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1.  Translation of the Neck Disability Index and validation of the Greek version in a sample of neck pain patients 
Background
Neck pain is a highly prevalent condition resulting in major disability. Standard scales for measuring disability in patients with neck pain have a pivotal role in research and clinical settings. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) is a valid and reliable tool, designed to measure disability in activities of daily living due to neck pain. The purpose of our study was the translation and validation of the NDI in a Greek primary care population with neck complaints.
Methods
The original version of the questionnaire was used. Based on international standards, the translation strategy comprised forward translations, reconciliation, backward translation and pre-testing steps. The validation procedure concerned the exploration of internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Bland and Altman method), construct validity (exploratory factor analysis) and responsiveness (Spearman correlation coefficient, Standard Error of Measurement and Minimal Detectable Change) of the questionnaire. Data quality was also assessed through completeness of data and floor/ceiling effects.
Results
The translation procedure resulted in the Greek modified version of the NDI. The latter was culturally adapted through the pre-testing phase. The validation procedure raised a large amount of missing data due to low applicability, which were assessed with two methods. Floor or ceiling effects were not observed. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.85, which was interpreted as good internal consistency. Intraclass correlation coefficient was found to be 0.93 (95% CI 0.84–0.97), which was considered as very good test-retest reliability. Factor analysis yielded one factor with Eigenvalue 4.48 explaining 44.77% of variance. The Spearman correlation coefficient (0.3; P = 0.02) revealed some relation between the change score in the NDI and Global Rating of Change (GROC). The SEM and MDC were calculated as 0.64 and 1.78 respectively.
Conclusion
The Greek version of the NDI measures disability in patients with neck pain in a reliable, valid and responsive manner. It is considered a useful tool for research and clinical settings in Greek Primary Health Care.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-9-106
PMCID: PMC2492862  PMID: 18647393
2.  Psychometric properties of the Greek version of the NEI-VFQ 25 
BMC Ophthalmology  2008;8:4.
Background
To evaluate the reliability and construct validity of a Greek version of the NEI-VFQ-25 in patients with chronic ophthalmic diseases.
Methods
We developed the Greek version of the instrument using forward and backward translation. One hundred-eighty-six patients responded to the questionnaire. To examine reliability, Cronbach's alpha for each subscale was used as an index of internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficients. Regarding construct validity, both convergent and discriminant validities were calculated by means of multi-trait analysis. Rasch analysis was used to estimate the visual ability required by each item for a particular response, and each patient's visual ability. Correspondingly, instrument validity was evaluated by estimating the distribution of residuals for item and subject measures.
Results
Four patient groups were studied, each including participants with a single cause of visual impairment. Group 1 consisted of 84 glaucoma subjects. Group 2 included 30 subjects with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD); group 3 included 25 subjects with dry-eye syndrome, whereas group 4 included 18 cataract patients. Twenty-nine healthy individuals comprised the control group. NEI-VFQ scores (mean ± SD) for the glaucoma, ARMD, dry-eye, cataract and control groups were: 76.9 ± 20.2, 70.9 ± 20.2, 81.6 ± 16.5, 73.5 ± 24.0 and 93.7 ± 8.9 respectively. Item analysis revealed no significant data skewing. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.678 to 0.926, with most subscales having high internal consistency. Intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.717 to 0.910 for all subscales. All items passed the convergent and discriminant validity tests. Strong correlations were detected between visual acuity and "general vision", "distant activities" and "near activities" subscales. Significant correlations were also detected between visual field deficits and the "peripheral vision" and "general vision" subscales. Rasch analysis revealed potential weaknesses of the instrument that are associated with the assumptions of the model itself. Specifically, low precision of the "agreement" items was detected in the estimation of visual ability. Twenty-three percent of the subjects had fit statistics that fell outside the tolerance box.
Conclusion
Although traditional validation methods indicated that the Greek version of the NEI-VFQ-25 is a valid and reliable instrument for VS-QoL assessment, Rasch analysis detected significant misfits to the model, especially of the "agreement" items. This means that results of the corresponding subscales should be interpreted with extreme caution.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-8-4
PMCID: PMC2287166  PMID: 18325083
3.  Psychometric properties and factor structure of the Spanish version of the HC-PAIRS questionnaire 
European Spine Journal  2012;22(5):985-994.
Objective
To develop a Spanish version of the Health Care Providers’ Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS) and to test its psychometric properties.
Methods
A forward and backward translation methodology was used to translate the questionnaire, which was then applied to 206 participants (174 physiotherapy students and 32 family physicians). The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess test–retest reliability. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha and item analysis. Construct validity was measured using Pearson correlation coefficients between HC-PAIRS and FABQ, FABQ-Phys, FABQ-Work and the responses given by participants to three clinical case scenarios. An exploratory factor analysis was carried out following the Kaiser normalization criteria and principal axis factoring with an oblique rotation (quartimax). Sensitivity to change was assessed after a teaching module.
Results
Test–retest reliability was ICC 0.50 (p < 0.01) and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.825. The HC-PAIRS scores correlated significantly with the scores of the FABQ and also with the recommendations for work and activity given by the participants in the three clinical case scenarios. Sensitivity to change test showed an effect size of 1.5, which is considered a large change. Factor analysis suggests that the Spanish version of HC-PAIRS measures a unidimensional construct.
Conclusion
The Spanish version of the HC-PAIRS has proven to be a reliable, valid and sensitive instrument to assess health care providers’ attitudes and beliefs about LBP. It can be used in evaluating clinical practice and in undergraduate acquisition of skills and knowledge.
doi:10.1007/s00586-012-2604-5
PMCID: PMC3657040  PMID: 23224033
Low back pain; Attitudes and beliefs; HC-PAIRS; Reliability; Internal consistency
4.  Translating and validating a Training Needs Assessment tool into Greek 
Background
The translation and cultural adaptation of widely accepted, psychometrically tested tools is regarded as an essential component of effective human resource management in the primary care arena. The Training Needs Assessment (TNA) is a widely used, valid instrument, designed to measure professional development needs of health care professionals, especially in primary health care. This study aims to describe the translation, adaptation and validation of the TNA questionnaire into Greek language and discuss possibilities of its use in primary care settings.
Methods
A modified version of the English self-administered questionnaire consisting of 30 items was used. Internationally recommended methodology, mandating forward translation, backward translation, reconciliation and pretesting steps, was followed. Tool validation included assessing item internal consistency, using the alpha coefficient of Cronbach. Reproducibility (test – retest reliability) was measured by the kappa correlation coefficient. Criterion validity was calculated for selected parts of the questionnaire by correlating respondents' research experience with relevant research item scores. An exploratory factor analysis highlighted how the items group together, using a Varimax (oblique) rotation and subsequent Cronbach's alpha assessment.
Results
The psychometric properties of the Greek version of the TNA questionnaire for nursing staff employed in primary care were good. Internal consistency of the instrument was very good, Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.985 (p < 0.001) and Kappa coefficient for reproducibility was found to be 0.928 (p < 0.0001). Significant positive correlations were found between respondents' current performance levels on each of the research items and amount of research involvement, indicating good criterion validity in the areas tested. Factor analysis revealed seven factors with eigenvalues of > 1.0, KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) measure of sampling adequacy = 0.680 and Bartlett's test of sphericity, p < 0.001.
Conclusion
The translated and adapted Greek version is comparable with the original English instrument in terms of validity and reliability and it is suitable to assess professional development needs of nursing staff in Greek primary care settings.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-7-65
PMCID: PMC1876219  PMID: 17474989
5.  Validation of a Spanish version of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) 
Background
The Revised version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) was published in 2009. The aim of this study was to prepare a Spanish version, and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia.
Methods
The FIQR was translated into Spanish and administered, along with the FIQ, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), to 113 Spanish fibromyalgia patients. The administration of the Spanish FIQR was repeated a week later.
Results
The Spanish FIQR had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α was 0.91 and 0.95 at visits 1 and 2 respectively). The test-retest reliability was good for the FIQR total score and its function and symptoms domains (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC > 0.70), but modest for the overall impact domain (ICC = 0.51). Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) were also found between the FIQR and the FIQ scores, as well as between the FIQR scores and the remaining scales’ scores.
Conclusions
The Spanish version of the FIQR has a good internal consistency and our findings support its validity for assessing fibromyalgia patients. It might be a valid instrument to apply in clinical and investigational grounds.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-11-132
PMCID: PMC3770447  PMID: 23915386
Fibromyalgia; Revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire; Linguistic validation; Psychometric properties; Instrumental study; Fibromialgia; Cuestionario de impacto de fibromialgia revisado; Validación lingüística; Propiedades psicométricas; Estudio instrumental
6.  Reliability and Validity of the Ethiopian Version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in HIV Infected Patients 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(1):e16049.
Background
The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) is a widely used instrument for evaluating psychological distress from anxiety and depression. HADS has not yet been validated in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Amharic (Ethiopian language) version of HADs among HIV infected patients.
Methods
The translated scale was administered to 302 HIV/AIDS patients on follow up for and taking anti-retroviral treatment. Consistency assessment was conducted using Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Construct validity was examined using principal components analysis (PCA). Parallel analysis, Kaiser's criterion and the scree test were used for factor extraction.
Results
The internal consistency was 0.78 for the anxiety, 0.76 for depression subscales and 0.87 for the full scale of HADS. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 80%, 86%, and 84% for the anxiety and depression subscales, and total score respectively. PCA revealed a one dimensional scale.
Conclusion
This preliminary validation study of the Ethiopian version of the HADs indicates that it has promising acceptability, reliability and validity. The adopted scale has a single underlying dimension as indicated by Razavi's model. The HADS can be used to examine psychological distress in HIV infected patients. Findings are discussed and recommendations made.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016049
PMCID: PMC3026786  PMID: 21283565
7.  Risser patient satisfaction scale: a validation study in Greek cancer patients 
BMC Nursing  2012;11:27.
Background
The current healthcare climate is characterized by a constant battle for the provision of quality care with limited resources and with patient satisfaction receiving increased attention, there is a need for reliable and valid assessment measures. This study describes the adaptation, testing and validation of the Risser Patient satisfaction Scale in an oncology care setting in Greece. The rationale for this study lies in the scarcity of such measures in the Greek language.
Methods
This is a test retest validation study in Greece. Data were collected from 298 hospitalized cancer patients. The validation methodology included the assessment of the item internal consistency, using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. The test-retest reliability was tested by the Kappa correlation coefficient.
Results
The scale demonstrated very good psychometric properties. The internal consistency of the instrument was good, Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.78 (p<0.001) and Kappa coefficient for reproducibility was found to be K=0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.91 p<0.0001).
Conclusion
The findings demonstrated strong agreement of the scale, suggesting that the Greek version offers substantial reliability. This study provides a valid and reliable tool to assess patient satisfaction in oncology settings. Means to monitor patient satisfaction, a key aspect of the policy agenda for quality care remain important for nurse leaders to develop better care in oncology settings.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-11-27
PMCID: PMC3531274  PMID: 23190625
Nursing care; Patient satisfaction; Validation; Risser patient satisfaction scale; Cancer settings; Cancer patients
8.  Reliability and concurrent validity of the adapted Greek version of the Scoliosis Research Society-22r Questionnaire. A cross-sectional study performed on conservatively treated patients 
Hippokratia  2012;16(3):225-229.
Background: The Scoliosis Research Society-22r Questionnaire (SRS-22r) is a questionnaire assessing the health related quality of life of patients with scoliosis. Aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Greek Version of the SRS-22r in patients suffering from scoliosis who were treated conservatively.
Methods: The (translated and adapted) Greek versions of the SRS-22r together with the previously validated Short Form-36 questionnaire were mailed to 117 patients suffering from idiopathic scoliosis. Two weeks later, the Greek SRS-22r was mailed to the same patients once again. The internal consistency, reproducibility and concurrent validity were assessed.
Results: Factor analysis revealed a five–factor structure. The study demonstrated high Cronbach α coefficients for all but the 'Satisfaction with management' domain, when compared with the original questionnaire. Intraclass correlation was excellent regarding every domain of the SRS-22r. Concerning concurrent validity, one domain had excellent (r=0.75-1), thirteen domains good (r=0.50-0.75) and 16 domains moderate correlations (r=0.25-0.50) when compared with the relevant domains of the SF-36 questionnaire.
Conclusions: This Greek Version of the SRS-22r outcome instrument is a validated questionnaire which can be used to evaluate Greek-speaking patients suffering from Idiopathic Scoliosis who are being treated conservatively.
PMCID: PMC3738728  PMID: 23935288
Scoliosis Research Society-22r; SRS-22r Patient Questionnaire; SRS-22r; SRS-22r validation; Greek language; adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
9.  Preliminary data concerning the reliability and psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the 20-item Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale (SWN-20) 
Background
The 20-item Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale (SWN-20) is a self-report scale developed in order to assess the well-being of patients receiving antipsychotic medication independent of the improvement in their psychotic symptoms. The current study reports on the reliability and the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the SWN-20.
Methods
A total of 100 inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia (79 males and 21 females, aged 42.6 ± 11.35 years old) from 3 different facilities were assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale and the Simpson-Angus Scale, and completed the SWN-20. The statistical analysis included the calculation of Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, the Cronbach α and factor analysis with Varimax normalised rotation.
Results
The SWN-20 had an α value equal to 0.79 and all the items were equal. The factor analysis revealed the presence of seven factors explaining 66% of total variance. The correlation matrix revealed a moderate relationship of the SWN-20 and its factors with the PANSS-Negative (PANSS-N), PANSS-General Psychopathology (PANSS-G), the Simpson-Angus and the Calgary scales, and no relationship to age, education and income class.
Discussion
The Greek translation of the SWN-20 is reliable, with psychometric properties close to the original scale.
doi:10.1186/1744-859X-8-3
PMCID: PMC2651143  PMID: 19159480
10.  Iranian version of a face version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale: Transcultural adaptation and reliability analysis* 
BACKGROUND:
A novel version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDAS) was developed by addition of faces rating scale to the original numeric form. The aim of this prospective descriptive study was to perform a transcultural adaptation and reliability analysis of the Iranian version of Faces version of Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDASf) and the Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS).
METHODS:
To determine the test–retest reliability, 200 school-children aged 8–12 years completed the MCDASf and the CFSS-DS on two separate occasions, 2 weeks apart. To determine the criterion validity, all participants completed two questionnaires at the same sitting. The translated instrument was tested for internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha, inter-item, and item-total correlation coefficients. Correlation between the MCDASf and CFSS-DS mean scores and age were calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient.
RESULTS:
The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.158 to 0.658 (P < 0.01) for the individual items of the MCDASf between the first and the second assessments and also, ranged from 0.350 to 0.677 (P < 0.01) for CFSS-DS. The internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha) were 0.85 and 0.92 for the MCDASf and CFSS-DS, respectively. The correlation between the MCDASf and CFSS-DS was 0.73 (P < 0.001). The MCDASf and the CFSS-DS scores at the first administration were significantly greater than those of the second.
CONCLUSIONS:
The MCDASf is a reliable measure of dental anxiety in Iranian children aged 8–12 years, suggestive of good reliability and validity.
PMCID: PMC3263098  PMID: 22279453
Transcultural Adaptation; MCDASf; Childhood Dental Fear; Iran; CFSS-DS
11.  Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity 
Background
The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument.
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC) and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability.
Results
One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90.
Conclusions
The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-24
PMCID: PMC3579716  PMID: 23327598
Patient satisfaction; Psychometrics; Quality of health care; Scales
12.  Cross-cultural French adaptation and validation of the Impact On Family Scale (IOFS) 
Background
The IOFS (Impact On Family Scale) questionnaire is a useful instrument to assess the impact of chronic childhood conditions on general family quality of life. As this instrument was not validated in French, we proposed to translate, adapt and validate the IOFS questionnaire for clinical and research use in French-speaking populations.
Findings
The sample studied comprised French-speaking parents with a child presenting a cleft lip or cleft lip and palate, aged 6 to 12 years and treated in the University Hospital of Strasbourg, France. The 15-item version of the IOFS was translated into French and then sent to the parents by post. The structure of the measure was studied using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability was studied by calculating the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC).
A total of 209 parents answered the questionnaire. Its acceptability was good, with 67.9% of mothers and 59.9% of fathers answering the questionnaire. EFA identified one main factor that explained 77% of the variance. Internal consistency was good, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.93. Finally, the ICC values were 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.66–0.85) and 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.80–0.92) for inter- and intra-observer reliability respectively.
Conclusions
The French version of the IOFS questionnaire exhibited very good psychometric properties. For practitioners, this instrument will facilitate the assessment of the impact of chronic childhood conditions on quality of life among French-speaking families.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-11-67
PMCID: PMC3674924  PMID: 23617959
Quality of life; Family; Child; Cleft lip; Cleft palate; Validation studies
13.  Quality of life in burn patients in Greece 
Summary
The Burn Specific Health Scale – Brief (BSHS-B) is one of the most commonly used instruments for the evaluation of quality of life after burn injury. It can be self-administered, and it is useful in evaluating psychopathological symptoms in burn victims. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the BSHS-B into Greek, assessing its internal consistency and validity. The cultural adaptation included forward and backward translation, reconciliation, and a pilot study. The Greek version was administered to a sample of 40 adult burn victims admitted to our Burn Centre. Internal consistency was verified using Cronbach’s alpha, and construct validity was evaluated through correlation with the Short Form of Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) using Spearman analysis. The Cronbach alpha coefficient of the questionnaire’s total score was 0.954, demonstrating that the internal consistency of the Greek version was very high. The test-retest coefficient using kappa correlation was 0.830 (p < 0.001). Significant correlations were identified between BSHS-B subscales and the SF-36 subscales - Physical and Social Functioning, and Emotional Role. Despite the limited size of the sample, the Greek version of the BSHS-B shows good reliability and construct validity and can be used in clinical practice for further evaluations of burn patients’ quality of life.
PMCID: PMC3664527  PMID: 23766752
quality of life; burn injury; post-burn patient evaluation; specific instrument
14.  Factor Structure and Reliability of the Malay Version of the Perceived Stress Scale among Malaysian Medical Students 
Background:
The Perceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS-10) is a validated and reliable instrument to measure global levels of perceived stress. This study aims to assess the internal consistency, reliability, and factor structure of the Malay version of the PSS-10 for use among medical students.
Methods:
The original English version of the PSS-10 was translated and back-translated into Malay language. The Malay version was distributed to 242 Bachelor of Medical Science students in a private university in Malaysia. Test–retest reliability was assessed in 70 students. An exploratory principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed. Reliability was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
Results:
All 242 students participated in the initial questionnaire study (validity and factor structure), and 70 students participated in the test–retest reliability of the study. Exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors that accounted for 57.8% of the variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the 2 factors were 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. The reliability test showed an ICC of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.89).
Conclusion:
The Malay version of the PSS-10 showed adequate psychometric properties. It is a useful instrument for measuring stress among medical students in Malaysia.
PMCID: PMC3684234  PMID: 23785249
Malaysia; medical; psychological; reliability and validity; stress; students
15.  Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): validation in a Greek general hospital sample 
Background
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) has been used in several languages to assess anxiety and depression in general hospital patients with good results.
Methods
The HADS was administered to 521 participants (275 controls and 246 inpatients and outpatients of the Internal Medicine and Surgical Departments in 'Attikon' General Hospital in Athens). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used as 'gold standards' for depression and anxiety respectively.
Results
The HADS presented high internal consistency; Cronbach's α cofficient was 0.884 (0.829 for anxiety and 0.840 for depression) and stability (test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient 0.944). Factor analysis showed a two-factor structure. The HADS showed high concurrent validity; the correlations of the scale and its subscales with the BDI and the STAI were high (0.722 – 0.749).
Conclusion
The Greek version of HADS showed good psychometric properties and could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to assess anxiety and depression in general hospital patients.
doi:10.1186/1744-859X-7-4
PMCID: PMC2276214  PMID: 18325093
16.  Development and validation of a Greek language version of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index 
Background
The Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI) is a 19 item questionnaire used to assess the severity and impact of foot pain. The aim of this study was to develop a Greek-language version of the MFPDI and to assess the instrument's psychometric properties.
Methods
The MFPDI was translated into Greek by three bilingual content experts and two bilingual language experts, and then back-translated into English to assess for equivalence. The final Greek version was administered, along with a questionnaire consisting medical history and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), to 104 Greek-speaking, community-dwelling people (64 female, 40 male), aged between 64 and 90 years (mean 73.00, SD 5.26) with disabling foot pain.
Results
The Greek translation of the MFPDI was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach's α= 0.89, and item-total correlation coefficients from 0.33 to 0.72). Principal components analysis revealed a four-factor structure representing the constructs of functional limitation, pain intensity, concern with appearance and activity restriction, which explained 60.8% of the variance, with 38.9% of the variance explained by the first construct (functional limitation). Six items demonstrated different factor loadings to the original English version.
Conclusion
The Greek-language version of the MFPDI appears to be a valid tool in assessing foot pain in Greek-speaking older people. The total MFPDI scores are comparable between the Greek and English version, however due to differences in the factor loadings of some items, between-language comparisons of MFPDI should be undertaken with some caution.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-6-39
PMCID: PMC2430552  PMID: 18513444
17.  Quality of care from the perspective of the cataract patient: the reliability and validity of the QUOTE-Cataract 
Background/aims: To assess reliability and validity of the QUOTE-cataract, a questionnaire that measures the quality of care from the perspective of cataract patients.
Methods: The QUOTE-cataract was tested in a multicentre study among 540 cataract patients in three different hospitals. Reliability was represented by internal consistency (Cronbach’s α), and repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)). Validity was evaluated qualitatively and by factor analyses.
Results: A strong internal consistency coefficient (0.89), and high repeatability (ICC = 0.76) demonstrated good reliability. Content validity was assured by involvement of patients in the development of the questionnaire. Factor analysis confirmed an underlying taxonomy of generic and disease specific items.
Conclusion: The QUOTE-cataract has good reliability and provides a valid assessment of quality of care in cataract surgery.
PMCID: PMC1771238  PMID: 12140198
cataract; quality of health care; QUOTE-Cataract
18.  Validation of the International Prostate Symptom Score in Chinese males and females with lower urinary tract symptoms 
Objectives
To evaluate the translation of the IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 1) and to assess the applicability, validity, reliability and sensitivity of the instrument in both males and females with LUTS in Chinese population.
Methods
The translation of the IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 1) was reviewed through back translation. Modifications were made, resulting in the development of The IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 2). The content validity was assessed by contend validity index. 233 subjects with LUTS were recruited in Hong Kong primary care settings for pilot psychometric testing. The construct validity was assessed by corrected item-total correlation and Pearson’s correlation test against ICIQ-UI SF, IIQ-7 and SF-12 v2. The reliability was assessed by the internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient) and test –retest reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient). The Sensitivity was determined by performing known group comparisons by independent T-test.
Results
The content validity index for all items could reach 1. Corrected item-total correlation scores were ≥0.4 for four symptom questions (feeling of incomplete bladder emptying, intermittency, weak stream and straining). Overall, the total symptom score moderately correlated with ICIQ-UI SF. The quality of life score moderately correlated with the IIQ-7 but weakly correlated with SF-12 v2. Overall, the reliability of the IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 2) was acceptable (Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient = 0.71, ICC of the symptom questions =0.8, ICC of the quality of life question =0.7). The symptoms questions and quality of life questions of the IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese versions 2) were sensitive in detecting differences between groups.
Conclusions
The IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 2) is a valid, reliable and sensitive measure to assess Chinese females and males with lower urinary tract symptoms. The IPSS quality of life question is more sensitive than the generic quality of life measure to differentiate subgroups.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-12-1
PMCID: PMC3883473  PMID: 24382363
Questionnaires; Psychometric; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Quality of life; Urinary bladder diseases
19.  The european organization for research and treatment of cancer quality of life questionnaire-BR 23 breast cancer-specific quality of life questionnaire: psychometric properties in a Moroccan sample of breast cancer patients 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:53.
Background
Quality of life (QOL) and its measurement in cancer patients is becoming increasingly important. Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment are often associated with psychological distress and reduced QoL. In Arabic-speaking countries, QoL of patients with cancer is inadequately studied.
The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Moroccan Arabic version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Breast Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-BR23).
Methods
After translation and cross-cultural adaptation, the questionnaire was tested on breast cancer patients. The participants’ number for the test and the retest were 105 and 37 respectively. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), the test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Construct validity was assessed by examining item-convergent and divergent validity.
Results
The questionnaire was administered to 105 patients. The mean age of patients was 48 years (SD: 16), 62.9% were married. 68.6% of all participants lived in urban area.
The average time to complete the QLQ- BR23 was 15 min. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, were all >0.7, with the exception of breast symptoms and arm symptoms. All items exceeded the 0.4 criterion for convergent validity except item 20 and 23 related to pain and skin problems in the affected breast respectively.
Conclusion
In general, the findings of this study indicated that the Moroccan Arabic version of the EORTC QLQ-BR23 is a reliable and valid supplementary measure of the QOL in breast cancer patients and can be used in clinical trials and studies of outcome research in oncology.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-53
PMCID: PMC3906893  PMID: 24447401
Breast cancer; Quality of life; Reliability; Validity
20.  The reliability and validity of a Japanese version of symptom checklist 90 revised 
Objective
To examine the validity and reliability of a Japanese version of the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R (J)).
Methods
The English SCL-90-R was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version confirmed by back-translation. To determine the factor validity and internal consistency of the nine primary subscales, 460 people from the community completed SCL-90-R(J). Test-retest reliability was examined for 104 outpatients and 124 healthy undergraduate students. The convergent-discriminant validity was determined for 80 inpatients who replied to both SCL-90-R(J) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).
Results
The correlation coefficients between the nine primary subscales and items were .26 to .78. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were from .76 (Phobic Anxiety) to .86 (Interpersonal Sensitivity). Pearson's correlation coefficients between test-retest scores were from .81 (Psychoticism) to .90 (Somatization) for the outpatients and were from .64 (Phobic Anxiety) to .78 (Paranoid Ideation) for the students. Each of the nine primary subscales correlated well with their corresponding constructs in the MMPI.
Conclusion
We confirmed the validity and reliability of SCL-90-R(J) for the measurement of individual distress. The nine primary subscales were consistent with the items of the original English version.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-2-19
PMCID: PMC2582234  PMID: 18957078
21.  The 13 item Family Support Scale: Reliability and validity of the Greek translation in a sample of Greek health care professionals 
Background
The Julkunen Family Support Scale aims to record the sense of support that a subject receives from the members of his family. The object of the present study was to investigate the reliability and to assess the validity of the Greek translation of the Julkunen Family Support Scale in Greek health care professionals in a public general hospital.
Methods
In order to determine the indicator of validity of content we addressed nine expert professionals and one sociologist, asking them to evaluate how much relevant to the sense of familial support are the items of the questionnaire. Additionally, to assess reliability we used a sample of health care professionals.
Results
There was agreement among experts for the validity of content. Cronbach's alpha for the total items was 0.820, pointing to high validity. Only replacing item four could increase the scale's validity, but without significant differences.
Conclusions
The scale, in its Greek version, appears to be a brief and reliable tool that can be used for inpatients, in clinics as well as in epidemiologic studies of received family support.
doi:10.1186/1447-056X-10-3
PMCID: PMC3082211  PMID: 21489235
22.  The transtheoretical model (TTM) questionnaire for smoking cessation: psychometric properties of the Iranian version 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:1186.
Background
The transtheoretical model (TTM) is a common framework for studies of smoking cessation. Using the TTM, several instruments were developed to measure to what extent interventions could make changes in people’s behavior. The current study aimed to test the validity and reliability of the Persian version of a TTM based questionnaire for smoking cessation in Iran.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional validation study among adult male smokers using the TTM Questionnaire. Backward-forward procedure was applied to translate the questionnaire from English into Persian (the Iranian language). The confirmatory factor analyses were performed to test validity. The internal consistency and stability of the questionnaire was examined using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC).
Results
In all 150 male smokers were entered into the study. The mean age of participants was 36.51 ± 7.94 years. The results obtained from confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the data was fit to the model: the goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.92; the comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.91; the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.065 (95% CI = 0.063-0.067), and the relative chi-square (x2/df) = 1.87, p < 0.001. The Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.60 to 0.84 indicating an acceptable result. Also Intraclass Correlation of Coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.61 to 0.83 corresponding to a satisfactory finding.
Conclusion
The current study provided psychometric evidence for an appropriate, reliable, and valid tool to determine smoking behaviors among Iranian adult smokers. Indeed the findings from this study could be applied in designing smoking cessation interventions in Iran.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1186
PMCID: PMC3878568  PMID: 24341503
23.  WEB VS PAPER-BASED COMPLETION OF THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PROLAPSE AND INCONTINENCE QUESTIONNAIRE (EPIQ) 
Objectives
To examine the validity and reliability of a web-based version of the Epidemiology of Prolapse and Incontinence Questionnaire (EPIQ).
Methods
Participants included 876 women ages 38 to 65 attending primary care clinics in the Salt Lake Valley. Women completed a single web or paper based version of the symptom bother questions from EPIQ, and a subset repeated the same or opposite method at 2 separate time points. To assess subscales for the web-based version factor analysis of the 22 EPIQ items related to pelvic floor disorder (PFD) symptoms was performed using principal components analysis and varimax rotation. Internal consistency was assessed using coefficient alpha. Test-retest and inter-method reliability were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for domain scores. Correlations above 0.70 were considered acceptable.
Results
Overall, 384 and 492 women completed at least 1 web and 1 paper EPIQ and 93% were Caucasian with mean age of 50±7 years. Of these, 63 completed web-web, 57 web-paper, 47 paper-web and 109 paper-paper test-retest. Overall, factor analyses were consistent with the 7 domains of the original EPIQ. Cronbach’s alpha for the 4 symptomatic PFD domains and range of test-retest reliability for the various administration methods were similar to the original EPIQ instrument. Correlations for domain scores were above 0.70, except the anal incontinence scale (ICC=0.68.)
Conclusions
Web administration of the EPIQ has similar psychometric properties with comparable internal consistency and test-retest reliability when administered in the same modality. Reliability between both methods of administration is acceptable.
doi:10.1097/SPV.0b013e31827bfd93
PMCID: PMC3774148  PMID: 23321654
Epidemiology; internet survey; pelvic floor disorders; questionnaire; web
24.  Validation of a specific measure to assess health-related quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: the 'Tolerability and quality of life' (TOOL) questionnaire 
Background
Perception of quality of life may differ depending on the perspective. The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the 'TOlerability and quality Of Life' (TOOL) questionnaire, a specific self-rated instrument to evaluate the impact of side effects of antipsychotic drugs on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The questionnaire consists of eight items answered on a four-point Likert scale.
Methods
A psychometric study was conducted with clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder under antipsychotic treatment. The translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was performed according to international standards. Internal consistency using the Cronbach α coefficient and test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reliability of the instrument. Patients completed generic and specific measures of quality of life and clinical severity.
Results
A total of 238 patients were analysed, with a mean age of 42 years (SD 10.9). The mean completion time was 4.9 min (SD 4.4). Internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficient were adequate (Cronbach α = 0.757 and ICC = 0.90). Factorial analysis showed a unidimensional structure (a single eigenvalue >1, accounting for 39.1% of variance). Significant Spearman's rank correlations between the TOOL and both generic and specific measures were found. The questionnaire was able to discriminate among the Clinical Global Impression - Severity scores (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.001).
Conclusions
The TOOL questionnaire shows appropriate feasibility, reliability, and discriminative performance as a patient-reported outcome. TOOL constitutes a valuable addition to measure the impact of adverse events of antipsychotic drugs from the patient perspective.
doi:10.1186/1744-859X-10-6
PMCID: PMC3062605  PMID: 21396102
25.  The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: translation and validation for a Greek sample 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:329.
Background
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is an important screening instrument that is used routinely with mothers during the postpartum period for early identification of postnatal depression. The purpose of this study was to validate the Greek version of EPDS along with sensitivity, specificity and predictive values.
Methods
120 mothers within 12 weeks postpartum were recruited from the perinatal care registers of the Maternity Departments of 4 Hospitals of Heraklion municipality, Greece. EPDS and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) surveys were administered in random order to the mothers. Each mother was diagnosed with depression according to the validated Greek version of BDI-II. The psychometric measurements that were performed included: two independent samples t-tests, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), reliability coefficients, Explanatory factor analysis using a Varimax rotation and Principal Components Method. Confirmatory analysis -known as structural equation modelling- of principal components was conducted by LISREL (Linear Structural Relations). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out to evaluate the global functioning of the scale.
Results
8 (6.7%) of the mothers were diagnosed with major postnatal depression, 14 (11.7%) with moderate and 38 (31.7%) with mild depression on the basis of BDI-II scores. The internal consistency of the EPDS Greek version -using Chronbach's alpha coefficient- was found 0.804 and that of Guttman split-half coefficient 0.742. Our findings confirm the multidimensionality of EPDS, demonstrating a two-factor structure which contained subscales reflecting depressive symptoms and anxiety. The Confirmatory Factor analysis demonstrated that the two factor model offered a very good fit to our data. The area under ROC curve AUC was found 0.7470 and the logistic estimate for the threshold score of 8/9 fitted the model sensitivity at 76.7% and model specificity at 68.3%.
Conclusion
Our data confirm the validity of the Greek version of the EPDS in identifying postnatal depression. The Greek EPDS scale could be used as a useful instrument in both clinical practice and research.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-329
PMCID: PMC2748079  PMID: 19740443

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