Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy rarely results from cardiac disease. We present 2 cases of left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy caused by thoracic saccular aortic aneurysms. One patient suffered an aortic aneurysm rupture one month after the advent of hoarseness, necessitating emergency surgery with aortic arch replacement. The other patient underwent elective aortic arch replacement surgery. Both saccular aortic aneurysms protruded downward in the aortopulmonary window to compress the recurrent laryngeal nerves. This is only the 5th case report of the rare occurrence of acute recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy subsequent to saccular aneurysm rupture in the English literature. Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy does not always indicate imminent aneurysm rupture, but should trigger awareness of a potential rupture in the near future. Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy might be a prodrome of aneurysm rupture.
We report the first case of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli community-acquired meningitis complicated with multiple aortic mycotic aneurysms. Because of the acute aneurysm expansion with possible impending rupture on 2 abdominal CT scan, the patient underwent prompt vascular surgery and broad spectrum antibiotic therapy but he died of a hemorrhagic shock. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli was identified from both blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture before vascular treatment. The present case report does not however change the guidelines of Gram negative bacteria meningitis in adults.
aortic mycotic aneurysm; ESBL producing Escherichia coli; meningitis
Spondylodiscitis caused by Campylobacter species is a rare disease which is most often caused by Campylobacter fetus. We report a case of culture-negative spondylodiscitis and a psoas abscess due to Campylobacter jejuni in a 68-year-old woman, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene and Campylobacter-specific PCRs from biopsied tissue.
Retroperitoneal fibrosis is associated with fibroblast proliferation due to inflammatory changes in adipose/fibrous tissue. Given that aortic dilation in abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause compression of the ureter, abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by retroperitoneal fibrosis is likely to result in urinary tract obstruction. Accordingly, close attention to changes in perioperative urine volume is warranted when operating on patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by retroperitoneal fibrosis. We have recently performed laparotomies on two cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by retroperitoneal fibrosis. In the first case, surgery was performed without the placement of a ureteral stent. The patient developed postrenal acute renal failure caused by postoperative urinary retention. In the second case, ureteral stent placement in advance enabled perioperative management without complications. The clinical course of these cases suggests that, in laparotomy with concomitant retroperitoneal fibrosis, preoperative ureteral stent placement can prevent postoperative complications in the renal and urinary systems.
Acute kidney injury; Aortic aneurysm; Retroperitoneal fibrosis; Ureteral stent; Urinary retention
Aortic aneurysm is one several well-known cardiovascular complications in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPCKD). Commonly affected site of aortic aneurysm and its related dissection in ADPCKD is abdominal aorta. Long standing hypertension, haemodialysis, old age are closely related with discovering of aortic aneurysm and dissection in ADPCKD. However, thoracic aortic aneurysms and its related severe aortic regurgitations (ARs) are rare in younger patients suffering from ADPCKD, especially ones who have normal renal function. Here, we report a case involving a 27-year-old Asian male patient with severe AR due to an ascending aneurysm of the thoracic aorta associated with ADPCKD. The patient had normal renal function without Marfan's habitus. The AR and thoracic aortic aneurysm were corrected surgically.
Aortic regurgitation; Aortic aneurysm, thoracic; Polycystic kidney, autosomal dominant
Spondylodiscitis is a rare disease which is generally seen after long-term epidural catheterization. However, spondylidiscitis developing after diagnostic lumbar puncture is very rare. Early diagnosis has a crucial role in the management of the disease and inclines the morbidity rates. However, the diagnosis is often delayed due to the rarity and insidious onset of the disease usually presenting with low back pain which has a high frequency in the society. If it is diagnosed early before development of an abscess requiring surgery or neurological deficit, it responds to antimicrobial therapy quite well. We report 66-year-old male case of spondylodiscitis developing after diagnostic lumbar puncture. The patient was treated with antimicrobial therapy. After antimicrobial therapy, findings of spondylodiscitis were completely resolved and no recurrence was seen in the period of 9-month followup.
The purpose of this case report was to report a rare case of pyogenic spondylodiscitis caused by Campylobacter fetus. A 37-year-old male presented with fever and low back pain. By lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), no abnormal finding was observed at the first presentation. However, low back pain was aggravated, and fever did not improve. Thus, lumbar MRI was repeated on the 26 day after the onset of symptoms, showing abnormal signals at vertebrae and disc spaces, and pyogenic spondylitis was diagnosed. The possibility of pyogenic spondylodiscitis should be taken into account if a patient presents with low back pain and fever, and areas of low signal intensity on a T1-weighted MRI should be carefully examined. When initial MRI does not reveal abnormal findings, repeated MRI after one or two weeks or, more favorably, immediate gadolinium enhancement MRI, are important for patients who have persistent low back pain and fever.
Resonance imaging; Campylobacter fetus
Spinal cord infarction, especially anterior spinal artery syndrome, is a relatively rare disease. We report a case of spinal cord infarction caused by thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with intraluminal thrombus. A 52-year-old man presented with sudden onset paraplegia. At first, he was diagnosed with cervical myelopathy due to a C6-7 herniated intervertebral disc, and had an operation for C6-7 discetomy and anterior interbody fusion. Approximately 1 month after the operation, he was transferred to the department of rehabilitation in our hospital. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with intraluminal thrombus was found incidentally on an enhanced computed tomography scan, and high signal intensities were detected at the anterior horns of gray matter from the T8 to cauda equina level on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. There was no evidence of aortic rupture, dissection, or complete occlusion of the aorta. We diagnosed his case as a spinal cord infarction caused by thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with intraluminal thrombus.
Spinal cord infarction; Aortic aneurysm; Paraplegia
We report a case of infective endocarditis due to Neisseria sicca complicated by intracranial and popliteal aneurysms and hepatic and splenic infarcts in a patient with a bicuspid aortic valve. No predisposing factor other than poor dental condition was found. The patient fully recovered after antibiotic therapy, aortic and mitral valve replacement, endovascular occlusion of the middle-cerebral artery aneurysm, and surgical treatment of the popliteal artery aneurysm.
Case reports to analyze causes and possible prevention of complications in a new setting are important. We present an open repair of a ruptured type 2 thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm in a 78-year-old man. Lower-body perfusion through a temporary extracorporeal axillobifemoral arterial prosthesis shunt was combined with the use of a branch to the permanent aortic prosthesis to enable rapid visceral revascularization using a visceral-anastomosis-first approach. The patient died due to transfusion-induced capillary leak syndrome and left colon necrosis; the latter was probably caused by a combination of back-bleeding from lumbar arteries causing a steal effect, an accidental shunt obstruction, and hemodynamic instability towards the end of the operation. The visceral-anastomosis-first approach did not contribute to the complications. This approach reduces the time when visceral organs are perfused only via collateral arteries to the time needed for suturing the visceral anastomoses. This may be important when collateral perfusion is marginal.
A rectus sheath haematoma is a rare condition that arises from the accumulation of blood within the rectus sheath from either muscular tear or rupture of the epigastric vessels. It is a known complication of either blunt abdominal trauma, anticoagulation therapy or the repetitive contraction of the rectus muscle such as paroxysms of coughing. It remains an uncommon and elusive entity and is often clinically misdiagnosed.
An 80-year-old British man with a known aortic aneurysm was admitted with sudden onset of right iliac fossa pain. The patient was hemodynamically stable and underwent a computed tomography scan which revealed an intact aorta and an acute rectus sheath hematoma.
To the best of our knowledge, no case has previously been reported involving the diagnostic challenge of a rectus sheath hematoma in a patient with a known aortic aneurysm. Here we discuss the symptoms and signs of a rectus sheath hematoma, as well as the radiological modalities that could be utilized to reach the diagnosis.
Renal transplant recipients requiring aortic reconstruction due to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pose a unique clinical problem. The concern during surgery is causing ischemic injury to the renal allograft. A variety of strategies for protection of the renal allograft during AAA intervention have been described including a temporary shunt, cold renal perfusion, extracorporeal bypass, general hypothermia, and endovascular stent-grafting. In addition, some investigators have reported no remarkable complications of the renal allograft without any specific measures. We treated a case of AAA in a patient with a renal allograft using a temporary aortofemoral shunt with good result. Since this technique is safe and effective, it should be considered in similar patients with AAA and previously placed renal allografts.
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal; Renal Allograft, Temporary Shunt
Spinal “stroke” is an uncommon cause of paraplegia. Spinal cord infarction from unruptured aortic aneurysm is rare. When encountered it poses diagnostic challenge to the clinician due to its rarity, which may lead to incorrect or delayed diagnosis. We report a case of 62-year-old man presenting to casualty as caudaequina syndrome due to spinal cord infarction secondary to emboli from an infra renal abdominal aortic aneurysm. To the authors knowledge this is first case of its kind and has not been reported in literature. Patient had improvement in proximal motor function following repair of the aneurysm, although he remained doubly incontinent in six months follow up.
Staphylococcus aureus is the major cause of bacteremia, with the potential for some complications, namely mycotic aneurysms, defined as irreversible dilatation of an artery due to destruction of the vessel wall by infection.
The authors present the case of a 52 year-old-Caucasian male, admitted with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and mycotic aneurysm of the right superficial femoral artery, associated with advanced atherosclerotic process.
Mycotic aneurysms are rare, and a high index of suspicion is needed, because appropriate treatment will certainly affect the outcome, as they are associated with high morbidity and mortality.
The potential complications of an abdominal aortic aneurysm include rupture, compression of surrounding structures, thrombo-embolic events and fistula. The most common site of arterio-venous fistula is the inferior vena cava. Fistula involving a renal vein is particularly uncommon.
This report describes a 54-year-old Caucasian woman who was admitted to the emergency department with fatigue, severe dyspnea and bilateral lower limb edema. In the first instance this anamnesis suggested possible heart failure. In fact, our patient presented with multi-organ system failure due to a fistula between an infra-renal aortic aneurysm and an aberrant retro-aortic renal vein.
To our knowledge, this is the first report of a woman with a fistula between an infra-renal aortic aneurysm and an aberrant retro-aortic left renal vein. Aorto-venous fistulas may be asymptomatic or may present with symptoms characteristic of arterio-venous shunting and/or aneurysm rupture. This type of fistula is a rare cause of heart failure. Clinical examination and imaging are essential for detection.
Duodenal perforations caused by biliary prostheses are not uncommon, and they are potentially life threatening and require immediate treatment. We describe an unusual case of aortic aneurysm and rupture which occurred after retroperitoneal aortoduodenal fistula formation as a rare complication caused by biliary metallic stent-related duodenal perforation. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a lethal complication of a bleeding, aortoduodenal fistula and caused by biliary metallic stent-induced perforation.
Stents; Retroperitoneal perforation; Aortic aneurysm; Fistula
Mycotic aneurysms account for a small proportion of all aneurysms. Escherichia coli a gram-negative organism, is recognised as a rare cause of aortic aneurysm. We report two cases of mycotic aneurysm caused by the same strain of multi-resistant Escherichia coli. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the possibility that this strain may be associated with an increased risk of endovascular infection especially in extra-aortic sites. These aneurysms can be difficult to detect and can have serious consequences.
In case one, the patient presented with symptoms and signs of septicaemia secondary to a urinary tract infection. Despite adequate treatment the patient continued with pyrexia and raised inflammatory markers, therefore a series of CT scans of the abdomen and thorax were performed, which revealed two intra-thoracic pseudo-aneurysms with associated haematomas. In case two, the patient also developed Escherichia coli septicaemia. On day 44 he developed a swelling on the right side of his neck. An ultrasound scan showed a pseudoaneurysm of the right common carotid artery.
Whilst a case report cannot prove that a heightened risk exists, we suggest that it is an area worthy of further surveillance. We recommend when older patients with atheromatosis develop prolonged Escherichia coli septicaemia, the possibility of an infected aneurysm should be borne in mind.
A 26 year old man who presented with the first signs of right heart failure was found to have a large congenital aneurysm of the aortic sinus of Valsalva and of the left coronary sinus. These were combined with left heart anomalies in the form of a bicuspid aortic valve, a rare variant of a persistent left superior vena cava with blood flow from the left atrium through the brachiocephalic vein into the superior vena cava and a kink in the aortic arch. An aortic coarctation had been corrected with a patch 12 years earlier. Although the aneurysm was not perforated and there were no clinical signs of infarction, the aneurysm was resected prophylactically and the left coronary artery was reinserted through a bypass with a Gore-Tex conduit. The case is noteworthy because this diagnosis is very rare and its early treatment may prevent several complications. The clinical features, treatment, and outcome are discussed.
left sinus of Valsalva; aneurysm
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a widely used method, and its decreased invasiveness compared to traditional surgical repair has brought about reduced rates of morbidity and mortality. Several vascular complications related to the procedure have been reported, but non-vascular complications have rarely occurred. We report herein the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent EVAR for AAA and presented with active duodenal ulcer bleeding and acute acalculous cholecystitis as complications after the procedure. We must consider that a wide spectrum of complications may occur following EVAR, and therefore it is important to evaluate the risks of complication and to take the necessary measures to minimize them.
Complication; Endovascular aneurysm repair; Abdominal aortic aneurysm
Aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva that causes dissection of the interventricular septum is an extremely rare entity. In this report we describe a case of aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva dissecting into the interventricular septum, from the base to mid septum, after aortic valve replacement. After the diagnosis was made by transthoracic echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging, the patient was successfully treated with surgical sealant-mediated occlusion of the aneurysmal sac and cardiac resynchronization therapy used for the first time.
Ventricular septum; Heart aneurysm; Heart valve prosthesis implantation
Tuberculous aneurysm of the aorta is exceedingly rare. To date, the standard therapy for mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta has been surgery involving in-situ graft placement or extra-anatomic bypass surgery followed by effective anti-tuberculous medication. Only recently has the use of a stent graft in the treatment of tuberculous aortic aneurysm been described in the literature. We report two cases in which a tuberculous aneurysm of the abdominal aorta was successfully repaired using endovascular stent grafts. One case involved is a 42-year-old woman with a large suprarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and a right psoas abscess, and the other, a 41-year-old man in whom an abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptured during surgical drainage of a psoas abscess.
Aorta, disease; Aorta, aneurysm; Aorta, grafts and prostheses
Postoperative spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) is rare, but the same occurring at adjacent levels without disturbing the operated level is very rare. We report a case, with 5 year followup, who underwent ACDF from C5 to C7 for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. He showed neurological improvement after surgery but developed discharging sinus after 2 weeks, which healed with antibiotics. He improved on his preoperative symptoms well for the first 2 months. He started developing progressive neck pain and myelopathy after 3 months and investigations revealed spondylodiscitis at C3 and C4 with erosion, collapse, and kyphosis, without any evidence of implant failure or graft rejection at the operated level. He underwent reexploration and implant removal at the operated level (there was good fusion from C5 to C7) followed by debridement/decompression at C3, C4 along with iliac crest bone grafting and stabilization with plate and screws after maximum correction of kyphosis. The biopsy specimen grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa and appropriate sensitive antibiotics (gentamycin and ciprofloxacin) were given for 6 weeks. He was under regular followup for 5 years his myelopathy resolved completely and he is back to work. Complete decompression of the cord and fusion from C2 to C7 was demonstrable on postoperative imaging studies without any evidence of implant loosening or C1/C2 instability at the last followup.
Adjacent level infection; anterior cervical decompression and fusion; cervical spine; complications; postoperative infection
Whilst the incidence of CAA has been reported as up to 5%, giant CAA (>2 cm) is rare.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We present a rare case of 3 cm × 4 cm giant coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) in the context of aorto-iliac aneurysmal disease, treated by staged open surgical repair.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and CAA share risk factors and aetiological mechanisms, therefore should be considered, particularly when CAA is diagnosed in the first instance.
Surgical intervention for diagnosed giant CAA appears to be the treatment of choice in the reported literature, with the order of intervention when AAA co-exists remaining a point for debate.
Coronary aneurysm; Aortic aneurysm; Iliac aneurysm
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare disease in which the third portion of the duodenum is compressed by SMA. There are many causes leading to the SMA syndrome, however it's extremely rare that aortic aneurysm causes a SMA syndrome. We report a case of a successfully treated SMA syndrome due to an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a renal transplant recipient. The patient was a 52-yr-old woman with a thin stature (weight 40 kg, height 164 cm). She received a renal transplant 8 yr before, and had hypertension and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Her SMA syndrome developed in a prolonged supine position for the accidental rib fractures and was diagnosed by clinical and radiological findings. After a surgical correction (resection of an aneurysm and aortobiiliac bypass with an inverted Y graft), her symptoms relieved without deterioration of the graft function.
Aneurysms of the coronary sinuses of Valsalva and coronary artery aneurysms are uncommon cardiac anomalies, and cases in which these two uncommon lesions occur at the same time are extremely rare. A case of a woman with unstable angina who had a giant aneurysm of the left coronary sinus and multiple coronary artery aneurysms associated with an idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome is presented. Her sustained eosinophilia, elevated eosinophilic cationic protein concentration, and pathological findings of eosinophil infiltration of the aortic wall suggested the association of eosinophilia induced vascular injury as the cause of these aneurysms. This is the first such case to survive following surgical treatment.
Keywords: aneurysm; arteritis; coronary sinus; eosinophilia