Neck pain is a highly prevalent condition resulting in major disability. Standard scales for measuring disability in patients with neck pain have a pivotal role in research and clinical settings. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) is a valid and reliable tool, designed to measure disability in activities of daily living due to neck pain. The purpose of our study was the translation and validation of the NDI in a Greek primary care population with neck complaints.
The original version of the questionnaire was used. Based on international standards, the translation strategy comprised forward translations, reconciliation, backward translation and pre-testing steps. The validation procedure concerned the exploration of internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Bland and Altman method), construct validity (exploratory factor analysis) and responsiveness (Spearman correlation coefficient, Standard Error of Measurement and Minimal Detectable Change) of the questionnaire. Data quality was also assessed through completeness of data and floor/ceiling effects.
The translation procedure resulted in the Greek modified version of the NDI. The latter was culturally adapted through the pre-testing phase. The validation procedure raised a large amount of missing data due to low applicability, which were assessed with two methods. Floor or ceiling effects were not observed. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.85, which was interpreted as good internal consistency. Intraclass correlation coefficient was found to be 0.93 (95% CI 0.84–0.97), which was considered as very good test-retest reliability. Factor analysis yielded one factor with Eigenvalue 4.48 explaining 44.77% of variance. The Spearman correlation coefficient (0.3; P = 0.02) revealed some relation between the change score in the NDI and Global Rating of Change (GROC). The SEM and MDC were calculated as 0.64 and 1.78 respectively.
The Greek version of the NDI measures disability in patients with neck pain in a reliable, valid and responsive manner. It is considered a useful tool for research and clinical settings in Greek Primary Health Care.
To evaluate the reliability and construct validity of a Greek version of the NEI-VFQ-25 in patients with chronic ophthalmic diseases.
We developed the Greek version of the instrument using forward and backward translation. One hundred-eighty-six patients responded to the questionnaire. To examine reliability, Cronbach's alpha for each subscale was used as an index of internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficients. Regarding construct validity, both convergent and discriminant validities were calculated by means of multi-trait analysis. Rasch analysis was used to estimate the visual ability required by each item for a particular response, and each patient's visual ability. Correspondingly, instrument validity was evaluated by estimating the distribution of residuals for item and subject measures.
Four patient groups were studied, each including participants with a single cause of visual impairment. Group 1 consisted of 84 glaucoma subjects. Group 2 included 30 subjects with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD); group 3 included 25 subjects with dry-eye syndrome, whereas group 4 included 18 cataract patients. Twenty-nine healthy individuals comprised the control group. NEI-VFQ scores (mean ± SD) for the glaucoma, ARMD, dry-eye, cataract and control groups were: 76.9 ± 20.2, 70.9 ± 20.2, 81.6 ± 16.5, 73.5 ± 24.0 and 93.7 ± 8.9 respectively. Item analysis revealed no significant data skewing. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.678 to 0.926, with most subscales having high internal consistency. Intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.717 to 0.910 for all subscales. All items passed the convergent and discriminant validity tests. Strong correlations were detected between visual acuity and "general vision", "distant activities" and "near activities" subscales. Significant correlations were also detected between visual field deficits and the "peripheral vision" and "general vision" subscales. Rasch analysis revealed potential weaknesses of the instrument that are associated with the assumptions of the model itself. Specifically, low precision of the "agreement" items was detected in the estimation of visual ability. Twenty-three percent of the subjects had fit statistics that fell outside the tolerance box.
Although traditional validation methods indicated that the Greek version of the NEI-VFQ-25 is a valid and reliable instrument for VS-QoL assessment, Rasch analysis detected significant misfits to the model, especially of the "agreement" items. This means that results of the corresponding subscales should be interpreted with extreme caution.
The translation and cultural adaptation of widely accepted, psychometrically tested tools is regarded as an essential component of effective human resource management in the primary care arena. The Training Needs Assessment (TNA) is a widely used, valid instrument, designed to measure professional development needs of health care professionals, especially in primary health care. This study aims to describe the translation, adaptation and validation of the TNA questionnaire into Greek language and discuss possibilities of its use in primary care settings.
A modified version of the English self-administered questionnaire consisting of 30 items was used. Internationally recommended methodology, mandating forward translation, backward translation, reconciliation and pretesting steps, was followed. Tool validation included assessing item internal consistency, using the alpha coefficient of Cronbach. Reproducibility (test – retest reliability) was measured by the kappa correlation coefficient. Criterion validity was calculated for selected parts of the questionnaire by correlating respondents' research experience with relevant research item scores. An exploratory factor analysis highlighted how the items group together, using a Varimax (oblique) rotation and subsequent Cronbach's alpha assessment.
The psychometric properties of the Greek version of the TNA questionnaire for nursing staff employed in primary care were good. Internal consistency of the instrument was very good, Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.985 (p < 0.001) and Kappa coefficient for reproducibility was found to be 0.928 (p < 0.0001). Significant positive correlations were found between respondents' current performance levels on each of the research items and amount of research involvement, indicating good criterion validity in the areas tested. Factor analysis revealed seven factors with eigenvalues of > 1.0, KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) measure of sampling adequacy = 0.680 and Bartlett's test of sphericity, p < 0.001.
The translated and adapted Greek version is comparable with the original English instrument in terms of validity and reliability and it is suitable to assess professional development needs of nursing staff in Greek primary care settings.
The current healthcare climate is characterized by a constant battle for the provision of quality care with limited resources and with patient satisfaction receiving increased attention, there is a need for reliable and valid assessment measures. This study describes the adaptation, testing and validation of the Risser Patient satisfaction Scale in an oncology care setting in Greece. The rationale for this study lies in the scarcity of such measures in the Greek language.
This is a test retest validation study in Greece. Data were collected from 298 hospitalized cancer patients. The validation methodology included the assessment of the item internal consistency, using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. The test-retest reliability was tested by the Kappa correlation coefficient.
The scale demonstrated very good psychometric properties. The internal consistency of the instrument was good, Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.78 (p<0.001) and Kappa coefficient for reproducibility was found to be K=0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.91 p<0.0001).
The findings demonstrated strong agreement of the scale, suggesting that the Greek version offers substantial reliability. This study provides a valid and reliable tool to assess patient satisfaction in oncology settings. Means to monitor patient satisfaction, a key aspect of the policy agenda for quality care remain important for nurse leaders to develop better care in oncology settings.
Nursing care; Patient satisfaction; Validation; Risser patient satisfaction scale; Cancer settings; Cancer patients
The 20-item Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale (SWN-20) is a self-report scale developed in order to assess the well-being of patients receiving antipsychotic medication independent of the improvement in their psychotic symptoms. The current study reports on the reliability and the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the SWN-20.
A total of 100 inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia (79 males and 21 females, aged 42.6 ± 11.35 years old) from 3 different facilities were assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale and the Simpson-Angus Scale, and completed the SWN-20. The statistical analysis included the calculation of Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, the Cronbach α and factor analysis with Varimax normalised rotation.
The SWN-20 had an α value equal to 0.79 and all the items were equal. The factor analysis revealed the presence of seven factors explaining 66% of total variance. The correlation matrix revealed a moderate relationship of the SWN-20 and its factors with the PANSS-Negative (PANSS-N), PANSS-General Psychopathology (PANSS-G), the Simpson-Angus and the Calgary scales, and no relationship to age, education and income class.
The Greek translation of the SWN-20 is reliable, with psychometric properties close to the original scale.
A novel version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDAS) was developed by addition of faces rating scale to the original numeric form. The aim of this prospective descriptive study was to perform a transcultural adaptation and reliability analysis of the Iranian version of Faces version of Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDASf) and the Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS).
To determine the test–retest reliability, 200 school-children aged 8–12 years completed the MCDASf and the CFSS-DS on two separate occasions, 2 weeks apart. To determine the criterion validity, all participants completed two questionnaires at the same sitting. The translated instrument was tested for internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha, inter-item, and item-total correlation coefficients. Correlation between the MCDASf and CFSS-DS mean scores and age were calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient.
The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.158 to 0.658 (P < 0.01) for the individual items of the MCDASf between the first and the second assessments and also, ranged from 0.350 to 0.677 (P < 0.01) for CFSS-DS. The internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha) were 0.85 and 0.92 for the MCDASf and CFSS-DS, respectively. The correlation between the MCDASf and CFSS-DS was 0.73 (P < 0.001). The MCDASf and the CFSS-DS scores at the first administration were significantly greater than those of the second.
The MCDASf is a reliable measure of dental anxiety in Iranian children aged 8–12 years, suggestive of good reliability and validity.
Transcultural Adaptation; MCDASf; Childhood Dental Fear; Iran; CFSS-DS
The Burn Specific Health Scale – Brief (BSHS-B) is one of the most commonly used instruments for the evaluation of quality of life after burn injury. It can be self-administered, and it is useful in evaluating psychopathological symptoms in burn victims. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the BSHS-B into Greek, assessing its internal consistency and validity. The cultural adaptation included forward and backward translation, reconciliation, and a pilot study. The Greek version was administered to a sample of 40 adult burn victims admitted to our Burn Centre. Internal consistency was verified using Cronbach’s alpha, and construct validity was evaluated through correlation with the Short Form of Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) using Spearman analysis. The Cronbach alpha coefficient of the questionnaire’s total score was 0.954, demonstrating that the internal consistency of the Greek version was very high. The test-retest coefficient using kappa correlation was 0.830 (p < 0.001). Significant correlations were identified between BSHS-B subscales and the SF-36 subscales - Physical and Social Functioning, and Emotional Role. Despite the limited size of the sample, the Greek version of the BSHS-B shows good reliability and construct validity and can be used in clinical practice for further evaluations of burn patients’ quality of life.
quality of life; burn injury; post-burn patient evaluation; specific instrument
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) has been used in several languages to assess anxiety and depression in general hospital patients with good results.
The HADS was administered to 521 participants (275 controls and 246 inpatients and outpatients of the Internal Medicine and Surgical Departments in 'Attikon' General Hospital in Athens). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used as 'gold standards' for depression and anxiety respectively.
The HADS presented high internal consistency; Cronbach's α cofficient was 0.884 (0.829 for anxiety and 0.840 for depression) and stability (test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient 0.944). Factor analysis showed a two-factor structure. The HADS showed high concurrent validity; the correlations of the scale and its subscales with the BDI and the STAI were high (0.722 – 0.749).
The Greek version of HADS showed good psychometric properties and could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to assess anxiety and depression in general hospital patients.
Background: The Scoliosis Research Society-22r Questionnaire (SRS-22r) is a questionnaire assessing the health related quality of life of patients with scoliosis. Aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Greek Version of the SRS-22r in patients suffering from scoliosis who were treated conservatively.
Methods: The (translated and adapted) Greek versions of the SRS-22r together with the previously validated Short Form-36 questionnaire were mailed to 117 patients suffering from idiopathic scoliosis. Two weeks later, the Greek SRS-22r was mailed to the same patients once again. The internal consistency, reproducibility and concurrent validity were assessed.
Results: Factor analysis revealed a five–factor structure. The study demonstrated high Cronbach α coefficients for all but the 'Satisfaction with management' domain, when compared with the original questionnaire. Intraclass correlation was excellent regarding every domain of the SRS-22r. Concerning concurrent validity, one domain had excellent (r=0.75-1), thirteen domains good (r=0.50-0.75) and 16 domains moderate correlations (r=0.25-0.50) when compared with the relevant domains of the SF-36 questionnaire.
Conclusions: This Greek Version of the SRS-22r outcome instrument is a validated questionnaire which can be used to evaluate Greek-speaking patients suffering from Idiopathic Scoliosis who are being treated conservatively.
Scoliosis Research Society-22r; SRS-22r Patient Questionnaire; SRS-22r; SRS-22r validation; Greek language; adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
To evaluate the translation of the IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 1) and to assess the applicability, validity, reliability and sensitivity of the instrument in both males and females with LUTS in Chinese population.
The translation of the IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 1) was reviewed through back translation. Modifications were made, resulting in the development of The IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 2). The content validity was assessed by contend validity index. 233 subjects with LUTS were recruited in Hong Kong primary care settings for pilot psychometric testing. The construct validity was assessed by corrected item-total correlation and Pearson’s correlation test against ICIQ-UI SF, IIQ-7 and SF-12 v2. The reliability was assessed by the internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient) and test –retest reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient). The Sensitivity was determined by performing known group comparisons by independent T-test.
The content validity index for all items could reach 1. Corrected item-total correlation scores were ≥0.4 for four symptom questions (feeling of incomplete bladder emptying, intermittency, weak stream and straining). Overall, the total symptom score moderately correlated with ICIQ-UI SF. The quality of life score moderately correlated with the IIQ-7 but weakly correlated with SF-12 v2. Overall, the reliability of the IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 2) was acceptable (Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient = 0.71, ICC of the symptom questions =0.8, ICC of the quality of life question =0.7). The symptoms questions and quality of life questions of the IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese versions 2) were sensitive in detecting differences between groups.
The IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 2) is a valid, reliable and sensitive measure to assess Chinese females and males with lower urinary tract symptoms. The IPSS quality of life question is more sensitive than the generic quality of life measure to differentiate subgroups.
Questionnaires; Psychometric; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Quality of life; Urinary bladder diseases
The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) is a widely used instrument for evaluating psychological distress from anxiety and depression. HADS has not yet been validated in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Amharic (Ethiopian language) version of HADs among HIV infected patients.
The translated scale was administered to 302 HIV/AIDS patients on follow up for and taking anti-retroviral treatment. Consistency assessment was conducted using Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Construct validity was examined using principal components analysis (PCA). Parallel analysis, Kaiser's criterion and the scree test were used for factor extraction.
The internal consistency was 0.78 for the anxiety, 0.76 for depression subscales and 0.87 for the full scale of HADS. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 80%, 86%, and 84% for the anxiety and depression subscales, and total score respectively. PCA revealed a one dimensional scale.
This preliminary validation study of the Ethiopian version of the HADs indicates that it has promising acceptability, reliability and validity. The adopted scale has a single underlying dimension as indicated by Razavi's model. The HADS can be used to examine psychological distress in HIV infected patients. Findings are discussed and recommendations made.
The Revised version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) was published in 2009. The aim of this study was to prepare a Spanish version, and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia.
The FIQR was translated into Spanish and administered, along with the FIQ, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), to 113 Spanish fibromyalgia patients. The administration of the Spanish FIQR was repeated a week later.
The Spanish FIQR had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α was 0.91 and 0.95 at visits 1 and 2 respectively). The test-retest reliability was good for the FIQR total score and its function and symptoms domains (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC > 0.70), but modest for the overall impact domain (ICC = 0.51). Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) were also found between the FIQR and the FIQ scores, as well as between the FIQR scores and the remaining scales’ scores.
The Spanish version of the FIQR has a good internal consistency and our findings support its validity for assessing fibromyalgia patients. It might be a valid instrument to apply in clinical and investigational grounds.
Fibromyalgia; Revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire; Linguistic validation; Psychometric properties; Instrumental study; Fibromialgia; Cuestionario de impacto de fibromialgia revisado; Validación lingüística; Propiedades psicométricas; Estudio instrumental
To examine the validity and reliability of a Japanese version of the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R (J)).
The English SCL-90-R was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version confirmed by back-translation. To determine the factor validity and internal consistency of the nine primary subscales, 460 people from the community completed SCL-90-R(J). Test-retest reliability was examined for 104 outpatients and 124 healthy undergraduate students. The convergent-discriminant validity was determined for 80 inpatients who replied to both SCL-90-R(J) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).
The correlation coefficients between the nine primary subscales and items were .26 to .78. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were from .76 (Phobic Anxiety) to .86 (Interpersonal Sensitivity). Pearson's correlation coefficients between test-retest scores were from .81 (Psychoticism) to .90 (Somatization) for the outpatients and were from .64 (Phobic Anxiety) to .78 (Paranoid Ideation) for the students. Each of the nine primary subscales correlated well with their corresponding constructs in the MMPI.
We confirmed the validity and reliability of SCL-90-R(J) for the measurement of individual distress. The nine primary subscales were consistent with the items of the original English version.
The Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI) is a 19 item questionnaire used to assess the severity and impact of foot pain. The aim of this study was to develop a Greek-language version of the MFPDI and to assess the instrument's psychometric properties.
The MFPDI was translated into Greek by three bilingual content experts and two bilingual language experts, and then back-translated into English to assess for equivalence. The final Greek version was administered, along with a questionnaire consisting medical history and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), to 104 Greek-speaking, community-dwelling people (64 female, 40 male), aged between 64 and 90 years (mean 73.00, SD 5.26) with disabling foot pain.
The Greek translation of the MFPDI was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach's α= 0.89, and item-total correlation coefficients from 0.33 to 0.72). Principal components analysis revealed a four-factor structure representing the constructs of functional limitation, pain intensity, concern with appearance and activity restriction, which explained 60.8% of the variance, with 38.9% of the variance explained by the first construct (functional limitation). Six items demonstrated different factor loadings to the original English version.
The Greek-language version of the MFPDI appears to be a valid tool in assessing foot pain in Greek-speaking older people. The total MFPDI scores are comparable between the Greek and English version, however due to differences in the factor loadings of some items, between-language comparisons of MFPDI should be undertaken with some caution.
The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument.
We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC) and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability.
One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90.
The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality.
Patient satisfaction; Psychometrics; Quality of health care; Scales
The IOFS (Impact On Family Scale) questionnaire is a useful instrument to assess the impact of chronic childhood conditions on general family quality of life. As this instrument was not validated in French, we proposed to translate, adapt and validate the IOFS questionnaire for clinical and research use in French-speaking populations.
The sample studied comprised French-speaking parents with a child presenting a cleft lip or cleft lip and palate, aged 6 to 12 years and treated in the University Hospital of Strasbourg, France. The 15-item version of the IOFS was translated into French and then sent to the parents by post. The structure of the measure was studied using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability was studied by calculating the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC).
A total of 209 parents answered the questionnaire. Its acceptability was good, with 67.9% of mothers and 59.9% of fathers answering the questionnaire. EFA identified one main factor that explained 77% of the variance. Internal consistency was good, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.93. Finally, the ICC values were 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.66–0.85) and 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.80–0.92) for inter- and intra-observer reliability respectively.
The French version of the IOFS questionnaire exhibited very good psychometric properties. For practitioners, this instrument will facilitate the assessment of the impact of chronic childhood conditions on quality of life among French-speaking families.
Quality of life; Family; Child; Cleft lip; Cleft palate; Validation studies
The Perceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS-10) is a validated and reliable instrument to measure global levels of perceived stress. This study aims to assess the internal consistency, reliability, and factor structure of the Malay version of the PSS-10 for use among medical students.
The original English version of the PSS-10 was translated and back-translated into Malay language. The Malay version was distributed to 242 Bachelor of Medical Science students in a private university in Malaysia. Test–retest reliability was assessed in 70 students. An exploratory principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed. Reliability was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
All 242 students participated in the initial questionnaire study (validity and factor structure), and 70 students participated in the test–retest reliability of the study. Exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors that accounted for 57.8% of the variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the 2 factors were 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. The reliability test showed an ICC of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.89).
The Malay version of the PSS-10 showed adequate psychometric properties. It is a useful instrument for measuring stress among medical students in Malaysia.
Malaysia; medical; psychological; reliability and validity; stress; students
The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) is a short subjective questionnaire which helps physicians in making decisions about patients suffering from insomnia. The present study was an attempt to test the reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the ISI and to measure the correlation between ISI items and polysomnography results in chronic insomnia patients.
Two groups responded to the Persian translation of four questionnaires; ISI, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The first group consisted of 135 patients diagnosed with chronic insomnia, and the second group was comprised of 55 normal people. After completing the questionnaires, the insomniac patients underwent standard overnight polysomnography.
The internal consistency demonstrated by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was above 0.8 for both groups. The Intra-class correlation coefficient was above 0.7 after two weeks for both groups. The correlations between ISI, PSQI, ESS, and GHQ were high. In addition, close correlations were found between scores obtained from the ISI questionnaire items in insomniac patients with corresponding polysomnographic variables.
The Iranian version of the ISI is a reliable and valid instrument. It is a valuable short and first-line questionnaire for insomnia research and clinical work.
insomnia; Insomnia Severity Index; Iran; reliability; validity
Perceived control is a construct with important theoretical and clinical implications for healthcare providers, yet practical application of the construct in research and clinical practice awaits development of an easily administered instrument to measure perceived control with evidence of reliability and validity.
To test the psychometric properties of the Control Attitudes Scale-Revised using a sample of 3,396 individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD), 513 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, and 146 patients with heart failure (HF).
Analyses were done separately in each patient group. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha to determine internal consistency, and item homogeneity was assessed using item-total correlations, and interitem correlations. Validity was examined using principal component analysis and testing hypotheses about known associations.
Cronbach’s alphas for the CAS-R in patients with CHD, AMI, and HF were all greater than .70. Item–total correlation coefficients and interitem correlation coefficients for all items were acceptable in the groups. In factor analyses, the same single factor was extracted in all groups, and all items were loaded moderately or strongly to the factor in each group. As hypothesized in the final construct validity test, in all groups, patients with higher levels of perceived control had less depression and less anxiety compared with patients who had lower levels of perceived control.
This study provided evidence of the reliability and validity of the 8-item CAS-R as a measure of perceived control in cardiac patients and provides important insight into a key patient construct.
instrument; reliability; validity; heart failure; acute coronary syndrome; acute myocardial infarction; perceived control
Understanding the effects of cancer on the quality of life of affected patients is critical to clinical research as well as to optimal management and care. The aim of this study was to adapt the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire into Moroccan Arabic and to determine its psychometric properties. After translation, back translation and pretesting of the pre-final version, the translated version was submitted to a committee of professionals composed by oncologists and epidemiologists. The psychometric properties were tested in patients with cancer. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach’s alpha and the test-retest reliability using interclass correlation coefficients. Construct validity was assessed by examining item-convergent and divergent validity. It was also tested using Spearman’s correlation between QLQ-C30 scales and EQ-5D.
The study was conducted in 125 patients. The Moroccan version was internally reliable, Cronbach’s α was 0.87 for the total scale and ranged from 0.34 to 0.97 for the subscales. The intraclass correlation coefficient of the test-retest reliability ranged from 0.64 for “social functioning” to 0.89 for “physical activities” subscales. The instrument demonstrated a good construct and concomitant validity.
We have developed a semantically equivalent translation with cultural adaptation of EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. The assessment of its measurement properties showed that it is quite reliable and a valid measure of the effect of cancer on the quality of life in Moroccan patients.
Cancer; Quality of life; Reliability; Validity
The Julkunen Family Support Scale aims to record the sense of support that a subject receives from the members of his family. The object of the present study was to investigate the reliability and to assess the validity of the Greek translation of the Julkunen Family Support Scale in Greek health care professionals in a public general hospital.
In order to determine the indicator of validity of content we addressed nine expert professionals and one sociologist, asking them to evaluate how much relevant to the sense of familial support are the items of the questionnaire. Additionally, to assess reliability we used a sample of health care professionals.
There was agreement among experts for the validity of content. Cronbach's alpha for the total items was 0.820, pointing to high validity. Only replacing item four could increase the scale's validity, but without significant differences.
The scale, in its Greek version, appears to be a brief and reliable tool that can be used for inpatients, in clinics as well as in epidemiologic studies of received family support.
Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the DYMUS questionnaire for the assessment of dysphagia in multiple sclerosis. The original English version of the DYMUS was translated using the forward-backward technique, cross-culturally adaptated, pilot-tested in 40 patients, and then applied to 100 multiple sclerosis patients to assess the reliability and construct validity. Construct validity was assessed by Mann–Whitney test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient (rs). The internal consistency of the questionnaire was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and inter-item correlation. DYMUS-BR internal consistency was high (Cronbach’s alpha= 0.72); Cronbach’s alpha was 0.65 for the ‘dysphagia for solids’ subscale and 0.67 for the ‘dysphagia for liquids’ subscale and positive inter-item correlations was found between all items, except for weight loss question. Significant association (p<0.001) and correlation (rs = 0,357; p = 0.01) was found between DYMUS-BR and dysphagia self-assessment. The DYMUS-BR questionnaire maintained the characteristics of that originally described, demonstrating to be a reliable, valid, easy and consistent tool to be used by health professionals for preliminary selection of Brazilian MS patients who need more specific instrumental analyses of swallowing.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-332) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Multiple sclerosis; Dysphagia; Swallowing dosorders; Questionnaire; Validation; Reliability
Background/aims: To assess reliability and validity of the QUOTE-cataract, a questionnaire that measures the quality of care from the perspective of cataract patients.
Methods: The QUOTE-cataract was tested in a multicentre study among 540 cataract patients in three different hospitals. Reliability was represented by internal consistency (Cronbach’s α), and repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)). Validity was evaluated qualitatively and by factor analyses.
Results: A strong internal consistency coefficient (0.89), and high repeatability (ICC = 0.76) demonstrated good reliability. Content validity was assured by involvement of patients in the development of the questionnaire. Factor analysis confirmed an underlying taxonomy of generic and disease specific items.
Conclusion: The QUOTE-cataract has good reliability and provides a valid assessment of quality of care in cataract surgery.
cataract; quality of health care; QUOTE-Cataract
The KIDSCREEN-52 is a worldwide instrument for measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to assess reliability and validity of the Greek version of KIDSCREEN.
Questionnaires were collected from a representative nationwide sample of 1,194 adolescents aged from 11 to 17 years. Internal consistency reliability was determined by calculation of the Cronbach α coefficient. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted in order to test the construct validity of the questionnaire. Validity was further examined by investigating the correlation of KIDSCREEN with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and its association with socioeconomic and health-related factors.
Internal consistency reliability was accepted with a Cronbach α above 0.73 for all KIDSCREEN dimensions. CFA showed that the ten-dimensional model fitted the data well (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.048, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.971 and goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.965). Correlation coefficients between KIDSCREEN and SDQ dimensions were significant. Adolescents of low socioeconomic status reported lower scores in the majority of KIDSCREEN dimensions. Also, adolescents with chronic health problem had poorer quality of life concerning physical well-being and other dimensions of KIDSCREEN.
The Greek version of KIDSCREEN-52 was found to have satisfied psychometric properties and could be suitable for assessing HRQoL in Greek adolescents.
adolescents; health-related quality of life; measurement; questionnaire; validity
Quality of life (QOL) and its measurement in cancer patients is becoming increasingly important. Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment are often associated with psychological distress and reduced QoL. In Arabic-speaking countries, QoL of patients with cancer is inadequately studied.
The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Moroccan Arabic version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Breast Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-BR23).
After translation and cross-cultural adaptation, the questionnaire was tested on breast cancer patients. The participants’ number for the test and the retest were 105 and 37 respectively. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), the test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Construct validity was assessed by examining item-convergent and divergent validity.
The questionnaire was administered to 105 patients. The mean age of patients was 48 years (SD: 16), 62.9% were married. 68.6% of all participants lived in urban area.
The average time to complete the QLQ- BR23 was 15 min. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, were all >0.7, with the exception of breast symptoms and arm symptoms. All items exceeded the 0.4 criterion for convergent validity except item 20 and 23 related to pain and skin problems in the affected breast respectively.
In general, the findings of this study indicated that the Moroccan Arabic version of the EORTC QLQ-BR23 is a reliable and valid supplementary measure of the QOL in breast cancer patients and can be used in clinical trials and studies of outcome research in oncology.
Breast cancer; Quality of life; Reliability; Validity