Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-25 (797738)

Clipboard (0)

Related Articles

1.  Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Joint Infection: The Threshold for Serological Markers 
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have recently been suggested as diagnostic criteria for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis. Thresholds for these markers should be reexamined since they have been determined arbitrarily.
Based on recently defined criteria for PJI, we determined (1) whether there is a difference in the threshold value of ESR and CRP between hips and knees, (2) whether the threshold value for ESR and CRP should be different for early-postoperative and late-chronic PJI, and (3) the optimal thresholds for ESR and CRP in PJI diagnosis.
We retrospectively reviewed 1962 patients with revision arthroplasty for aseptic failure (1095 hips, 594 knees) or first onset of PJI (108 hips, 165 knees) between 2000 and 2009. The PJI diagnosis was made independent of ESR and CRP using criteria recently proposed by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. Patients with comorbidities that confound ESR and CRP were not included. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine thresholds.
ESR and CRP levels in late-chronic PJI were higher in knees than in hips. Optimal thresholds for ESR and CRP were 48.5 mm/hour and 13.5 mg/L in hips and 46.5 mm/hour and 23.5 mg/L in knees, respectively. In early-postoperative PJI, ESR and CRP were similar in both joints with common thresholds of 54.5 mm/hour and 23.5 mg/L, respectively.
The data suggest a similar threshold for ESR but not for CRP should be implemented for late-chronic hips and knees. Optimal magnitudes are higher than conventional thresholds, indicating the need for refinement of thresholds if ESR and CRP are to be criteria for PJI diagnosis. Early-postoperative and late-chronic PJI might require different thresholds.
Level of Evidence
Level III, diagnostic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC3773107  PMID: 23690154
2.  Computer-Assisted Hip and Knee Arthroplasty. Navigation and Active Robotic Systems 
Executive Summary
The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of computer assisted hip and knee arthroplasty. The two computer assisted arthroplasty systems that are the topics of this review are (1) navigation and (2) robotic-assisted hip and knee arthroplasty.
The Technology
Computer-assisted arthroplasty consists of navigation and robotic systems.
Surgical navigation is a visualization system that provides positional information about surgical tools or implants relative to a target bone on a computer display. Most of the navigation-assisted arthroplasty devices that are the subject of this review are licensed by Health Canada.
Robotic systems are active robots that mill bone according to information from a computer-assisted navigation system. The robotic-assisted arthroplasty devices that are the subject of this review are not currently licensed by Health Canada.
Review Strategy
The Cochrane and International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment databases did not identify any health technology assessments on navigation or robotic-assisted hip or knee arthroplasty. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published between January 1, 1996 and November 30, 2003. This search produced 367 studies, of which 9 met the inclusion criteria.
Summary of Findings
Navigation-Assisted Arthroplasty
Five studies were identified that examined navigation-assisted arthroplasty.
A Level 1 evidence study from Germany found a statistically significant difference in alignment and angular deviation between navigation-assisted and free-hand total knee arthroplasty in favour of navigation-assisted surgery. However, the endpoints in this study were short-term. To date, the long-term effects (need for revision, implant longevity, pain, functional performance) are unknown.(1)
A Level 2 evidence short-term study found that navigation-assisted total knee arthroplasty was significantly better than a non-navigated procedure for one of five postoperative measured angles.(2)
A Level 2 evidence short-term study found no statistically significant difference in the variation of the abduction angle between navigation-assisted and conventional total hip arthroplasty.(3)
Level 3 evidence observational studies of navigation-assisted total knee arthroplasty and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty have been conducted. Two studies reported that “the follow-up of the navigated prostheses is currently too short to know if clinical outcome or survival rates are improved. Longer follow-up is required to determine the respective advantages and disadvantages of both techniques.”(4;5)
Robotic-Assisted Arthroplasty
Four studies were identified that examined robotic-assisted arthroplasty.
A Level 1 evidence study revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between functional hip scores at 24 months post implantation between patients who underwent robotic-assisted primary hip arthroplasty and those that were treated with manual implantation.(6)
Robotic-assisted arthroplasty had advantages in terms of preoperative planning and the accuracy of the intraoperative procedure.(6)
Patients who underwent robotic-assisted hip arthroplasty had a higher dislocation rate and more revisions.(6)
Robotic-assisted arthroplasty may prove effective with certain prostheses (e.g., anatomic) because their use may result in less muscle detachment.(6)
An observational study (Level 3 evidence) found that the incidence of severe embolic events during hip relocation was lower with robotic arthroplasty than with manual surgery.(7)
An observational study (Level 3 evidence) found that there was no significant difference in gait analyses of patients who underwent robotic-assisted total hip arthroplasty using robotic surgery compared to patients who were treated with conventional cementless total hip arthroplasty.(8)
An observational study (Level 3 evidence) compared outcomes of total knee arthroplasty between patients undergoing robotic surgery and patients who were historical controls. Brief, qualitative results suggested that there was much broader variation of angles after manual total knee arthroplasty compared to the robotic technique and that there was no difference in knee functional scores or implant position at the 3 and 6 month follow-up.(9)
PMCID: PMC3387774  PMID: 23074452
3.  Microbiologic Diagnosis of Prosthetic Shoulder Infection by Use of Implant Sonication▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(6):1878-1884.
We recently described a sonication technique for the diagnosis of prosthetic knee and hip infections. We compared periprosthetic tissue culture to implant sonication followed by sonicate fluid culture for the diagnosis of prosthetic shoulder infection. One hundred thirty-six patients undergoing arthroplasty revision or resection were studied; 33 had definite prosthetic shoulder infections and 2 had probable prosthetic shoulder infections. Sonicate fluid culture was more sensitive than periprosthetic tissue culture for the detection of definite prosthetic shoulder infection (66.7 and 54.5%, respectively; P = 0.046). The specificities were similar (98.0% and 95.1%, respectively; P = 0.26). Propionibacterium acnes was the commonest species detected among culture-positive definite prosthetic shoulder infection cases by periprosthetic tissue culture (38.9%) and sonicate fluid culture (40.9%). All subjects from whom P. acnes was isolated from sonicate fluid were male. We conclude that sonicate fluid culture is useful for the diagnosis of prosthetic shoulder infection.
PMCID: PMC2691098  PMID: 19261785
4.  What is the Role of Serological Testing Between Stages of Two-stage Reconstruction of the Infected Prosthetic Knee? 
Two-stage exchange arthroplasty is the gold standard for treatment of infected TKA. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) count with differential are often used to determine treatment response; however, it is unclear whether these tests can answer the critical question of whether joint sepsis has been controlled between stages and if reimplantation is indicated.
We therefore asked if (1) these serologies respond between stage one explantation and stage two reimplantation during two-stage knee reconstruction for infection; and (2) changes in the values of these serologies are predictive of resolution of joint infection.
We retrospectively reviewed the serologies of 76 infected patients treated with a two-stage exchange protocol. The ESR, CRP, and aspiration were repeated a minimum of 2 weeks following antibiotic cessation and prior to second stage reoperation. Comparisons were made to identify trends in these serologies between the first and second stage procedures.
Eight knees (12%) were persistently infected at the time of second stage reoperation. The ESR remained persistently elevated in 37 knees (54%), and the CRP remained elevated in 14 knees (21%) where infection had been controlled. We were unable to identify an optimum cutoff value for the ESR, CRP, or the two combined. The best test for confirmation of infection control was the synovial fluid WBC count.
Although the ESR, CRP, and synovial fluid WBC counts decreased in cases of infection control, these values frequently remained elevated. We were unable to identify any patterns in these tests indicative of persistent infection.
Level of Evidence
Level II, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC3048278  PMID: 20941647
5.  Genotyping for disease associated HLA DR β1 alleles and the need for early joint surgery in rheumatoid arthritis: a quantitative evaluation 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1999;58(2):114-117.
OBJECTIVE—To determine the value of HLA DR β1 disease associated epitope (DAE) and erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR) in predicting the need for major joint replacement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS—Sixty five RA patients who had undergone hip, knee or shoulder arthroplasty within 15 years of disease onset and 65 who had not. HLA DR β1 genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction. ESR at first hospital visit was noted.
RESULTS—Significantly more patients with two DAE required surgery, (32% v 9%), χ2 = 13.9, p=0.001, odds ratio=5.4 (95% CI: 1.8, 16). Sensitivity was poor, 32%, specificity high, 91%. Presentation ESR was higher in surgery patients compared with non-surgery patients, 52 mm 1st h v 25 mm 1st h, p< 0.001, but was independent of DAE status. Sensitivity of an ESR of 30 mm 1st h was 75%, specificity 53%.
CONCLUSION—The presence of two DAE is a risk factor for major joint surgery in RA and is independent of ESR, whereas in those with one or no DAE, a high ESR is an important predictor.

 Keywords: HLA DR β1; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; rheumatoid arthritis
PMCID: PMC1752834  PMID: 10343527
6.  Sequential Changes of Plasma C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Spine Surgery : Comparison between Lumbar Open Discectomy and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion 
C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are often utilized to evaluate for postoperative infection. Abnormal values may be detected after surgery even in case of non-infection because of muscle injury, transfusion, which disturbed prompt perioperative management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the perioperative CRP, ESR, and white blood cell (WBC) counts after spine surgery, which was proved to be non-infection.
Twenty patients of lumbar open discectomy (LOD) and 20 patients of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) were enrolled in this study. Preoperative and postoperative prophylactic antibiotics were administered routinely for 7 days. Blood samples were obtained one day before surgery and postoperative day (POD) 1, POD3, and POD7. Using repeated measures ANOVA, changes in effect measures over time and between groups over time were assessed. All data analysis was conducted using SAS v.9.1.
Changes in CRP, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were both statistically significant F(3,120)=5.05, p=0.003 and F(1,39)=7.46, p=0.01, respectively. Most dramatic changes were decreases in the LOD group on POD3 and POD7. Changes in ESR, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were also found to be statistically significant, F(3,120)=6.67, p=0.0003 and F(1,39)=3.99, p=0.01, respectively. Changes in WBC values also were be statistically significant within groups over time, F(3,120)=40.52, p<0.001, however, no significant difference was found in between groups WBC levels over time, F(1,39)=0.02, p=0.89.
We found that, dramatic decrease of CRP was detected on POD3 and POD7 in LOD group of non-infection and dramatic increase of ESR on POD3 and POD7 in PLIF group of non-infection. We also assumed that CRP would be more effective and sensitive parameter especially in LOD than PLIF for early detection of infectious complications. Awareness of the typical pattern of CRP, ESR, and WBC may help to evaluate the early postoperative course.
PMCID: PMC4217058  PMID: 25368764
Open discectomy; Posterior lumbar interbody fusion; Postoperative infection; C-reactive protein; Erythrocyte sedimentation rate; White blood cell
7.  Normal sequential changes in neutrophil CD64 expression after total joint arthroplasty 
Journal of Orthopaedic Science  2013;18(6):949-954.
Neutrophil CD64 has been reported to be a sensitive and specific infection marker. Its measurement is thus considered to be useful in early diagnosis of post-operative periprosthetic infection. However, even its normal sequential changes after non-infectious total joint arthroplasty have remained ambiguous. Accordingly, we analyzed 2-week sequential neutrophil CD64 expression changes after total joint arthroplasty in order to clarify its normal postoperative kinetics.
Patients and method
From 41 patients who underwent primary total joint arthroplasties, peripheral blood samples were obtained at 1 day before (baseline) and 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after surgery, and CD64 expression per cell was quantitatively measured. C-reactive protein (CRP) level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell count (WBC) were simultaneously measured.
No cases of postoperative local infection were observed. Levels of CD64 significantly elevated from day 1, peaked at day 3, and decreased significantly following day 5. Statistical analysis confirmed that significant differences existed between the baseline level and the levels at days 1 and 3, while no significant differences existed between the baseline level and those at days 5, 7 or 14. In 17 patients, CD64 peaked at over 2,000 molecules/cell, the level reported to be a cutoff value for distinguishing infection. Multiple regression analysis showed that the sole parameter of baseline CD64 level significantly explained the peak CD64 level. Postoperative CD64 peaks ranged from 1.6 to 2.7 times (median 1.9) the baseline levels. CRP, ESR and WBC also showed rapid elevations and all but WBC remained significantly higher than baseline at day 14.
CD64 levels rise significantly, peaking within about 3 days following normal total joint arthroplasty, but decrease rapidly to near baseline within about 5 days. The data obtained can be expected to form a possible basis for early diagnosis of postoperative periprosthetic infection.
PMCID: PMC3838574  PMID: 23943224
8.  Outcome of One-stage Cementless Exchange for Acute Postoperative Periprosthetic Hip Infection 
Acute postoperative infection after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is typically treated with irrigation and débridement and exchange of the modular femoral head and acetabular liner. Given a rate of failure exceeding 50% in some series, a one-stage exchange has been suggested as a potential alternative because it allows more thorough débridement and removal of colonized implants. To date, most studies published on the one-stage exchange have used microbe-specific antibiotic-laden bone cement with only one small single-institution series that reported outcomes after a cementless one-stage exchange.
We determined whether a one-stage cementless exchange for treating acute postoperative infection after THA would result in infection control with component retention and normalization of infection markers.
We retrospectively identified 27 patients who underwent a one-stage exchange performed for an acute (≤ 6 weeks) postoperative infection after THA from April 2004 to December 2009. Primary cementless components were used both at the time of the index arthroplasty and the revision in all patients. Surgery was followed by a 6-week course of culture-specific antibiotics in all patients and a variable course of oral antibiotics. Our primary outcome was retention of the implants at most recent followup and our secondary outcome was normalization of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at most recent followup. Patients were followed until failure or a minimum of 2 years.
At a minimum followup of 27 months (mean, 50 months; range, 27–89 months), 19 of the 27 patients (70%) retained their implants but four required further operative débridement with component retention at a mean of 3 weeks (range, 2–6 weeks) to obtain control of infection. Thus, an isolated single-stage exchange was successful in 15 of the 27 patients (56%). Eight patients (30%) ultimately had a two-stage exchange for persistent infection; seven of these patients required no further surgery, whereas one patient required a second two-stage exchange. Of those patients retaining their prosthesis after one-stage exchange and tracked with ESR and CRP, four (33% [four of 12]) had elevated values without other signs or symptoms of recurrent infection.
For acute postoperative infection after primary THA, a one-stage cementless exchange allowed 70% of patients to retain their implants at most recent followup. Of those patients who ultimately went on to a two-stage exchange, only one required a second two-stage exchange.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC3773120  PMID: 23775569
9.  Mean platelet volume: a controversial marker of disease activity in Crohn’s disease 
We investigated and compared the capacity of mean platelet volume (MPV) and other inflammatory markers in detecting Crohn’s disease (CD) activity and differentiating CD patients from healthy controls.
MPV, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cells were measured in 61 CD patients and 50 healthy subjects. Disease activity was assessed by the Crohn’s Disease Activity Index.
A significant decrease in MPV was noted in patients with CD compared with healthy controls (P <0.0001), but statistical difference was not found between active and inactive CD groups. In CD, no significant correlation was found between MPV and other inflammatory markers. The overall accuracy of MPV (cutoff: 10.35 fl), CRP (cutoff: 4.85 mg/dl) and ESR (cutoff: 8.5 mm/hour) in differentiating CD patients from healthy controls was 76.6%, 65.8% and 72.1% respectively. The overall accuracy of CRP (cutoff: 4.95 mg/dl) and ESR (cutoff: 16.5 mm/hour) in determination of active CD was 80.3% and 73.8%.
MPV declined in CD patients compared with healthy subjects. MPV had the best accuracy in determination of CD patients and healthy controls. MPV did not show a discriminative value in disease activity.
PMCID: PMC3519557  PMID: 23058104
Crohn’s disease; Mean platelet volume; C-reactive protein; Erythrocyte sedimentation rate; Inflammatory bowel disease
10.  Clinical, Laboratory, and Ultrasound Assessment of the Knee in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis 
The aim of this work was to study the ultrasonographic (USG) features of knee joints in relation to clinical and laboratory measures in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and also to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of local joint activity.
This study included 20 with JRA and 20 matched and apparently healthy controls. All patients were subjected to full history taking, careful clinical examination and laboratory investigation. The knee joints of all patients and control were examined with plain radiography and ultrasonography on the same day of clinical examination using ultrasound to detect synovial thickness and effusion at the knee.
Mean USG knee synovial thickness was significantly greater in JRA patients versus controls (4.2 ± 2.4 mm versus 1.7 ± 0.3 mm, P < 0.001). Although knee effusion was not detected in any of the controls, it was demonstrated in 90% of JRA patients, with a mean effusion volume of 3.8 ± 3.1 mL. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) between clinically active and inactive knees with regard to knee synovial thickness. Mean knee effusion volume was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the clinically active than in the clinically inactive knees. Patients with high disease activity had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher knee synovial thickness and knee effusion volume than patients with low and moderate disease activity. Significantly (P < 0.05) positive correlations were found between knee synovial thickness and articular index (AI) scores, disease activity score, clinical knee scores, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Significant positive correlations (P < 0.05) were found between knee effusion volume and AI scores, visual analog scores, disease activity scores, clinical knee scores, ESR, and CRP levels. Significant negative correlations (P < 0.05) were found between knee effusion volumes and hemoglobin levels.
UGS-detected parameters represent a reliable index of JRA disease activity with a higher sensitivity for knee synovial thickness and higher specificity for knee effusion.
PMCID: PMC3091415  PMID: 21573036
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; synovial thickness; knee effusion; ultrasonography
11.  Prosthesis Failure Within 2 Years of Implantation Is Highly Predictive of Infection 
The outcome of revision surgery depends on accurate determination of the cause of prosthesis failure because treatment differs profoundly among aseptic loosening, mechanical failure, and prosthetic joint infections (PJI).
We sought to determine (1) the predictive role of the interval from primary to revision surgery in determining the reason for prosthesis failure of a hip, knee, shoulder, or elbow arthroplasty, and (2) whether positive cultures during revision surgery for aseptic loosening were associated with shorter event-free survival of the prosthesis.
All patients undergoing revision surgery between July 2010 and January 2012 were included in a prospective cohort of 112 patients, and were classified as having had failure from aseptic loosening (56%), mechanical failure (15%), or PJI (29%). To make the diagnosis of PJI, at surgery we used a standardized enhanced diagnostic approach in all patients including sampling of five periprosthetic tissue specimens, sonication of removed prosthetic components, prolonged incubation of aerobic and anaerobic cultures, and multiplex PCR of sonication fluid in aseptic loosening cases. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were performed.
The median time from primary to revision surgery was (p < 0.001) longer for patients with aseptic loosening (7.8 years) than for patients with mechanical failure (1.6 years) or PJI (2 years). No difference in the time to revision was observed for patients with aseptic loosening with positive or negative microbiological cultures (p = 0.594). Propionibacterium acnes was cultured below the established microbiological criteria for positivity in 12 (19%) procedures that had been presumed to have been revisions for aseptic loosening.
PJI should be considered in all revisions performed within 2 years of implantation even in the absence of clinical or laboratory findings suggestive for infection. However, the growth of low-virulence microorganisms below the cut-off in revisions for apparent aseptic loosening is not associated with early prosthesis failure.
Level of Evidence
Level II, diagnostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC3792275  PMID: 23904245
12.  Relationship of serum IL-6, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and knee skin temperature after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study 
International Orthopaedics  2010;35(1):31-35.
Knee osteoarthritis is a common cause of severe pain and functional limitation. Total knee arthroplasty is an effective procedure to relieve pain, restore knee function, and improve quality of life for patients with end stage knee arthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory process in patients with primary knee osteoarthritis before surgery and in subsequent periods following total knee arthroplasty. A prospective study of 49 patients undergoing primary total knee replacements was conducted. The patients were evaluated by monitoring serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), knee skin temperature, and clinical status. Measurements were carried out preoperatively and postoperatively on day one and at two, six, 14, and 26 weeks during follow-up review in the knee clinic. The serum IL-6 and CRP were elevated on the first postoperative day but fell to preoperative values at two weeks postoperatively. Both returned to within the normal range by six weeks postoperatively. In addition, the postoperative ESR showed a slow rise with a peak two weeks after surgery and returned to the preoperative level at 26 weeks postoperatively. The difference in skin temperature between operated and contralateral knees had a mean value of +4.5°C at two weeks. The mean value decreased to +3.5°C at six weeks, +2.5°C at 14 weeks, and +1.0°C at 26 weeks. The difference in skin temperature decreased gradually and eventually there was no statistically significant difference at 26 weeks after surgery. A sustained elevation in serum IL-6, CRP, ESR, and skin temperature must raise the concern of early complication and may suggest the development of postoperative complication such as haematoma and/or infection.
PMCID: PMC3014479  PMID: 21203883
13.  Baseline bone mineral density and bone turnover in pre-operative hip and knee arthroplasty patients 
Bone & Joint Research  2014;3(1):14-19.
Osteoporosis and abnormal bone metabolism may prove to be significant factors influencing the outcome of arthroplasty surgery, predisposing to complications of aseptic loosening and peri-prosthetic fracture. We aimed to investigate baseline bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in patients about to undergo arthroplasty of the hip and knee.
We prospectively measured bone mineral density of the hip and lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans in a cohort of 194 patients awaiting hip or knee arthroplasty. We also assessed bone turnover using urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD), a type I collagen crosslink, normalised to creatinine.
The prevalence of DEXA proven hip osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5) among hip and knee arthroplasty patients was found to be low at 2.8% (4 of 143). Spinal osteoporosis prevalence was higher at 6.9% (12 of 175). Sixty patients (42% (60 of 143)) had osteopenia or osteoporosis of either the hip or spine. The mean T-score for the hip was -0.34 (sd 1.23), which is within normal limits, and the mean hip Z-score was positive at 0.87 (sd 1.17), signifying higher-than-average BMD for age. The median urinary DPD/creatinine was raised in both female patients at 8.1 (interquartile range (IQR) 6.6 to 9.9) and male patients at 6.2 (IQR 4.8 to 7.5).
Our results indicate hip and knee arthroplasty patients have higher BMD of the hip and spine compared with an age-matched general population, and a lower prevalence of osteoporosis. However, untreated osteoporotic patients are undergoing arthroplasty, which may negatively impact their outcome. Raised DPD levels suggest abnormal bone turnover, requiring further investigation.
Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:14–19.
PMCID: PMC3904490  PMID: 24443424
Arthroplasty; Hip; Knee; Bone mineral density; BMD
14.  Definition of remission and relapse in polymyalgia rheumatica: data from a literature search compared with a Delphi-based expert consensus 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2010;70(3):447-453.
To compare current definitions of remission and relapse in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) with items resulting from a Delphi-based expert consensus.
Relevant studies including definitions of PMR remission and relapse were identified by literature search in PubMed. The questionnaire used for the Delphi survey included clinical (n=33), laboratory (n=54) and imaging (n=7) parameters retrieved from a literature search. Each item was assessed for importance and availability/practicability, and limits were considered for metric parameters. Consensus was defined by an agreement rate of ≥80%.
Out of 6031 articles screened, definitions of PMR remission and relapse were available in 18 and 34 studies, respectively. Parameters used to define remission and/or relapse included history and clinical assessment of pain and synovitis, constitutional symptoms, morning stiffness (MS), physician's global assessment, headache, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), blood count, fibrinogen and/or corticosteroid therapy. In the Delphi exercise a consensus was obtained on the following parameters deemed essential for definitions of remission and relapse: patient's pain assessment, MS, ESR, CRP, shoulder and hip pain on clinical examination, limitation of upper limb elevation, and assessment of corticosteroid dose required to control symptoms.
Assessment of patient's pain, MS, ESR, CRP, shoulder pain/limitation on clinical examination and corticosteroid dose are considered to be important in current available definitions of PMR remission and relapse and the present expert consensus. The high relevance of clinical assessment of hips was unique to this study and may improve specificity and sensitivity of definitions for remission and relapse in PMR.
PMCID: PMC3033531  PMID: 21097803
15.  Hip-inspired implant for revision of failed reverse shoulder arthroplasty with severe glenoid bone loss 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(2):171-176.
Background and purpose
Glenoid reconstruction and inverted glenoid re-implantation is strongly advocated in revisions of failed reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). Nevertheless, severe glenoid deficiency may preclude glenoid reconstruction and may dictate less favorable solutions, such as conversion to hemiarthropasty or resection arthropasty. The CAD/CAM shoulder (Stanmore Implants, Elstree, UK), a hip arthroplasty-inspired implant, may facilitate glenoid component fixation in these challenging revisions where glenoid reconstruction is not feasible. We questioned (1) whether revision arthroplasty with the CAD/CAM shoulder would alleviate pain and improve shoulder function in patients with failed RSA, not amenable to glenoid reconstruction, (2) whether the CAD/CAM hip-inspired glenoid shell would enable secure and durable glenoid component fixation in these challenging revisions.
Patients and methods
11 patients with failed RSAs and unreconstructable glenoids underwent revision with the CAD/CAM shoulder and were followed-up for mean 35 (28–42) months. Clinical outcomes included the Oxford shoulder score, subjective shoulder value, pain rating, physical examination, and shoulder radiographs.
The average Oxford shoulder score and subjective shoulder value improved statistically significantly after the revision from 50 to 33 points and from 17% to 48% respectively. Pain rating at rest and during activity improved significantly from 5.3 to 2.3 and from 8.1 to 3.8 respectively. Active forward flexion increased from 25 to 54 degrees and external rotation increased from 9 to 21 degrees. 4 patients required reoperation for postoperative complications. No cases of glenoid loosening occurred.
The CAD/CAM shoulder offers an alternative solution for the treatment of failed RSA that is not amenable to glenoid reconstruction.
PMCID: PMC3967260  PMID: 24650026
16.  Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) using C‐reactive protein underestimates disease activity and overestimates EULAR response criteria compared with DAS28 using erythrocyte sedimentation rate in a large observational cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients in Japan 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2007;66(9):1221-1226.
To compare disease activity and the improvement of disease activity evaluated between by Disease Activity Score 28 using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28‐ESR) and by DAS28 using C‐reactive protein (DAS28‐CRP) in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Data from 3073 RA patients registered in the large cohort database (NinJa: National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR‐net in Japan) of 2003 was used to calculate DAS28‐ESR and DAS28‐CRP and disease activities were evaluated. Improvements in disease activities were also evaluated according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria in 1482 RA patients whose DAS28‐ESR and DAS28‐CRP could be calculated from data for both 2002 and 2003.
The mean value of DAS28‐CRP (3.59, SD 1.25) was significantly smaller than that of mean DAS28‐ESR (4.31, SD 1.32) (p < 0.0001). The number of patients who satisfied the criteria of remission was 297 (9.7%) in DAS28‐ESR versus 705 (22.9%) in DAS28‐CRP and the number of patients with high disease activity was 842 (27.4%) versus 357 (11.6%) for DAS28‐ESR and DAS28‐CRP, respectively; there was a significant difference between the two (p < 0.0001). Change of respective DAS28 was significantly correlated (ΔDAS28‐ESR −0.05, SD 1.14 versus ΔDAS28‐CRP −0.10, SD 1.10) (p < 0.0001); however, the number of “good response” patients was significantly different (p < 0.03) between DAS28‐ESR (97 patients, 6.5%) and DAS28‐CRP (136 patients, 9.2%).
DAS28‐CRP significantly underestimated disease activity and overestimated the improvement in disease activity compared with DAS28‐ESR. DAS28‐CRP should be evaluated using different criteria from that for DAS28‐ESR.
PMCID: PMC1955164  PMID: 17369281
17.  Serological markers can lead to false negative diagnoses of periprosthetic infections following total knee arthroplasty 
International Orthopaedics  2010;35(11):1621-1626.
Periprosthetic infections following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are diagnostically challenging. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of ESR and CRP, false negative rates, whether false negative rates differed between early post-operative and late infections, and the predictive ability of ESR and CRP to differentiate infected patients. Between 2000 and 2007, a prospectively collected database was reviewed to identify patients with suspected periprosthetic infections, and who had ESR and CRP laboratory values. One hundred and thirteen patients were identified. False negative rates were calculated. Finally, receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the predictive ability of ESR and CRP to differentiate infected from non-infected patients. CRP had a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 20%. ESR had a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 33%. The false negative rate was 9.2% for ESR, 5.3% for CRP, and 11.1% for combined ESR and CRP. False negative rates were higher for early post-operative infections. Although ESR and CRP can be excellent adjunctive diagnostic tools, we emphasise that because some patients may not mount a sufficient immune response, the entire clinical picture must be evaluated, and periprosthetic infection should not be ruled out on the basis of ESR and CRP results alone.
PMCID: PMC3193961  PMID: 21181540
18.  Outcome of Acute Prosthetic Joint Infections Due to Gram-Negative Bacilli Treated with Open Debridement and Retention of the Prosthesis▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2009;53(11):4772-4777.
The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of acute prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) due to gram-negative bacilli (GNB) treated without implant removal. Patients with an acute PJI due to GNB diagnosed from 2000 to 2007 were prospectively registered. Demographics, comorbidity, type of implant, microbiology data, surgical treatment, antimicrobial therapy, and outcome were recorded. Classification and regression tree analysis, the Kaplan-Meier survival method, and the Cox regression model were applied. Forty-seven patients were included. The mean age was 70.7 years, and there were 15 hip prostheses and 32 knee prostheses. The median number of days from the time of arthroplasty was 20. The most frequent pathogens were members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in 41 cases and Pseudomonas spp. in 20 cases. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, 14 were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The median durations of intravenous and oral antibiotic treatment were 14 and 64 days, respectively. A total of 35 (74.5%) patients were in remission after a median follow-up of 463 days (interquartile range, 344 to 704) days. By use of the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, a C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration of ≤15 mg/dl (P = 0.03) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone, when all GNB isolated were susceptible (P = 0.0009), were associated with a better outcome. By use of a Cox regression model, a CRP concentration of ≤15 mg/dl (odds ratio [OR], 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 12.5; P = 0.043) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone (OR, 9.09; 95% CI, 1.96 to 50; P = 0.005) were independently associated with better outcomes. Open debridement without removal of the implant had a success rate of 74.5%, and the factors associated with good prognosis were a CRP concentration at the time of diagnosis ≤15 mg/dl and treatment with a fluoroquinolone.
PMCID: PMC2772308  PMID: 19687237
19.  A Genetic Association Study of Serum Acute-Phase C-Reactive Protein Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Implications for Clinical Interpretation 
PLoS Medicine  2010;7(9):e1000341.
A genetic association study by Timothy Vyse and colleagues suggests that there is a significant association between CRP variants and acute-phase serum CRP concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, including those with chronic inflammation.
The acute-phase increase in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is used to diagnose and monitor infectious and inflammatory diseases. Little is known about the influence of genetics on acute-phase CRP, particularly in patients with chronic inflammation.
Methods and Findings
We studied two independent sets of patients with chronic inflammation due to rheumatoid arthritis (total 695 patients). A tagSNP approach captured common variation at the CRP locus and the relationship between genotype and serum CRP was explored by linear modelling. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was incorporated as an independent marker of inflammation to adjust for the varying levels of inflammatory disease activity between patients. Common genetic variants at the CRP locus were associated with acute-phase serum CRP (for the most associated haplotype: p = 0.002, p<0.0005, p<0.0005 in patient sets 1, 2, and the combined sets, respectively), translating into an approximately 3.5-fold change in expected serum CRP concentrations between carriers of two common CRP haplotypes. For example, when ESR = 50 mm/h the expected geometric mean CRP (95% confidence interval) concentration was 43.1 mg/l (32.1–50.0) for haplotype 1 and 14.2 mg/l (9.5–23.2) for haplotype 4.
Our findings raise questions about the interpretation of acute-phase serum CRP. In particular, failure to take into account the potential for genetic effects may result in the inappropriate reassurance or suboptimal treatment of patients simply because they carry low-CRP–associated genetic variants. CRP is increasingly being incorporated into clinical algorithms to compare disease activity between patients and to predict future clinical events: our findings impact on the use of these algorithms. For example, where access to effective, but expensive, biological therapies in rheumatoid arthritis is rationed on the basis of a DAS28-CRP clinical activity score, then two patients with identical underlying disease severity could be given, or denied, treatment on the basis of CRP genotype alone. The accuracy and utility of these algorithms might be improved by using a genetically adjusted CRP measurement.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a serum marker for inflammation or infection and acts by binding to a chemical (phosphocholine) found on the surface of dead or dying cells (and some types of bacteria) in order to activate the immune system (via the complement system). Fat cells release factors that stimulate the liver to produce CRP, and serum levels greater than 10 mg/l are generally considered indicative of an infectious or inflammatory process. After an inflammatory stimulus, serum CRP levels may exceed 500 times baseline, so CRP is used in all medical specialities to help diagnose inflammation and infection. Although patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, have raised levels of CRP, levels of CRP are still highly variable. Some studies have suggested that there may be genetic variations of CRP (CRP variants) that determine the magnitude of the acute-phase CRP response, a finding that has important clinical implications: CRP thresholds are used as a diagnostic component of formal clinical algorithms and play an important role in a clinician's decision-making process when diagnosing inflammatory disease and choosing treatment options. Therefore, it is possible that false reassurance could be given to a patient with disease, or optimal treatment withheld, because some patients are genetically predisposed to have only a modest increase in acute-phase CRP.
Why Was This Study Done?
Although some studies have looked at the CRP gene variant response, few, if any, studies have examined the CRP gene variant response in the context of chronic inflammation, such as in rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether CRP gene variants could also influence CRP serum levels in rheumatoid arthritis.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The authors studied two independent sets of patients with chronic inflammation due to rheumatoid arthritis (total 695 patients): one patient set used a cohort of 281 patients in the UK, and the other patient set (used for replication) consisted of 414 patients from New Zealand and Australia. A genetic technique (a tagSNP approach) was used to capture common variations at the CRP locus (haplotype association analysis) at both the population and the individual level. The relationship between genotype and serum CRP was explored by linear modeling. The researchers found that common genetic variants at the CRP locus were associated with acute-phase serum CRP in both patient sets translating into an approximate 3.5-fold change in expected serum CRP between carriers of two common CRP variants. For example, when ESR = 50 mm/h the expected CRP serum level for one common CRP variant was 43.1 mg/l and for another CRP variant was 14.2 mg/l.
What Do These Findings Mean?
The findings of this study raise questions about the interpretation of acute-phase serum CRP, as they suggest that there is a significant association between CRP variants and acute-phase serum CRP concentrations in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, including those with chronic active inflammation. The size of the genetic effect may be large enough to have a clinically relevant impact on the assessment of inflammatory disease activity, which in turn may influence therapeutic decision making. Failure to take into account the potential for genetic effects may result in the inappropriate reassurance or undertreatment of patients simply because they carry low-CRP–associated genetic variants. CRP is increasingly being incorporated into clinical algorithms to compare disease activity between patients and to predict future clinical events, so these findings impact on the use of such algorithms. The accuracy and utility of these algorithms might be improved by using a genetically adjusted CRP measurement.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
Lab Test Online provides information on CRP
The Wellcome Trust provides a glossary of genetic terms
Learn.Genetics provides access to the Genetic Science Learning Center, which is part of the human genome project
PMCID: PMC2943443  PMID: 20877716
20.  Rapid Molecular Microbiologic Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2013;51(7):2280-2287.
We previously showed that culture of samples obtained by prosthesis vortexing and sonication was more sensitive than tissue culture for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis. Despite improved sensitivity, culture-negative cases remained; furthermore, culture has a long turnaround time. We designed a genus-/group-specific rapid PCR assay panel targeting PJI bacteria and applied it to samples obtained by vortexing and sonicating explanted hip and knee prostheses, and we compared the results to those with sonicate fluid and periprosthetic tissue culture obtained at revision or resection arthroplasty. We studied 434 subjects with knee (n = 272) or hip (n = 162) prostheses; using a standardized definition, 144 had PJI. Sensitivities of tissue culture, of sonicate fluid culture, and of PCR were 70.1, 72.9, and 77.1%, respectively. Specificities were 97.9, 98.3, and 97.9%, respectively. Sonicate fluid PCR was more sensitive than tissue culture (P = 0.04). PCR of prosthesis sonication samples is more sensitive than tissue culture for the microbiologic diagnosis of prosthetic hip and knee infection and provides same-day PJI diagnosis with definition of microbiology. The high assay specificity suggests that typical PJI bacteria may not cause aseptic implant failure.
PMCID: PMC3697690  PMID: 23658273
21.  Implant sonication for the diagnosis of prosthetic elbow infection 
Periprosthetic infection is a potentially devastating complication of elbow arthroplasty, associated with formation of microbial biofilm on the implant surface. The definitive microbiologic diagnosis of periprosthetic infection after elbow arthroplasty may be difficult to establish. Our study aim was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional periprosthetic tissue culture and culture of fluid derived from vortexing and bath sonication of the explanted hardware (a biofilm-sampling strategy).
Materials and methods
Patients undergoing revision elbow arthroplasty at our institution between July 2007 and July 2010, from each of whom 2 or more periprosthetic tissue cultures and 1 implant sonicate culture were obtained, were studied. A standardized definition of orthopedic implant—associated infection was applied.
We identified 27 subjects with aseptic failure and 9 with prosthetic elbow infection. Rheumatoid arthritis was the most common underlying disorder. The Coonrad-Morrey prosthesis was the most common type of implant used. The sensitivities of implant sonicate and periprosthetic tissue culture were 89% and 55%, respectively (P = .18), and the specificities were 100% and 93%, respectively (P = .16). Coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 7) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2) were isolated in cases of infection.
Culture of the implant by sonication is at least as sensitive as periprosthetic tissue culture to detect prosthetic elbow infection.
Level of evidence
Level I, Diagnostic Study.
PMCID: PMC3910532  PMID: 22078323
Prosthetic joint infection; elbow prosthesis; implant; sonication; biofilm; periprosthetic tissue
22.  Utility of Intraoperative Frozen Section in the Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Joint Infection 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e102346.
Intraoperative frozen section (FS) is an effective diagnostic test for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). We evaluated the diagnostic characteristics of single- and multiplex-site intraoperative FS, and evaluated the results of single-site FS combined with those of C-reactive protein (CRP) level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) for assessing PJI.
We studied 156 painful joint arthroplasties in 152 consecutive patients presenting for revision total joint arthroplasty due to PJI. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cutoff values for CRP level, ESR, and intraoperative FS histopathology. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of the diagnostic tests were assessed using a 2×2 table.
We investigated the diagnostic utility of polymorphonuclear leukocyte number (PMN) per high-power field (HPF) on FS. Our data showed that 5 PMNs per HPF is a suitable diagnostic threshold, with a high accuracy in single- and multiplex-site FS. Five PMNs in any 1 of 5 sites had the highest sensitivity of 0.86 and a specificity of 0.96. Five PMNs in every 1 of 5 sites had greater diagnostic utility, with a specificity of 1; however, the sensitivity of this measure fell to 0.62. Five PMNs in single-site FS had a sensitivity of 0.70 and a specificity of 0.94. Five PMNs in single-site FS or CRP level ≥15 mg/L increased the sensitivity to 0.92; however, the specificity decreased to 0.79.
Compared with single-site FS, any 1 positive site on multiplex-site FS may improve sensitivity, while every 1 positive site on multiplex-site FS may improve specificity. Five PMNs in any 1 of 5 sites on FS has excellent utility for the diagnosis of PJI. Additional systematic large-scale studies are needed to verify this result.
PMCID: PMC4099375  PMID: 25025886
23.  Prevention of infection after knee arthroplasty 
Scientific background
Man-made joints (joint endoprostheses), including knee endoprostheses, are used in some irreversible diseases of the human joints. The implantation of joint endoprostheses (arthroplasty) is associated with an increased risk for infection. To prevent infections, different interventions without and with the use of antibiotics (hygiene procedures and antibiotic prophylaxis) are used. The benefits of these interventions are not clear yet.
Research questions
The presented report addresses the questions regarding the medical effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal aspects related to the use of interventions to prevent infections after knee arthroplasty.
A systematic literature search is conducted in the medical electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, SciSearch etc. in June 2009 and has been completed by a hand search. The analysis includes publications which describe and/or evaluate clinical data from randomized controlled trials (RCT), systematic reviews of RCT, registers of endoprostheses or databases concerning interventions to prevent infections after knee arthroplasty.
The conducted literature search also aims to identify health-economic studies and publications dealing explicitly with ethical, social or legal aspects in the use of interventions to prevent infections after knee arthroplasty. The synthesis of information from different publications has been performed qualitatively.
The systematic literature search yields 1,030 hits. Based on the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria a total of ten publications is included in the analysis.
The presented report does not find evidence of the effectiveness of different hygiene interventions with a high evidence level. Most of the unspecific interventions are recommended on the basis of results from non-RCT, from studies for other clinical indications and/or for clinically not relevant endpoints, as well as on the basis of expert opinions.
The evidence of the effectiveness of intravenous prophylaxis with antibiotics in knee arthroplasty on a high level of evidence is also missing. The recommendations use evidence on the intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis transferred from RCT in hip arthroplasty to the arthroplasty of all joints including knee replacement. Moreover, no evidence is found for differences in the effectiveness between various antibiotics in knee arthroplasty. The presented report finds strong hints for the effectiveness of antibiotics in cement in addition to the intravenous prophylaxis; however, evidence of the effectiveness may be accepted only for operating rooms without clean-air measures.
The conclusiveness of the results from non-RCT and from studies for clinically non-relevant endpoints is relatively low. The determined evidence from studies for other clinical indications may be generally transferred to knee replacement operations.
No proposal to change the recommendations of the Robert Koch Institute with respect to hygiene interventions and intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis can be made from the presented analysis. Also, no recommendations on the selection of certain antibiotic can be derived from the analysed data. The use of antibiotics in cement in addition to the intravenous prophylaxis may be generally recommended.
The cost-effectiveness of different interventions to prevent infections in knee arthroplasty remains unclear. There are no signs for concern regarding any ethical, social and/or legal consequences in the use of interventions to prevent infections in knee arthroplasty.
PMCID: PMC3010886  PMID: 21289883
knee replacement; systematic review; HTA; health technology assessment; prosthesis-related infections; measures for infective protection
24.  The course of C-reactive protein response in untreated upper respiratory tract infection 
Background: High C-reactive protein (CRP) values are frequently found in patients with bacterial respiratory infection, and CRP testing has been shown to be useful in differentiating pneumonia from other respiratory infections. Raised CRP values may also be found in viral respiratory infection, and as a result there is a risk that antibiotics may be wrongly prescribed.
Aims: To describe the course of the CRP response during untreated upper respiratory tract infections and associations between the development of CRP values, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and respiratory symptoms.
Design of study: Prospective study.
Setting: Seven general practices in northern Norway.
Method: Patients with upper respiratory tract infection aged 16 years or over, who were not treated with antibiotics and who had been ill for no more than 3 days, were recruited. Microbiological examinations were undertaken, together with measurements of CRP, ESR and recording of symptoms daily during the first week of illness and on days 10, 14 and 21.
Results: An aetiological agent was established in 23 of the 41 included subjects. These were: influenza A, influenza B, rhinovirus, and other agents. Among the 15 patients examined on both the second and the third day of illness, the median CRP value increased from 7–10 mg/l, and the mean value was from 19–24 mg/l between day 2 and day 3. Peak CRP values were reached on days 2 to 4. Higher CRP values were found in those infected with influenza A and B than in the other subjects (P<0.001). A CRP value >10 mg/l was found in 26 subjects during the first 7 days, compared to five subjects after 1 week. Evidence of a secondary infection with group A streptococci was found in two of these five subjects. The development of the symptoms of sore throat, fatigue, clamminess, and pain from muscles and joints followed a similar course as the CRP response, while stuffy nose, cough, sputum production, and dyspnoea tended to persist after the CRP values had approached the normal range.
Conclusion: A moderately elevated CRP value (10–60 mg/l) is a common finding in viral upper respiratory tract infection, with a peak during days 2–4 of illness. Moderately elevated CRP values cannot support a diagnosis of bacterial infection when the illness has lasted less than 7 days, but may indicate a complication of viral infection after a week.
PMCID: PMC1326064  PMID: 15353049
antibiotics; common cold; cough; C-reactive protein; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; influenza; upper respiratory infections
25.  Diagnostic Accuracy of the Quantitative C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Urinary Tract Infections among Infants and Children 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count in urinary tract infections (UTI) among hospitalised infants and children in Qazvin, Iran.
This cross-sectional study was conducted on 127 hospitalised children ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years old 31.79 months (SD 30.73) who were suspected of having a UTI and who did not receive antibiotics prior to being seen at a Qazvin teaching children’s hospital between 2005 and 2006. A urine analysis (U/A) and urine culture (U/C) were performed. The blood was taken for CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. U/C has been considered the gold standard test for a UTI and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA) as the gold standard for an upper UTI (pyelonephritis). These tests were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy, which is represented as the percent of correct results.
Within the study population, 72 patients (56.7%) were younger than two years old 9.86 months (SD 4.56) and 55 (43.3%) were older than two years old 63.58 months (SD 30.96). One hundred and two patients (80.3%) were female. There were 100 cases that had a positive U/C. Of the patients with a positive U/C, 81 had pyuria (WBC more than 5/hpf), 71 had a peripheral WBC count of more than 10 000 /mL, 95 had a CRP of more than 10 mg/L and 82 had an ESR > 10 mm/h. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of CRP when using U/C as the gold standard were, respectively, 96%, 11.1%, 80.2%, 50%, and 78%; when using ESR as the gold standard were, respectively, 55%, 40%, 77.6%, 17.2%, and 52%; and when using WBC counts as the gold standard were, respectively, 69%, 52%, 86.6%, 35.6%, and 65%. The accuracy of CRP, ESR and WBC counts when considering the DMSA as the gold standard were 58.3%, 62.8%, and 64.5%, respectively.
Although acute phase reactants can help in the diagnosis of a UTI, they are not pathognomonic. CRP, ESR and WBC were neither completely sensitive nor specific for detecting a UTI and its localisation site in Iranian children. Therefore, in a country where advanced clinical diagnostic tests are available, the advanced test should be used in conjunction with CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. Finally, a combination of laboratory tests along with history and exact clinical examination are needed for the diagnosis of a UTI and its localisation site.
PMCID: PMC3957355  PMID: 24643248
children; DMSA renal scintigraphy; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; Urinary tract infection; quantitative C-reactive protein

Results 1-25 (797738)