain p53-responsive elements. In summary, our data suggest that p63 regulates GCTSC proliferation by binding to the CDC2 and CDC25C p53-REs, which may inhibit the p53 tumor suppressor activity and contribute to GCT tumorigenesis.
giant cell tumor of bone; p63; CDC2; CDC25C; cell proliferation; siRNA
Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation is infrequent in testicular tumors and its histogenesis is not well understood. The present study is aimed at elucidating the pathway of neuroendocrine differentiation in germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the testis. In the analysis of 46 germ cell tumor components from 23 testicular tumors, we focused on GCTs with neuroendocrine differentiation, 7 teratoma, 1 embryonal carcinoma and 1 neuroendocrine carcinoma by immunohistochemical study and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis. NE marker positive cells were noted in the tumor with collision of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma (E&T tumor), in the immature columnar cells of transitional form of embryonal carcinoma to teratoma (E-T cells) and neuroendocrine carcinoma cells, in addition to the well known mature intestinal mucosa in teratoma. Double staining for a NE marker (CGA) and a germ cell marker (PLAP) demonstrated the localization of both proteins in the same E-T cells confirmed by CLSM. Another finding, indicating the intimate relation between embryonal carcinoma and neuroendcrine differentiation, is that neuroendocrine carcinoma expressed a marker of embryonal carcinoma, CD30. The present results indicated that the NE cells might be differentiated from embryonal carcinoma, a view that has not been proposed before, but that is made in the present study using CLSM.
confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM); embryonal carcinoma; germ cell tumor; neuroendocrine cell; testis
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) affect infants, children, and adults and are the most common cancer type in young men. Progress in understanding the molecular basis of GCTs has been hampered by a lack of suitable animal models. Here we report the identification of a zebrafish model of highly penetrant, heritable testicular GCT isolated as part of a forward genetic screen for cancer susceptibility genes. The mutant line develops spontaneous testicular tumors at a median age of 7 months, and pedigree analysis indicates dominant inheritance of the GCT susceptibility trait. The zebrafish model exhibits disruption of testicular tissue architecture and the accumulation of primitive, spermatogonial-like cells with loss of spermatocytic differentiation. Radiation treatment leads to apoptosis of the tumor cells and tumor regression. The GCT-susceptible line can serve as a model for understanding the mechanisms regulating germ cells in normal development and disease and as a platform investigating new therapeutic approaches for GCTs.
This study investigated the clinical outcome of intracranial non-germinomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCTs). All histologically proven cases of NGMGCTs treated in Shanghai Huashan Hospital, Fudan University were reviewed. A total of 39 cases were analyzed. There were 15 mixed germ cell tumors, 15 immature teratomas, 7 embryonal carcinomas and 2 yolk sac tumors. Patients were treated surgically first, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Some patients also received gamma knife surgery. The common 5-year survival rate was 36.8%. According to Matsutani’s grading system, the 5-year actuarial survival rate for patients in the intermediate and poor prognosis groups were 45.8 and 14.3%, respectively. Individual analysis of each type of tumor showed that the median survival time of embryonal carcinoma was 27 months, which is very close to that of the intermediate group (28 months). We therefore classified embryonal carcinoma into the intermediate group where the 5-year actuarial survival rate for patients in the new intermediate prognosis group was 42.6%. Further analysis of immature teratoma cases found that the 5-year survival rate of patients with immature teratoma who received gamma knife surgery is 100%. This rate exhibited a significant difference (P=0.0049) compared to that of patients who did not undergo gamma knife surgery. In conclusion, we consider surgery as the first choice of treatment although for different histologis, the type of the tumor should be treated separately.
germ cell tumor; surgery; gamma knife surgery; radiotherapy; chemotherapy
Family history of testicular cancer is an established risk factor for adult testicular germ cell tumors (GCT). We evaluated the association between family history of cancer and pediatric GCT in a Children's Oncology Group case–control study that included 274 GCT cases (195 female and 79 male) diagnosed
Germ cell tumor; Family history; Children
Intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) are relatively rare. Their incidence has been considered to be higher in East Asia than in the United States. This study estimates the incidence of CNS GCTs in Japan and the United States, investigates gender discrepancies in each country, and describes treatment outcomes. Data on primary CNS GCTs from 4 databases were utilized: population-based malignant incidence data from (1) the Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group (2004–2006; 14 registries), malignant and nonmalignant incidence data from (2) the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (2004–2008; 17 registries), and hospital-based observed survival data from (3) the Brain Tumor Registry of Japan (1984–2000) and (4) the US National Cancer Data Base (1990–2003). Incidence rates per 100 000 for malignant GCTs were not statistically significantly different between Japan (males = 0.143, females = 0.046) and the United States (males = 0.118, females = 0.030). The malignant incidence-rate ratio was higher for pineal GCTs versus nonpineal (ie, the rest of the brain) GCTs in Japan (11.5:1 vs 1.9:1, respectively) and the United States (16.0:1 vs 1.7:1, respectively). In general, 5-year survival estimates were high: over 75% for all GCTs, and over 81% for germinomas, regardless of the type of treatment in either Japan or the United States. The incidence of primary GCTs is similar between Japan and the United States and has the same gender-based patterns by location. High rates of survival were observed in both countries.
brain tumor; epidemiology; germ cell tumors; germinoma; mixed germ cell tumors; pineal gland; teratoma; tumor registry
miRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that can be released into body fluids. Germ cell tumours (GCTs) overexpress miRNAs of the miR-371-3 cluster. Thus, serum levels of these miRNAs may correlate with tumour load.
miRNAs of the miR-371-3 cluster were quantified in cubital vein blood samples of 20 GCT patients with clinical stage 1, and of 4 patients with advanced stages before and after treatment. In six patients testicular vein blood (TVB) was examined additionally. Seventeen healthy males served as controls. Likewise, expression of miRNAs in 15 matching tumour specimens was measured.
In all patients, serum levels of miRNAs 371-3 were much higher than in controls. In stage 1, levels decreased postoperatively 336.7-fold, 7.4-fold, and 7.7-fold for miRNAs 371a-3p, 372, and 373-3p, respectively (P<0.01). Also, in those cases with advanced disease levels dropped to the normal range after completion of treatment. miR-371-3 levels in TVB exceeded those in peripheral blood in all cases. Expression of miR-371a-3p was also documented in tumour tissue. However, no correlation was found regarding the extent of miRNA expression in tissue and the values measured in matching serum.
Thus, miR-371a-3p serum level appears to be a useful biomarker in GCTs.
testicular germ cell tumour; microRNA; seminoma; biomarker
Central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCT) have not been epidemiologically well described. Our study describes 2 population-based series of nonpineal CNS GCT. Data on all primary (malignant and nonmalignant) CNS (ICD-O-3 sites: C70.0–C72.9, C75.1–C75.3) GCT diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) and on all malignant GCT diagnosed between 1992 and 2005 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) were analyzed. Of 234 nonpineal GCT in CBTRUS, the most common site was brain, NOS (31.6%). Males had a greater frequency (59.7%) than females (40.3%). However, by age group, the male-to-female incidence rate ratio (IRR) differed: children (0–14 years) had an IRR of 1.1, young adults (15–29 years) an IRR of 2.3, and adults (aged 30+) an IRR of 1.0. For children and young adults, most tumors were malignant (86.8% and 89.0%, respectively), whereas for adults, more than half were nonmalignant (56.8%). Germinoma was the most frequent diagnosis (61.5%). In SEER, the frequency of malignant GCT in the CNS (2.5%) was greater than that in the mediastinum (2.1%). Of 408 malignant CNS GCT, 216 (52.9%) were nonpineal. The male-to-female IRR was 1.5. Overall relative survival for nonpineal CNS malignant GCT was 85.3% at 2 years, 77.3% at 5 years, and 67.6% at 10 years. Previous studies of GCT that have not stratified by site have suggested greater gender disparity. Nonpineal CNS GCT show no significant gender preference, yet have outcomes similar to pineal GCT.
brain tumor; epidemiology; germ cell tumors; germinoma; teratoma
Few risk factors have been established for childhood germ cell tumors (GCT). Parental infertility and infertility treatment may be associated with GCT development but these risk factors have not been fully investigated.
A case-control study of childhood GCT was conducted through the Children’s Oncology Group (COG). Cases, under the age of 15 years at diagnosis, were recruited through COG institutions from January 1993 to December 2002. Controls were obtained through random digit dialing. Information about infertility and infertility treatment along with demographic factors was collection through maternal interviews. Subgroups created by gender, age at diagnosis, and tumor location were examined separately. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression models.
Overall, no association between GCT and infertility or its treatment was found. In subgroup analysis, females whose mothers had two or more fetal losses were found to be at increased risk for non-gonadal tumors (Odds ratio (OR) = 3.32, 95% Confidence interval (CI) = 1.12–9.88). Younger maternal age was associated with a lower risk of gonadal GCT in females (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.28–0.96). There was an increased risk of all GCT and gonadal GCT in males born to older mothers (OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.13–7.37 and OR = 3.70, 95% CI = 1.12–12.24).
While no association between parental infertility or its treatment and childhood GCT was found overall, possible associations with maternal age and history of recurrent fetal loss were found in subgroups defined by gender.
Germ cell tumor; infertility; pediatrics; epidemiology
We previously reported a dose-finding and phase II trial of the TI-CE regimen (paclitaxel [T] plus ifosfamide [I] followed by high-dose carboplatin [C] plus etoposide [E] with stem-cell support) in germ cell tumor (GCT) patients predicted to have a poor prognosis with conventional-dose salvage therapy. We now report the efficacy of TI-CE with prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in our full data set of 107 patients.
Patients and Methods
Eligible patients had advanced GCTs with progressive disease following chemotherapy and unfavorable prognostic features (extragonadal primary site, incomplete response [IR] to first-line therapy, or relapse/IR to ifosfamide-cisplatin–based conventional-dose salvage). Univariate and multivariate analyses (MVAs) of prognostic factors were performed. The predictive ability of the Einhorn and Beyer prognostic models was assessed.
Most patients were platinum refractory and had an IR to first-line chemotherapy. There were 54 (5%) complete and eight (8%) partial responses with negative markers; 5-year DFS was 47% and OS was 52% (median follow-up, 61 months). No relapses occurred after 2 years. Five (24%) of 21 primary mediastinal nonseminomatous GCTs are continuously disease free. On MVA, primary mediastinal site (P < .001), two or more lines of prior therapy (P < .001), baseline human chorionic gonadotropin ≥ 1,000 U/L (P = .01), and lung metastases (P = .02) significantly predicted adverse DFS. Poor-risk patients did worse than good- or intermediate-risk patients according to both Beyer (P < .002) and Einhorn (P < .05) models.
TI-CE is effective salvage therapy for GCT patients with poor prognostic features. Mediastinal primary site and two or more lines of prior therapy were most predictive of adverse DFS. Beyer and Einhorn models can assist in predicting outcome.
Although colorectal granular cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, their incidental finding has increased as the use of diagnostic colonoscopy has become more common. Here we describe the case of a 41-yr-old man with a GCT in the descending colon that was detected after a screening colonoscopy. Endoscopic examination revealed a yellowish submucosal tumor, 13×12 mm in diameter, in the descending colon. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) followed by histological examination revealed that the tumor was composed of plump histiocyte-like cells with an abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and small round nuclei. The tumor cells expressed S-100 protein and stained with periodic acid-Schiff, but were negative for desmin and cytokeratin. The resected tumor was diagnosed as a GCT. Colonoscopists should consider the possibility of GCT in the differential diagnosis of yellowish submucosal tumors of the colon. In such patients, EMR seems to be a feasible and safe approach for diagnosis and treatment.
Colon; Neoplasms; Endoscopic Mucosal Resection; Granular Cell Tumor; Submucosal Tumor
Results 1-25 (573926)