PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (1208661)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  Dynamic Chromatin Organization during Foregut Development Mediated by the Organ Selector Gene PHA-4/FoxA 
PLoS Genetics  2010;6(8):e1001060.
Central regulators of cell fate, or selector genes, establish the identity of cells by direct regulation of large cohorts of genes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, foregut (or pharynx) identity relies on the FoxA transcription factor PHA-4, which activates different sets of target genes at various times and in diverse cellular environments. An outstanding question is how PHA-4 distinguishes between target genes for appropriate transcriptional control. We have used the Nuclear Spot Assay and GFP reporters to examine PHA-4 interactions with target promoters in living embryos and with single cell resolution. While PHA-4 was found throughout the digestive tract, binding and activation of pharyngeally expressed promoters was restricted to a subset of pharyngeal cells and excluded from the intestine. An RNAi screen of candidate nuclear factors identified emerin (emr-1) as a negative regulator of PHA-4 binding within the pharynx, but emr-1 did not modulate PHA-4 binding in the intestine. Upon promoter association, PHA-4 induced large-scale chromatin de-compaction, which, we hypothesize, may facilitate promoter access and productive transcription. Our results reveal two tiers of PHA-4 regulation. PHA-4 binding is prohibited in intestinal cells, preventing target gene expression in that organ. PHA-4 binding within the pharynx is limited by the nuclear lamina component EMR-1/emerin. The data suggest that association of PHA-4 with its targets is a regulated step that contributes to promoter selectivity during organ formation. We speculate that global re-organization of chromatin architecture upon PHA-4 binding promotes competence of pharyngeal gene transcription and, by extension, foregut development.
Author Summary
Central regulators of cell fate establish the identity of cells by direct regulation of large cohorts of genes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, foregut (or pharynx) identity relies on the FoxA transcription factor PHA-4, which activates different target genes in different cellular environments. An outstanding question is how PHA-4 distinguishes between target genes for appropriate transcriptional control. Here we examine PHA-4 interactions with target promoters in living embryos and with single-cell resolution. While PHA-4 was found throughout the digestive tract, binding and activation of pharyngeally expressed promoters was restricted to a subset of pharyngeal cells and excluded from the intestine. An RNAi screen identified emerin (emr-1) as a negative regulator of PHA-4 binding within the pharynx. Upon promoter association, PHA-4 induced large-scale chromatin de-compaction, which, we hypothesize, facilitates promoter access. Our results reveal two tiers of PHA-4 regulation. PHA-4 binding is prohibited in intestinal cells and is limited in the pharynx by the nuclear lamina component EMR-1/emerin. The data suggest that association of PHA-4 with its targets is a regulated step that contributes to promoter selectivity during organ formation. We speculate that global re-organization of chromatin architecture upon PHA-4 binding promotes competence of pharyngeal gene transcription and, by extension, foregut development.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001060
PMCID: PMC2920861  PMID: 20714352
2.  Cellular reprogramming by the conjoint action of ERα, FOXA1, and GATA3 to a ligand-inducible growth state 
Estrogen receptor α (ERα), FOXA1, and GATA3 form a functional enhanceosome in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell that is significantly associated with active transcriptional features such as enhanced p300 co-activator and RNA Pol II recruitment as well as chromatin opening.The enhanceosome exerts significant impact and optimal transcriptional control in the regulation of E2-responsive genes.The presence of FOXA1 and GATA3 is indispensable in restoring the ERα growth-response machinery in the ERα-negative cells and recapitulating the appropriate expression cassette.
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a ligand-inducible hormone nuclear receptor that has important physiology and pathology roles in reproduction, cancer, and cardiovascular biology. The regulation of ERα involves its binding to the DNA recognition sequence also known as estrogen-response elements (EREs) and recruits a variety of co-activators, corepressors, and chromatin remodeling enzymes to initiate transcription machinery. In our previous (Lin et al, 2007) and recent (Joseph et al, 2010) studies, we have identified high confidence ERα binding sites in MCF-7 human mammary carcinoma cells. With known motif scanning and de novo motif detection, we identified that FOXA1 and GATA3 motifs were commonly enriched around ERα binding sites. Moreover, numerous microarray studies have documented the co-expression of ERα, FOXA1, and GATA3 in primary breast tumors (Badve et al, 2007; Wilson and Giguere, 2008). This evidence suggests that these three transcription factors (TFs) may cluster on DNA binding sites and contribute to the breast cancer phenotype. However, there is little understanding as to the nature of their coordinated interaction at the genome level or the biological consequences of their detailed interaction.
We mapped the genome-wide binding profiles of ERα, FOXA1, and GATA3 using the massive parallel chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) approach. We observed that ERα, FOXA1, and GATA3 colocalized in a coordinated manner where ∼30% of all ERα binding sites were overlapped with FOXA1 and GATA3 bindings upon estrogen (E2) stimulation. Moreover, we found that the ERα+FOXA1+GATA3 conjoint sites were associated with highest p300 co-activator recruitment, RNA Pol II occupancy, and chromatin opening. Such results indicate that these three TFs form a functional enhanceosome and cooperatively modulate the transcriptional networks previously ascribed to ERα alone. And such enhanceosome binding sites appear to regulate the genes driving core ERα function.
To further validate that ERα+FOXA1+GATA3 co-binding represents an optimal configuration for E2-mediated transcriptional activation, we have performed luciferase reporter assays on GREB1 locus that actively engages ERα enhanceosome sites in gene regulation (Figure 5C). The presence of ERα induced the GREB1 luciferase activity to ∼246% (as compared with the control construct). The individual presence of FOXA1 and GATA3 or combination of both only produced subtle changes to the GREB1 luciferase activity. The combination of ERα+FOXA1 and ERα+GATA3 has increased the luciferase activity to ∼330%. Interestingly, the assemblage of ERα+FOXA1+GATA3 provided the optimal ER responsiveness to 370%. This suggests that ERα provides the fundamental gene regulatory module but that FOXA1 and GATA3 incrementally improve ERα-regulated transcriptional induction.
It is known that ERα is a ligand-activated TF that mediates the proliferative effects of E2 in breast cancer cells. Garcia et al (1992) showed inhibited growth in MDA-MB-231 cells with forced expression of ERα upon E2 treatment. The rationale for these different outcomes has remained elusive. We posited that these higher order regulatory mechanisms of ERα function such as the formation and composition of enhanceosomes may explain the establishment of transcriptional regulatory cassettes favoring either growth enhancement or growth repression.
To test this hypothesis, we stably transfected the MDA-MB-231 cells with individual ERα, FOXA1, GATA3, or in combinations (Figure 6A). We observed inhibited growth in cells with enforced expression of ERα or FOXA1. There was unaltered growth in cells with expression of GATA3. Co-expression of ERα+FOXA1 or ERα+GATA3 exhibited inhibition of cell proliferation as compared with control cells. However, the co-expression of ERα together with FOXA1 and GATA3 resulted in marked induction of cell proliferation under E2 stimulation. We have recapitulated this cellular reprogramming in another ERα-negative breast cancer cell line, BT-549 and observed similar E2-responsive growth induction in the ERα+FOXA1+GATA3-expressing BT-549 cells. This suggests that only with the full activation of conjoint binding sites by the three TFs will the proliferative phenotype associated with ligand induced ERα be manifest.
To assess the nature of this transcriptional reprogramming, we asked the question if the reprogrammed MDA-MB-231 cells display any similarity in the expression profile of the ERα-positive breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 (Figure 6C). We combined the E2-regulated genes from these differently transfected MDA-MB-231 cells, and compared their expressions in these MDA-MB-231-transfected cells and MCF-7 cells. Strikingly, we found that the expression profiles of ERα+FOXA1+GATA3-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells display a good correlation (R=0.42) with the E2-induced expression profile of MCF-7. We did not observe such correlation between the expression profiles of MDA-MB-231 transfected with ERα only (R=−0.21). Furthermore, we observed that there is marginal induced expression of luminal marker genes and reduced expression of basal genes in the ERα+FOXA1+GATA3-expressing MDA-MB-231 as compared with the vector control cells. This suggests that the enhanceosome component is competent to partially reprogramme the basal cells to resemble the luminal cells.
Taken together, we have uncovered the genomics impact as well as the functional importance of an enhanceosome comprising ERα, FOXA1, and GATA3 in the estrogen responsiveness of ERα-positive breast cancer cells. This enhanceosome exerts significant combinatorial control of the transcriptional network regulating growth and proliferation of ERα-positive breast cancer cells. Most importantly, we show that the transfection of the enhanceosome component was necessary to reprogramme the ERα-negative cells to restore the estrogen-responsive growth and to transcriptionally induce a basal to luminal transition.
Despite the role of the estrogen receptor α (ERα) pathway as a key growth driver for breast cells, the phenotypic consequence of exogenous introduction of ERα into ERα-negative cells paradoxically has been growth inhibition. We mapped the binding profiles of ERα and its interacting transcription factors (TFs), FOXA1 and GATA3 in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, and observed that these three TFs form a functional enhanceosome that regulates the genes driving core ERα function and cooperatively modulate the transcriptional networks previously ascribed to ERα alone. We demonstrate that these enhanceosome occupied sites are associated with optimal enhancer characteristics with highest p300 co-activator recruitment, RNA Pol II occupancy, and chromatin opening. Most importantly, we show that the transfection of all three TFs was necessary to reprogramme the ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells to restore the estrogen-responsive growth resembling estrogen-treated ERα-positive MCF-7 cells. Cumulatively, these results suggest that all the enhanceosome components comprising ERα, FOXA1, and GATA3 are necessary for the full repertoire of cancer-associated effects of the ERα.
doi:10.1038/msb.2011.59
PMCID: PMC3202798  PMID: 21878914
enhanceosome; estrogen receptor α; FOXA1; GATA3; synthetic phenotypes
3.  The Caenorhabditis elegans Myc-Mondo/Mad Complexes Integrate Diverse Longevity Signals 
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(4):e1004278.
The Myc family of transcription factors regulates a variety of biological processes, including the cell cycle, growth, proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the “Myc interaction network” consists of two opposing heterodimeric complexes with antagonistic functions in transcriptional control: the Myc-Mondo:Mlx transcriptional activation complex and the Mad:Max transcriptional repression complex. In C. elegans, Mondo, Mlx, Mad, and Max are encoded by mml-1, mxl-2, mdl-1, and mxl-1, respectively. Here we show a similar antagonistic role for the C. elegans Myc-Mondo and Mad complexes in longevity control. Loss of mml-1 or mxl-2 shortens C. elegans lifespan. In contrast, loss of mdl-1 or mxl-1 increases longevity, dependent upon MML-1:MXL-2. The MML-1:MXL-2 and MDL-1:MXL-1 complexes function in both the insulin signaling and dietary restriction pathways. Furthermore, decreased insulin-like/IGF-1 signaling (ILS) or conditions of dietary restriction increase the accumulation of MML-1, consistent with the notion that the Myc family members function as sensors of metabolic status. Additionally, we find that Myc family members are regulated by distinct mechanisms, which would allow for integrated control of gene expression from diverse signals of metabolic status. We compared putative target genes based on ChIP-sequencing data in the modENCODE project and found significant overlap in genomic DNA binding between the major effectors of ILS (DAF-16/FoxO), DR (PHA-4/FoxA), and Myc family (MDL-1/Mad/Mxd) at common target genes, which suggests that diverse signals of metabolic status converge on overlapping transcriptional programs that influence aging. Consistent with this, there is over-enrichment at these common targets for genes that function in lifespan, stress response, and carbohydrate metabolism. Additionally, we find that Myc family members are also involved in stress response and the maintenance of protein homeostasis. Collectively, these findings indicate that Myc family members integrate diverse signals of metabolic status, to coordinate overlapping metabolic and cytoprotective transcriptional programs that determine the progression of aging.
Author Summary
Transcription factors are essential proteins that regulate the expression of genes and play an important role in most biological processes. The results of our study presented here demonstrate for the first time a role in aging for a small family of transcription factors in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Importantly, these proteins have close relatives in higher organisms, including humans that influence metabolism, cell replication, and have been implicated in the development of cancer. Moreover, the loss of one homologue has also been implicated in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a disease characterized in part by signs of premature aging. Our data demonstrate that these transcription factors function within insulin/IGF-1 signaling and dietary restriction, two highly conserved pathways that link nutrient sensing to longevity. Taken together, our findings provide exciting new insight into a family of proteins that may be essential for linking nutrient sensing to longevity and have implications for the improvement of human healthspan.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004278
PMCID: PMC3974684  PMID: 24699255
4.  Temporal Regulation of Foregut Development by HTZ-1/H2A.Z and PHA-4/FoxA  
PLoS Genetics  2006;2(9):e161.
The histone variant H2A.Z is evolutionarily conserved and plays an essential role in mice, Drosophila, and Tetrahymena. The essential function of H2A.Z is unknown, with some studies suggesting a role in transcriptional repression and others in activation. Here we show that Caenorhabditis elegans HTZ-1/H2A.Z and the remodeling complex MYS-1/ESA1–SSL-1/SWR1 synergize with the FoxA transcription factor PHA-4 to coordinate temporal gene expression during foregut development. We observe dramatic genetic interactions between pha-4 and htz-1, mys-1, and ssl-1. A survey of transcription factors reveals that this interaction is specific, and thus pha-4 is acutely sensitive to reductions in these three proteins. Using a nuclear spot assay to visualize HTZ-1 in living embryos as organogenesis proceeds, we show that HTZ-1 is recruited to foregut promoters at the time of transcriptional onset, and this recruitment requires PHA-4. Loss of htz-1 by RNAi is lethal and leads to delayed expression of a subset of foregut genes. Thus, the effects of PHA-4 on temporal regulation can be explained in part by recruitment of HTZ-1 to target promoters. We suggest PHA-4 and HTZ-1 coordinate temporal gene expression by modulating the chromatin environment.
Synopsis
During development, a single fertilized egg gives rise to the different cell types within an embryo. These different cell types are characterized by the different genes that they express. A critical question in biology is how embryonic cells activate genes at the appropriate time and place to generate the different cell types. In this paper, the authors explore temporal regulation of gene expression during formation of an organ, namely the Caenorhabditis elegans foregut. They have discovered that foregut genes require a variant of the canonical H2A histone for the onset of transcription. This variant, called H2A.Z, or htz-1 in C. elegans, promotes transcription by modifying how DNA is packaged within cells. Their data suggest that a key regulator of foregut development, the transcription factor PHA-4, recruits HTZ-1 to pharyngeal promoters, and this association contributes to their timely activation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020161
PMCID: PMC1584275  PMID: 17009877
5.  A systematic approach identifies FOXA1 as a key factor in the loss of epithelial traits during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:680.
Background
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism in cancer metastasis. Although transcription factors including SNAIL, SLUG, and TWIST1 regulate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, other unknown transcription factors could also be involved. Identification of the full complement of transcription factors is essential for a more complete understanding of gene regulation in this process. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-Seq) technologies have been used to detect genome-wide binding of transcription factors; here, we developed a systematic approach to integrate existing ChIP-Seq and transcriptome data. We scanned multiple transcription factors to investigate their functional impact on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
Results
Among the transcription factors tested, impact scores identified the forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) as the most significant transcription factor in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. FOXA1 physically associates with the promoters of its predicted target genes. Several critical epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition effectors involved in cellular adhesion and cellular communication were identified in the regulatory network of FOXA1, including FOXA2, FGA, FGB, FGG, and FGL1. The implication of FOXA1 in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via its regulatory network indicates that FOXA1 may play an important role in the initiation of lung cancer metastasis.
Conclusions
We identified FOXA1 as a potentially important transcription factor and negative regulator in the initial stages of lung cancer metastasis. FOXA1 may modulate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via its transcriptional regulatory network. Further, this study demonstrates how ChIP-Seq and expression data could be integrated to delineate the impact of transcription factors on a specific biological process.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-680
PMCID: PMC3852829  PMID: 24093963
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; Lung cancer; ChIP-Seq; FOXA1
6.  Function of the PHA-4/FOXA transcription factor during C. elegans post-embryonic development 
Background
pha-4 encodes a forkhead box (FOX) A transcription factor serving as the C. elegans pharynx organ identity factor during embryogenesis. Using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), comparison of gene expression profiles between growing stages animals and long-lived, developmentally diapaused dauer larvae revealed that pha-4 transcription is increased in the dauer stage.
Results
Knocking down pha-4 expression by RNAi during post-embryonic development showed that PHA-4 is essential for dauer recovery, gonad and vulva development. daf-16, which encodes a FOXO transcription factor regulated by insulin/IGF-1 signaling, shows overlapping expression patterns and a loss-of-function post-embryonic phenotype similar to that of pha-4 during dauer recovery. pha-4 RNAi and daf-16 mutations have additive effects on dauer recovery, suggesting these two regulators may function in parallel pathways. Gene expression studies using RT-PCR and GFP reporters showed that pha-4 transcription is elevated under starvation, and a conserved forkhead transcription factor binding site in the second intron of pha-4 is important for the neuronal expression. The vulval transcription of lag-2, which encodes a ligand for the LIN-12/Notch lateral signaling pathway, is inhibited by pha-4 RNAi, indicating that LAG-2 functions downstream of PHA-4 in vulva development.
Conclusion
Analysis of PHA-4 during post-embryonic development revealed previously unsuspected functions for this important transcriptional regulator in dauer recovery, and may help explain the network of transcriptional control integrating organogenesis with the decision between growth and developmental arrest at the dauer entry and exit stages.
doi:10.1186/1471-213X-8-26
PMCID: PMC2292151  PMID: 18312672
7.  The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway antagonizes pha-4/FoxA to control development and aging 
Current biology : CB  2008;18(18):1355-1364.
SUMMARY
BACKGROUND
FoxA factors are critical regulators of embryonic development and post-embryonic life, but little is know about the upstream pathways that modulate their activity [1]. C. elegans pha-4 encodes a FoxA transcription factor that is required to establish the foregut in embryos, and to control growth and longevity after birth [2–5]. We previously identified the AAA+ ATPase homologue ruvb-1 as a potent suppressor of pha-4 mutations [6].
RESULTS
Here we show that ruvb-1 is a component of the TOR pathway in C. elegans (CeTOR). Both ruvb-1 and let-363/TOR control nucleolar size and promote localization of box C/D snoRNPs to nucleoli, suggesting a role in rRNA maturation. Inactivation of let-363/TOR or ruvb-1 suppresses the lethality associated with reduced pha-4 activity. The CeTOR pathway controls protein homeostasis and also contributes to adult longevity [7, 8]. We find that pha-4 is required to extend adult lifespan in response to reduced CeTOR signaling. Mutations in the predicted CeTOR target rsks-1/S6 kinase or in ife-2/eIF4E also reduce protein biosynthesis and extend lifespan [9–11], but only rsks-1 mutations require pha-4 for adult longevity. In addition, rsks-1, but not ife-2, can suppress the larval lethality associated with pha-4 loss-of-function mutations.
CONCLUSION
The data suggest that pha-4 and the CeTOR pathway antagonize one another to regulate post-embryonic development and adult longevity. We suggest a model in which nutrients promote TOR and S6 kinase signaling, which represses pha-4/FoxA, leading to a shorter lifespan. A similar regulatory hierarchy may function in other animals to modulate metabolism, longevity or disease.
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.07.097
PMCID: PMC2615410  PMID: 18804378
8.  A Widespread Distribution of Genomic CeMyoD Binding Sites Revealed and Cross Validated by ChIP-Chip and ChIP-Seq Techniques 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(12):e15898.
Identifying transcription factor binding sites genome-wide using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-based technology is becoming an increasingly important tool in addressing developmental questions. However, technical problems associated with factor abundance and suitable ChIP reagents are common obstacles to these studies in many biological systems. We have used two completely different, widely applicable methods to determine by ChIP the genome-wide binding sites of the master myogenic regulatory transcription factor HLH-1 (CeMyoD) in C. elegans embryos. The two approaches, ChIP-seq and ChIP-chip, yield strongly overlapping results revealing that HLH-1 preferentially binds to promoter regions of genes enriched for E-box sequences (CANNTG), known binding sites for this well-studied class of transcription factors. HLH-1 binding sites were enriched upstream of genes known to be expressed in muscle, consistent with its role as a direct transcriptional regulator. HLH-1 binding was also detected at numerous sites unassociated with muscle gene expression, as has been previously described for its mouse homolog MyoD. These binding sites may reflect several additional functions for HLH-1, including its interactions with one or more co-factors to activate (or repress) gene expression or a role in chromatin organization distinct from direct transcriptional regulation of target genes. Our results also provide a comparison of ChIP methodologies that can overcome limitations commonly encountered in these types of studies while highlighting the complications of assigning in vivo functions to identified target sites.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015898
PMCID: PMC3012110  PMID: 21209968
9.  Dissecting the retinoid-induced differentiation of F9 embryonal stem cells by integrative genomics 
We reveal how the RXRα−RARγ heterodimer upon activation by ATRA sets up a sequence of temporally controlled events that generate different subsets of primary and secondarily induced gene networks.We established RARγ and RXRα chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses coupled with massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) together with the corresponding microarray transcriptomics at five time points during differentiation using pan-RAR and RAR isotype-selective ligands.Gene-regulatory decisions were inferred in silico from the dynamic changes of the transcriptomics patterns that correlated with the expression of RXRα−RARγ and other annotated transcription factors (TFs).Our analysis provides a temporal view of retinoic acid (RA) signalling during F9 cell differentiation, reveals RA receptor (RAR) heterodimer dynamics and promiscuity, and predicts decisions that diversify the RA signal into distinct gene-regulatory programs.
Nuclear receptors are ligand-inducible transcription factors, which upon induction by their cognate ligand induce complex temporally controlled physiological programs. Retinoic acid (RA) and its receptors are key regulators of multiple physiological processes, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, immune functions, reproduction and organ homeostasis. While insight into (some of) the physiological functions of the various RA receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) subtypes has been obtained by exploiting mouse genetics (for a review, see Mark et al, 2006) we are far from an understanding of the molecular circuitries and gene networks that are at the basis of these physiological events.
RAs act by interacting with a complex receptor system that comprises heterodimers formed by one of the three RXR (RARα, β and γ) and RAR (RARα, β and γ) isotypes. While insight into the role of heterodimerization on response element preference and contribution of RAR and RXR to transcription activation of model genes has been obtained (for review, see Gronemeyer et al, 2004) very little is known about the role and dynamics of target gene interaction of the various RXR–RAR heterodimers at a global scale in the context of a biological program.
More fundamentally, in order to develop a systems biology of nuclear receptors we need to establish approaches that reveal how the initial event, the information embedded in the chemical structure of a small molecular weight compound, is propagated through binding to cognate receptor(s), recruitment of co-regulatory factors, epigenetic modulators and additional complexes/machineries to establish temporally controlled gene programs. In this respect, a recent study has revealed the impact of epigenetic modulator crosstalk in the setting up of subprograms for oestrogen receptor signalling (Ceschin et al, 2011).
In the present study, we have used mouse F9 EC cells, a homogeneous cell system which is known to differentiate upon RA exposure and require RARγ for this response (Taneja et al, 1996), in order to integrate at a genome-wide scale (i) the dynamics of RXRα and RARγ binding by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses coupled with massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq), (ii) the correlated temporal regulation of gene programs by global transcriptomics analyses, including (iii) the response to isotype-selective RAR ligands (Box 1). Our study revealed an unexpected highly dynamic association of the RXRα–RARγ with target chromatin and an unexpected dynamics of the heterodimer composition itself, which is indicative of partner swapping.
Inspired by early works on the dynamics of Drosophila puffing patterns during ecdysone-induced metamorphosis (Ashburner et al, 1974) our working hypothesis was that diversification of gene programming is achieved by the sequential activation of separable gene cohorts that constitute the various facets of differentiation, such as altered proliferation, cell physiology, signalling and finally terminal apoptogenic differentiation. To identify these temporally activated subroutines within the overall program, we inferred gene-regulatory decisions in silico from dynamically altered global gene expression patterns that occurred due to the action of RXRα−RARγ and other annotated TFs (Ernst et al, 2007). This dynamic regulatory map was used to reconstruct RXRα–RARγ signalling networks by integration of functional co-citation. Altogether we present a genome-wide view of the temporal gene-regulatory events and the corresponding gene programs elicited by the RXRα–RARγ during F9 cell differentiation. Our study deciphers some of the mechanisms by which the chemical information encoded in RA is diversified to regulate different cohorts of genes.
Retinoic acid (RA) triggers physiological processes by activating heterodimeric transcription factors (TFs) comprising retinoic acid receptor (RARα, β, γ) and retinoid X receptor (RXRα, β, γ). How a single signal induces highly complex temporally controlled networks that ultimately orchestrate physiological processes is unclear. Using an RA-inducible differentiation model, we defined the temporal changes in the genome-wide binding patterns of RARγ and RXRα and correlated them with transcription regulation. Unexpectedly, both receptors displayed a highly dynamic binding, with different RXRα heterodimers targeting identical loci. Comparison of RARγ and RXRα co-binding at RA-regulated genes identified putative RXRα–RARγ target genes that were validated with subtype-selective agonists. Gene-regulatory decisions during differentiation were inferred from TF-target gene information and temporal gene expression. This analysis revealed six distinct co-expression paths of which RXRα–RARγ is associated with transcription activation, while Sox2 and Egr1 were predicted to regulate repression. Finally, RXRα–RARγ regulatory networks were reconstructed through integration of functional co-citations. Our analysis provides a dynamic view of RA signalling during cell differentiation, reveals RAR heterodimer dynamics and promiscuity, and predicts decisions that diversify the RA signal into distinct gene-regulatory programs.
This study provides a dynamic view of retinoic acid signalling during cell differentiation, reveals RAR/RXR heterodimer dynamics and promiscuity, and predicts decisions that diversify the RA signal into distinct gene-regulatory programs.
doi:10.1038/msb.2011.73
PMCID: PMC3261707  PMID: 21988834
ChIP-seq; retinoic acid-induced differentiation; RXR–RAR heterodimers; temporal control of gene networks; transcriptomics
10.  The Ralstonia eutropha PhaR Protein Couples Synthesis of the PhaP Phasin to the Presence of Polyhydroxybutyrate in Cells and Promotes Polyhydroxybutyrate Production 
Journal of Bacteriology  2002;184(1):59-66.
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyoxoesters that are produced by many bacteria and that accumulate as intracellular granules. Phasins (PhaP) are proteins that accumulate during PHA synthesis, bind PHA granules, and promote further PHA synthesis. Interestingly, PhaP accumulation seems to be strictly dependent on PHA synthesis, which is catalyzed by the PhaC PHA synthase. Here we have tested the effect of the Ralstonia eutropha PhaR protein on the regulation of PhaP accumulation. R. eutropha strains with phaR, phaC, and/or phaP deletions were constructed, and PhaP accumulation was measured by immunoblotting. The wild-type strain accumulated PhaP in a manner dependent on PHA production, and the phaC deletion strain accumulated no PhaP, as expected. In contrast, both the phaR and the phaR phaC deletion strains accumulated PhaP to higher levels than did the wild type. This result implies that PhaR is a negative regulator of PhaP accumulation and that PhaR specifically prevents PhaP from accumulating in cells that are not producing PHA. Transfer of the R. eutropha phaR, phaP, and PHA biosynthesis (phaCAB) genes into a heterologous system, Escherichia coli, was sufficient to reconstitute the PhaR/PhaP regulatory system, implying that PhaR both regulates PhaP accumulation and responds to PHA directly. Deletion of phaR caused a decrease in PHA yields, and a phaR phaP deletion strain exhibited a more severe PHA defect than a phaP deletion strain, implying that PhaR promotes PHA production and does this at least partially through a PhaP-independent pathway. Models for regulatory roles of PhaR in regulating PhaP and promoting PHA production are presented.
doi:10.1128/JB.184.1.59-66.2002
PMCID: PMC134771  PMID: 11741844
11.  A Mechanistic Basis for the Coordinated Regulation of Pharyngeal Morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans by LIN-35/Rb and UBC-18–ARI-1 
PLoS Genetics  2009;5(6):e1000510.
Genetic redundancy, whereby two genes carry out seemingly overlapping functions, may in large part be attributable to the intricacy and robustness of genetic networks that control many developmental processes. We have previously described a complex set of genetic interactions underlying foregut development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Specifically, LIN-35/Rb, a tumor suppressor ortholog, in conjunction with UBC-18–ARI-1, a conserved E2/E3 complex, and PHA-1, a novel protein, coordinately regulates an early step of pharyngeal morphogenesis involving cellular re-orientation. Functional redundancy is indicated by the observation that lin-35; ubc-18 double mutants, as well as certain allelic combinations of pha-1 with either lin-35 or ubc-18, display defects in pharyngeal development, whereas single mutants do not. Using a combination of genetic and molecular analyses, we show that sup-35, a strong recessive suppressor of pha-1–associated lethality, also reverts the synthetic lethality of lin-35; ubc-18, lin-35; pha-1, and ubc-18 pha-1 double mutants. SUP-35, which contains C2H2-type Zn-finger domains as well as a conserved RMD-like motif, showed a dynamic pattern of subcellular localization during embryogenesis. We find that mutations in sup-35 specifically suppress hypomorphic alleles of pha-1 and that SUP-35, acting genetically upstream of SUP-36 and SUP-37, negatively regulates pha-1 transcription. We further demonstrate that LIN-35, a transcriptional repressor, and UBC-18–ARI-1, a complex involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, negatively regulate SUP-35 abundance through distinct mechanisms. We also show that HCF-1, a C. elegans homolog of host cell factor 1, functionally antagonizes LIN-35 in the regulation of sup-35. Our cumulative findings piece together the components of a novel regulatory network that includes LIN-35/Rb, which functions to control organ morphogenesis. Our results also shed light on general mechanisms that may underlie developmental genetic redundancies as well as principles that may govern complex disease traits.
Author Summary
One of the more puzzling aspects of genetics is that the inactivation of many genes fails to produce strong deleterious effects on the organisms that carry those genes. In some cases, however, the combined inactivation of two or more such genes can lead to the expression of robust abnormal phenotypes. These types of synthetic genetic interactions are thought to reflect the presence of functional overlap or redundancy between the involved genes. The root mechanisms that underlie synthetic interactions are thought to be complex and are in most cases poorly understood. Our work here focuses on one case study where we have uncovered the molecular basis underlying a complex set of genetic redundancies in C. elegans. More specifically, we have discovered a novel regulatory network that connects eight genes controlling embryonic foregut development in the nematode C. elegans. By solving mechanisms of this nature, our analysis provides a means for understanding more generally the principles that govern genetic redundancies. Our work also provides insight into the bases of complex disease traits, where the combined interactions of multiple genetic factors leads to outcomes that determine health or disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000510
PMCID: PMC2686152  PMID: 19521497
12.  Differential binding and co-binding pattern of FOXA1 and FOXA3 and their relation to H3K4me3 in HepG2 cells revealed by ChIP-seq 
Genome Biology  2009;10(11):R129.
FOXA1 and FOXA3 binding patterns in HepG2 cells, together with their possible molecular interactions with FOXA2 and each other, are revealed by ChIP-seq.
Background
The forkhead box/winged helix family members FOXA1, FOXA2, and FOXA3 are of high importance in development and specification of the hepatic linage and the continued expression of liver-specific genes.
Results
Here, we present a genome-wide location analysis of FOXA1 and FOXA3 binding sites in HepG2 cells through chromatin immunoprecipitation with detection by sequencing (ChIP-seq) studies and compare these with our previous results on FOXA2. We found that these factors often bind close to each other in different combinations and consecutive immunoprecipitation of chromatin for one and then a second factor (ChIP-reChIP) shows that this occurs in the same cell and on the same DNA molecule, suggestive of molecular interactions. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we further show that FOXA2 interacts with both FOXA1 and FOXA3 in vivo, while FOXA1 and FOXA3 do not appear to interact. Additionally, we detected diverse patterns of trimethylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4me3) at transcriptional start sites and directionality of this modification at FOXA binding sites. Using the sequence reads at polymorphic positions, we were able to predict allele specific binding for FOXA1, FOXA3, and H3K4me3. Finally, several SNPs associated with diseases and quantitative traits were located in the enriched regions.
Conclusions
We find that ChIP-seq can be used not only to create gene regulatory maps but also to predict molecular interactions and to inform on the mechanisms for common quantitative variation.
doi:10.1186/gb-2009-10-11-r129
PMCID: PMC3091322  PMID: 19919681
13.  Identification of Primary Gene Targets of TFAP2C in Hormone Responsive Breast Carcinoma Cells 
Genes, chromosomes & cancer  2010;49(10):948-962.
The TFAP2C transcription factor is involved in mammary development, differentiation and oncogenesis. Previous studies established a role for TFAP2C in the regulation of ESR1 (ERα) and ERBB2 (Her2) in breast carcinomas. However, the role of TFAP2C in different breast cancer phenotypes has not been examined in detail. To develop a more complete characterization of TFAP2C target genes, ChIP-seq with anti-TFAP2C antibody and expression arrays with TFAP2C knock down were analyzed in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. Genomic sequences common to the ChIP-seq data set defined the consensus sequence for TFAP2C chromatin binding as the nine base sequence SCCTSRGGS (S=G/C, R=A/G), which closely matches the previously defined optimal in vitro binding site. Comparing expression arrays before and after knock down of TFAP2C with ChIP-seq data demonstrated a conservative estimate that 8% of genes altered by TFAP2C expression are primary target genes and includes genes that are both induced and repressed by TFAP2C. A set of 447 primary target genes of TFAP2C was identified, which included ESR1 (ERα), FREM2, RET, FOXA1, WWOX, GREB1, MYC and members of the retinoic acid response pathway. The identification of ESR1, WWOX, GREB1 and FOXA1 as primary targets confirmed the role of TFAP2C in hormone response. TFAP2C plays a critical role in gene regulation in hormone responsive breast cancer and its target genes are different than for the Her2 breast cancer phenotype.
doi:10.1002/gcc.20807
PMCID: PMC2928401  PMID: 20629094
14.  A Role for Autophagy in the Extension of Lifespan by Dietary Restriction in C. elegans 
PLoS Genetics  2008;4(2):e24.
In many organisms, dietary restriction appears to extend lifespan, at least in part, by down-regulating the nutrient-sensor TOR (Target Of Rapamycin). TOR inhibition elicits autophagy, the large-scale recycling of cytoplasmic macromolecules and organelles. In this study, we asked whether autophagy might contribute to the lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in C. elegans. We find that dietary restriction and TOR inhibition produce an autophagic phenotype and that inhibiting genes required for autophagy prevents dietary restriction and TOR inhibition from extending lifespan. The longevity response to dietary restriction in C. elegans requires the PHA-4 transcription factor. We find that the autophagic response to dietary restriction also requires PHA-4 activity, indicating that autophagy is a transcriptionally regulated response to food limitation. In spite of the rejuvenating effect that autophagy is predicted to have on cells, our findings suggest that autophagy is not sufficient to extend lifespan. Long-lived daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants require both autophagy and the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO for their longevity, but we find that autophagy takes place in the absence of DAF-16. Perhaps autophagy is not sufficient for lifespan extension because although it provides raw material for new macromolecular synthesis, DAF-16/FOXO must program the cells to recycle this raw material into cell-protective longevity proteins.
Author Summary
Dietary restriction (limited food intake) increases lifespan in many organisms. However, the cellular processes underlying this fascinating phenomenon are still poorly understood. When an animal is starved, it degrades and recycles its organelles and other cellular components in a process called autophagy (literally “self-eating”). Here, we have asked whether autophagy also occurs in response to dietary restriction, using the roundworm C. elegans for our studies. We find that autophagy does take place when food intake is limited. Moreover, inhibiting genes required for autophagy has little effect on well-fed animals but prevents food limitation from extending lifespan. This autophagy requires PHA-4/FOXA, a life-extension protein that regulates gene expression, suggesting that changes in gene expression are required for dietary restriction to stimulate autophagy. Because autophagy seems like such a rejuvenating process, it might seem to be sufficient to increase longevity. However, we find that, in long-lived hormone-pathway mutants, both autophagy and DAF-16/FOXO, another protein that controls gene expression, are required for longevity. We propose that autophagy frees up new resources for the cell, but that transcription factors like the DAF-16/FOXO protein must channel this raw material into new cell-protective proteins in order for lifespan to be increased.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0040024
PMCID: PMC2242811  PMID: 18282106
15.  Tri6 Is a Global Transcription Regulator in the Phytopathogen Fusarium graminearum 
PLoS Pathogens  2011;7(9):e1002266.
In F. graminearum, the transcriptional regulator Tri6 is encoded within the trichothecene gene cluster and regulates genes involved in the biosynthesis of the secondary metabolite deoxynivalenol (DON). The Tri6 protein with its Cys2His2 zinc-finger may also conform to the class of global transcription regulators. This class of global transcriptional regulators mediate various environmental cues and generally responds to the demands of cellular metabolism. To address this issue directly, we sought to find gene targets of Tri6 in F. graminearum grown in optimal nutrient conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by Illumina sequencing (ChIP-Seq) revealed that in addition to identifying six genes within the trichothecene gene cluster, Tri1, Tri3, Tri6, Tri7, Tri12 and Tri14, the ChIP-Seq also identified 192 additional targets potentially regulated by Tri6. Functional classification revealed that, among the annotated genes, ∼40% are associated with cellular metabolism and transport and the rest of the target genes fall into the category of signal transduction and gene expression regulation. ChIP-Seq data also revealed Tri6 has the highest affinity toward its own promoter, suggesting that this gene could be subject to self-regulation. Electro mobility shift assays (EMSA) performed on the promoter of Tri6 with purified Tri6 protein identified a minimum binding motif of GTGA repeats as a consensus sequence. Finally, expression profiling of F. graminearum grown under nitrogen-limiting conditions revealed that 49 out of 198 target genes are differentially regulated by Tri6. The identification of potential new targets together with deciphering novel binding sites for Tri6, casts new light into the role of this transcriptional regulator in the overall growth and development of F. graminearum.
Author Summary
Our knowledge of mechanisms involved in the activation and biosynthesis of DON comes largely from in vitro culture studies. Cumulated knowledge suggests that the physiological status of the fungus and the availability of nutrients are the main determining factors for DON production. Integration of various environmental cues to coordinate expression of secondary metabolic genes is thought to be mediated by a combination of global and pathway-specific transcription factors. While the global transcriptional factors respond to broad range of environmental cues such as the availability of carbon and nitrogen, the pathway-specific transcriptional factors regulate genes within a gene cluster. In F. graminearum, the transcriptional regulator Tri6 is encoded within the trichothecene gene cluster and regulates genes involved in the synthesis and transport of DON. In this report, we utilized ChIP-Seq to demonstrate that Tri6 can potentially bind to promoters and regulate genes not involved in the synthesis of DON and furthermore, many of these non-trichothecene genes are involved in various aspects of cellular metabolism, including transport and energy. Expression profiling revealed that many of the target genes are differentially regulated by Tri6, thus validating our hypothesis that Tri6 is a global regulator involved in cellular metabolism.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002266
PMCID: PMC3182926  PMID: 21980289
16.  Assessing Computational Methods for Transcription Factor Target Gene Identification Based on ChIP-seq Data 
PLoS Computational Biology  2013;9(11):e1003342.
Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) has great potential for elucidating transcriptional networks, by measuring genome-wide binding of transcription factors (TFs) at high resolution. Despite the precision of these experiments, identification of genes directly regulated by a TF (target genes) is not trivial. Numerous target gene scoring methods have been used in the past. However, their suitability for the task and their performance remain unclear, because a thorough comparative assessment of these methods is still lacking. Here we present a systematic evaluation of computational methods for defining TF targets based on ChIP-seq data. We validated predictions based on 68 ChIP-seq studies using a wide range of genomic expression data and functional information. We demonstrate that peak-to-gene assignment is the most crucial step for correct target gene prediction and propose a parameter-free method performing most consistently across the evaluation tests.
Author Summary
Transcription factors (TFs) are the main regulators of gene transcription. Thus, knowing the genes that are targeted by a specific TF is of utmost importance for understanding developmental processes, cellular stress response, or disease etiology. Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) allows for measuring the genome-wide binding of TFs. Several computational methods have been used for inferring the genes that are targeted by TFs using this binding information, but a thorough evaluation of their performance has not been performed so far. Here we present an assessment of a range of TF-target-calling methods using 68 ChIP-seq datasets. It turns out that the first step of the scoring, the assignment of binding events to genes, is the most important for correctly calling target genes. Our evaluation revealed important performance differences between the target-calling methods, with some simplistic methods exhibiting a particularly poor performance compared to more elaborate scorings. One of the methods is particularly attractive, because it does not require the a priori definition of any parameter — all parameters are ‘learned’ from the data. This and other methods tested were implemented in a freely available software package for future testing and application to other ChIP-seq datasets.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003342
PMCID: PMC3837635  PMID: 24278002
17.  Functional modularity of nuclear hormone receptors in a Caenorhabditis elegans metabolic gene regulatory network 
We present the first gene regulatory network (GRN) that pertains to post-developmental gene expression. Specifically, we mapped a transcription regulatory network of Caenorhabditis elegans metabolic gene promoters using gene-centered yeast one-hybrid assays. We found that the metabolic GRN is enriched for nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) compared with other gene-centered regulatory networks, and that these NHRs organize into functional network modules.The NHR family has greatly expanded in nematodes; C. elegans has 284 NHRs, whereas humans have only 48. We show that the NHRs in the metabolic GRN have metabolic phenotypes, suggesting that they do not simply function redundantly.The mediator subunit MDT-15 preferentially interacts with NHRs that occur in the metabolic GRN.We describe an NHR circuit that responds to nutrient availability and propose a model for the evolution and organization of NHRs in C. elegans metabolic regulatory networks.
Physical and/or regulatory interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their target genes are essential to establish body plans of multicellular organisms during development, and these interactions have been studied extensively in the context of GRNs. The precise control of differential gene expression is also of critical importance to maintain physiological homeostasis, and many metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes coincide with substantial changes in gene expression. Much work has focused on the GRNs that control metazoan development; however, the design principles and organization of the GRNs that control systems physiology remain largely unexplored.
In this study, we present the first gene-centered GRN that includes ∼70 genes involved in C. elegans metabolism and physiology, 100 TFs and more than 500 protein–DNA interactions between them. The resulting metabolic GRN is enriched for NHRs, compared with other gene-centered regulatory networks. NHRs are well-known regulators of lipid meta-qj;bolism in mammals. The transcriptional activity of NHRs can be modified by diffusible ligands, which allows these TFs to function as molecular sensors and rapidly alter the expression of their target genes. Interestingly, NHRs comprise the largest family of TFs in nematodes; the C. elegans genome encodes 284 NHRs, most of which are uncharacterized. Furthermore, their organization in GRNs has not yet been investigated. In our study, we show that the C. elegans NHRs that we retrieved in the metabolic GRN organize into network modules, and that most of these NHRs function to maintain lipid homeostasis in the nematode. Interestingly, network modularity has been proposed to facilitate rapid and robust changes in gene expression. Our results suggest that the C. elegans metabolic GRN may have evolved by combining NHR family expansion with the specific modular wiring of NHRs to enable the rapid adaptation of the animal to different environmental cues.
NHRs can interact with transcriptional cofactors such as chromatin remodeling complexes and Mediator components. For instance, the C. elegans Mediator subunit, MDT-15, can interact with NHR-49 to regulate the expression of its target genes. To find all the TFs that MDT-15 can interact with, we performed systematic yeast two-hybrid assays with MDT-15 versus 755 full-length TFs. We found that MDT-15 preferentially associates with NHRs, and specifically with those NHRs that confer a metabolic phenotype and that occur in the metabolic GRN. This illustrates the central role of MDT-15 in the regulation of metabolic gene expression.
Using a variety of genetic and biochemical approaches, we characterized NHR-86 in more detail. NHR-86 participates in one of the two NHR modules, and has a high-flux capacity; that is it has both a high incoming and a high outgoing degree. We obtained an nhr-86 mutant and generated an NHR-86 antibody, and showed that NHR-86 functions as an auto-repressor in vivo and that nhr-86 mutant animals store abnormally high levels of body fat.
Finally, we discovered a novel NHR circuit that responds to nutrient availability. In this circuit NHR-45 regulates the activity of nhr-178 promoter in two distinct physiologically important tissues: the intestine and the hypodermis. Both of these NHRs are required to maintain lipid homeostasis in C. elegans. The expression of nhr-178 is responsive to the nutritional status of the animal, which switches between ON and OFF states in the hypodermis. We found that NHR-45 activity is necessary to control this switch in the hypodermis. Interestingly, NHR-45 has opposite effects on the activity of the nhr-178 promoter in these tissues: NHR-45 activates this promoter in the intestine, but represses it in the hypodermis.
Altogether our study leads to a model in which the expansion of the NHR family, TFs that have the capacity to act as fast molecular sensors, is combined with a modular network organization to enable rapid and robust responses to various environmental cues.
Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) provide insights into the mechanisms of differential gene expression at a systems level. GRNs that relate to metazoan development have been studied extensively. However, little is still known about the design principles, organization and functionality of GRNs that control physiological processes such as metabolism, homeostasis and responses to environmental cues. In this study, we report the first experimentally mapped metazoan GRN of Caenorhabditis elegans metabolic genes. This network is enriched for nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs). The NHR family has greatly expanded in nematodes: humans have 48 NHRs, but C. elegans has 284, most of which are uncharacterized. We find that the C. elegans metabolic GRN is highly modular and that two GRN modules predominantly consist of NHRs. Network modularity has been proposed to facilitate a rapid response to different cues. As NHRs are metabolic sensors that are poised to respond to ligands, this suggests that C. elegans GRNs evolved to enable rapid and adaptive responses to different cues by a concurrence of NHR family expansion and modular GRN wiring.
doi:10.1038/msb.2010.23
PMCID: PMC2890327  PMID: 20461074
C. elegans; gene regulatory network; metabolism; nuclear hormone receptor; transcription factor
18.  N-acylethanolamine signaling mediates the effect of diet on lifespan in C. elegans 
Nature  2011;473(7346):226-229.
Dietary restriction (DR) is a robust means of extending adult lifespan and postponing age-related disease in many species, including yeast, worms, flies and rodents1,2. Studies of the genetic requirements for lifespan extension by DR in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) have implicated a number of key players in this process3–5, including the nutrient-sensing target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway6 and the Foxa transcription factor PHA-47. However, little is known about the metabolic signals that coordinate the organismal response to DR and maintain homeostasis when nutrients are limited. The endocannabinoid (EC) system is an excellent candidate to play such a role given its involvement in regulating nutrient intake and energy balance8. Despite this, a direct role for EC signaling in DR or lifespan determination has yet to be demonstrated, in part due to the apparent absence of EC signaling pathways in model organisms that are amenable to lifespan analysis9. N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are lipid-derived signaling molecules, which include the mammalian EC arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA). Here we identify NAEs in C. elegans, show that NAE abundance is reduced under DR and that NAE deficiency is sufficient to extend lifespan through a DR mechanism requiring PHA-4. Conversely, dietary supplementation with the nematode NAE eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide (EPEA) not only inhibits DR-induced lifespan extension in wild type animals, but also suppresses lifespan extension in a TOR pathway mutant. This demonstrates a role for NAE signaling in aging and suggests that NAEs represent a signal that coordinates nutrient status with metabolic changes that ultimately determine lifespan.
doi:10.1038/nature10007
PMCID: PMC3093655  PMID: 21562563
19.  Whole-Genome Cartography of Estrogen Receptor α Binding Sites 
PLoS Genetics  2007;3(6):e87.
Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation-paired end diTag cloning and sequencing strategy, we mapped estrogen receptor α (ERα) binding sites in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We identified 1,234 high confidence binding clusters of which 94% are projected to be bona fide ERα binding regions. Only 5% of the mapped estrogen receptor binding sites are located within 5 kb upstream of the transcriptional start sites of adjacent genes, regions containing the proximal promoters, whereas vast majority of the sites are mapped to intronic or distal locations (>5 kb from 5′ and 3′ ends of adjacent transcript), suggesting transcriptional regulatory mechanisms over significant physical distances. Of all the identified sites, 71% harbored putative full estrogen response elements (EREs), 25% bore ERE half sites, and only 4% had no recognizable ERE sequences. Genes in the vicinity of ERα binding sites were enriched for regulation by estradiol in MCF-7 cells, and their expression profiles in patient samples segregate ERα-positive from ERα-negative breast tumors. The expression dynamics of the genes adjacent to ERα binding sites suggest a direct induction of gene expression through binding to ERE-like sequences, whereas transcriptional repression by ERα appears to be through indirect mechanisms. Our analysis also indicates a number of candidate transcription factor binding sites adjacent to occupied EREs at frequencies much greater than by chance, including the previously reported FOXA1 sites, and demonstrate the potential involvement of one such putative adjacent factor, Sp1, in the global regulation of ERα target genes. Unexpectedly, we found that only 22%–24% of the bona fide human ERα binding sites were overlapping conserved regions in whole genome vertebrate alignments, which suggest limited conservation of functional binding sites. Taken together, this genome-scale analysis suggests complex but definable rules governing ERα binding and gene regulation.
Author Summary
Estrogen receptors (ERs) play key roles in facilitating the transcriptional effects of hormone functions in target tissues. To obtain a genome-wide view of ERα binding sites, we applied chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with a cloning and sequencing strategy using chromatin immunoprecipitation pair end-tagging technology to map ERα binding sites in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. We identified 1,234 high quality ERα binding sites in the human genome and demonstrated that the binding sites are frequently adjacent to genes significantly associated with breast cancer disease status and outcome. The mapping results also revealed that ERα can influence gene expression across distances of up to 100 kilobases or more, that genes that are induced or repressed utilize sites in different regions relative to the transcript (suggesting different mechanisms of action), and that ERα binding sites are only modestly conserved in evolution. Using computational approaches, we identified potential interactions with other transcription factor binding sites adjacent to the ERα binding elements. Taken together, these findings suggest complex but definable rules governing ERα binding and gene regulation and provide a valuable dataset for mapping the precise control nodes for one of the most important nuclear hormone receptors in breast cancer biology.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030087
PMCID: PMC1885282  PMID: 17542648
20.  Whole-Genome Analysis of Temporal Gene Expression during Foregut Development 
PLoS Biology  2004;2(11):e352.
We have investigated the cis-regulatory network that mediates temporal gene expression during organogenesis. Previous studies demonstrated that the organ selector gene pha-4/FoxA is critical to establish the onset of transcription of Caenorhabditis elegans foregut (pharynx) genes. Here, we discover additional cis-regulatory elements that function in combination with PHA-4. We use a computational approach to identify candidate cis-regulatory sites for genes activated either early or late during pharyngeal development. Analysis of natural or synthetic promoters reveals that six of these sites function in vivo. The newly discovered temporal elements, together with predicted PHA-4 sites, account for the onset of expression of roughly half of the pharyngeal genes examined. Moreover, combinations of temporal elements and PHA-4 sites can be used in genome-wide searches to predict pharyngeal genes, with more than 85% accuracy for their onset of expression. These findings suggest a regulatory code for temporal gene expression during foregut development and provide a means to predict gene expression patterns based solely on genomic sequence.
Computational analysis combined with validation by reporter gene studies is uncovering the code for temporal gene regulation in the C. elegans foregut - a model for organogenesis
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020352
PMCID: PMC523228  PMID: 15492775
21.  Genome-Wide Location Analysis Reveals Distinct Transcriptional Circuitry by Paralogous Regulators Foxa1 and Foxa2 
PLoS Genetics  2012;8(6):e1002770.
Gene duplication is a powerful driver of evolution. Newly duplicated genes acquire new roles that are relevant to fitness, or they will be lost over time. A potential path to functional relevance is mutation of the coding sequence leading to the acquisition of novel biochemical properties, as analyzed here for the highly homologous paralogs Foxa1 and Foxa2 transcriptional regulators. We determine by genome-wide location analysis (ChIP-Seq) that, although Foxa1 and Foxa2 share a large fraction of binding sites in the liver, each protein also occupies distinct regulatory elements in vivo. Foxa1-only sites are enriched for p53 binding sites and are frequently found near genes important to cell cycle regulation, while Foxa2-restricted sites show only a limited match to the forkhead consensus and are found in genes involved in steroid and lipid metabolism. Thus, Foxa1 and Foxa2, while redundant during development, have evolved divergent roles in the adult liver, ensuring the maintenance of both genes during evolution.
Author Summary
The duplication of a gene from a common ancestor, resulting in two copies known as paralogs, plays an important role in evolution. Newly duplicated genes must acquire new functions in order to remain relevant, otherwise they are lost via mutation over time. We have performed genome-wide location analysis (ChIP–Seq) in adult liver to examine the differences between two paralogous DNA binding proteins, Foxa1 and Foxa2. While Foxa1 and Foxa2 bind a number of common genomic locations, each protein also localizes to distinct regulatory regions. Sites specific for Foxa1 also contain a DNA motif bound by tumor suppressor p53 and are found near genes important to cell cycle regulation, while Foxa2-only sites are found near genes essential to steroid and lipid metabolism. Hence, Foxa1 and Foxa2 have developed unique functions in adult liver, contributing to the maintenance of both genes during evolution.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002770
PMCID: PMC3380847  PMID: 22737085
22.  Role of T-box gene tbx-2 for anterior foregut muscle development in C. elegans 
Developmental biology  2006;302(1):25-39.
SUMMARY
During organogenesis, pluripotent precursor cells acquire a defined identity such as muscle or nerve. The transition from naïve precursor towards the differentiated state is characterized by sequential waves of gene expression that are determined by regulatory transcription factors. A key question is how transcriptional circuitry dictates the succession of events that accompanies developmental competence, cell fate specification and differentiation. To address this question, we have examined how anterior muscles are established within the C. elegans foregut (pharynx). We find that the T-box transcription factor tbx-2 is essential to form anterior pharyngeal muscles from the ABa blastomere. In the absence of tbx-2 function, ABa-derived cells initiate development normally: they receive glp-1/Notch signaling cues, activate the T-box gene TBX-38 and express the organ selector gene PHA-4/FoxA. However, these cells subsequently arrest development, extinguish PHA-4 and fail to activate PHA-4 target genes. tbx-2 mutant cells do not undergo apoptosis and there is no evidence for adoption of an alternative fate. TBX-2 is expressed in ABa descendants and depends on activation by pha-4 and repression by glp-1/Notch signaling. Our analysis suggests that a positive feedback loop between tbx-2 and pha-4 is required for ABa-derived precursors to commit to pharyngeal muscle fate.
doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.08.023
PMCID: PMC1852510  PMID: 17005176
Tbx2; Tbx3; Tbx4; Tbx5; omb; FoxA; pharynx; pha-4; Notch; glp-1; tbx-38
23.  PHA-4/FOXA-regulated microRNA feed forward loops during Caenorhabditis elegans dietary restriction 
Aging (Albany NY)  2014;6(10):835-851.
Dietary restriction (DR) increases life span and delays the onset of age-related diseases across species. However, the molecular mechanisms have remained relatively unexplored in terms of gene regulation. In C. elegans, a popular model for aging studies, the FOXA transcription factor PHA-4 is a robust genetic regulator of DR, although little is known about how it regulates gene expression. We profiled the transcriptome and miRNAome of an eat-2 mutant, a genetic surrogate of DR, by Next Generation sequencing and find that most of the miRNAs are upregulated in the young-adult worms, none significantly downregulated. Interestingly, PHA-4 can potentially regulate the expression of most of these miRNA genes. Remarkably, many of the PHA-4-regulated genes that are induced during DR are also targets of the PHA-4-upregulated miRNAs, forming a large feed-forward gene regulatory network. The genes targeted by the feed-forward loops (FFLs) are enriched for functions related to ubiquitin-mediated decay, lysosomal autophagy, cellular signalling, protein folding etc., processes that play critical roles in DR and longevity. Together our data provides a framework for understanding the complex and unique regulatory network employed during DR, suggesting that PHA-4 employs such FFLs to fine-tune gene expression and instil robustness in the system during energy crisis.
PMCID: PMC4247386  PMID: 25504288
microRNA; dietary restriction; PHA-4/FOXA; Transcription factor; miRNA; feed forward loops; aging
24.  Temporal transcriptional response to ethylene gas drives growth hormone cross-regulation in Arabidopsis 
eLife  2013;2:e00675.
The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates a multitude of growth and developmental processes. How the numerous growth control pathways are coordinated by the ethylene transcriptional response remains elusive. We characterized the dynamic ethylene transcriptional response by identifying targets of the master regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway, ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and transcript sequencing during a timecourse of ethylene treatment. Ethylene-induced transcription occurs in temporal waves regulated by EIN3, suggesting distinct layers of transcriptional control. EIN3 binding was found to modulate a multitude of downstream transcriptional cascades, including a major feedback regulatory circuitry of the ethylene signaling pathway, as well as integrating numerous connections between most of the hormone mediated growth response pathways. These findings provide direct evidence linking each of the major plant growth and development networks in novel ways.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00675.001
eLife digest
All multicellular organisms, including plants, produce hormones—chemical messengers that are released in one part of an organism but act in another. The binding of hormones to receptor proteins on the surface of target cells activates signal transduction cascades, leading ultimately to changes in the transcription and translation of genes.
Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone that acts at trace levels to stimulate or regulate a variety of processes, including the regulation of plant growth, the ripening of fruit and the shedding of leaves. Plants also produce ethylene in response to wounding, pathogen attack or exposure to environmental stresses, such as extreme temperatures or drought. Although the effects of ethylene on plants are well documented, much less is known about how its functions are controlled and coordinated at the molecular level.
Here, Chang et al. reveal how ethylene alters the transcription of DNA into messenger DNA (mRNA) in the plant model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana. Ethylene is known to exert some of its effects via a protein called EIN3, which is a transcription factor that acts as the master regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway. To identify the targets of EIN3, Chang et al. exposed plants to ethylene and then used a technique called ChIP-Seq to identify those regions of the DNA that EIN3 binds to. At the same time, they used genome-wide mRNA sequencing to determine which genes showed altered transcription.
Over the course of 24 hr, ethylene induced four distinct waves of transcription, suggesting that discrete layers of transcriptional control are present. EIN3 binding also controlled a multitude of downstream transcriptional cascades, including a major negative feedback loop. Surprisingly, many of the genes that showed altered expression in response to EIN3 binding were also influenced by hormones other than ethylene.
In addition to extending our knowledge of the role of EIN3 in coordinating the effects of ethylene, the work of Chang et al. reveals the extensive connectivity between pathways regulated by distinct hormones in plants. The results may also make it easier to identify key players involved in hormone signaling pathways in other plant species.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00675.002
doi:10.7554/eLife.00675
PMCID: PMC3679525  PMID: 23795294
transcriptional regulation; temporal modulation; network; ethylene; hormone; Physcomitrella patens; Arabidopsis
25.  Comparison of REST Cistromes across Human Cell Types Reveals Common and Context-Specific Functions 
PLoS Computational Biology  2014;10(6):e1003671.
Recent studies have shown that the transcriptional functions of REST are much broader than repressing neuronal genes in non-neuronal systems. Whether REST occupies similar chromatin regions in different cell types and how it interacts with other transcriptional regulators to execute its functions in a context-dependent manner has not been adequately investigated. We have applied ChIP-seq analysis to identify the REST cistrome in human CD4+ T cells and compared it with published data from 15 other cell types. We found that REST cistromes were distinct among cell types, with REST binding to several tumor suppressors specifically in cancer cells, whereas 7% of the REST peaks in non-neuronal cells were ubiquitously called and <25% were identified for ≥5 cell types. Nevertheless, using a quantitative metric directly comparing raw ChIP-seq signals, we found the majority (∼80%) was shared by ≥2 cell types. Integration with RNA-seq data showed that REST binding was generally correlated with low gene expression. Close examination revealed that multiple contexts were correlated with reduced expression of REST targets, e.g., the presence of a cognate RE1 motif and cellular specificity of REST binding. These contexts were shown to play a role in differential corepressor recruitment. Furthermore, transcriptional outcome was highly influenced by REST cofactors, e.g., SIN3 and EZH2 co-occupancy marked higher and lower expression of REST targets, respectively. Unexpectedly, the REST cistrome in differentiated neurons exhibited unique features not observed in non-neuronal cells, e.g., the lack of RE1 motifs and an association with active gene expression. Finally, our analysis demonstrated how REST could differentially regulate a transcription network constituted of miRNAs, REST complex and neuronal factors. Overall, our findings of contexts playing critical roles in REST occupancy and regulatory outcome provide insights into the molecular interactions underlying REST's diverse functions, and point to novel roles of REST in differentiated neurons.
Author Summary
The RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) binds to DNA and has been shown to repress neuronal genes in non-neuronal systems, but more recent studies have expanded its functions much beyond this. At the molecular level, REST acts cooperatively with other proteins to execute its transcriptional regulatory roles. The dynamics of REST binding and cofactor recruitment and its association with the underlying DNA sequence remain unclear. Here, we have applied chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing to identify REST binding across 16 different cell types, including neurons. Our results demonstrate that REST binding events are dynamic and quite distinct among cells and that REST binding is generally associated with low gene expression. Closer examination finds that the context of the DNA sequence at REST bound sites is associated with the lower expression of REST-associated targets and that different contexts correlate with different cofactor recruitment. These in turn have an effect on the expression of REST targets. REST targets in human neurons, however, are drastically different from those in other cell types. These findings provide insights into the effect of genomic and cellular contexts on REST's diverse functions and point to distinct and novel roles for REST in neurons.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003671
PMCID: PMC4055426  PMID: 24922058

Results 1-25 (1208661)