A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) method was developed for the determination of berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine in rat plasma. Target compounds, together with the internal standard (metronidazole), were extracted from rat plasma samples by protein precipitation with acetonitrile-methanol (1:2, v/v). Chromatography was carried out using a C18 column (150 × 4.6mm, 5μm) under isocratic elution with water (containing 0.3% formic acid)-acetonitrile (30:70, v/v). The mass spectrometric detection was performed by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in positive ionization mode. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.2-100 ng/mL for all components. The intra- and inter-day precision values were less than 14.7% and the deviations were within ± 9.0%. The validated method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic studies of berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine after oral administration of Rhizoma coptidis and Zuojinwan. The results indicated that the pharmacokinetics of berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine were significantly different between different groups.
Rhizoma coptidis; Zuojinwan preparation; Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry; Pharmacokinetics
7-Carboxymethylguanine (7-CMGua) and 7-(2′-carboxyethyl)guanine (7-CEGua) are DNA adducts that potentially could be formed upon metabolism of the carcinogenic nitrosamines N-nitrososarcosine (NSAR) and 3-(methylnitrosamino)propionic acid (MNPA), respectively, or from other sources such as nitrosation of glycine (7-CMGua) or reaction of DNA with acrylic acid (7-CEGua). Since both NSAR and MNPA have been detected in human urine, and there are plausible sources of exposure to other precursors to these adducts, we analyzed human liver DNA for 7-CMGua and 7-CEGua, using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (LC-ESI-MS/MS-SRM). Human hepatic DNA was mixed with [15N5]7-CMGua and [15N5]7-CEGua as internal standards and enzymatically hydrolyzed. The hydrolysate was partially purified by solid-phase extraction and the resulting fraction was treated with acetyl chloride in methanol to convert 7-CMGua and 7-CEGua to their methyl esters. After a second solid-phase extraction, LC-ESI-MS/MS-SRM analysis was carried out using the transitions m/z 224 [M + H]+→ m/z 164 [(M + H) - HCOOCH3]+ and m/z 238 [M + H]+→ m/z 152 [BH]+ for the methyl esters of 7-CMGua and 7-CEGua, respectively. The method was sensitive, accurate, precise, and apparently free from artifact formation. 7-CEGua, as its methyl ester, was detected in all 24 human liver samples analyzed, mean ± S.D., 373 ± 320 fmol/μmol Gua (74.6 adducts per 109 nucleotides), range 17– 1189 fmol/μmol Gua, but the methyl ester of 7-CMGua was not detected in any sample. These results demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of 7-CEGua in human liver DNA. Acrylic acid may be a likely endogenous precursor to 7-CEGua.
This research is the first to quantify complex PAH mixtures in NIST SRMs using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/ToF-MS), with and without extract cleanup, and reports previously unidentified PAH isomers in the NIST SRMs. We tested a novel, high orthogonality GC column combination (LC-50×NSP-35), as well as with a commonly used column combination (Rtx-5ms×Rxi-17) for the quantification of a complex mixture of 85 different PAHs, including parent (PAHs), alkyl- (MPAHs), nitro- (NPAHs), oxy- (OPAHs), thio- (SPAHs), bromo- (BrPAHs), and chloro-PAHs (ClPAHs) in extracts from two standard reference materials: NIST SRM1650b (diesel particulate matter), with cleanup and NIST SRM1975 (diesel particulate extract), with and without extract cleanup. The LC-50×NSP-35 column combination resulted in an average absolute percent difference of 33.8%, 62.2% and 30.8% compared to the NIST certified PAH concentrations for NIST SRM1650b, NIST SRM1975 with cleanup and NIST SRM1975 without cleanup, while the Rtx-5ms×Rxi-17 resulted in an absolute percent difference of 38.6%, 67.2% and 79.6% for NIST SRM1650b, NIST SRM1975 with cleanup and NIST SRM1975 without cleanup, respectively. This GC×GC/ToF-MS method increases the number of PAHs detected and quantified in complex environmental extracts using a single chromatographic run. Without clean-up, 7 additional compounds were detected and quantified in NIST SRM1975 using the LC-50×NSP-35 column combination. These results suggest that the use of the LC-50×NSP-35 column combination in GC×GC/ToF-MS not only results in better chromatographic resolution and greater orthogonality for the separation of complex PAH mixtures, but can also be used for the accurate quantification of complex PAH mixtures in environmental extracts without cleanup.
PAHs; Comprehensive Two-dimensional Gas Chromatography; ToF-MS; Complex Environmental Samples; Quantitation of POPs
Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension, pain, and inflammation-related diseases. In order to enable the development of sEH inhibitors (sEHIs), assays are needed for determination of their potency. Therefore, we developed a new method utilizing an epoxide of arachidonic acid (14(15)-EpETrE) as substrate. Incubation samples were directly injected without purification into an online solid phase extraction (SPE) liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS–MS) setup allowing a total run time of only 108 s for a full gradient separation. Analytes were extracted from the matrix within 30 s by turbulent flow chromatography. Subsequently, a full gradient separation was carried out on a 50X2.1 mm RP-18 column filled with 1.7 μm core–shell particles. The analytes were detected with high sensitivity by ESI–MS–MS in SRM mode. The substrate 14(15)-EpETrE eluted at a stable retention time of 96 ± 1 s and its sEH hydrolysis product 14,15-DiHETrE at 63 ± 1 s with narrow peak width (full width at half maximum height: 1.5 ± 0.1 s). The analytical performance of the method was excellent, with a limit of detection of 2 fmol on column, a linear range of over three orders of magnitude, and a negligible carry-over of 0.1% for 14,15-DiHETrE. The enzyme assay was carried out in a 96-well plate format, and near perfect sigmoidal dose–response curves were obtained for 12 concentrations of each inhibitor in only 22 min, enabling precise determination of IC50 values. In contrast with other approaches, this method enables quantitative evaluation of potent sEHIs with picomolar potencies because only 33 pmol L−1 sEH were used in the reaction vessel. This was demonstrated by ranking ten compounds by their activity; in the fluorescence method all yielded IC50 ≤ 1 nmol L−1. Comparison of 13 inhibitors with IC50 values >1 nmol L−1 showed a good correlation with the fluorescence method (linear correlation coefficient 0.9, slope 0.95, Spearman’s rho 0.9). For individual compounds, however, up to eightfold differences in potencies between this and the fluorescence method were obtained. Therefore, enzyme assays using natural substrate, as described here, are indispensable for reliable determination of structure–activity relationships for sEH inhibition.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-011-4861-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH); Natural substrate enzyme assay; Enzyme inhibitors turbulent-flow chromatography; Online-solid phase extraction; Liquid chromatography; Electrospray mass spectrometry tandem mass spectrometry
The lack of authentic standards has limited the quantitative analysis of herbal drugs in biological samples. The present work demonstrated a practicable strategy for the assay of herbs and their metabolites independent of authentic standards. A liquid chromatography– electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS) method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the metabolites after oral administration of Rhizome coptidis and Zuojinwan preparation in rat urine has been developed. Urine samples, extracted with a protein precipitation procedure were separated on a C18 column using a mixture of water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile (30:70, v/v) as mobile phase. The detection was performed via MS with electrospray ionization interface in positive selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. One urine sample after administration was selected as ‹standard›. The method validation was carried out according to a conventional method which was calibrated by authentic standards. The fully validated method was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of 2,9-demethyljateorhizine-3-sulfate, 13-methoxyjateorhizine-3- glucoronide and 6-methyljateorhizine-5-glucoronide in rat urine. The results could provide evidence to explain the combination of Rhizome coptidis and Evodiae fructus in terms of elimination.
Metabolite; Determination; High performance liquid chromatography; Tandem mass spectrometry; Rhizome coptidis; Zuojinwan preparation
A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation–tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of new non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonist 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)propyl]piperidine (DL76) in rat serum has been developed and validated. Chromatography was performed on a XBridge™ C18 analytical column (2.1 × 30 mm, 3.5 µm, Waters, Ireland) with gradient elution using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water with an addition of 0.1% of formic acid. Detection was achieved by an Applied Biosystems MDS Sciex (Concord, Ontario, Canada) API 2000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Electrospray ionization (ESI) was used for ion production. The limit of detection in the SRM mode was found to be 0.5 ng mL−1. The limit of quantification was 1 ng mL−1. The precision and accuracy for both intra- and inter-day determination of DL76 ranged from 1.65 to 15.09% and from 88.74 to 113.43%. The results of this analytical method validation allow to carry out pharmacokinetic studies in rats. The method was used for the pilot study of the pharmacokinetic behavior of DL76 in rats after intravenous administration.
Column liquid chromatography; Tandem MS detection; DL76 compound; Histamine H3 receptor antagonist; Rats serum
Human health anomalies have been associated with pesticide exposure for people living in rural landscapes in the northern Great Plains of North America.
The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of 45 pesticides in drinking water from reservoirs in this area that received water primarily from snowmelt and rainfall runoff from agricultural crop lands.
Water from 15 reservoirs was sampled frequently during the spring pesticide application period (early May to mid-August) and less frequently for the remainder of the year. Drinking water was sampled in early July. Sample extracts were analyzed for pesticide content using mass spectrometric detection.
We detected two insecticides and 27 herbicides in reservoir water. Consistent detection of a subset of 7 herbicides suggested that atmospheric deposition, either directly or in rain, was the principal pathway from fields to the reservoirs. However, the highest concentrations and number of herbicides in drinking water were associated with runoff from a localized 133-mm rainfall over 15 days toward the end of spring herbicide application. Water treatment removed from 14 to 86% of individual herbicides. Drinking water contained 3–15 herbicides (average, 6.4).
We estimated the mean annual calculated concentration of herbicides in drinking water to be 75 ng/L (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid, 31 ng/L (2-chloro-4-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, 24 ng/L clopyralid, 11 ng/L dichlorprop, 4 ng/L dicamba, 3 ng/L mecoprop, and 1 ng/L bro-moxynil. The maximum total concentration of herbicides in drinking water was 2,423 ng/L. For the seven herbicides with established drinking water guidelines, all concentrations of the individual chemicals were well below their respective guideline. However, guidelines have not been established for the majority of the herbicides found in drinking water or for mixtures of pesticides.
drinking water; northern Great Plains; pesticides; reservoirs; water treatment
A rapid method to determine fexofenadine concentrations in human plasma using protein precipitation in 96-well plates and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated. Plasma proteins were precipitated with acetonitrile containing the internal standard fexofenadine-d6, mixed briefly, and then filtered into a collection plate. The resulting filtrate was diluted and injected onto a Phenomenex Gemini C18 (50 × 2.0 mm, 5 micron) analytical column. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid, 5 mM ammonium acetate in deionized water and methanol (35:65, v/v). The flow rate was 0.2 ml/min and the total run time was 2 min. Detection of the analytes was achieved using positive ion electrospray ionization and high resolution multiple reaction monitoring mode (H-SRM). The linear standard curve ranged from 1 to 500 ng/ml and the precision and accuracy (intra- and inter-run) were within 4.3% and 8.0%, respectively. The method has been applied successfully to determine fexofenadine concentrations in human plasma samples obtained from subjects administered a single oral dose of fexofenadine. The method is rapid, sensitive, selective and directly applicable to human pharmacokinetic studies involving fexofenadine.
Fexofenadine; fexofenadine-d6; protein precipitation; LC-MS; human plasma
The heterocyclic aromatic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is formed by the grilled cooking of certain foods such as meats, poultry and fish. PhIP has been shown to induce tumours in the colon, prostate and mammary glands of rats and is regarded as a potential human dietary carcinogen. PhIP is metabolically activated via cytochrome P450 mediated oxidation to an N-hydroxylamino-PhIP intermediate that is subsequently converted to an ester by N-acetyltransferases or sulfotransferases and undergoes heterolytic cleavage to produce a PhIP-nitrenium ion, which reacts with DNA to form the N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP-C8-dG) adduct. Thus far, the detection and quantification of PhIP-DNA adducts has relied to a large extent on 32P-postlabelling methodologies. In order to expand the array of available techniques for the detection and improved quantification of PhIP-C8-dG adducts in DNA we have developed an online column-switching liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method incorporating an isotopically [13C10]-labelled PhIP-C8-dG internal standard for the analysis of DNA enzymatically hydrolysed to 2′-deoxynucleosides. A dose-dependent increase was observed for PhIP-C8-dG adducts when salmon testis DNA was reacted with N-acetoxy-PhIP. Analysis of DNA samples isolated from colon tissue of mice treated by oral gavage daily for 5 days with 50 mg/kg body weight of PhIP resulted in the detection of an average level of 14.8 ± 3.7 PhIP-C8-dG adducts per 106 2′-deoxynucleosides. The method required 50 μg of hydrolysed animal DNA on column and the limit of detection for PhIP-C8-dG was 2.5 fmol (1.5 PhIP-C8-dG adducts per 108 2′-deoxynucleosides). In summary, the LC-ESI-MS/MS SRM method provides for the rapid automation of the sample clean up and a reduction in matrix components that would otherwise interfere with the mass spectrometric analysis, with sufficient sensitivity and precision to analyse DNA adducts in animals exposed to PhIP.
We have developed and validated a simple and sensitive stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of bumetanide in human serum. Samples were prepared with a simple acetonitrile based protein precipitation. The supernatant was then analyzed directly using LC-MS/MS. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 reversed phase column using a methanol and water gradient. The detection was performed in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode via a positive electrospray ionization (ESI) interface. The method had a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1 ng/mL, linearity up to 1250 ng/mL, intra- and inter-day precision less than 10%, and accuracy within ±10%. This method was also demonstrated to be suitable for the analysis of bumetanide in rat serum and brain tissue. Bumetanide concentrations in rat serum and brain were determined for samples collected at several intervals following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of bumetanide, and were used to calculate bumetanide permeability through the blood brain barrier.
bumetanide; liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); stable isotope dilution
An accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MSn) technique has been developed for the characterization and quantification of 2′-deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts of the dietary mutagen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). PhIP is an animal and potential human carcinogen that occurs in grilled meats. Following enzymatic digestion and adduct enrichment by solid-phase extraction (SPE), PhIP—DNA adducts were analyzed by MS/MS and MSn scan modes on a 2-D linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (QIT/MS). The major DNA adduct, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP), was detected in calf thymus (CT) DNA modified in vitro with a bioactivated form of PhIP and in the colon and liver of rats given PhIP as part of the diet. The lower limit of detection (LOD) was 1 adduct per 108 DNA bases, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 3 adducts per 108 DNA bases in both MS/MS and MS3 scan modes, using 27 μg of DNA for analysis. Measurements were based on isotope dilution with the internal standard, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-(trideutero)methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-[2H3C]-PhIP). The selected reaction monitoring (SRM) scan mode in MS/MS was employed to monitor the loss of deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated molecules of the adducts ([M + H - 116]+). The consecutive reaction monitoring (CRM) scan modes in MS3 and MS4 were used to measure and further characterize product ions of the aglycone ion (BH2+) (Guanyl-PhIP). The MS3 scan mode was effective in eliminating isobaric interferences observed in the MS/MS scan mode and resulted in an improved signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Moreover, the product ion spectra obtained by the MSn scan modes provided rich structural information about the adduct and were used to corroborate the identity of dG-C8-PhIP. In addition, an isomeric dG-PhIP adduct was detected in vivo. This LCESI/MS/MSn method is the first reported application on the use of the MS3 scan mode for the analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.
A comparison of detection limits of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with both electron ionization (EI) and negative-ion chemical ionization (NCI) are presented for over 50 pesticides ranging from organochlorines (OCs), organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and pre-emergent herbicides used in the Canadian prairies (triallate, trifluralin, ethalfluralin). The developed GC-EI/SIM, GC-NCI/SIM, and GC-NCI/SRM are suitable for the determination of pesticides in air sample extracts at concentrations <100 pg μL−1 (<100 pg m−3 in air). No one method could be used to analyze the range of pre-emergent herbicides, OPs, and OCs investigated. In general GC-NCI/SIM provided the lowest method detection limits (MDLs commonly 2.5–10 pg μL−1) along with best confirmation (<25% RSD of ion ratio), while GC-NCI/SRM is recommended for use where added selectivity or confirmation is required (such as parathion-ethyl, tokuthion, carbofenothion). GC-EI/SRM at concentration <100 pg μL−1 was not suitable for most pesticides. GC-EI/SIM was more prone to interference issues than NCI methods, but gave good sensitivity (MDLs 1–10 pg μL−1) for pesticides with poor NCI response (OPs: sulfotep, phorate, aspon, ethion, and OCs: alachlor, aldrin, perthane, and DDE, DDD, DDT).
gas chromatography; negative ion chemical ionization; mass spectrometry; pesticide analysis; atmospheric samples
Fludarabine is a nucleoside analog routinely used in conditioning regimens of pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation to promote stem cell engraftment. In children, it remains a challenge to accurately and precisely quantify the active intracellular triphosphate species of fludarabine in vivo, primarily due to limitations on blood volume and inadequate assay sensitivity. Here we report a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of fludarabine triphosphate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC (~5 million cells) were collected and lysed in 1 mL 70% methanol containing 1.2 mM tris buffer (pH7.4). The lysate (80 uL) was mixed with internal standard (2-chloro-adenosine triphosphate, 150ng/mL, 20 µL) and injected onto an API5000 LC-MS/MS system. Separation was achieved on a hypercarb column (100 × 2.1 mm, 3 µm) eluted with 100mM ammonium acetate (pH9.8) and acetonitrile in a gradient mode at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) and electrospray ionization in negative mode (ESI−) were used for detection. The ion pairs 524.0/158.6 for the drug and 540.0/158.8 for the IS were selected for quantification and 524.0/425.7 used for confirmation. Retention time was 3.0 and 3.4 min for fludarabine triphosphate and the IS, respectively. The concentration range for the calibration curve was 1.52 to 76 nM. Our method is simple, fast, and has been successfully applied in a clinical dose-concentration study in children to quantify intracellular fludarabine in low volume clinical samples. The median concentration was 1.03 and 3.19 pmole/million PBMC at trough and peak time points, respectively. Fludarabine triphosphate is degraded in water within hours but relatively stable in 70% methanol-tris (1.2mM, pH7.4). One limitation is that the hypercarb column takes a longer time to equilibrate than conventional reverse phase columns, and peaks become broad and distorted if the column is not washed and stored properly.
LC-MS/MS; fludarabine triphosphate; PBMC; hypercarb column
A simplified method to determine clarithromycin concentrations in human plasma using protein precipitation in a 96-well plate and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Plasma proteins were precipitated with acetonitrile and roxithromycin was used as the internal standard. After vortex-mixing and centrifugation, the supernatants were directly injected onto a Phenomenex Luna Phenyl-Hexyl column (50 × 2.0 mm I.D., 3μm). The mobile phase consisted of water and methanol (30:70; v/v) containing 0.1% formic acid and 5 mM ammonium acetate. The flow rate was 0.22 mL/min and the total run time (injection to injection) was less than 3 minutes. Detection of the analytes was achieved using positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The linear standard curve ranged from 100 to 5,000 ng/mL and the precision and accuracy (inter- and intrarun) were within 8.3% and 6.3%, respectively. The method was successfully used to determine clarithromycin concentrations in human plasma samples obtained from healthy subjects who were given clarithromycin 500 mg for three days. The method is rapid, simple, precise and directly applicable to clarithromycin pharmacokinetic studies.
clarithromycin; roxithromycin; protein precipitation; LC-MS; human plasma
A selective liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of S-(N, N-diethylcarbamoyl) glutathione (carbamathione) in microdialysis samples from rat brain and plasma. S-(N, N-Diethylcarbamoyl) glutathione (carbamathione) is a metabolite of disulfiram. This metabolite may be responsible for disulfiram’s effectiveness in the treatment of cocaine dependence.
An analytical method using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS/MS) was developed to determine carbamathione in vivo using microdialysis sampling from rat brain and plasma. Chromatographic separations were carried out on an Alltech Altima C-18 (50 mm long × 2.1 mm i.d., 3 μm particles) analytical column at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min. Solvent A consisted of 10 mM ammonium formate, methanol, and formic acid (99:1:0.06, v/v/v). Solvent B consisted of methanol, 10 mM ammonium formate and formic acid (99:1:0.06, v/v/v). A 20 min linear gradient from 95% aqueous to 95% organic was used. Tandem mass spectra were acquired on a Micromass Quattro Ultima “triple” quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an ESI interface. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis was conducted in positive ion mode selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode looking at the transition of m/z 407–100 and 175 for carbamathione and m/z 392–263 for the internal standard S-hexyl glutathione. The simultaneous collection of microdialysate from blood and brain was used to monitor carbamathione concentrations centrally and peripherally. Good linearity was obtained over a concentration range of 0.25–10,000 nM. The lowest limit of quantification (LLOQ) was determined to be 1 nM and the lowest limit of detection (LLOD) was calculated to be 0.25 nM. Intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were determined and for all the samples evaluated, the variability was less that 10% (R.S.D.).
Disulfiram; Carbamathione; Microdialysis
Melatonin (MEL) and its chemical precursor N-acetylserotonin (NAS) are believed to be potential biomarkers for sleep-related disorders. Measurement of these compounds, however, has proven to be difficult due to their low circulating levels, especially that of NAS. Few methods offer the sensitivity, specificity and dynamic range needed to monitor MEL and its precursors and metabolites in small blood samples, such as those obtained from pediatric patients. In support of our ongoing study to determine the safety, tolerability, and PK dosing strategies for MEL in treating insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorder, two highly sensitive LC-MS/MS assays were developed for the quantitation of MEL and precursor NAS at pg/mL levels in small volumes of human plasma. A validated electrospray ionization (ESI) method was used to quantitate high levels of MEL in PK studies and a validated nanospray (nESI) method was developed for quantitation of MEL and NAS at endogenous levels. In both assays plasma samples were processed by centrifugal membrane dialysis after addition of stable isotopic internal standards, and the components were separated by either conventional LC using a Waters SymmetryShield RP18 column (2.1×100 mm, 3.5 μm) or on a polyimide-coated, fused-silica capillary self-packed with 17 cm AquaC18 (3 μm, 125 Å). Quantitation was done using the SRM transitions m/z 233→174 and m/z 219→160 for MEL and NAS, respectively. The analytical response ratio vs. concentration curves were linear for MEL (nanoflow LC: 11.7–1165 pg/mL, LC: 1165–116500 pg/mL) and for NAS (nanoflow LC: 11.0–1095 pg/mL).
Melatonin; N-acetylserotonin; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Nanoflow LC-MS/MS
A new method for the simultaneous determination of celecoxib, erlotinib, and its active metabolite desmethyl-erlotinib (OSI-420) in rat plasma, by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with positive/negative ion-switching electrospray ionization mode, was developed and validated. Protein precipitation with methanol was selected as the method for preparing the samples. The analytes were separated on a reverse-phase C18 column (50mm×4.6mm i.d., 3μ) using methanol: 2 mM ammonium acetate buffer, and pH 4.0 as the mobile phase at a flow rate 0.8 mL/min. Sitagliptin and Efervirenz were used as the internal standards for quantification. The determination was carried out on a Theremo Finnigan Quantam ultra triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, operated in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode using the following transitions monitored simultaneously: positive m/z 394.5→278.1 for erlotinib, m/z 380.3→278.1 for desmethyl erlotinib (OSI-420), and negative m/z −380.1→ −316.3 for celecoxib. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 1.5 ng/mL for Celecoxib, erlotinib, and OSI-420. Within- and between-day accuracy and precision of the validated method were within the acceptable limits of < 15% at all concentrations. The quantitation method was successfully applied for the simultaneous estimation of celecoxib, erlotinib, and desmethyl erlotinib in a pharmacokinetic study in Wistar rats.
Celecoxib; Erlotinib; Desmethyl erlotinib; OSI-420; LC-MS/MS; Bioanalytical
Long chain acyl-CoA's (LCACoA) are the activated form of long chain fatty acids and serve as key lipid metabolites. Excess accumulation of intracellular LCACoA, diacylglycerols (DAGs) and ceramides may create insulin resistance with respect to glucose metabolism. We present a new method to measure LCACoA concentrations and isotopic enrichment of palmitoyl-CoA ([U-13C]16-CoA) and oleoyl-CoA ([U-13C]18:1-CoA) using UPLC/MS/MS to quantitate 7 different LCACoA (C14-CoA, C16-CoA, C16:1-CoA, C18-CoA, C18:1-CoA, C18:2-CoA, C20-CoA). The molecules are separated on reverse-phase UPLC column using a binary gradient with ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) in water and NH4OH in ACN. The LCACoA are quantified using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. All LCACoA ions except enriched palmitate and oleate were monitored as [M+2+H]+ and the [U13C]16-CoA and [U13C]18:1-CoA were monitored as [M+16+H]+ and [M+18+H]+ respectively. The method is simple, sensitive and efficient (run time as short as 5 min) and allowed us to measure the concentration and detect enrichment in intramyocellular [U13C]16-CoA and [U13C]18:1-CoA during a low dose intravenous infusion of [U13C]palmitate and [U13C]oleate in adults undergoing either a saline control experiment or an insulin/glucose infusion experiment. This technique should allow investigators to measure the trafficking of extracellular fatty acids to the intracellular LCACoA pool.
ultra-pressure liquid chromatography; muscle; free fatty acids; tandem mass spectrometry; stable isotopes
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been working with the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements to produce Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) of interest to analysts of dietary supplements. Some of these SRMs are traditional foods including SRM 3281 Cranberry (Fruit), SRM 3282 Low-Calorie Cranberry Juice Cocktail, and SRM 3287 Blueberry (Fruit), which have been characterized for nine nutritional elements and sugars. The blueberries have also been characterized for proximates, two water-soluble vitamins, and amino acids. These new materials are intended for use in method development and validation as well as for quality assurance and traceability when assigning values to in-house control materials. Foods can be difficult to analyze because of matrix effects. With the addition of these three new SRMs, it is now possible to more closely match controls to matrices and analyte levels for fruit and vegetable test samples. Several nutritional elements in these three SRMs are present at lower levels than those in other food-matrix SRMs.
High-throughput analyses of a large number of samples for pharmacokinetic (PK) studies are essential in drug development. Analysis of drug candidates from blood using LC-ESI-MS generally requires separation of the plasma fraction followed by various offline sample preparation procedures. This step is a bottleneck that impedes throughput. In order to overcome this difficulty and accelerate analysis in PK and other studies, we developed an approach allowing the direct analysis of low volumes of whole blood (10 μL) after dilution and centrifugation. Samples were injected in an online-SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS setup allowing a total run time of only 126 s for a full gradient separation. Analytes were extracted from the matrix within 30 s by turbulent flow chromatography. Subsequently, a full gradient separation was carried out within 1.5 minutes on a 50 × 2.1 mm (1.7 μm) RP-18 column and the analytes were sensitively detected by ESI-MS/MS in SRM mode. The performance of this new ultra fast online SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS approach was demonstrated by the analysis of diclofenac (DCF), a widely used anti-inflammatory drug. DCF eluted at stable retention times (±0.33%) with narrow peak width (FWHM 3.3 ± 0.15 s). The method displays excellent analytical performance, with a limit of detection of 6 fmol on column, a linear range of over four orders of magnitude and a negligible carry over of 0.12 ± 0.03% for DCF. The PK profile of DCF administered by topical and intraperitoneal routes in rats and by oral route in one human volunteer is investigated using this method. Finally, general applicability of the approach for drugs is demonstrated by analysis of rofecoxib and several inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase. This new method requires only readily available, off the shelf standard LC instrumentation, and is compliant with the requirements of green analytical chemistry.
A highly sensitive, specific and robust method for the analysis of oxidized metabolites of linoleic, acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was developed using charge-switch derivatization, LC-ESI MS/MS with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) and quantitation by high mass accuracy analysis of product ions thereby minimizing interferences from contaminating ions. Charge-switch derivatization of LA, AA and DHA metabolites with N-(4-aminomethylphenyl)-pyridinium resulted in a 10-30 fold increase in ionization efficiency. Improved quantitation was accompanied by decreased false positive interferences through accurate mass measurements of diagnostic product ions during SRM transitions by ratiometric comparisons with stable isotope internal standards. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were between 0.05 to 6.0 pg with a dynamic range of 3-4 orders of magnitude (correlation coefficient r2 > 0.99). This approach was utilized to quantitate the levels of representative fatty acid metabolites from WT and iPLA2γ−/− mouse liver identifying the role of iPLA2γ in hepatic lipid 2nd messenger production. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of high mass accuracy product ion analysis in conjunction with charge-switch derivatization for the highly specific quantitation of diminutive amounts of LA, AA and DHA metabolites in biologic systems.
Eicosanoids; Docosanoids; Metabolite Determination; LC-MS/MS; Phospholipase; iPLA2γ
Fourteen pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides) were tested to determine whether they had deleterious effects on the bioinsecticide Bacillus popilliae, the causal agent of milky disease. All of these pesticides reduced levels of spore viability, spore germination, and/or vegetative cell growth when they were tested over a range of concentrations from 0 to 1,000 ppm of active ingredient, and the fungicides had the greatest detrimental effects. As determined by tests in water, the level of spore viability was significantly reduced by chlorothalonil, iprodione, (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid plus 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid, and 2-[(4-chloro-o-tolyl)oxy]propionic acid plus (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid. In tests performed with iprodione, loss of viability was evident at concentrations less than the concentration calculated to result from recommended use. Tests performed in soil demonstrated that triadimefon, chlorothalonil, (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid plus 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid, and pendimethalin at concentrations resulting from recommended rates of application reduced spore titers. Spore germination did not occur in the continued presence of 2-[(4-chloro-otolyl)oxy]propionic acid plus (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid, isofenphos, and chlordane, whereas exposure of spores to triadimefon or pendimethalin for 2 days stimulated germination. The tests to determine effects on spore germination were inconclusive for all other pesticides. Triadimefon, chlorothalonil, iprodione, pendimethalin, and chlorpyrifos at concentrations less than the concentrations recommended for use inhibited vegetative cell growth of B. popilliae, and chlordane at a concentration that was twice the concentration expected to result from the recommended rate of application repressed cell growth. My data support the hypothesis that use of synthetic pesticides can contribute to a low incidence of milky disease in white grubs.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its inability to resolve all proteins. In contrast, orthogonal separation by SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) affords deep mining of the muscle proteome, but differential analysis between samples is challenging due to the greater level of fractionation and the complexities of quantifying proteins based on the abundances of their tryptic peptides. Here we report simple, semi-automated and time efficient (i.e., 3 h per sample) proteome profiling of skeletal muscle by 1-dimensional RPLC electrospray ionisation tandem MS. Solei were analysed from rats (n = 5, in each group) bred as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively) that exhibited a 6.4-fold difference (1,625 ± 112 m vs. 252 ± 43 m, p < 0.0001) in running capacity during a standardized treadmill test. Soluble muscle proteins were extracted, digested with trypsin and individual biological replicates (50 ng of tryptic peptides) subjected to LC-MS profiling. Proteins were identified by triplicate LC-MS/MS analysis of a pooled sample of each biological replicate. Differential expression profiling was performed on relative abundances (RA) of parent ions, which spanned three orders of magnitude. In total, 207 proteins were analysed, which encompassed almost all enzymes of the major metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The most abundant protein detected was type I myosin heavy chain (RA = 5,843 ± 897) and the least abundant protein detected was heat shock 70 kDa protein (RA = 2 ± 0.5). Sixteen proteins were significantly (p < 0.05) more abundant in HCR muscle and hierarchal clustering of the profiling data highlighted two protein subgroups, which encompassed proteins associated with either the respiratory chain or fatty acid oxidation. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (FABPH) was 1.54-fold (p = 0.0064) more abundant in HCR than LCR soleus. This discovery was verified using selective reaction monitoring (SRM) of the y5 ion (551.21 m/z) of the doubly-charged peptide SLGVGFATR (454.19 m/z) of residues 23–31 of FABPH. SRM was conducted on technical replicates of each biological sample and exhibited a coefficient of variation of 20%. The abundance of FABPH measured by SRM was 2.84-fold greater (p = 0.0095) in HCR muscle. In addition, SRM of FABPH was performed in vastus lateralis samples of young and elderly humans with different habitual activity levels (collected during a previous study) finding FABPH abundance was 2.23-fold greater (p = 0.0396) in endurance-trained individuals regardless of differences in age. In summary, our findings in HCR/LCR rats provide protein-level confirmation for earlier transcriptome profiling work and show LC-MS is a viable means of profiling the abundance of almost all major metabolic enzymes of skeletal muscle in a highly parallel manner. Moreover, our approach is relatively more time efficient than techniques relying on orthogonal separations, and we demonstrate LC-MS profiling of the HCR/LCR selection model was able to highlight biomarkers that also exhibit differences in trained and untrained human muscle.
aerobic capacity; animal selection model; exercise training; heart-type fatty acid binding protein; FABPH; Fabp3; human vastus lateralis; selective reaction monitoring
Liquid chromatographic methods with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry were developed for the determination of the vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), and 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (3-epi-25(OH)D3) in the four Levels of SRM 972, Vitamin D in Human Serum. One method utilized a C18 column, which separates 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, and one method utilized a CN column that also resolves the diastereomers 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3. Both methods utilized stable isotope labeled internal standards for quantitation of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3. These methods were subsequently used to evaluate SRM 909c Human Serum, and 25(OH)D3 was the only vitamin D metabolite detected in this material. However, SRM 909c samples contained matrix peaks that interfered with the determination of the [2H6]-25(OH)D3 peak area. The chromatographic conditions for the C18 column were modified to remove this interference, but conditions that separated the matrix peaks from [2H6]-25(OH)D3 on the CN column could not be identified. The alternate internal standard [2H3]-25(OH)D3 did not suffer from matrix interferences and was used for quantitation of 25(OH)D3 in SRM 909c. During the evaluation of SRM 909c samples, a third method was developed using a pentafluorophenylpropyl column that also separates the diastereomers 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3. The 25(OH)D3 was measured in SRM 909c using all three methods, and the results were compared.
LC-MS; 25-hydroxyvitamin D2; 25-hydroxyvitamin D3; 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3; Standard Reference Material; human serum
The purpose of this study was to develop a single-laboratory validated (SLV) method using high-performance liquid chromatography with different detectors [diode array detector (DAD); fluorescence detector (FLD); and mass spectrometry (MS)] for determination of 7 B-complex vitamins (B1-thiamin, B2-riboflavin, B3-nicotinamide, B6-pyridoxine, B9-folic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin) and vitamin C in multivitamin/multimineral dietary supplements. The method involves the use of a reversed-phase octadecylsilyl column (4 µm, 250 × 2.0 mm id) and a gradient mobile phase profile. Gradient elution was performed at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. After a 5 min isocratic elution at 100% A (0.1% formic acid in water), a linear gradient to 50% A and 50% B (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile) at 15 min was employed. Detection was performed with a DAD as well as either an FLD or a triple-quadrupole MS detector in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. SLV was performed using Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multimineral Tablets, being developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, with support by the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health. Phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 2.0) extracts of the NIST SRM 3280 were analyzed by the liquid chromatographic (LC)-DAD-FLD/MS method. Following extraction, the method does not require any sample cleanup/preconcentration steps except centrifugation and filtration.