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1.  The Mutational Landscape of Lethal Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer 
Nature  2012;487(7406):239-243.
Characterization of the prostate cancer transcriptome and genome has identified chromosomal rearrangements and copy number gains/losses, including ETS gene fusions, PTEN loss and androgen receptor (AR) amplification, that drive prostate cancer development and progression to lethal, metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)1. As less is known about the role of mutations2–4, here we sequenced the exomes of 50 lethal, heavily-pretreated metastatic CRPCs obtained at rapid autopsy (including three different foci from the same patient) and 11 treatment naïve, high-grade localized prostate cancers. We identified low overall mutation rates even in heavily treated CRPC (2.00/Mb) and confirmed the monoclonal origin of lethal CRPC. Integrating exome copy number analysis identified disruptions of CHD1, which define a subtype of ETS fusionnegative prostate cancer. Similarly, we demonstrate that ETS2, which is deleted in ~1/3 of CRPCs (commonly through TMPRSS2:ERG fusions), is also deregulated through mutation. Further, we identified recurrent mutations in multiple chromatin/histone modifying genes, including MLL2 (mutated in 8.6% of prostate cancers), and demonstrate interaction of the MLL complex with AR, which is required for AR-mediated signaling. We also identified novel recurrent mutations in the AR collaborating factor FOXA1, which is mutated in 5 of 147 (3.4%) prostate cancers (both untreated localized prostate cancer and CRPC), and showed that mutated FOXA1 represses androgen signaling and increases tumour growth. Proteins that physically interact with AR, such as the ERG gene fusion product, FOXA1, MLL2, UTX, and ASXL1 were found to be mutated in CRPC. In summary, we describe the mutational landscape of a heavily treated metastatic cancer, identify novel mechanisms of AR signaling deregulated in prostate cancer, and prioritize candidates for future study.
doi:10.1038/nature11125
PMCID: PMC3396711  PMID: 22722839
2.  Tumor-associated copy number changes in the circulation of patients with prostate cancer identified through whole-genome sequencing 
Genome Medicine  2013;5(4):30.
Background
Patients with prostate cancer may present with metastatic or recurrent disease despite initial curative treatment. The propensity of metastatic prostate cancer to spread to the bone has limited repeated sampling of tumor deposits. Hence, considerably less is understood about this lethal metastatic disease, as it is not commonly studied. Here we explored whole-genome sequencing of plasma DNA to scan the tumor genomes of these patients non-invasively.
Methods
We wanted to make whole-genome analysis from plasma DNA amenable to clinical routine applications and developed an approach based on a benchtop high-throughput platform, that is, Illuminas MiSeq instrument. We performed whole-genome sequencing from plasma at a shallow sequencing depth to establish a genome-wide copy number profile of the tumor at low costs within 2 days. In parallel, we sequenced a panel of 55 high-interest genes and 38 introns with frequent fusion breakpoints such as the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion with high coverage. After intensive testing of our approach with samples from 25 individuals without cancer we analyzed 13 plasma samples derived from five patients with castration resistant (CRPC) and four patients with castration sensitive prostate cancer (CSPC).
Results
The genome-wide profiling in the plasma of our patients revealed multiple copy number aberrations including those previously reported in prostate tumors, such as losses in 8p and gains in 8q. High-level copy number gains in the AR locus were observed in patients with CRPC but not with CSPC disease. We identified the TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangement associated 3-Mbp deletion on chromosome 21 and found corresponding fusion plasma fragments in these cases. In an index case multiregional sequencing of the primary tumor identified different copy number changes in each sector, suggesting multifocal disease. Our plasma analyses of this index case, performed 13 years after resection of the primary tumor, revealed novel chromosomal rearrangements, which were stable in serial plasma analyses over a 9-month period, which is consistent with the presence of one metastatic clone.
Conclusions
The genomic landscape of prostate cancer can be established by non-invasive means from plasma DNA. Our approach provides specific genomic signatures within 2 days which may therefore serve as 'liquid biopsy'.
doi:10.1186/gm434
PMCID: PMC3707016  PMID: 23561577
3.  Two Domains of Vimentin Are Expressed on the Surface of Lymph Node, Bone and Brain Metastatic Prostate Cancer Lines along with the Putative Stem Cell Marker Proteins CD44 and CD133 
Cancers  2011;3(3):2870-2885.
Vimentin was originally identified as an intermediate filament protein present only as an intracellular component in many cell types. However, this protein has now been detected on the surface of a number of different cancer cell types in a punctate distribution pattern. Increased vimentin expression has been indicated as an important step in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required for the metastasis of prostate cancer. Here, using two vimentin-specific monoclonal antibodies (SC5 and V9 directed against the coil one rod domain and the C-terminus of the vimentin protein, respectively), we examined whether either of these domains would be displayed on the surface of three commonly studied prostate cancer cell lines isolated from different sites of metastases. Confocal analysis of LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines (derived from lymph node, bone or brain prostate metastases, respectively) demonstrated that both domains of vimentin are present on the surface of these metastatic cancer cell types. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that vimentin expression was readily detected along with CD44 expression but only a small subpopulation of prostate cancer cells expressed vimentin and the putative stem cell marker CD133 along with CD44. Finally, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles that target vimentin could bind and internalize into tested prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that at least two domains of vimentin are present on the surface of metastatic prostate cancer cells and suggest that vimentin could provide a useful target for nanoparticle- or antibody- cancer therapeutic agents directed against highly invasive cancer and/or stem cells.
doi:10.3390/cancers3032870
PMCID: PMC3759176  PMID: 24212937
vimentin; prostate cancer; metastases; stem cell; Cowpea mosaic virus
4.  The Genomic Landscape of Prostate Cancer 
By the age of 80, approximately 80% of men will manifest some cancerous cells within their prostate, indicating that prostate cancer constitutes a major health burden. While this disease is clinically insignificant in most men, it can become lethal in others. The most challenging task for clinicians is developing a patient-tailored treatment in the knowledge that this disease is highly heterogeneous and that relatively little adequate prognostic tools are available to distinguish aggressive from indolent disease. Next-generation sequencing allows a description of the cancer at an unprecedented level of detail and at different levels, going from whole genome or exome sequencing to transcriptome analysis and methylation-specific immunoprecipitation, followed by sequencing. Integration of all these data is leading to a better understanding of the initiation, progression and metastatic processes of prostate cancer. Ultimately, these insights will result in a better and more personalized treatment of patients suffering from prostate cancer. The present review summarizes current knowledge on copy number changes, gene fusions, single nucleotide mutations and polymorphisms, methylation, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs obtained from high-throughput studies.
doi:10.3390/ijms140610822
PMCID: PMC3709705  PMID: 23708091
prostate cancer; next-generation sequencing; copy number changes; gene fusions; long non-coding RNAs; methylation; microRNAs; single nucleotide polymorphisms; single nucleotide variants
5.  Uncovering the genetic landscape driving castration-resistant prostate cancer 
Cancer Biology & Therapy  2013;14(5):399-400.
Identification of the mechanisms that drive progression of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has fostered interest since early androgen studies in the 1940s. Little knowledge has surfaced about the role mutations play in prostate cancer development. A group at the Michigan Center for Translation Pathology studied exomes of lethal, metastatic CRPC and documented the overall mutation rates. In classifying these mutations, the monoclonal cause of CRPC was recognized. Nine identified genes showed significant mutations. Six of these genes had previously been reported as mutated in prostate cancer. The analysis also found significantly mutated androgen receptor (AR) cofactors and linked proteins, including FOXA1 and MLL2. Another finding concerned an aberration in CHD1. Prostate cancers with deletions or mutations in CHD1 showed a strong correlation with ETS gene family fusion negative prostate cancers (96%). In profiling these exomes, this group provides an original method to identify deletions and mutations that drive CRPC progression.
doi:10.4161/cbt.24426
PMCID: PMC3672183  PMID: 23917376
castration-resistant prostate cancer; mutations; genetics
6.  Prostate Cancer Predisposition Loci and Risk of Metastatic Disease and Prostate Cancer Recurrence 
Background
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple novel prostate cancer predisposition loci. Whether these common genetic variants are associated with incident metastatic prostate cancer or with recurrence after surgical treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer is uncertain.
Methods
Twelve SNPs were selected for study in relation to prostate metastatic cancer and recurrence, based on their genome-wide association with prostate cancer in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) (1, 2). To assess risk for metastatic disease, we compared genotypes for the 12 SNPs by logistic regression of 470 incident metastatic prostate cancer cases and 1945 controls in 3 case-control studies. To assess the relationship of these SNPs to risk for prostate cancer recurrence, we used Cox regression in a cohort of 1412 men treated for localized prostate cancer, including 328 recurrences, and used logistic regression in a case-case study, comparing 450 recurrent versus 450 nonrecurrent prostate cancer cases. Study-specific RRs for risk of metastatic disease and recurrence were summarized using meta-analysis, with inverse variance weights.
Results
MSMB rs10993994 (per variant allele summary RR=1.24, 95% CI=1.05-1.48), 8q24 rs4242382 (RR=1.40, 95% CI=1.13-1.75) and 8q24 rs6983267 (RR=0.67, 95% CI=0.50-0.89) were associated with risk for metastatic prostate cancer. None of the 12 SNPs was associated with prostate cancer recurrence.
Conclusions
SNPs in MSMB and 8q24 which predispose to prostate cancer overall are associated with risk for metastatic prostate cancer, the most lethal form of this disease. SNPs predictive of prostate cancer recurrence were not identified, among the predisposition SNPs. GWAS specific to these two phenotypes may identify additional phenotype-specific genetic determinants.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-0881
PMCID: PMC3059497  PMID: 21343373
7.  5α-reductase Inhibitors and Risk of High-grade or Lethal Prostate Cancer 
JAMA internal medicine  2014;174(8):1301-1307.
Importance
5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) are widely used for benign prostatic hyperplasia despite controversy regarding potential risk of high-grade prostate cancer with use. Furthermore, the effect of 5ARIs on progression and prostate cancer death remains unclear.
Objective
To determine the association between 5ARI use and development of high-grade or lethal prostate cancer.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Prospective observational study of 38,058 men followed for prostate cancer diagnosis and outcomes between 1996–2010 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.
Exposure
Use of 5ARIs between 1996–2010.
Main Outcome Measures
Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate risk of prostate cancer diagnosis or development of lethal disease with 5ARI use, adjusting for possible confounders including prostate specific antigen testing.
Results
During 448,803 person-years of follow-up, we ascertained 3681 incident prostate cancer cases. Of these, 289 were lethal (metastatic or fatal), 456 were high-grade (Gleason 8–10), 1238 were Gleason grade 7, and 1600 were low-grade (Gleason 2–6). A total of 2878 (7.6%) men reported use of 5ARIs between 1996 and 2010. After adjusting for confounders, men who reported ever using 5ARIs over the study period had a reduced risk of overall prostate cancer (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65–0.91). 5ARI users had a reduced risk of Gleason 7 (HR 0.67; 95% CI, 0.49–0.91) and low-grade (Gleason 2–6) prostate cancer (HR 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57–0.95). 5ARI use was not associated with risk of high-grade (Gleason 8–10, HR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.64–1.46) or lethal disease (HR 0.99; 95% CI, 0.58–1.69). Increased duration of use was associated with significantly lower risk of overall prostate cancer (HR for 1 year of additional use 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92–0.99), localized (HR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90–1.00), and low-grade disease (HR 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85–0.99). There was no association for lethal, high-grade, or grade 7 disease.
Conclusions and Relevance
While 5ARI use was not associated with developing high-grade or lethal prostate cancer, they were associated with a reduction in low-grade, Gleason 7 and overall prostate cancer. Since the number of patients with high-grade or lethal prostate cancer in our cohort was limited, we cannot rule out potential risk of harm with 5ARI use.
doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.1600
PMCID: PMC4122627  PMID: 24887392
8.  Computational analysis of gene expression space associated with metastatic cancer 
BMC Bioinformatics  2009;10(Suppl 11):S6.
Background
Prostate carcinoma is among the most common types of cancer affecting hundreds of thousands people every year. Once the metastatic form of prostate carcinoma is documented, the majority of patients die from their tumors as opposed to other causes. The key to successful treatment is in the earliest possible diagnosis, as well as understanding the molecular mechanisms of metastatic progression. A number of recent studies have identified multiple biomarkers for metastatic progression. However, most of the studies consider only direct comparison between metastatic and non-metastatic classes of samples.
Results
We propose an alternative concept of analysis that considers the entire multidimensional space of gene expression and identifies the partition of this space in which metastatic development is possible. To apply this concept in cancer gene expression studies we utilize a modification of high-dimension natural taxonomy algorithm FOREL. Our analysis of microarray data containing primary and metastatic cancer samples has revealed not only differentially expressed genes, but also relations between different groups of primary and metastatic cancer. Metastatic samples tend to occupy a distinct partition of gene expression space. Further pathway analysis suggests that this partition is delineated by a specific pattern of gene expression in cytoskeleton remodeling, cell adhesion and apoptosis/cell survival pathways. We compare our findings with both report of original analysis and recent studies in molecular mechanism of metastasis.
Conclusion
Our analysis indicates a single molecular mechanism of metastasis. The new approach does not contradict previously reported findings, but reveals important details unattainable with traditional methodology.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-10-S11-S6
PMCID: PMC3226195  PMID: 19811690
9.  A Three-Marker FISH Panel Detects More Genetic Aberrations of AR, PTEN and TMPRSS2/ERG in Castration-Resistant or Metastatic Prostate Cancers than in Primary Prostate Tumors 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74671.
TMPRSS2/ERG rearrangement, PTEN gene deletion, and androgen receptor (AR) gene amplification have been observed in various stages of human prostate cancer. We hypothesized that using these markers as a combined panel would allow better differentiation between low-risk and high-risk prostate cancer. We analyzed 110 primary prostate cancer samples, 70 metastatic tumor samples from 11 patients, and 27 xenograft tissues derived from 22 advanced prostate cancer patients using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with probes targeting the TMPRSS2/ERG, PTEN, and AR gene loci. Heterogeneity of the aberrations detected was evaluated. Genetic patterns were also correlated with transcript levels. Among samples with complete data available, the three-marker FISH panel detected chromosomal abnormalities in 53% of primary prostate cancers and 87% of metastatic (Met) or castration-resistant (CRPC) tumors. The number of markers with abnormal FISH result had a different distribution between the two groups (P<0.001). At the patient level, Met/CRPC tumors are 4.5 times more likely to show abnormalities than primary cancer patients (P<0.05). Heterogeneity among Met/CRPC tumors is mostly inter-patient. Intra-patient heterogeneity is primarily due to differences between the primary prostate tumor and the metastases while multiple metastatic sites show consistent abnormalities. Intra-tumor variability is most prominent with the AR copy number in primary tumors. AR copy number correlated well with the AR mRNA expression (rho = 0.52, P<0.001). Especially among TMPRSS2:ERG fusion-positive CRPC tumors, AR mRNA and ERG mRNA levels are strongly correlated (rho = 0.64, P<0.001). Overall, the three-marker FISH panel may represent a useful tool for risk stratification of prostate cancer patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074671
PMCID: PMC3787014  PMID: 24098661
10.  Roles for the Stem Cell–Associated Intermediate Filament Nestin in Prostate Cancer Migration and Metastasis 
Cancer research  2007;67(19):9199-9206.
The intermediate filament protein Nestin identifies stem/progenitor cells in adult tissues, but the function of Nestin is poorly understood. We investigated Nestin expression and function in common lethal cancers. Nestin mRNA was detected in cell lines from small cell lung, and breast cancers, and particularly elevated in cell lines derived from prostate cancer metastases. Whereas the androgen-independent lines PC3, 22RV1, and DU145 all expressed Nestin transcripts under standard culture conditions, the androgen-dependent line LnCaP expressed Nestin only on androgen withdrawal. We confirmed associations of Nestin expression, androgen withdrawal, and metastatic potential by immunohistochemical analysis of samples from 254 prostate cancer patients. Cytoplasmic Nestin protein was readily identifiable in prostate cancer cells from 75% of patients with lethal androgen-independent disease, even in cancer sampled from the prostate itself. However, Nestin expression was undetectable in localized androgen-deprived tumors and in metastases without prior androgen deprivation. To address its function, we reduced Nestin levels with short hairpin RNAs, markedly inhibiting in vitro migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells but leaving cell growth intact. Nestin knockdown also diminished metastases 5-fold compared with controls despite uncompromised tumorigenicity at the site of inoculation. These results specify a function for Nestin in cell motility and identify a novel pathway for prostate cancer metastasis. Activity of this pathway may be selected by the extraprostatic environment or, as supported by our data, may originate within the prostate after androgen deprivation. Further dissection of this novel Nestin migration pathway may lead to strategies to prevent and neutralize metastatic spread.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-0806
PMCID: PMC3072059  PMID: 17909025
11.  The miR-124-Prolyl Hydroxylase P4HA1-MMP1 axis plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression 
Oncotarget  2014;5(16):6654-6669.
Collagen prolyl hydroxylases (C-P4HAs) are a family of enzymes involved in collagen biogenesis. One of the isoforms of P4HA, Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, alpha polypeptide I (P4HA1), catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline that is essential for the proper three-dimensional folding of newly synthesized procollagen chains. Here, we show the overexpression of P4HA1 in aggressive prostate cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarray demonstrated that P4HA1 expression was correlated with prostate cancer progression. Using in vitro studies, we showed that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer cell growth and tumor progression. Expression profiling studies using P4HA1-modulated prostate cells suggested regulation of Matrix metalloprotease 1. The invasive properties of P4HA1 overexpressing cells were reversed by blocking MMP1. Our studies indicate P4HA1 copy number gain in a subset of metastatic prostate tumors and its expression is also regulated by microRNA-124. MiR-124 in turn is negatively regulated by transcriptional repressors EZH2 and CtBP1, both of which are overexpressed in aggressive prostate cancer. Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and mice xenograft investigations show that P4HA1 is required for tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Our observations suggest that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression and could serve as a viable therapeutic target.
PMCID: PMC4196154  PMID: 25115393
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase; alpha polypeptide I; Prostate Cancer; Progression; Metastasis; MicroRNA; Matrix metalloprotease 1
12.  Isolation and genomic analysis of circulating tumor cells from castration resistant metastatic prostate cancer 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:78.
Background
The number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in metastatic prostate cancer patients provides prognostic and predictive information. However, it is the molecular characterization of CTCs that offers insight into the biology of these tumor cells in the context of personalized treatment.
Methods
We developed a novel approach to isolate CTCs away from hematopoietic cells with high purity, enabling genomic analysis of these cells. The isolation protocol involves immunomagnetic enrichment followed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (IE/FACS). To evaluate the feasibility of isolation of CTCs by IE/FACS and downstream genomic profiling, we conducted a pilot study in patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Twenty (20) sequential CRPC patients were assayed using CellSearch™. Twelve (12) patients positive for CTCs were subjected to immunomagnetic enrichment and fluorescence activated cell sorting (IE/FACS) to isolate CTCs. Genomic DNA of CTCs was subjected to whole genome amplification (WGA) followed by gene copy number analysis via array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH).
Results
CTCs from nine (9) patients successfully profiled were observed to have multiple copy number aberrations including those previously reported in primary prostate tumors such as gains in 8q and losses in 8p. High-level copy number gains at the androgen receptor (AR) locus were observed in 7 (78%) cases. Comparison of genomic profiles between CTCs and archival primary tumors from the same patients revealed common lineage. However, high-level copy number gains in the AR locus were observed in CTCs, but not in the matched archival primary tumors.
Conclusions
We developed a new approach to isolate prostate CTCs without significant leukocyte admixture, and to subject them to genome-wide copy number analysis. Our assay may be utilized to explore genomic events involved in cancer progression, e.g. development of castration resistance and to monitor therapeutic efficacy of targeted therapies in clinical trials in a relatively non-invasive manner.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-78
PMCID: PMC3395839  PMID: 22373240
Circulating tumor cells; Castration resistant prostate cancer; Copy number analysis; Array comparative genomic hybridization; Androgen receptor
13.  Association of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion with clinical characteristics and outcomes: results from a population-based study of prostate cancer 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:230.
Background
The presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene in prostate tumors has recently been associated with an aggressive phenotype, as well as recurrence and death from prostate cancer. These associations suggest the hypothesis that the gene fusion may be used as a prognostic indicator for prostate cancer.
Methods
In this study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were used to assess TMPRSS2-ERG fusion status in a group of 214 prostate cancer cases from two population-based studies. The FISH assays were designed to detect both fusion type (deletion vs. translocation) and the number of fusion copies (single vs. multiple). Genotyping of four ERG and one TMPRSS2 SNPs using germline DNA was also performed in a sample of the cases (n = 127).
Results
Of the 214 tumors scored for the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, 64.5% were negative and 35.5% were positive for the fusion. Cases with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion did not exhibit reduced prostate cancer survival (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.22–3.93), nor was there a significant difference in cause-specific survival when stratifying by translocation or deletion (HR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.23–3.12) or by the number of retained fusion copies (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.45–3.34). However, evidence for reduced prostate cancer-specific survival was apparent in those cases whose tumor had multiple copies of the fusion. The variant T allele of the TMPRSS2 SNP, rs12329760, was positively associated with TMPRSS2-ERG fusion by translocation (p = 0.05) and with multiple copies of the gene fusion (p = 0.03).
Conclusion
If replicated, the results presented here may provide insight into the mechanism by which the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion arises and also contribute to diagnostic evaluations for determining the subset of men who will go on to develop metastatic prostate cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-230
PMCID: PMC2519091  PMID: 18694509
14.  Development of a Castrate Resistant Transplant Tumor Model of Prostate Cancer 
The Prostate  2011;72(6):587-591.
Background
Currently, limited mouse models that mimic the clinical course of castrate resistant prostate development currently exist. Such mouse models are urgently required to conduct pre-clinical studies to assist in the understanding of disease progression and the development of rational therapeutic strategies to treat castrate resistant prostate cancer.
Methods
Wild type intact FVB male mice were injected by subcutaneous injection with Myc-CaP cells to establish androgen sensitive Myc-CaP tumors. Tumor bearing mice were castrated and resulting tumors serially passaged in pre-castrated FVB male mice to produce a bone fide Myc-CaP castrate resistant tumor.
Results
Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that initial androgen sensitive Myc-CaP tumors had strong nuclear transcriptional active androgen receptor expression, as indicated by marked c-MYC staining and were highly proliferative. Castration of tumor bearing animals resulted in cytoplasmic relocation of androgen receptor concurrent with loss of transcriptional activity and tumor proliferation. Serial passaging of castrate refractory Myc-CaP in pre-castrated male FVB mice resulted in the development of a bona fide castrate resistant Myc-CaP tumor which pheno-copied the original androgen sensitive parental Myc-CaP tumor.
Conclusions
Developing a murine castrate transplant resistant tumor model that mimics the clinical course of human castrate resistant prostate cancer will create better opportunities to understand the development of castrate resistant prostate cancer and also allow for more rapid pre-clinical studies to stratify rational novel therapies for this lethal form of prostate cancer.
doi:10.1002/pros.21465
PMCID: PMC3298731  PMID: 21796655
mouse models; prostate cancer; MYC; castrate resistant prostate cancer
15.  Somatic alterations contributing to metastasis of a castration resistant prostate cancer 
Human mutation  2013;34(9):1231-1241.
Metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a lethal disease and molecular markers that differentiate indolent from aggressive subtypes are needed. We sequenced the exomes of five metastatic tumors and healthy kidney tissue from an index case with mCRPC to identify lesions associated with disease progression and metastasis. An Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) germline founder mutation, del185AG in BRCA1, was observed and AJ ancestry was confirmed. Sixty-two somatic variants altered proteins in tumors, including cancer-associated genes, TMPRSS2-ERG, PBRM1, and TET2. The majority (n=53) of somatic variants were present in all metastases and only a subset (n=31) was observed in the primary tumor. Integrating tumor next generation sequencing (NGS) and DNA copy number showed somatic loss of BRCA1 and TMPRSS2-ERG. We sequenced 19 genes with deleterious mutations in the index case in additional mCRPC samples and detected a frameshift, two somatic missense alterations, tumor loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and combinations of germline missense SNPs in TET2. In summary, genetic analysis of metastases from an index case permitted us to infer a chronology for the clonal spread of disease based on sequential accrual of somatic lesions. The role of TET2 in mCRPC deserves additional analysis and may define a subset of metastatic disease.
doi:10.1002/humu.22346
PMCID: PMC3745530  PMID: 23636849
tumor heterogeneity; somatic mutation; metastasis; epigenetic modifiers; BRCA1; TMPRSS2; ERG; PBRM1; TET2
16.  DNA methylation alterations exhibit intra-individual stability and inter-individual heterogeneity in prostate cancer metastases 
Science translational medicine  2013;5(169):169ra10.
Human cancers nearly ubiquitously harbor epigenetic alterations. While such alterations in epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation, are potentially heritable, they can also be dynamically altered. Given this potential for plasticity, the degree to which epigenetic changes can be subject to selection and act as drivers of neoplasia has been questioned. Here, we carried out genome-scale analyses of DNA methylation alterations in lethal metastatic prostate cancer and created DNA methylation “cityscape” plots to visualize these complex data. We show that somatic DNA methylation alterations, despite showing marked inter-individual heterogeneity among men with lethal metastatic prostate cancer, were maintained across all metastases within the same individual. The overall extent of maintenance in DNA methylation changes was comparable to that of genetic copy number alterations. Regions that were frequently hypermethylated across individuals were markedly enriched for cancer and development/differentiation related genes. Additionally, regions exhibiting high consistency of hypermethylation across metastases within individuals, even if variably hypermethylated across individuals, showed enrichment of cancer-related genes. Interestingly, whereas some regions showed intra-individual metastatic tumor heterogeneity in promoter methylation, such methylation alterations were generally not correlated with gene expression. This was despite a general tendency for promoter methylation patterns to be strongly correlated with gene expression, particularly at regions that were variably methylated across individuals. These findings suggest that DNA methylation alterations have the potential for producing selectable driver events in carcinogenesis and disease progression and highlight the possibility of targeting such epigenome alterations for development of longitudinal markers and therapeutic strategies.
doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3005211
PMCID: PMC3577373  PMID: 23345608
17.  Validation of proposed prostate cancer biomarkers with gene expression data: a long road to travel 
Cancer Metastasis Reviews  2014;33(2-3):657-671.
Biomarkers are important for early detection of cancer, prognosis, response prediction, and detection of residual or relapsing disease. Special attention has been given to diagnostic markers for prostate cancer since it is thought that early detection and surgery might reduce prostate cancer-specific mortality. The use of prostate-specific antigen, PSA (KLK3), has been debated on the base of cohort studies that show that its use in preventive screenings only marginally influences mortality from prostate cancer. Many groups have identified alternative or additional markers, among which PCA3, in order to detect early prostate cancer through screening, to distinguish potentially lethal from indolent prostate cancers, and to guide the treatment decision. The large number of markers proposed has led us to the present study in which we analyze these indicators for their diagnostic and prognostic potential using publicly available genomic data. We identified 380 markers from literature analysis on 20,000 articles on prostate cancer markers. The most interesting ones appeared to be claudin 3 (CLDN3) and alpha-methysacyl-CoA racemase highly expressed in prostate cancer and filamin C (FLNC) and keratin 5 with highest expression in normal prostate tissue. None of the markers proposed can compete with PSA for tissue specificity. The indicators proposed generally show a great variability of expression in normal and tumor tissue or are expressed at similar levels in other tissues. Those proposed as prognostic markers distinguish cases with marginally different risk of progression and appear to have a clinically limited use. We used data sets sampling 152 prostate tissues, data sets with 281 prostate cancers analyzed by microarray analysis and a study of integrated genomics on 218 cases to develop a multigene score. A multivariate model that combines several indicators increases the discrimination power but does not add impressively to the information obtained from Gleason scoring. This analysis of 10 years of marker research suggests that diagnostic and prognostic testing is more difficult in prostate cancer than in other neoplasms and that we must continue to search for better candidates.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10555-013-9470-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10555-013-9470-4
PMCID: PMC4113682  PMID: 24477410
Prostate cancer; Biomarkers; Multivariate model; PSA; Prognostic signature
18.  Egg, red meat, and poultry intake and risk of lethal prostate cancer in the prostate specific antigen-era: incidence and survival 
Red and processed meat may increase risk of advanced prostate cancer. Data on post-diagnostic diet and prostate cancer are sparse, but post-diagnostic intake of poultry with skin and eggs may increase risk of disease progression. Therefore, we prospectively examined total, unprocessed, and processed red meat, poultry, and eggs in relation to risk of lethal prostate cancer (e.g. men without cancer at baseline who developed distant organ metastases or died from prostate cancer during follow-up) among 27, 607 men followed from 1994–2008. We also performed a case-only survival analysis to examine post-diagnostic consumption of these foods and risk of lethal prostate cancer among the 3,127 men initially diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer during follow-up. In the incidence analysis, we observed 199 events during 306,715 person-years. Men who consumed 2.5 or more eggs per week had an 81% increased risk of lethal prostate cancer compared to men who consumed less than 0.5 eggs per week (HR: 1.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 2.89; p-trend: 0.01). In the case-only survival analysis, we observed 123 events during 19,354 person-years. There were suggestive, but not statistically significant, positive associations between post-diagnostic poultry (HR ≥3.5 vs. <1.5 servings per week: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.96, 2.99; p-trend: 0.07) and post-diagnostic processed red meat (HR ≥3 vs. <0.5 servings per week: 1.45; 95%CI: 0.73, 2.87; p-trend: 0.08) and risk of progression of localized prostate cancer to lethal disease. In conclusion, consumption of eggs may increase risk of developing a lethal-form of prostate cancer among healthy men.
doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0354
PMCID: PMC3232297  PMID: 21930800
Eggs; red meat; poultry; prostate cancer; survival
19.  Coffee Consumption and Prostate Cancer Risk and Progression in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study 
Background
Coffee contains many biologically active compounds, including caffeine and phenolic acids, that have potent antioxidant activity and can affect glucose metabolism and sex hormone levels. Because of these biological activities, coffee may be associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer.
Methods
We conducted a prospective analysis of 47 911 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who reported intake of regular and decaffeinated coffee in 1986 and every 4 years thereafter. From 1986 to 2006, 5035 patients with prostate cancer were identified, including 642 patients with lethal prostate cancers, defined as fatal or metastatic. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between coffee and prostate cancer, adjusting for potential confounding by smoking, obesity, and other variables. All P values were from two-sided tests.
Results
The average intake of coffee in 1986 was 1.9 cups per day. Men who consumed six or more cups per day had a lower adjusted relative risk for overall prostate cancer compared with nondrinkers (RR = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68 to 0.98, Ptrend = .10). The association was stronger for lethal prostate cancer (consumers of more than six cups of coffee per day: RR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.75, Ptrend = .03). Coffee consumption was not associated with the risk of nonadvanced or low-grade cancers and was only weakly inversely associated with high-grade cancer. The inverse association with lethal cancer was similar for regular and decaffeinated coffee (each one cup per day increment: RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.01, P = .08 for regular coffee and RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.00, P = .05 for decaffeinated coffee). The age-adjusted incidence rates for men who had the highest (≥6 cups per day) and lowest (no coffee) coffee consumption were 425 and 519 total prostate cancers, respectively, per 100 000 person-years and 34 and 79 lethal prostate cancers, respectively, per 100 000 person-years.
Conclusions
We observed a strong inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of lethal prostate cancer. The association appears to be related to non-caffeine components of coffee.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djr151
PMCID: PMC3110172  PMID: 21586702
20.  High-Throughput Transcriptomic and RNAi Analysis Identifies AIM1, ERGIC1, TMED3 and TPX2 as Potential Drug Targets in Prostate Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e39801.
Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases and there is a need for more efficient and targeted methods of treatment. In this study, the potential of gene expression data and RNA interference technique were combined to advance future personalized prostate cancer therapeutics. To distinguish the most promising in vivo prevalidated prostate cancer drug targets, a bioinformatic analysis was carried out using genome-wide gene expression data from 9873 human tissue samples. In total, 295 genes were selected for further functional studies in cultured prostate cancer cells due to their high mRNA expression in prostate, prostate cancer or in metastatic prostate cancer samples. Second, RNAi based cell viability assay was performed in VCaP and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Based on the siRNA results, gene expression patterns in human tissues and novelty, endoplasmic reticulum function associated targets AIM1, ERGIC1 and TMED3, as well as mitosis regulating TPX2 were selected for further validation. AIM1, ERGIC1, and TPX2 were shown to be highly expressed especially in prostate cancer tissues, and high mRNA expression of ERGIC1 and TMED3 associated with AR and ERG oncogene expression. ERGIC1 silencing specifically regulated the proliferation of ERG oncogene positive prostate cancer cells and inhibited ERG mRNA expression in these cells, indicating that it is a potent drug target in ERG positive subgroup of prostate cancers. TPX2 expression associated with PSA failure and TPX2 silencing reduced PSA expression, indicating that TPX2 regulates androgen receptor mediated signaling. In conclusion, the combinatorial usage of microarray and RNAi techniques yielded in a large number of potential novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets, for future development of targeted and personalized approaches for prostate cancer management.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039801
PMCID: PMC3386189  PMID: 22761906
21.  Co-regulation analysis of closely linked genes identifies a highly recurrent gain on chromosome 17q25.3 in prostate cancer 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:315.
Background
Transcriptional profiling of prostate cancer (PC) has unveiled new markers of neoplasia and allowed insights into mechanisms underlying this disease. Genomewide analyses have also identified new chromosomal abnormalities associated with PC. The combination of both classes of data for the same sample cohort might provide better criteria for identifying relevant factors involved in neoplasia. Here we describe transcriptional signatures identifying distinct normal and tumoral prostate tissue compartments, and the inference and demonstration of a new, highly recurrent copy number gain on chromosome 17q25.3.
Methods
We have applied transcriptional profiling to tumoral and non-tumoral prostate samples with relatively homogeneous epithelial representations as well as pure stromal tissue from peripheral prostate and cultured cell lines, followed by quantitative RT-PCR validations and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, we have performed in silico colocalization analysis of co-regulated genes and validation by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).
Results
The transcriptomic analysis has allowed us to identify signatures corresponding to non-tumoral luminal and tumoral epithelium, basal epithelial cells, and prostate stromal tissue. In addition, in silico analysis of co-regulated expression of physically linked genes has allowed us to predict the occurrence of a copy number gain at chromosomal region 17q25.3. This computational inference was validated by fluorescent in situ hybridization, which showed gains in this region in over 65% of primary and metastatic tumoral samples.
Conclusion
Our approach permits to directly link gene copy number variations with transcript co-regulation in association with neoplastic states. Therefore, transcriptomic studies of carefully selected samples can unveil new diagnostic markers and transcriptional signatures highly specific of PC, and lead to the discovery of novel genomic abnormalities that may provide additional insights into the causes and mechanisms of prostate cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-315
PMCID: PMC2585097  PMID: 18973659
22.  Monoclonal antibody targeting of N-cadherin inhibits prostate cancer growth, metastasis and castration resistance 
Nature medicine  2010;16(12):1414-1420.
The transition from androgen-dependent to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a lethal event of uncertain molecular etiology. Comparing gene expression in isogenic androgen-dependent and CRPC xenografts, we found a reproducible increase in N-cadherin expression, which was also elevated in primary and metastatic tumors of individuals with CRPC. Ectopic expression of N-cadherin in nonmetastatic, androgen-dependent prostate cancer models caused castration resistance, invasion and metastasis. Monoclonal antibodies against the ectodomain of N-cadherin reduced proliferation, adhesion and invasion of prostate cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, these antibodies slowed the growth of multiple established CRPC xenografts, blocked local invasion and metastasis and, at higher doses, led to complete regression. N-cadherin–specific antibodies markedly delayed the time to emergence of castration resistance, markedly affected tumor histology and angiogenesis, and reduced both AKT serine-threonine kinase activity and serum interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion. These data indicate that N-cadherin is a major cause of both prostate cancer metastasis and castration resistance. Therapeutic targeting of this factor with monoclonal antibodies may have considerable clinical benefit.
doi:10.1038/nm.2236
PMCID: PMC3088104  PMID: 21057494
23.  Genomic alterations indicate tumor origin and varied metastatic potential of disseminated cells from prostate-cancer patients 
Cancer research  2008;68(14):5599-5608.
Disseminated epithelial cells can be isolated from the bone marrow of a far greater fraction of prostate-cancer patients than the fraction of patients who progress to metastatic disease. To provide a better understanding of these cells, we have characterized their genomic alterations. We first present an array comparative genomic hybridization method capable of detecting genomic changes in the small number of disseminated cells (10-20) that can typically be obtained from bone-marrow aspirates of prostate-cancer patients. We show multiple regions of copy-number change, including alterations common in prostate cancer, such as 8p loss, 8q gain, and gain encompassing the androgen-receptor gene on Xq, in the disseminated cell pools from 11 metastatic patients. We found fewer and less striking genomic alterations in the 48 pools of disseminated cells from patients with organ-confined disease. However, we identify changes shared by these samples with their corresponding primary tumors and prostate-cancer alterations reported in the literature, evidence that these cells, like those in advanced disease, are disseminated tumor cells (DTCs). We also demonstrate that DTCs from patients with advanced and localized disease share several abnormalities, including losses containing cell-adhesion genes and alterations reported to associate with progressive disease. These shared alterations might confer the capability to disseminate or establish secondary disease. Overall, the spectrum of genomic deviations is evidence for metastatic capacity in advanced-disease DTCs and variation in that capacity in DTCs from localized disease. Our analysis lays the foundation for elucidation of the relationship between DTC genomic alterations and progressive prostate cancer.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0812
PMCID: PMC2613025  PMID: 18632612
Disseminated tumor cells; disseminated cells; prostate cancer; array CGH; genomic alterations
24.  Isolation and Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells from Patients with Localized and Metastatic Prostate Cancer 
Science translational medicine  2010;2(25):25ra23.
Rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are present in the blood of patients with metastatic epithelial cancers but have been difficult to measure routinely. We report a quantitative automated imaging system for analysis of prostate CTCs, taking advantage of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a unique prostate tumor–associated marker. The specificity of PSA staining enabled optimization of criteria for baseline image intensity, morphometric measurements, and integration of multiple signals in a three-dimensional microfluidic device. In a pilot analysis, we detected CTCs in prostate cancer patients with localized disease, before surgical tumor removal in 8 of 19 (42%) patients (range, 38 to 222 CTCs per milliliter). For 6 of the 8 patients with preoperative CTCs, a precipitous postoperative decline (<24 hours) suggests a short half-life for CTCs in the blood circulation. Other patients had persistent CTCs for up to 3 months after prostate removal, suggesting early but transient disseminated tumor deposits. In patients with metastatic prostate cancer, CTCs were detected in 23 of 36 (64%) cases (range, 14 to 5000 CTCs per milliliter). In previously untreated patients followed longitudinally, the numbers of CTCs declined after the initiation of effective therapy. The prostate cancer–specific TMPRSS2-ERG fusion was detectable in RNA extracted from CTCs from 9 of 20 (45%) patients with metastatic disease, and dual staining of captured CTCs for PSA and the cell division marker Ki67 indicated a broad range for the proportion of proliferating cells among CTCs. This method for analysis of CTCs will facilitate the application of noninvasive tumor sampling to direct targeted therapies in advanced prostate cancer and warrants the initiation of long-term clinical studies to test the importance of CTCs in invasive localized disease.
doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3000403
PMCID: PMC3141292  PMID: 20424012
25.  Sipuleucel-T in the treatment of prostate cancer: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy 
Core Evidence  2014;10:1-10.
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer is the lethal form of cancer of the prostate. Five new agents that prolong survival in this group have emerged in the past 5 years, and sipuleucel-T is among them. Sipuleucel-T is the only immunotherapy shown to improve survival in prostate cancer. It is currently indicated in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients, as it has never shown a direct cancer effect. This paper describes the process of creating the sipuleucel-T product from the manufacturing and patient aspects. It discusses the four placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of sipuleucel-T, focusing on survival and adverse events. There are three RCTs in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, all of which showed improved overall survival without meaningful decreases in symptoms, tumor volumes, or prostate-specific antigen levels. One RCT in castration-sensitive, biochemically relapsed prostate cancer attempted to find a decrease in biochemical failure, but that endpoint was not reached. Adverse events in all four of these studies centered around cytokine release. This paper also reviews a Phase II study of sipuleucel-T given neoadjuvantly that speaks to its mechanism of action. Additionally, there is a registry study of sipuleucel-T that has been used to evaluate immunological parameters of the product in men ≥80 years of age and men who had previously been treated with palliative radiation. Attempts to find early markers of response to sipuleucel-T are described. Further ongoing studies that explore the efficacy of sipuleucel-T in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors and second-generation hormonal therapies that are summarized. Finally, the only published economic analysis of sipuleucel-T is discussed.
doi:10.2147/CE.S54712
PMCID: PMC4279604  PMID: 25565923
prostate cancer; sipuleucel-T; efficacy; economic analysis

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