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1.  Lambda-interacting protein, a novel protein that specifically interacts with the zinc finger domain of the atypical protein kinase C isotype lambda/iota and stimulates its kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1996;16(1):105-114.
The members of the atypical subfamily of protein kinase C (PKC) show dramatic structural and functional differences from other PKC isotypes. Thus, in contrast to the classical or novel PKCs, they are not activated by diacylglycerol or phorbol esters. However, the atypical PKCs are the target of important lipid second messengers such as ceramide, phosphatidic acid, and 3'-phosphoinositides. The catalytic and pseudosubstrate sequences in the two atypical PKCs (lambda/iota PKC and zeta PKC) are identical but are significantly different from those of conventional or novel PKCs. It has been shown that microinjection of a peptide with the sequence of the pseudosubstrate of the atypical PKC isotypes but not of alpha PKC or epsilon PKC dramatically inhibited maturation and NF-kappa B activation in Xenopus oocytes, as well as reinitiation of DNA synthesis in quiescent mouse fibroblasts. This indicates that either or both atypical isoforms are important in cell signalling. Besides the pseudosubstrate, the major differences in the sequence between lambda/iota PKC and zeta PKC are located in the regulatory domain. Therefore, any functional divergence between the two types of atypical PKCs will presumably reside in that region. We report here the molecular characterization of lambda-interacting protein (LIP), a novel protein that specifically interacts with the zinc finger of lambda/iota PKC but not zeta PKC. We show in this paper that this interaction is detected not only in vitro but also in vivo, that LIP activates lambda/iota PKC but not zeta PKC in vitro and in vivo, and that this interaction is functionally relevant. Thus, expression of LIP leads to the transactivation of a kappa B-dependent promoter in a manner that is dependent on lambda/iota PKC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning and characterization of a protein activator of a PKC that binds to the zinc finger domain, which has so far been considered a site for binding of lipid modulators. The fact that LIP binds to lambda/iota PKC but not to the highly related zeta PKC isoform suggests that the specificity of the activation of the members of the different PKC subfamilies will most probably be accounted for by proteins like LIP rather than by lipid activators.
PMCID: PMC230983  PMID: 8524286
2.  Structural Basis of Protein Kinase C Isoform Function 
Physiological reviews  2008;88(4):1341-1378.
Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms comprise a family of lipid-activated enzymes that have been implicated in a wide range of cellular functions. PKCs are modular enzymes comprised of a regulatory domain (that contains the membrane-targeting motifs that respond to lipid cofactors, and in the case of some PKCs calcium) and a relatively conserved catalytic domain that binds ATP and substrates. These enzymes are coexpressed and respond to similar stimulatory agonists in many cell types. However, there is growing evidence that individual PKC isoforms subserve unique (and in some cases opposing) functions in cells, at least in part as a result of isoform-specific subcellular compartmentalization patterns, protein-protein interactions, and posttranslational modifications that influence catalytic function. This review focuses on the structural basis for differences in lipid cofactor responsiveness for individual PKC isoforms, the regulatory phosphorylations that control the normal maturation, activation, signaling function, and downregulation of these enzymes, and the intra-/intermolecular interactions that control PKC isoform activation and subcellular targeting in cells. A detailed understanding of the unique molecular features that underlie isoform-specific posttranslational modification patterns, protein-protein interactions, and subcellular targeting (i.e., that impart functional specificity) should provide the basis for the design of novel PKC isoform-specific activator or inhibitor compounds that can achieve therapeutically useful changes in PKC signaling in cells.
PMCID: PMC2899688  PMID: 18923184
3.  Novel Roles of Specific Isoforms of Protein Kinase C in Activation of the c-fos Serum Response Element 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1999;19(2):1313-1324.
Protein kinase C (PKC) is a multigene family of enzymes consisting of at least 11 isoforms. It has been implicated in the induction of c-fos and other immediate response genes by various mitogens. The serum response element (SRE) in the c-fos promoter is necessary and sufficient for induction of transcription of c-fos by serum, growth factors, and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). It forms a complex with the ternary complex factor (TCF) and with a dimer of the serum response factor (SRF). TCF is the target of several signal transduction pathways and SRF is the target of the rhoA pathway. In this study we generated dominant-negative and constitutively active mutants of PKC-α, PKC-δ, PKC-ɛ, and PKC-ζ to determine the roles of individual isoforms of PKC in activation of the SRE. Transient-transfection assays with NIH 3T3 cells, using an SRE-driven luciferase reporter plasmid, indicated that PKC-α and PKC-ɛ, but not PKC-δ or PKC-ζ, mediate SRE activation. TPA-induced activation of the SRE was partially inhibited by dominant negative c-Raf, ERK1, or ERK2, and constitutively active mutants of PKC-α and PKC-ɛ activated the transactivation domain of Elk-1. TPA-induced activation of the SRE was also partially inhibited by a dominant-negative MEKK1. Furthermore, TPA treatment of serum-starved NIH 3T3 cells led to phosphorylation of SEK1, and constitutively active mutants of PKC-α and PKC-ɛ activated the transactivation domain of c-Jun, a major substrate of JNK. Constitutively active mutants of PKC-α and PKC-ɛ could also induce a mutant c-fos promoter which lacks the TCF binding site, and they also induce transactivation activity of the SRF. Furthermore, rhoA-mediated SRE activation was blocked by dominant negative mutants of PKC-α or PKC-ɛ. Taken together, these findings indicate that PKC-α and PKC-ɛ can enhance the activities of at least three signaling pathways that converge on the SRE: c-Raf–MEK1–ERK–TCF, MEKK1-SEK1-JNK-TCF, and rhoA-SRF. Thus, specific isoforms of PKC may play a role in integrating networks of signal transduction pathways that control gene expression.
PMCID: PMC116060  PMID: 9891065
4.  Localization of Atypical Protein Kinase C Isoforms into Lysosome-Targeted Endosomes through Interaction with p62 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1998;18(5):3069-3080.
An increasing number of independent studies indicate that the atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (aPKCs) are critically involved in the control of cell proliferation and survival. The aPKCs are targets of important lipid mediators such as ceramide and the products of the PI 3-kinase. In addition, the aPKCs have been shown to interact with Ras and with two novel proteins, LIP (lambda-interacting protein; a selective activator of λ/ιPKC) and the product of par-4 (a gene induced during apoptosis), which is an inhibitor of both λ/ιPKC and ζPKC. LIP and Par-4 interact with the zinc finger domain of the aPKCs where the lipid mediators have been shown to bind. Here we report the identification of p62, a previously described phosphotyrosine-independent p56lck SH2-interacting protein, as a molecule that interacts potently with the V1 domain of λ/ιPKC and, albeit with lower affinity, with ζPKC. We also show in this study that ectopically expressed p62 colocalizes perfectly with both λ/ιPKC and ζPKC. Interestingly, the endogenous p62, like the ectopically expressed protein, displays a punctate vesicular pattern and clearly colocalizes with endogenous λ/ιPKC and endogenous ζPKC. P62 colocalizes with Rab7 and partially with lamp-1 and limp-II as well as with the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in activated cells, but not with Rab5 or the transferrin receptor. Of functional relevance, expression of dominant negative λ/ιPKC, but not of the wild-type enzyme, severely impairs the endocytic membrane transport of the EGF receptor with no effect on the transferrin receptor. These findings strongly suggest that the aPKCs are anchored by p62 in the lysosome-targeted endosomal compartment, which seems critical for the control of the growth factor receptor trafficking. This is particularly relevant in light of the role played by the aPKCs in mitogenic cell signaling events.
PMCID: PMC110686  PMID: 9566925
5.  Role of diacylglycerol-regulated protein kinase C isotypes in growth factor activation of the Raf-1 protein kinase. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1997;17(2):732-741.
The Raf protein kinases function downstream of Ras guanine nucleotide-binding proteins to transduce intracellular signals from growth factor receptors. Interaction with Ras recruits Raf to the plasma membrane, but the subsequent mechanism of Raf activation has not been established. Previous studies implicated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in Raf activation; therefore, we investigated the role of the epsilon isotype of protein kinase C (PKC), which is stimulated by PC-derived diacylglycerol, as a Raf activator. A dominant negative mutant of PKC epsilon inhibited both proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells and activation of Raf in COS cells. Conversely, overexpression of active PKC epsilon stimulated Raf kinase activity in COS cells and overcame the inhibitory effects of dominant negative Ras in NIH 3T3 cells. PKC epsilon also stimulated Raf kinase in baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells and was able to directly activate Raf in vitro. Consistent with its previously reported activity as a Raf activator in vitro, PKC alpha functioned similarly to PKC epsilon in both NIH 3T3 and COS cell assays. In addition, constitutively active mutants of both PKC alpha and PKC epsilon overcame the inhibitory effects of dominant negative mutants of the other PKC isotype, indicating that these diacylglycerol-regulated PKCs function as redundant activators of Raf-1 in vivo.
PMCID: PMC231799  PMID: 9001227
6.  Hypoxia alters the subcellular distribution of protein kinase C isoforms in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. 
Cardiac myocytes coexpress multiple protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms which likely play distinct roles in signaling pathways leading to changes in contractility, hypertrophy, and ischemic preconditioning. Although PKC has been reported to be activated during myocardial ischemia, the effect of ischemia/hypoxia on individual PKC isoforms has not been determined. This study examines the effect of hypoxia on the subcellular distribution of individual PKC isoforms in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Hypoxia induces the redistribution of PKC alpha and PKC epsilon from the soluble to the particulate compartment. This effect (which is presumed to represent activation of PKC alpha and PKC epsilon) is detectable by 1 h, sustained for up to 24 h, and reversible within 1 h of reoxygenation. Inhibition of phospholipase C with tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) prevents the hypoxia-induced redistribution of PKC alpha and PKC epsilon, whereas chelation of intracellular calcium with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) blocks the redistribution of PKC alpha, but not PKC epsilon; D609 and BAPTA do not influence the partitioning of PKC alpha and PKC epsilon in normoxic myocytes. Hypoxia, in contrast, decreases the membrane association of PKC delta via a mechanism that is distinct from the hypoxia-induced translocation/activation of PKC alpha/PKC epsilon, since the response is slower in onset, slowly reversible upon reoxygenation, and not blocked by D609 or BAPTA. The hypoxia-induced shift of PKC delta to the soluble compartment does not prevent subsequent 4-beta phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-dependent translocation/activation of PKC delta. Hypoxia does not alter the abundance of any PKC isoform nor does it alter the subcellular distribution of PKC lambda. The selective hypoxia-induced activation of PKC isoforms through a pathway involving phospholipase C (PKC alpha/PKC epsilon) and intracellular calcium (PKC alpha) may critically influence cardiac myocyte contractility, gene expression, and/or tolerance to ischemia.
PMCID: PMC507767  PMID: 9011576
7.  Chromatinized Protein Kinase C-θ: Can It Escape the Clutches of NF-κB? 
We recently provided the first description of a nuclear mechanism used by Protein Kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) to mediate T cell gene expression. In this mode, PKC-θ tethers to chromatin to form an active nuclear complex by interacting with proteins including RNA polymerase II, the histone kinase MSK-1, the demethylase LSD1, and the adaptor molecule 14-3-3ζ at regulatory regions of inducible immune response genes. Moreover, our genome-wide analysis identified many novel PKC-θ target genes and microRNAs implicated in T cell development, differentiation, apoptosis, and proliferation. We have expanded our ChIP-on-chip analysis and have now identified a transcription factor motif containing NF-κB binding sites that may facilitate recruitment of PKC-θ to chromatin at coding genes. Furthermore, NF-κB association with chromatin appears to be a prerequisite for the assembly of the PKC-θ active complex. In contrast, a distinct NF-κB-containing module appears to operate at PKC-θ targeted microRNA genes, and here NF-κB negatively regulates microRNA gene transcription. Our efforts are also focusing on distinguishing between the nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of PKCs to ascertain how these kinases may synergize their roles as both cytoplasmic signaling proteins and their functions on the chromatin template, together enabling rapid induction of eukaryotic genes. We have identified an alternative sequence within PKC-θ that appears to be important for nuclear translocation of this kinase. Understanding the molecular mechanisms used by signal transduction kinases to elicit specific and distinct transcriptional programs in T cells will enable scientists to refine current therapeutic strategies for autoimmune diseases and cancer.
PMCID: PMC3428636  PMID: 22969762
PKC-theta; microRNA; chromatin; T cells; signaling kinase; immune response gene; NF-κB; nuclear PKC-theta
8.  Immunomodulatory effects of therapeutic gold compounds. Gold sodium thiomalate inhibits the activity of T cell protein kinase C. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1992;89(6):1839-1848.
Previous studies have shown that the gold compounds, gold sodium thiomalate (GST) and auranofin (AUR), which are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inhibit functional activities of a variety of cells, but the biochemical basis of their effect is unknown. In the current studies, human T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 production by Jurkat cells were inhibited by GST or AUR at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. Because it has been documented that protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in T cell activation, the capacity of gold compounds to inhibit PKC partially purified from Jurkat cells was assayed in vitro. GST was found to inhibit PKC in a dose-dependent manner, but AUR caused no significant inhibition of PKC at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The inhibitory effect of GST on PKC was abolished by 2-mercaptoethanol. To investigate the effect of GST on the regulation of PKC in vivo, the levels of PKC activity in Jurkat cells were examined. Cytosolic PKC activity decreased slowly in a concentration- and time-dependent manner as a result of incubation of Jurkat cells with GST. To ascertain whether GST inhibited PKC translocation and down-regulation, PKC activities associated with the membrane and cystosolic fractions were evaluated after phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation of GST incubated Jurkat cells. Translocation of PKC was markedly inhibited by pretreatment of Jurkat cells with GST for 3 d, but the capacity of PMA to down-regulate PKC activity in Jurkat cells was not altered by GST preincubation. The functional impact of GST-mediated downregulation of PKC in Jurkat cells was examined by analyzing PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of CD3. Although GST preincubated Jurkat cells exhibited an increased density of CD3, PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of the gamma chain of CD3 was markedly inhibited. Specificity for the inhibitory effect of GST on PKC was suggested by the finding that GST did not alter the mitogen-induced increases in inositol trisphosphate levels in Jurkat cells. Finally, the mechanism of the GST-induced inhibition of PKC was examined in detail, using purified PKC subspecies from rat brain. GST inhibited type II PKC more effectively than type III PKC, and also inhibited the enzymatic activity of the isolated catalytic fragment of PKC. The inhibitory effect of GST on PKC activity could not be explained by competition with phospholipid or nonspecific interference with the substrate. These data suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of GST may result from its capacity to inhibit PKC activity.
PMCID: PMC295882  PMID: 1351061
9.  A new member of the protein kinase C family, nPKC theta, predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1992;12(9):3930-3938.
A new protein kinase C (PKC)-related cDNA with unique tissue distribution has been isolated and characterized. This cDNA encodes a protein, nPKC theta, which consists of 707 amino acid residues and showed the highest sequence similarity to nPKC delta (67.0% in total). nPKC theta has a zinc-finger-like cysteine-rich sequence (C1 region) and a protein kinase domain sequence (C3 region), both of which are common in all PKC family members. However, nPKC theta lacks a putative Ca2+ binding region (C2 region) that is seen only in the conventional PKC subfamily (cPKC alpha, -beta I, -beta II, and -gamma) but not in the novel PKC subfamily (nPKC delta, -epsilon, -zeta, and -eta). Northern (RNA) blot analyses revealed that the mRNA for nPKC theta is expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, nPKC theta mRNA is the most abundantly expressed PKC isoform in skeletal muscle among the nine PKC family members. nPKC theta expressed in COS1 cells serves as a phorbol ester receptor. By the use of an antipeptide antibody specific to the D2-D3 region of the nPKC theta sequence, nPKC theta was recognized as a 79-kDa protein upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in mouse skeletal muscle extract and also in an extract from COS1 cells transfected with an nPKC theta cDNA expression plasmid. Autophosphorylation of immunoprecipitated nPKC theta was observed; it was enhanced by phosphatidylserine and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate but attenuated by the addition of Ca2+. These results clearly demonstrate that nPKC theta should be considered a member of the PKC family of proteins that play crucial roles in the signal transduction pathway.
PMCID: PMC360273  PMID: 1508194
10.  Effects of the selective bisindolylmaleimide protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X on P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance. 
British Journal of Cancer  1996;74(6):897-905.
Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) is discussed as a new approach for overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer chemotherapy. For evaluation of this concept we applied the bisindolylmaleimide GF 109203X, which shows a highly selective inhibition of PKC isozymes alpha, beta 1, beta 2, gamma, delta and epsilon in vitro. The efficacy of this compound in modulation of MDR was examined using several P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing cell lines including a MDR1-transfected HeLa clone, and was compared with the activities of dexniguldipine-HCI (DNIG) and dexverapamil-HC1 (DVER), both of which essentially act via binding to P-gp. As PKC alpha has been suggested to play a major role in P-gp-mediated MDR, cell lines exhibiting different expression levels of this PKC isozyme were chosen. On crude PKC preparations or in a cellular assay using a cfos(-711)CAT-transfected NIH 3T3 clone, the inhibitory qualities of the bisindolylmaleimide at submicromolar concentrations were demonstrated. At up 1 microM final concentrations of the PKC inhibitor GF 109203X, a concentration at which many PKC isozymes should be blocked substantially, no cytotoxic or MDR-reversing effects whatsoever were seen, as monitored by 72 h tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT assays or a 90 min rhodamine 123 accumulation assay. Moreover, depletion of PKC alpha by phorbol ester in HeLa-MDR1 transfectants had no influence on rhodamine 123 accumulation after 24 or 48 h. MDR reversal activity of GF 109203X was seen at higher final drug concentrations, however. Remarkably, [3H]vinblastine-sulphate binding competition experiments using P-gp-containing crude membrane preparations demonstrated similar dose dependencies as found for MDR reversion by the three modulators, i.e. decreasing efficacy in the series dexniguldipine-HCl > dexverapamil-HCl > GF 109203X. Similar interaction with the P-gp in the micromolar concentration range was revealed by competition of GF 109203X with photoincorporation of [3H]azidopine into P-gp-containing crude membrane preparations. No significant effect of the PKC inhibitor on MDR1 expression was seen, which was examined by cDNA-PCR. Thus, the bisindolylmaleimide GF 109203X probably influences MDR mostly via direct binding to P-gp. Our work identifies the bisindolylmaleimide GF 109203X as a new type of drug interacting with P-gp directly, but does not support the concept of a major contribution of PKC to a P-gp-associated MDR, at least using the particular cellular model systems and the selective, albeit general, PKC inhibitor GF 109203X.
PMCID: PMC2074754  PMID: 8826855
11.  Protein kinase C in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica: reassessing the tissue-specific regulation of PKC isozymes during freezing 
PeerJ  2014;2:e558.
The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, survives whole-body freezing and thawing each winter. The extensive adaptations required at the biochemical level are facilitated by alterations to signaling pathways, including the insulin/Akt and AMPK pathways. Past studies investigating changing tissue-specific patterns of the second messenger IP3 in adapted frogs have suggested important roles for protein kinase C (PKC) in response to stress. In addition to their dependence on second messengers, phosphorylation of three PKC sites by upstream kinases (most notably PDK1) is needed for full PKC activation, according to widely-accepted models. The present study uses phospho-specific immunoblotting to investigate phosphorylation states of PKC—as they relate to distinct tissues, PKC isozymes, and phosphorylation sites—in control and frozen frogs. In contrast to past studies where second messengers of PKC increased during the freezing process, phosphorylation of PKC tended to generally decline in most tissues of frozen frogs. All PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting decreased in phosphorylation levels in hind leg skeletal muscle and hearts of frozen frogs. Most PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected in livers and kidneys also declined; the only exceptions were the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641) antibody, which remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. Changes in brains of frozen frogs were unique; no decreases were observed in the phosphorylation levels of any of the PKC isozymes and/or specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting. Rather, increases were observed for the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641), phospho-PKCδ (Thr505), and phospho-PKCθ (Thr538) antibodies; all other isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected in brain remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. The results of this study indicate a potential important role for PKC in cerebral protection during wood frog freezing. Our findings also call for a reassessment of the previously-inferred importance of PKC in other tissues, particularly in liver; a more thorough investigation is required to determine whether PKC activity in this physiological situation is indeed dependent on phosphorylation, or whether it deviates from the generally-accepted model and can be “overridden” by exceedingly high levels of second messengers, as has been demonstrated with certain PKC isozymes (e.g., PKCδ).
PMCID: PMC4157297  PMID: 25210662
Protein kinase C; Phosphorylation; Wood frog; Freeze-tolerance; Tissue-specific; Immunoblotting; Signal transduction; Adaptation; Catalytic competence; Second messenger
12.  Activation of protein kinase C isozymes is associated with post-mitotic events in intestinal epithelial cells in situ 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1994;126(3):747-763.
The mechanisms underlying control of cell growth and differentiation in epithelial tissues are poorly understood. Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, members of a large family of serine/threonine kinases of fundamental importance in signal transduction, have been increasingly implicated in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and function. Using the rat intestinal epithelium as a model system, we have examined PKC-specific activity as well as individual PKC isozyme expression and distribution (i.e., activation status) in epithelial cells in situ. Increased PKC activity was detected in differentiating and functional cells relative to immature proliferating crypt cells. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis using a panel of isozyme- specific antibodies revealed that PKC alpha, beta II, delta, epsilon, and zeta are expressed in rat intestinal epithelial cells and exhibit distinct subcellular distribution patterns along the crypt-villus unit. The combined morphological and biochemical approach used permitted analysis of the activation status of specific PKC isozymes at the individual cell level. These studies showed that marked changes in membrane association and level of expression for PKC alpha, beta II, delta, and zeta occur as cells cease division in the mid-crypt region and begin differentiation. Additional changes in PKC activation status are observed with acquisition of mature function on the villus. These studies clearly demonstrate naturally occurring alterations in PKC isozyme activation status at the individual cell level within the context of a developing tissue. Direct activation of PKC in an immature intestinal crypt cell line was shown to result in growth inhibition and coincident translocation of PKC alpha from the cytosolic to the particulate subcellular fraction, paralleling observations made in situ and providing further support for a role of intestinal PKC isozymes in post-mitotic events. PKC isozymes were also found to be tightly associated with cytoskeletal elements, suggesting participation in control of the structural organization of the enterocyte. Taken together, the results presented strongly suggest an involvement of PKC isoforms in cellular processes related to growth cessation, differentiation, and function of intestinal epithelial cells in situ.
PMCID: PMC2120146  PMID: 8045938
13.  Protein Kinase C Overexpression Suppresses Calcineurin-Associated Defects in Aspergillus nidulans and Is Involved in Mitochondrial Function 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e104792.
In filamentous fungi, intracellular signaling pathways which are mediated by changing calcium levels and/or by activated protein kinase C (Pkc), control fungal adaptation to external stimuli. A rise in intracellular Ca2+ levels activates calcineurin subunit A (CnaA), which regulates cellular calcium homeostasis among other processes. Pkc is primarily involved in maintaining cell wall integrity (CWI) in response to different environmental stresses. Cross-talk between the Ca2+ and Pkc-mediated pathways has mainly been described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in a few other filamentous fungi. The presented study describes a genetic interaction between CnaA and PkcA in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Overexpression of pkcA partially rescues the phenotypes caused by a cnaA deletion. Furthermore, CnaA appears to affect the regulation of a mitogen-activated kinase, MpkA, involved in the CWI pathway. Reversely, PkcA is involved in controlling intracellular calcium homeostasis, as was confirmed by microarray analysis. Furthermore, overexpression of pkcA in a cnaA deletion background restores mitochondrial number and function. In conclusion, PkcA and CnaA-mediated signaling appear to share common targets, one of which appears to be MpkA of the CWI pathway. Both pathways also regulate components involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This study describes targets for PkcA and CnaA-signaling pathways in an A. nidulans and identifies a novel interaction of both pathways in the regulation of cellular respiration.
PMCID: PMC4143261  PMID: 25153325
14.  Studies with transfected and permeabilized RBL-2H3 cells reveal unique inhibitory properties of protein kinase C gamma. 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  1994;5(4):475-484.
To characterize protein kinase C (PKC) gamma, an isozyme found exclusively in brain and spinal cord, its cDNA was introduced into basophilic RBL-2H3 cells that lack this isozyme. The expression of PKC gamma significantly attenuated antigen-induced responses including hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids, increase in cytosolic calcium, and secretion of granules but enhanced antigen-induced release of arachidonic acid. Instead of a sustained increase in cytosolic calcium, antigen now induced calcium oscillations; possibly as a consequence of suppression of the phospholipase C activity and incomplete emptying of internal calcium stores. In addition, PKC gamma appeared to inhibit activation of other PKC isozymes because phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to act synergistically with the Ca(2+)-ionophore on secretion. This was confirmed in other studies where PKC gamma was shown to suppress the transduction of stimulatory signals by other isozymes of PKC on provision of these isozymes to PKC-depleted permeabilized cells. The studies in total indicated that only PKC gamma was capable of inhibiting both early and distal signals for secretion including those signals transduced by endogenous isozymes of PKC.
PMCID: PMC301056  PMID: 8054687
15.  Calcium/calmodulin transduces thrombin-stimulated secretion: studies in intact and minimally permeabilized human umbilical vein endothelial cells 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1992;118(6):1501-1510.
Thrombin stimulates cultured endothelial cells (EC) to secrete stored von Willebrand factor (vWF), but the signal transduction pathways are poorly defined. Thrombin is known to elevate the concentration of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and to activate protein kinase C (PKC) in EC. Since both calcium ionophores and phorbol esters release vWF, both second messenger pathways have been postulated to participate in vWF secretion in response to naturally occurring agonists. We find that in intact human EC, vWF secretion stimulated by either thrombin or by a thrombin receptor activating peptide, TR(42-55), can be correlated with agonist-induced elevations of [Ca2+]i. Further evidence implicating calcium in the signal transduction pathway is suggested by the finding that MAPTAM, a cell-permeant calcium chelator, in combination with the extracellular calcium chelator EGTA, can inhibit thrombin-stimulated secretion. In contrast, the observation that staurosporine (a pharmacological inhibitor of PKC) blocks phorbol ester- but not thrombin-stimulated secretion provides evidence against PKC-mediated signal transduction. To examine further the signal transduction pathway initiated by thrombin, we developed novel conditions for minimal permeabilization of EC with saponin (4-8 micrograms/ml for 5-15 min at 37 degrees C) which allow the introduction of small extracellular molecules without the loss of large intracellular proteins and which retain thrombin-stimulated secretion. These minimally permeabilized cells secrete vWF in response to exogenous calcium, and EGTA blocks thrombin-induced secretion. Moreover, in these cells, thrombin- stimulated secretion is blocked by a calmodulin-binding inhibitory peptide but not by a PKC inhibitory peptide. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that thrombin-stimulated vWF secretion is transduced by a rise in [Ca2+]i and provide the first evidence for the role of calmodulin in this process.
PMCID: PMC2289613  PMID: 1522120
16.  Correction of metabolic abnormalities in a rodent model of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus by inhibitors of hepatic protein kinase C-ι 
Excessive activity of hepatic atypical protein kinase (aPKC) is proposed to play a critical role in mediating lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In previous studies of rodent models of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, adenoviral-mediated expression of kinase-inactive aPKC rapidly reversed or markedly improved most if not all metabolic abnormalities. Here, we examined effects of 2 newly developed small-molecule PKC-ι/λ inhibitors. We used the mouse model of heterozygous muscle-specific knockout of PKC-λ, in which partial deficiency of muscle PKC-λ impairs glucose transport in muscle and thereby causes glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia, which, via hepatic aPKC activation, leads to abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. One inhibitor, 1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide, 5-amino-1-[2,3-dihydroxy-4-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]cyclopentyl-[1R-(1a,2b,3b,4a)], binds to the substrate-binding site of PKC-λ/ι, but not other PKCs. The other inhibitor, aurothiomalate, binds to cysteine residues in the PBl-binding domains of aPKC-λ/ι/ζ and inhibits scaffolding. Treatment with either inhibitor for 7 days inhibited aPKC, but not Akt, in liver and concomitantly improved insulin signaling to Akt and aPKC in muscle and adipocytes. Moreover, both inhibitors diminished excessive expression of hepatic, aPKC-dependent lipogenic, proinflammatory, and gluconeogenic factors; and this was accompanied by reversal or marked improvements in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Our findings highlight the pathogenetic importance of insulin signaling to hepatic PKC-ι in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus and suggest that 1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide, 5-amino-1-[2,3-dihydroxy-4-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]cyclopentyl-[1R-(1a,2b,3b,4a)] and aurothiomalate or similar agents that selectively inhibit hepatic aPKC may be useful treatments.
PMCID: PMC3786325  PMID: 22225955
17.  1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate cause differential activation of Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent isoforms of protein kinase C in rat colonocytes. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1995;95(5):2215-2221.
Considerable evidence that alterations in protein kinase C (PKC) are intimately involved in important physiologic and pathologic processes in many cells, including colonic epithelial cells, has accumulated. In this regard, phorbol esters, a class of potent PKC activators, have been found to induce a number of cellular events in normal or transformed colonocytes. In addition, our laboratory has demonstrated that the major active metabolite of vitamin D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, also rapidly (seconds-minutes) activated PKC and increased intracellular calcium in isolated rat colonocytes. These acute responses, however, were lost in vitamin D deficiency and partially restored with the in vivo repletion of 1,25(OH)2D3. The Ca(2+)-independent or novel isoforms of PKC expressed in the rat colon and the isoform-specific responses of PKC to acute treatment with phorbol esters or 1,25(OH)2D3 have not been previously characterized. Moreover, the effects of vitamin D status on PKC isoform expression, distribution, and response to agonists are also unknown. In the present experiments, in addition to PKC-alpha, rat colonocytes were found to express the novel isoforms delta, epsilon, and zeta by Western blotting using isoform-specific PKC antibodies. The tumor-promoting phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate, caused time- and concentration-dependent translocations of all these isoforms except PKC-zeta. In vitamin D deficiency, there were no alterations in colonic PKC isoform expression but significant changes in the subcellular distribution of PKC-alpha, -delta, and -zeta. Acute treatment of colonocytes from D-sufficient, but not D-deficient, rats with 1,25(OH)2D3 caused a rapid transient redistribution of only PKC-alpha from the soluble to the particulate fraction. The alterations in PKC isoform distribution and PKC-alpha responsiveness to 1,25(OH)2D3 in vitamin D deficiency were partially, but significantly, restored with 5-7 d in vivo repletion of this secosteroid. Both 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate and 1,25(OH)2D3 activated endogenous PKC, as assessed by inhibition of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate back-phosphorylation by exogenous PKC. These studies indicate that PKC-alpha, -delta, and/or -epsilon likely mediate important phorbol ester-stimulated events described in the rat colon. In contrast, PKC-alpha is implicated in the rapid (s-min) PKC-dependent events initiated by 1,25(OH)2D3 in rat colonocytes.
PMCID: PMC295833  PMID: 7738187
18.  Dopamine and Ethanol Cause Translocation of εPKC Associated with εRACK: Cross-talk Between PKA and PKC Signaling Pathways 
Molecular pharmacology  2008;73(4):1105-1112.
Previously we found that neural responses to ethanol and the dopamine D2 receptor (D2) agonist NPA involve both epsilon protein kinase C (εPKC) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). However, little is known about the mechanism underlying ethanol- and D2-mediated activation of εPKC and the relationship to PKA activation. In the present study, we used a new εPKC antibody, 14E6, that selectively recognizes active εPKC when not bound to its anchoring protein εRACK (receptor for activated C-kinase), and PKC isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators, to measure PKC translocation and catalytic activity. We show here that ethanol and NPA activated εPKC and also induced translocation of both εPKC and its anchoring protein, εRACK to a new cytosolic site. The selective εPKC agonist, pseudo-εRACK, activated εPKC but did not cause translocation of the εPKC/εRACK complex to the cytosol. These data suggest a step-wise activation and translocation of εPKC following NPA or ethanol treatment where εPKC first translocates and binds to its RACK and subsequently the εPKC/εRACK complex translocates to a new subcellular site. Direct activation of PKA by Sp-cAMPS, PGE1 or the adenosine A2A receptor is sufficient to cause εPKC translocation to the cytosolic compartment in a process that is dependent on PLC activation and requires PKA activity. These data demonstrate a novel cross-talk mechanism between εPKC and PKA signaling systems. PKA and PKC signaling have been implicated in alcohol rewarding properties in the mesolimbic dopamine system. Cross-talk between PKA and PKC may underlie some of the behaviors associated with alcoholism.
PMCID: PMC2692587  PMID: 18202306
19.  Rational Design of A Selective Antagonist of ε Protein Kinase C Derived From the Selective Allosteric Agonist, Pseudo-Rack Peptide 
We have previously shown that domains involved in binding of protein kinase C (PKC1) isozymes to their respective anchoring proteins (RACKs2) and short peptides derived from these domains are PKC isozyme-selective antagonists. We also identified PKC isozyme-selective agonists, named ψRACK3 peptides, derived from a sequence within each PKC with high homology to its respective RACK. We noted that all the ψRACK sequences within each PKC isozyme have at least one non-homologous amino acid difference from their corresponding RACK that constitutes a charge change. Based on this information, we have devised here a new approach to design an isozyme-selective PKC antagonist, derived from the ψRACK sequence. We focused on εPKC ψRACK peptide, where the pseudo-εRACK sequence (ψεRACK; HDAPIGYD; corresponding to εPKC85-92) is different in charge from the homologous RACK-derived sequence (NNVALGYD; corresponding to εRACK285-292) in the second amino acid. Here we show that changing the charge of the ψεRACK peptide through a substitution of only one amino acid (aspartate to asparagine) resulted in a peptide with an opposite activity on the same cell function and a substitution for aspartate with an alanine resulted in an inactive peptide. These data support our hypothesis regarding the mechanism by which pseudo-RACK peptide activates PKC in heart cells and suggest that this approach is applicable to other signaling proteins with inducible protein-protein interactions.
PMCID: PMC1978508  PMID: 17337000
PKC (protein kinase C); RACK (receptor for activated C-kinase); ψRACK (pseudo RACK); intramolecular interaction; carrier peptide
20.  Identification and localization of an actin-binding motif that is unique to the epsilon isoform of protein kinase C and participates in the regulation of synaptic function 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1996;132(1):77-90.
Individual isoforms of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of kinases may have assumed distinct responsibilities for the control of complex and diverse cellular functions. In this study, we show that an isoform specific interaction between PKC epsilon and filamentous actin may serve as a necessary prelude to the enhancement of glutamate exocytosis from nerve terminals. Using a combination of cosedimentation, overlay, and direct binding assays, we demonstrate that filamentous actin is a principal anchoring protein for PKC epsilon within intact nerve endings. The unusual stability and direct nature of this physical interaction indicate that actin filaments represent a new class of PKC- binding protein. The binding of PKC epsilon to actin required that the kinase be activated, presumably to expose a cryptic binding site that we have identified and shown to be located between the first and second cysteine-rich regions within the regulatory domain of only this individual isoform of PKC. Arachidonic acid (AA) synergistically interacted with diacylglycerol to stimulate actin binding to PKC epsilon. Once established, this protein-protein interaction securely anchored PKC epsilon to the cytoskeletal matrix while also serving as a chaperone that maintained the kinase in a catalytically active conformation. Thus, actin appears to be a bifunctional anchoring protein that is specific for the PKC epsilon isoform. The assembly of this isoform-specific signaling complex appears to play a primary role in the PKC-dependent facilitation of glutamate exocytosis.
PMCID: PMC2120693  PMID: 8567732
21.  Direct interaction between protein kinase C theta (PKC theta) and 14-3-3 tau in T cells: 14-3-3 overexpression results in inhibition of PKC theta translocation and function. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1996;16(10):5782-5791.
Recent studies have documented direct interactions between 14-3-3 proteins and several oncogene and proto-oncogene products involved in signal transduction pathways. Studies on the effects of 14-3-3 proteins on protein kinase C (PKC) activity in vitro have reported conflicting results, and previous attempts to demonstrate a direct association between PKC and 14-3-3 were unsuccessful. Here, we examined potential physical and functional interactions between PKC theta, a Ca(2+)-independent PKC enzyme which is expressed selectively in T lymphocytes, and the 14-3-3 tau isoform in vitro and in intact T cells. PKC theta and 14-3-3 tau coimmunoprecipitated from Jurkat T cells, and recombinant 14-3-3 tau interacted directly with purified PKC theta in vitro. Transient overexpression of 14-3-3 tau suppressed stimulation of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) promoter mediated by cotransfected wild-type or constitutively active PKC theta, as well as by endogenous PKC in ionomycin- and/or phorbol ester-stimulated cells. This did not represent a general inhibition of activation events, since PKC-independent (but Ca(2+)-dependent) activation of an IL-4 promoter element was not inhibited by 14-3-3 tau under similar conditions. Overexpression of wild-type 14-3-3 tau also inhibited phorbol ester-induced PKC theta translocation from the cytosol to the membrane in Jurkat cells, while a membrane-targeted form of 14-3-3 tau caused increased localization of PKC theta in the particulate fraction in unstimulated cells. Membrane-targeted 14-3-3 tau was more effective than wild-type 14-3-3 tau in suppressing PKC theta-dependent IL-2 promoter activity, suggesting that 14-3-3 tau inhibits the function of PKC theta not only by preventing its translocation to the membrane but also by associating with it. The interaction between 14-3-3 and PKC theta may represent an important general mechanism for regulating PKC-dependent signals and, more specifically, PKC theta-mediated functions during T-cell activation.
PMCID: PMC231579  PMID: 8816492
22.  Dynamic properties of ankyrin in T lymphocytes: colocalization with spectrin and protein kinase C beta 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1994;125(2):345-358.
Ankyrin is a well characterized membrane skeletal protein which has been implicated in the anchorage of specific integral membrane proteins to the spectrin-based membrane skeleton in a number of systems. In this study, the organization of ankyrin was examined in lymphocytes in relation to T cell function. Light and electron microscope immunolocalization studies revealed extensive heterogeneity in the subcellular distribution of ankyrin in murine tissue-derived lymphocytes. While ankyrin can be localized at the lymphocyte plasma membrane, it can also be accumulated at some distance from the cell periphery, in small patches or in a single discrete, nonmembrane-bound structure. Double immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that ankyrin colocalizes with spectrin and with the signal transducing molecule protein kinase C beta (PKC beta) in tissue-derived lymphocytes, suggesting a functional association between these molecules in the lymphocyte cytoplasm. In addition, T lymphocyte activation-related signals and phorbol ester treatment, both of which lead to PKC activation, cause a rapid translocation of ankyrin, together with spectrin and PKC beta, to a single Triton X-100-insoluble aggregate in the cytoplasm. This finding suggests a mechanism for the reported appearance of PKC in the particulate fraction of cells after activation: activated lymphocyte PKC beta may interact with insoluble cytoskeletal elements like ankyrin and spectrin. Further evidence for a link between the subcellular organization of these proteins and PKC activity is provided by the observation that inhibitors of PKC activity cause their concomitant redistribution to the cell periphery. The dynamic nature of lymphocyte ankyrin and its ability to accumulate at sites distant from the plasma membrane are properties which may be unique to the lymphocyte form of the molecule. Its colocalization with PKC beta in the lymphocyte cytoplasm, together with its redistribution in response to physiological signals, suggests that structural protein(s) may play a role in signal transduction pathways in this cell type. Our data support the conclusion that ankyrin is not solely involved in anchorage of proteins at the plasma membrane in lymphoid cells.
PMCID: PMC2120020  PMID: 8163551
23.  PICK1: a perinuclear binding protein and substrate for protein kinase C isolated by the yeast two-hybrid system 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1995;128(3):263-271.
Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a central role in the control of proliferation and differentiation of a wide range of cell types by mediating the signal transduction response to hormones and growth factors. Upon activation by diacylglycerol, PKC translocates to different subcellular sites where it phosphorylates numerous proteins, most of which are unidentified. We used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify proteins that interact with activated PKC alpha. Using the catalytic region of PKC fused to the DNA binding domain of yeast GAL4 as "bait" to screen a mouse T cell cDNA library in which cDNA was fused to the GAL4 activation domain, we cloned several novel proteins that interact with C-kinase (PICKs). One of these proteins, designated PICK1, interacts specifically with the catalytic domain of PKC and is an efficient substrate for phosphorylation by PKC in vitro and in vivo. PICK1 is localized to the perinuclear region and is phosphorylated in response to PKC activation. PICK1 and other PICKs may play important roles in mediating the actions of PKC.
PMCID: PMC2120344  PMID: 7844141
24.  Protein Kinase C Mediates Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7-Induced Attaching and Effacing Lesions 
Infection and Immunity  2014;82(4):1648-1656.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 causes outbreaks of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. E. coli O157:H7 intimately attaches to epithelial cells, effaces microvilli, and recruits F-actin into pedestals to form attaching and effacing lesions. Lipid rafts serve as signal transduction platforms that mediate microbe-host interactions. The aims of this study were to determine if protein kinase C (PKC) is recruited to lipid rafts in response to E. coli O157:H7 infection and what role it plays in attaching and effacing lesion formation. HEp-2 and intestine 407 tissue culture epithelial cells were challenged with E. coli O157:H7, and cell protein extracts were then separated by buoyant density ultracentrifugation to isolate lipid rafts. Immunoblotting for PKC was performed, and localization in lipid rafts was confirmed with an anti-caveolin-1 antibody. Isoform-specific PKC small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to determine the role of PKC in E. coli O157:H7-induced attaching and effacing lesions. In contrast to uninfected cells, PKC was recruited to lipid rafts in response to E. coli O157:H7. Metabolically active bacteria and cells with intact lipid rafts were necessary for the recruitment of PKC. PKC recruitment was independent of the intimin gene, type III secretion system, and the production of Shiga toxins. Inhibition studies, using myristoylated PKCζ pseudosubstrate, revealed that atypical PKC isoforms were activated in response to the pathogen. Pretreating cells with isoform-specific PKC siRNA showed that PKCζ plays a role in E. coli O157:H7-induced attaching and effacing lesions. We concluded that lipid rafts mediate atypical PKC signal transduction responses to E. coli O157:H7. These findings contribute further to the understanding of the complex array of microbe-eukaryotic cell interactions that occur in response to infection.
PMCID: PMC3993376  PMID: 24491575
25.  Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications of Reversible Protein S-Glutathionylation 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2008;10(11):1941-1988.
Sulfhydryl chemistry plays a vital role in normal biology and in defense of cells against oxidants, free radicals, and electrophiles. Modification of critical cysteine residues is an important mechanism of signal transduction, and perturbation of thiol–disulfide homeostasis is an important consequence of many diseases. A prevalent form of cysteine modification is reversible formation of protein mixed disulfides (protein–SSG) with glutathione (GSH). The abundance of GSH in cells and the ready conversion of sulfenic acids and S-nitroso derivatives to S-glutathione mixed disulfides suggests that reversible S-glutathionylation may be a common feature of redox signal transduction and regulation of the activities of redox sensitive thiol-proteins. The glutaredoxin enzyme has served as a focal point and important tool for evolution of this regulatory mechanism, because it is a specific and efficient catalyst of protein–SSG deglutathionylation. However, mechanisms of control of intracellular Grx activity in response to various stimuli are not well understood, and delineation of specific mechanisms and enzyme(s) involved in formation of protein–SSG intermediates requires further attention. A large number of proteins have been identified as potentially regulated by reversible S-glutathionylation, but only a few studies have documented glutathionylation-dependent changes in activity of specific proteins in a physiological context. Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many diseases which may interrupt or divert normal redox signaling and perturb protein–thiol homeostasis. Examples involving changes in S-glutathionylation of specific proteins are discussed in the context of diabetes, cardiovascular and lung diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal, 10, 1941–1988.
Potential Mechanisms of Protein–SSG Formation
Thiol-disulfide exchange
Sulfenic acid intermediates
Sulfenylamide intermediates
Thiyl radical intermediates
Thiosulfinate intermediates
S-Nitrosylated intermediates
Potential Catalysis of Protein Glutathionylation
Flavoprotein sulfhydryl oxidease (QSOX)
Other potential mechanisms of catalysis/control of protein S-glutathionylation
Proteomics of Discovery of Potential Protein–SSG Intermediates
Deglutathionylation (Reversal) of Protein–SSG: Properties of the Glutaredoxin Enzymes
Glutaredoxin Mechanism of Action
Modualtion of Grx Expression
Diabetes and Implications of Changes in S-Glutathionylation Status
Mechanism of hyperglycemic damage and ROS
Insulin-glucose dynamics and diabetes complications
Glucose metabolism: aldose reductase–SSG (Fig. 3, step 1a)
K+ channels: Grx regulated (Fig. 3, step 2a)
ATP-sensitive potassium channels
Voltage-gated potassium channels
Ca2+ channels: SERCA-SSG and Grx-reversible RyR-SSG (Fig. 3, step 3a)
Insulin exocytosis: Grx regulated (Fig. 3 step 6a)
Insulin receptor: Grx-reversible PTP1B-SSG (Fig. 3, step 6b)
Signal transduction [Fig. 3, Ras-SSG (step 7b), MEKK-SSG (step 8b), c-Jun-SSG (step 9b), Akt-SSG (step 10b), IKK-SSG (step 11b), NF-κB(p50)-SSG (steps 5a and 12b), and PKC-SSG (step 4a)]
Summary and discussion: Grx as a therapeutic target in diabetic complications
Cardiovascular Diseases and Alterations in Protein-S-Glutathionylation Status
Myocardial infarction
Protein kinase C (PKC)
Protein kinase A (PKA)
Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)
Nonspecific oxidative injury
Cardiac hypertrophy
Implications of Protein S-Glutathionylation in Lung Disease
Tobacco exposure
Hyperoxic injury
Fibrotic and granulomatous diseases
Chronic obstructuve pulmonary disease (COPD)
Implications of Reversible Protein S-Glutathionylation in Cancer
Thiol oxidation and cancer
S-Glutathionylation and signal transduction in cancer
S-Glutathionylation and modulation of kinase/phosphatase signaling pathways
Protein kinase C (PKC)
I3 kinase and Akt
Protein tryosine phosphatase
c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JKN)
S-Glutathionylation and modulation of the proteasome pathway
S-Glutathionylation and modulation of transcription factors (c-Jun, NF-κB, p53, AP-1)
AP-1, c-Jun
Modulation of S-glutathionylation as a chemotherapeutic strategy for cancer
Implications of Protein S-Glutathionylation in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration
Sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in brain
Alzheimer's disease
Parkinson's disease
Huntington's disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Freidreich's ataxia
Glutaredoxin and neurodegeneration
Proteins associated with neurodegeneration that are redox regulated through S-glutathionylation
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)
Mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm)
Tyrosine hydroxylase
Cytosolic calcium regulators
Proteasome degradation pathway
α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Summary and Conclusions
Frontier Areas of Investigation
PMCID: PMC2774718  PMID: 18774901

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