Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a common health problem throughout the world and a major cause of disability in the workplace. Awkward working posture is a main risk factor for developing WMSDs. Assessment of exposure level to WMSDs risks can be an appropriate base for planning and implementing interventional ergonomics program in the workplace. This study was conducted among workers of an Iranian communication company with the objectives of a) determination of WMSDs prevalence and b) assessment of exposure level to WMSDs risks.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, 85 randomly selected workers from assembly line and closed circuit TV (CCTV) participated. Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ) was used to study prevalence of WMSDs and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) technique was applied to assess physical exposure to the risks.
The results of NMQ revealed that WMSDs occurred at an high rate. The highest rates of WMSDs prevalence were reported in shoulders (73%), knees (67.1%) and back (66.7%). RULA showed that the Grand Score of 88.1% of cases were high and very high (action levels 3 and 4). Significant association was found between risk level and musculoskeletal symptoms in lower back (P < 0.05).
Given the association between RULA score and the prevalence of the problems, reducing RULA score by designing ergonomic workstation may reduce the prevalence of WMSDs among the workers.
Assembly workers; communication industry; rapid upper limb assessment technique; work-related musculoskeletal disorders
Physical therapists working in the State of Kuwait are at risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, prevalence rates and risk factors are not well documented. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and impacts of WMSDs among physical therapists in the State of Kuwait.
A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 350 physical therapists. The questionnaire gathered demographic data as well as information on occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in the previous 12 months. Descriptive statistics, frequency, and Chi-square analyses were used.
The response rate to the questionnaire was 63% (222/350). Of the 212 responders included in the study, the one-year prevalence of WMSDs was 47.6%, with lower back complaints as the most common (32%). This was followed by neck (21%), upper back (19%), shoulder (13%), hand/wrist (11%), knee (11%), ankle/foot (6%), elbow (4%), and hip/thigh (3%) complaints. The frequency of WMSDs was not gender related (except lower back, neck, and shoulder complaints) nor was it related to age (except lower back complaints), working venues (except hand/wrist), working hours, area of specialty, or exercise. WMSDs' impact on work was minor.
WMSDs among physical therapists in Kuwait were common, with lower back and neck affected most. Lower back and neck WMSDs were related to the participant's demographics. Hand/wrist WMSDs were related to work settings. Further research is needed to investigate the effect of risk factors as physical load, psychosocial load, and general health status on prevalence musculoskeletal disorders.
To describe the burden of knee work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs).
Knee WMSDs were identified using Washington State Fund workers’ compensation data from 1999 to 2007 and analyzed by cost, industry, occupation, and claims incidence rates.
Knee WMSDs accounted for 7% of WMSD claims and 10% of WMSD costs. The rate of decline in claims incidence rates for knee WMSDs was similar to the rate of decline for all other WMSDs. Industries at highest risk for knee WMSDs included construction and building contractors. Occupations of concern included carpenters and truck drivers in men and nursing aides and housekeepers in women.
Between 1999 and 2007, Washington State Fund knee WMSDs were widespread and associated with a large cost. Identification of specific occupational knee WMSD risk factors in high-risk industries is needed to guide prevention efforts.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are one of the main occupational health hazards affecting dental practitioners. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD) amongst dental students. Possible correlations with the working environment and ergonomics taught in Malaysian dental schools were also sought.
Five dental schools in Malaysia participated in this cross-sectional study. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to establish the point prevalence of WMSD in the dental students based on various body regions. The questionnaire also collected data regarding the working environment, clinical practice and the taught ergonomics of the students during their training years.
Out of five hundred and sixty eight dental students who participated in the study, 410 were in their clinical years whilst 158 were students in their non- clinical years. Ninety three percent of the clinical year students reported symptoms of WMSD in one or more body regions. Female students reported a significantly higher numbers of symptoms compared to male students. The neck (82%) and lower back (64%) were reported to have the highest prevalence of WMSD. Discomfort in the neck region was found to be associated with self-reported frequency of bending of the neck. A majority of students (92%) reported minimum participation in workshops related to ergonomics in dentistry and 77% were unfamiliar with treatment and remedies available in the case of WMSD.
There was more WMSD seen in dental students who had started their clinical years. Neck and lower back are more injury prone areas and are at increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Theory and practice of ergonomics should be incorporated into the dental undergraduate curriculum.
Dental students; Musculoskeletal diseases; Work characteristics; Work environment; Ergonomics
To assess the contribution of work-organisational and personal factors to the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among garment workers in Los Angeles.
This is a cross-sectional study of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms among 520 sewing machine operators from 13 garment industry sewing shops. Detailed information on work-organisational factors, personal factors, and musculoskeletal symptoms were obtained in face-to-face interviews. The outcome of interest, upper body WMSD, was defined as a worker experiencing moderate or severe musculoskeletal pain. Unconditional logistic regression models were adopted to assess the association between both work-organisational factors and personal factors and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain.
The prevalence of moderate or severe musculoskeletal pain in the neck/shoulder region was 24% and for distal upper extremity it was 16%. Elevated prevalence of upper body pain was associated with age less than 30 years, female gender, Hispanic ethnicity, being single, having a diagnosis of a MSD or a systemic illness, working more than 10 years as a sewing machine operator, using a single sewing machine, work in large shops, higher work–rest ratios, high physical exertion, high physical isometric loads, high job demand, and low job satisfaction.
Work-organisational and personal factors were associated with increased prevalence of moderate or severe upper body musculoskeletal pain among garment workers. Owners of sewing companies may be able to reduce or prevent WMSDs among employees by adopting rotations between different types of workstations thus increasing task variety; by either shortening work periods or increasing rest periods to reduce the work–rest ratio; and by improving the work-organisation to control psychosocial stressors. The findings may guide prevention efforts in the garment sector and have important public health implications for this workforce of largely immigrant labourers.
work organisation; musculoskeletal disorder; ergonomic; psychosocial; sewing machine
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) are a major cause for concern in public health and the main causes of sick leave. Treatments for WMSD have given disappointing results; prevention is the best strategy, but results of preventive measures have not been consistent. To the best of our knowledge there are few studies in literature that evaluated the impact of a specific program aimed at preventing WMSD on the quality of life of employed persons.
One hundred and one clerical and production workers in a steel trading company were enrolled in an open-label randomized controlled clinical trial (parallel groups) to compare the efficacy of an educational program for primary prevention of WMSD with control intervention. The primary outcome was a change in the physical functioning domain of the quality of life (QL) measured by Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). The intervention group underwent six consecutive weekly sessions concerning specific orientations for the prevention of WMSD, while the control group received general health education in an identical schedule. The SF-36 and theses Work Limitation Questionnaire (WLQ) were evaluated at weeks zero, five and 26.
Baseline characteristics of the interventions groups were comparable, and both groups comprised predominantly young healthy individuals. No significant differences in the variation of the SF-36 and WLQ between the groups were observed at weeks five and 26. However, both groups demonstrated improvement in some aspects of SF-36, suggesting that both educational interventions have beneficial impacts on QL.
A specific educational program aimed at the preventing of WMSD was comparable with general health orientation for the improvement of QL and work capacity in a sample of healthy workers during a six month period.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) can be compensated through the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act. We looked at the characteristics of WMSDs in worker's compensation records and the epidemiological investigation reports from the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI). Based on the records of compensation, the number of cases for WMSDs decreased from 4,532 in 2003 to 1,954 in 2007. However the proportion of WMSDs among the total approved occupational diseases increased from 49.6% in 2003 to 76.5% in 2007, and the total cost of WMSDs increased from 105.3 billion won in 2004 to 163.3 billion won in 2007. The approval rate of WMSDs by the OSHRI accounted for 65.6%. Ergonomic and clinical characteristics were associated with the approval rate; however, the degenerative changes had a minimal affect. This result was in discordance between OSHRI and the Korea Workers' Compensation & Welfare Service. We presumed that there were perceptional gaps in work-relatedness interpretation that resulted from the inequality of information in ergonomic analyses. We propose to introduce ergonomic analysis to unapproved WMSDs cases and discuss those results among experts that will be helpful to form a consensus among diverse groups.
Musculoskeletal Diseases; Workplace; Low Back Pain; Upper Extremity; Risk Factors
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) represent approximately one third of workers’ compensation costs in US private industry, yet estimates of acceptable exposure levels for forceful and repetitive tasks are imprecise, in part, due to lack of measures of tissue injury in humans. In this review, the authors discuss the scope of upper-extremity WMSDs, the relationship between repetition rate and forcefulness of reaching tasks and WMSDs, cellular responses to injury in vivo and in vitro, and animal injury models of repetitive, forceful tasks. The authors describe a model using albino rats and present evidence related to tissue injury and inflammation due to a highly repetitive reaching task. A conceptual schematic for WMSD development and suggestions for further research are presented. Animal models can enhance our ability to predict risk and to manage WMSDs in humans because such models permit the direct observation of exposed tissues as well as motor behavior.
Animal models; Grip force; Inflammation; Motor behavior; Motor control; Neuroplasticity; Pathophysiology; Repetitive motion; Tissue injury; Work-related musculoskeletal disorders
Physiotherapists are known to be prone to Work- related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) but its prevalence among physiotherapists in Nigeria has not been reported. This study investigated the prevalence and work factors of WRMDs among physiotherapists in Nigeria.
A cross- sectional survey was administered to physiotherapists in different parts of Nigeria using a 2- part questionnaire with items adopted from questionnaires used for similar studies around the world. Two hundred and seventeen copies of the questionnaire were distributed for self administration but 126 physiotherapists returned completed surveys for a 58.1% response. The data were analyzed using SPPS version 10 at alpha level of 0.05. Descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages and inferential statistics of x2 were used as appropriate for data analysis.
Reported 12- month prevalence of WRMDs among Nigerian physiotherapists was 91.3%. Prevalence of WRMDs was significantly higher in female physiotherapists (p = 0.007) and those with lower body mass index (p = 0.045). The low back (69.8%) was the most commonly affected body part, followed by the neck (34.1%). Fifty percent of the physiotherapists first experienced their WRMDs within five years of graduation and the highest prevalence (61.7%) was found among physiotherapists younger than 30 years. Treating large number of patients in a day was cited by most (83.5%) of the respondents as the most important work factor for their WRMDs. The most commonly adopted coping strategy identified was for the therapists to modify their position and/or the patient's position (64.3%). Majority of the respondents (87.0%) did not leave the profession but 62.6% changed and/or modified their treatment because of their WRMDs.
The prevalence of WRMDs among physiotherapists in Nigeria is higher than most values reported for their counterparts around the world. The coping strategies and work factors of WRMDs among Nigerian physiotherapists are mostly similar to those of their counterparts elsewhere.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the variation of symptoms from the neck, shoulders, and back over a three year period among female nursing personnel and the relation between job strain and musculoskeletal symptoms. METHODS: At a county hospital the female nursing personnel answered a questionnaire at baseline and then once a year over a period of three years. There were 565, 553, 562, and 419 subjects who answered the questionnaire at the first, second, third, and fourth survey, respectively. Of the study group, 285 nursing personnel answered the questionnaire on four occasions. Ongoing symptoms of the neck, shoulders, and back were assessed by means of a 10 point (0-9) scale with the verbal end points "no symptoms" and "very intense symptoms." Cases were defined as nursing personnel reporting ongoing symptoms, score > 6, from at least one of the body regions. For assessments of job strain, a Swedish version of Karasek and Theorell's model was used. RESULTS: Of the 285 subjects, 13% were defined as cases at all four assessments, and 46% varied between cases and not cases during the study period. In the repeated cross sectional surveys the estimated rate ratio (RR) for being a case was between 1.1 and 1.5 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. For the combination of job strain and perceived high physical exertion the estimated RR was between 1.5 and 2.1. When the potential risk factors were assessed one, two, or three years before the assessment of symptoms the estimated RR for becoming a case was between 1.4 and 2.2 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the healthcare workers varied between being a case and not, over a three year period. The analysis indicated that job strain is a risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms and that the risk is higher when it is combined with perceived high physical exertion.
Young people are becoming increasingly exposed to the risk of HIV infection. According to the 2008 HIV/Syphilis sentinel survey in Nigeria, 3.3% of young people aged 15-19 years are infected. Primary prevention especially abstinence, remains one of the most realistic interventions for reducing further spread of the virus. However, the adoption of sexual abstinence as a prevention strategy among adolescents remains low and factors influencing its practice among urban young people in Nigeria are relatively unknown. The aim of the study was to document the sexual abstinence behaviour of in-school adolescents, the factors influencing or obstructing abstinence, and knowledge of HIV and AIDS in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria.
The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of students in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area. A total of 420 respondents (52% males and 48% females), selected through a multistage sampling technique, completed a semi-structured questionnaire. This was supplemented with eight focus group discussions (FGDs) which had an average of 9 respondents within the 10 and 19 years age group. The data from the FGDs were transcribed and summarized manually while the quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences to generate frequencies, cross tabulations of variables and logistic regression analysis.
Twelve percent of the entire sample had ever had sex. Overall, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was high and most respondents favoured the promotion of abstinence as an HIV prevention strategy. A smaller proportion of male respondents (79%) abstained compared with the females (98%). Major predictors of sexual abstinence were being a female, not having a boyfriend or girl friend, not using alcohol and having a positive attitude towards abstinence (P < 0.05).
Sexual abstinence was also significantly associated with perceived self efficacy to refuse sex and negative perception of peers who engage in sexual behaviours (P < 0.05). Majority of the FGD discussants suggested the involvement of parents, media, schools, faith-based institutions and non governmental organizations in promoting the adoption of abstinence.
The sexual abstinence behaviour of young persons is influenced by multiple factors and should be considered in determining the effectiveness of interventions targeting this behaviour. Coherent sexuality education interventions to promote the adoption of abstinence among young people are urgently needed.
Adolescent; Sexual Abstinence; Premarital Sex; HIV/AIDS
Musculoskeletal disorders in developing countries are considered as main cause of occupational disorders and disability and highly associated with socioeconomic burden to individual, organization and society in general view. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and associated risk factors among Iranian steel workers.
In a cross-sectional study, 1439 questionnaires were provided from 1984 randomly selected workers of four Iranian steel industries. Data of musculoskeletal disorders was gathered by means of standardized Nordic self-reporting questionnaire. Demographic and work related data were collected into the check list.
Out of 1984 individuals, 1439 questionnaires returned and mean age of study workers was 37.23±8.74 years old. Among workers, 46.3% in the past week and 61% in the last year claimed one of musculoskeletal disorders in their bodies. Lumbar, knee(s) and neck areas had the most common musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal disorders had significant association with the job time of work and BMI.
Musculoskeletal disorders in Iranian steel industries happened in high rate. Ergonomic interventions strategies into the workplaces must be focused to eliminate environmental hazards such as apposition on the time of work and manual handling of heavy loads.
Musculoskeletal disorder; Prevalence; Steel worker; Nordic questionnaire; Ergonomic program
Occupational stress is a recognized problem in health care workers. Nursing has been identified as an occupation that has high levels of stress. This study aimed to investigate the sources of job stress and the adopted coping strategies of nurses who were working in Accident and emergency department.
In this descriptive survey ninety emergency ward nurses from three large teaching hospitals in Shiraz City, Iran, were involved in the study. The data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire to identify the sources of job stress and nurse’s profile and Lazarous standard questionnaires to determine the types of coping strategies.
The greatest proportion of respondents was women (86.7%), range 23-50 years, had less than 5 years of experience (56.7%). The following stressors were identified: problem related to physical environment, work load, dealing with patients or their relatives and handling their anger, being exposed to health and safety hazards, lack of support by nursing administrators, a physician not being present in a medical emergency and lack of equipment. The most common strategy used by nurses was self-controlling and Positive Reappraisal and the strategy least used were accepting responsibility. In this study large proportion of nurses used an emotion-focused strategy but Problem-focused approaches were generally less used.
It was concluded that the coping scales, positive reappraisal and self-controlling are extremely important in emergency department nurses.
Psychological stress; coping skills; nurses; Admitting department; emergencies
Pregnant women are susceptible to symptomatic malaria due to invasion of the placenta by plasmodium. Malaria increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers, the foetuses and newborns. The effective use of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) would be of benefit to these vulnerable women. Previous studies have focused on prenatal-women but this study sought to explore the actual trend of utilization of the proven strategy across all the pregnancy stages among postpartum women in Ibadan.
This cross-sectional survey utilized a validated structured questionnaire for data collection. A calculated sample of 335 postpartum women was proportionately recruited from three fee-paying facilities within Ibadan, Nigeria using a simple random sampling technique. These hospitals have high client flow for maternity cases and are known for provision of care under traditional ANC model. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by means of Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. The level of significance was set at = 0.05.
The women's age ranged between 18 and 47 years, mean age was 29.4 ± 0.8 years. Various irregularities marked the traditional model of ANC provided at the settings and no exposure to preconception care. Also, 276 (82.4%) had heard of ITNs. Antenatal clinics formed the major source of information. Low utilization and compliance rates were observed. One hundred and twenty-seven (37.9%) of the women had high knowledge of Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP) but only 70 (20.9%) demonstrated positive attitude towards the use of ITNs. Participants' educational status, family types, employment and residential areas significantly influenced ITNs utilization.
The women knew and learned about ITNs from ANC visits. Majority of the women did not own ITNs because of lack of access to free distribution. The existing traditional model of ANC was marked by irregularities and none of the women was exposed to preconception care. In addition, negative attitude in spite of increased knowledge of MIP was observed among the women. Therefore, evaluation of free distribution of ITNs is recommended. Integration of focused ANC and preconception care are advocated to promote early access to health information.
Cervical Cancer (CC) is the second most common cancer among women with early detection and prompt treatment as best management options. Female nurses have crucial roles to play in promoting the utilization of Cervical Cancer Screening Services (CCSS), yet little information exist regarding their perception and utilization of these services. The CCSS related knowledge, perception and utilization among female nurses at the University College Hospital, (UCH) Ibadan, Nigeria were therefore determined.
A survey of 503 consenting nurses was done using a pretested self-administered questionnaire which included a 40-point knowledge scale and questions on perception of CC. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, ANOVA and logistic regression.
Respondents’ mean age was 38.0 ± 8.6 years, mean year of experience was 12.5 ± 8.9 years and overall mean knowledge score was 22.8±4.1. Mean knowledge scores by cadre were Assistant Directors (26.7 ± 1.5), Chief Nursing Officers (23.4 ± 2.3) and Staff Nurses (21.7 ± 5.3) (p<0.05). Eighty-eight percent correctly perceived CC to be preventable and 82.0% believed that screening should be carried out as soon as sexual intercourse starts irrespective of age. Only 32.6% had ever used CCSS facility and main reasons for non-use included lack of time (50.8%), fear of result (13.9%) and not being sexually active (6.3%). Staff Nurses were four times less likely to utilize cervical screening services than the Assistant Directors of Nursing (OR 0.23, CI 0.117-0.442).
Utilization of cervical cancer screening services among the female nurses was poor. Strategies that encourage utilization are hereby advocated.
Female nurses; cervical cancer; cancer screening; utilization; perception; Nigeria
Occupational stress is a recognized problem in health care workers. Nursing has been identified as an occupation that has high levels of stress. This study aimed to investigate the sources of job stress and the adopted coping strategies of nurses who were working in an Accident and emergency department.
In this descriptive survey ninety emergency ward nurses from three large teaching hospitals in Shiraz were involved. The data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire to identify the sources of job stress and nurse's profile and Lazarus standard questionnaires to determine the types of coping strategies.
The greatest proportion of respondents was women (86.7%), between 23-50 years old with less than 5 years of experience (56.7%). The following stressors were identified: problems related to physical environment, work load, dealing with patients or their relatives and handling their anger, being exposed to health and safety hazards, lack of support by nursing administrators, absence of the corresponding physician in the emergency room and lack of equipment. The most common strategy used by nurses was self-controlling and Positive Reappraisal and the least common strategy was accepting the responsibility. In this study large proportion of nurses used an emotion-focused strategy while Problem-focused approaches were generally less used.
It was concluded that coping skills, positive reappraisal and self-controlling are extremely important for emergency department nurses.
Psychological stress; coping skills; nurse; Admission department; emergency room
Back pain is one of the most frequent complaints in the nursing profession. Thus, the 12-month prevalence of pain in the lumbar spine in nursing staff is as high as 76%. Only a few representative studies have assessed the prevalence rates of back pain and its risk factors among nursing staff in nursing homes in comparison to staff in home-based care facilities. The present study accordingly investigates the prevalence in the lumbar and cervical spine and determines the physical workload to lifting and caring in geriatric care.
1390 health care workers in nursing homes and home care participated in this cross sectional survey. The nursing staff members were examined by occupational physicians according to the principals of the multistep diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders. Occupational exposure to daily care activities with patient transfers was measured by a standardised questionnaire. The lumbar load was calculated with the Mainz-Dortmund dose model. Information on ergonomic conditions were recorded from the management of the nursing homes. Comparisons of all outcome variables were made between both care settings.
Complete documentation, including the findings from the occupational physicians and the questionnaire, was available for 41%. Staff in nursing homes had more often positive orthopaedic findings than staff in home care. At the same time the values calculated for lumbar load were found to be significant higher in staff in nursing homes than in home-based care: 45% vs. 6% were above the reference value. Nursing homes were well equipped with technical lifting aids, though their provision with assistive advices is unsatisfactory. Situation in home care seems worse, especially as the staff often has to get by without assistance.
Future interventions should focus on counteracting work-related lumbar load among staff in nursing homes. Equipment and training in handling of assistive devices should be improved especially for staff working in home care.
As part of the international CUPID investigation, we compared physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among nurses in Brazil and Italy. Using questionnaires, we collected information on musculoskeletal disorders and potential risk factors from 751 nurses employed in public hospitals. By fitting country specific multiple logistic regression models, we investigated the association of stressful physical activities and psychosocial characteristics with site-specific and multisite pain, and associated sickness absence. We found no clear relationship between low back pain and occupational lifting, but neck and shoulder pain were more common among nurses who reported prolonged work with the arms in an elevated position. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, pain in the low back, neck and shoulder, multisite pain, and sickness absence were all associated with somatizing tendency in both countries. Our findings support a role of somatizing tendency in predisposing to musculoskeletal disorders, acting as an important mediator of the individual response to triggering exposures, such as workload.
Nursing Staff; Cross-cultural Comparison; Musculoskeletal Diseases; Absenteeism
Despite extensive research on turnover among nursing personnel very little is known about the impact of physical workload and health on leaving. The aim of this study was to find predictors for leaving nursing care with special reference to physical working conditions and musculoskeletal problems.
This study is based on longitudinal data from a survey of nursing personnel who were employed at various county hospitals in Sweden from 1992–95. A self administrated follow up questionnaire was used to identify their present position in the labour market. The response rate was 73% (n = 1095).
The results showed that nursing personnel reporting musculoskeletal problems of the neck/shoulder or knees and those who had limited use of transfer devices were more likely to leave nursing care.
The study highlights the importance of taking musculoskeletal problems and use of transfer devices into consideration in order to retain nursing personnel.
turnover; nursing personnel; musculoskeletal problems; physical workload; longitudinal data
A rapid increase in the population of migrant workers in Korea has brought new challenges regarding the possible effects of acculturation on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acculturation- and work-related psychosocial factors on work-related musculoskeletal disorders among migrant female workers living in Korea.
A cross-sectional survey design was used. A translated, structured questionnaire was administrated to 156 southeastern Asian female full-time workers living in Korea.
About 35% of the participants experienced some type(s) of work-related musculoskeletal disorder(s), which were more prevalent in Vietnamese women than in Thai and Filipino women. Women who preferred to maintain their own heritage and to reject the host country heritage were at risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
Acculturation strategy and nationality were found to be significant factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Health professionals need to accommodate acculturation contexts into risk assessment and intervention development for work-related musculoskeletal disorders separately for different nationalities.
Acculturation strategy; Acculturative stress; Work-related psychosocial factors; Work-related musculoskeletal disorders; Migrants
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome is a common disorder in the community. Association between hypertension and sleep apnoea and /or snoring has been described. The Berlin questionnaire is a validated instrument that is used to identify individuals who are at risk for OSA. The study aim to describe the prevalence of snoring and OSA among hypertensive subjects in South Western, Nigeria.
This was a descriptive study conducted at the Cardiology clinic of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South West Nigeria. One hundred consecutive hypertensive patients were recruited from the clinic. The Berlin questionnaire and the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) were used to determine excessive daytime sleepiness and the risk of having OSA. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. Data were summarized as means ± S.D and percentages.
The study participants consisted of 40 males (40.0%). The demographic data were similar between both genders except that females had higher mean body mass index than males. The prevalence of snoring was 50.0%. 52% were categorized as being at high risk of having OSA. Snorers were more likely to be older, males and to have a higher fasting blood sugar than non-snorers.96% of snorers reported excessive daytime somnolence as predicted by the ESS score compared to 4% of non snorers. Prevalence of snoring was also higher among overweight and obese hypertensive subjects than normal body mass index hypertensive subjects.
Snoring is common among hypertensive subjects in South Western Nigeria. Clinically suspected OSA was similarly high in prevalence among them. Early identification and management may reduce the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive subjects.
Snoring; sleep apnoea; hypertension; prevalence; clinical correlates; Nigeria
Epidemiological information paucity exists on musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among secondary school students in Nigeria. We aimed to determine prevalence, pattern, and treatment seeking behaviors (TSB) of MSD in south-west Nigeria.
Materials and Methods:
A school-based cross sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected secondary schools in Ile-Ife in 2007. All the students were screened for MSD using interviewer-administered questionnaire and physical examination, which involved use of scoliometer and goniometer. Affected children were recommended for treatment and plain radiography taken.
A total of 133 students had 204 MSD representing 3.0% prevalence among the 4,441students screened. Eighty-one (60.9%) students had congenital disorders and 52 (39.1%) were acquired. The lower limbs (93.1%) were most commonly affected and 87 (65.4%) students presented with knee deformity. Other abnormalities were limb length discrepancy 6.8%, scoliosis 4.4%, pes planus 3.9%, and poliomyelitis 2.9%. One hundred students (75.2%) had no form of treatment, 18.8% receive treatment in the hospital, 3.7% in traditional healing home and 2.3% in church. Age, family, and school type were significant factors (P < 0.05) in health seeking behavior. The factors affecting treatment outcome were the place of treatment, hospital specific treatment, and reasons for stopping treatment.
Treatable cases constitute a large proportion of MSD among secondary school students, but TSB was generally poor. Parental socio-economic and health services factors were related to the health seeking behavior. Strengthening of school health services and improved linkage with orthopedic services, community education on MSD, and education of all cadres of health professionals are recommended.
Epidemiology; musculoskeletal disorder; school; screening; treatment
Job dissatisfaction among nurses contributes to costly labor disputes, turnover, and risk to patients. Examining survey data from 95,499 nurses, we found much higher job dissatisfaction and burnout among nurses who were directly caring for patients in hospitals and nursing homes than among nurses working in other jobs or settings, such as the pharmaceutical industry. Strikingly, nurses are particularly dissatisfied with their health benefits, which highlights the need for a benefits review to make nurses’ benefits more comparable to those of other white-collar employees. Patient satisfaction levels are lower in hospitals with more nurses who are dissatisfied or burned out—a finding that signals problems with quality of care. Improving nurses’ working conditions may improve both nurses’ and patients’ satisfaction as well as the quality of care.
To assess if less than 11 hours off work between work shifts (quick returns) was related to insomnia, sleepiness, fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder among nurses.
A questionnaire including established instruments measuring insomnia (Bergen Insomnia Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), fatigue (Fatigue Questionnaire), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and shift work disorder was administered. Among the 1990 Norwegian nurses who participated in the study; 264 nurses had no quick returns, 724 had 1–30 quick returns and 892 had more than 30 quick returns during the past year. 110 nurses did not report the number of quick returns during the past year. The prevalence of insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder was calculated within the three groups of nurses. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between quick returns and such complaints.
We found a significant positive association between quick returns and insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue and shift work disorder. Anxiety and depression were not related to working quick returns.
There is a health hazard associated with quick returns. Further research should aim to investigate if workplace strategies aimed at reducing the number of quick returns may reduce complaints among workers.
Computer users often report musculoskeletal complaints and pain in the upper extremities and the neck-shoulder region. However, recent epidemiological studies do not report a relationship between the extent of computer use and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD).
The aim of this study was to conduct an explorative analysis on short and long-term pain complaints and work-related variables in a cohort of Danish computer users.
A structured web-based questionnaire including questions related to musculoskeletal pain, anthropometrics, work-related variables, work ability, productivity, health-related parameters, lifestyle variables as well as physical activity during leisure time was designed. Six hundred and ninety office workers completed the questionnaire responding to an announcement posted in a union magazine. The questionnaire outcomes, i.e., pain intensity, duration and locations as well as anthropometrics, work-related variables, work ability, productivity, and level of physical activity, were stratified by gender and correlations were obtained.
Women reported higher pain intensity, longer pain duration as well as more locations with pain than men (P < 0.05). In parallel, women scored poorer work ability and ability to fulfil the requirements on productivity than men (P < 0.05). Strong positive correlations were found between pain intensity and pain duration for the forearm, elbow, neck and shoulder (P < 0.001). Moderate negative correlations were seen between pain intensity and work ability/productivity (P < 0.001).
The present results provide new key information on pain characteristics in office workers. The differences in pain characteristics, i.e., higher intensity, longer duration and more pain locations as well as poorer work ability reported by women workers relate to their higher risk of contracting WMSD. Overall, this investigation confirmed the complex interplay between anthropometrics, work ability, productivity, and pain perception among computer users.
Computer use; Musculoskeletal complaints; Arm-shoulder pain; Gender; Sex