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1.  Translating and validating a Training Needs Assessment tool into Greek 
Background
The translation and cultural adaptation of widely accepted, psychometrically tested tools is regarded as an essential component of effective human resource management in the primary care arena. The Training Needs Assessment (TNA) is a widely used, valid instrument, designed to measure professional development needs of health care professionals, especially in primary health care. This study aims to describe the translation, adaptation and validation of the TNA questionnaire into Greek language and discuss possibilities of its use in primary care settings.
Methods
A modified version of the English self-administered questionnaire consisting of 30 items was used. Internationally recommended methodology, mandating forward translation, backward translation, reconciliation and pretesting steps, was followed. Tool validation included assessing item internal consistency, using the alpha coefficient of Cronbach. Reproducibility (test – retest reliability) was measured by the kappa correlation coefficient. Criterion validity was calculated for selected parts of the questionnaire by correlating respondents' research experience with relevant research item scores. An exploratory factor analysis highlighted how the items group together, using a Varimax (oblique) rotation and subsequent Cronbach's alpha assessment.
Results
The psychometric properties of the Greek version of the TNA questionnaire for nursing staff employed in primary care were good. Internal consistency of the instrument was very good, Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.985 (p < 0.001) and Kappa coefficient for reproducibility was found to be 0.928 (p < 0.0001). Significant positive correlations were found between respondents' current performance levels on each of the research items and amount of research involvement, indicating good criterion validity in the areas tested. Factor analysis revealed seven factors with eigenvalues of > 1.0, KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) measure of sampling adequacy = 0.680 and Bartlett's test of sphericity, p < 0.001.
Conclusion
The translated and adapted Greek version is comparable with the original English instrument in terms of validity and reliability and it is suitable to assess professional development needs of nursing staff in Greek primary care settings.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-7-65
PMCID: PMC1876219  PMID: 17474989
2.  Translation of the Neck Disability Index and validation of the Greek version in a sample of neck pain patients 
Background
Neck pain is a highly prevalent condition resulting in major disability. Standard scales for measuring disability in patients with neck pain have a pivotal role in research and clinical settings. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) is a valid and reliable tool, designed to measure disability in activities of daily living due to neck pain. The purpose of our study was the translation and validation of the NDI in a Greek primary care population with neck complaints.
Methods
The original version of the questionnaire was used. Based on international standards, the translation strategy comprised forward translations, reconciliation, backward translation and pre-testing steps. The validation procedure concerned the exploration of internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Bland and Altman method), construct validity (exploratory factor analysis) and responsiveness (Spearman correlation coefficient, Standard Error of Measurement and Minimal Detectable Change) of the questionnaire. Data quality was also assessed through completeness of data and floor/ceiling effects.
Results
The translation procedure resulted in the Greek modified version of the NDI. The latter was culturally adapted through the pre-testing phase. The validation procedure raised a large amount of missing data due to low applicability, which were assessed with two methods. Floor or ceiling effects were not observed. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.85, which was interpreted as good internal consistency. Intraclass correlation coefficient was found to be 0.93 (95% CI 0.84–0.97), which was considered as very good test-retest reliability. Factor analysis yielded one factor with Eigenvalue 4.48 explaining 44.77% of variance. The Spearman correlation coefficient (0.3; P = 0.02) revealed some relation between the change score in the NDI and Global Rating of Change (GROC). The SEM and MDC were calculated as 0.64 and 1.78 respectively.
Conclusion
The Greek version of the NDI measures disability in patients with neck pain in a reliable, valid and responsive manner. It is considered a useful tool for research and clinical settings in Greek Primary Health Care.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-9-106
PMCID: PMC2492862  PMID: 18647393
3.  Identifying dyspepsia in the Greek population: translation and validation of a questionnaire 
BMC Public Health  2006;6:56.
Background
Studies on clinical issues, including diagnostic strategies, are considered to be the core content of general practice research. The use of standardised instruments is regarded as an important component for the development of Primary Health Care research capacity. Demand for epidemiological cross-cultural comparisons in the international setting and the use of common instruments and definitions valid to each culture is bigger than ever. Dyspepsia is a common complaint in primary practice but little is known with respect to its incidence in Greece. There are some references about the Helicobacter Pylori infection in patients with functional dyspepsia or gastric ulcer in Greece but there is no specific instrument for the identification of dyspepsia. This paper reports on the validation and translation into Greek, of an English questionnaire for the identification of dyspepsia in the general population and discusses several possibilities of its use in the Greek primary care.
Methods
The selected English postal questionnaire for the identification of people with dyspepsia in the general population consists of 30 items and was developed in 1995. The translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire has been performed according to international standards. For the validation of the instrument the internal consistency of the items was established using the alpha coefficient of Chronbach, the reproducibility (test – retest reliability) was measured by kappa correlation coefficient and the criterion validity was calculated against the diagnosis of the patients' records using also kappa correlation coefficient.
Results
The final Greek version of the postal questionnaire for the identification of dyspepsia in the general population was reliably translated. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was good, Chronbach's alpha was found to be 0.88 (95% CI: 0.81–0.93), suggesting that all items were appropriate to measure. Kappa coefficient for reproducibility (test – retest reliability) was found 0.66 (95% CI: 0.62–0.71), whereas the kappa analysis for criterion validity was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.36–0.89).
Conclusion
This study indicates that the Greek translation is comparable with the English-language version in terms of validity and reliability, and is suitable for epidemiological research within the Greek primary health care setting.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-6-56
PMCID: PMC1420284  PMID: 16515708
4.  Reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of scoliosis research society – 22 (SRS-22) questionnaire 
Scoliosis  2009;4:14.
Background
The SRS-22 is a valid instrument for the assessment of the health related quality of life of patients with Idiopathic scoliosis. The SRS-22 questionnaire was developed in USA and has been widely used in the English speaking countries. Recently it has been translated and validated in many other languages. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of the refined Scoliosis Research Society-22 Questionnaire.
Methods
Following the steps of cross – cultural adaptation the adapted Greek version of the SRS-22 questionnaire and a validated Greek version of the SF-36 questionnaire were mailed to 68 patients treated surgically for Idiopathic Scoliosis. 51 out of the 68 patients returned the 1st set of questionnaires, while a second set was emailed to 30 randomly selected patients of the first time responders. 20 out of the 30 patients returned the 2nd set. The mean age at the time of operation was16,2 years and the mean age at the time of evaluation was 21,2 years. Descriptive statistics for content analysis were calculated. Reliability assessment was determined by estimating Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) respectively. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing SRS-22 domains with relevant domains in the SF-36 questionnaire using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r).
Results
The calculated Cronbach's α of internal consistency for three of the corresponding domains (pain 0.85; mental health 0.87; self image 0.83) were very satisfactory and for two domains (function/activity 0.72 and satisfaction 0.67) were good. The ICC of all domains of SRS-22 questionnaire was high (ICC>0.70), demonstrating very satisfactory or excellent test/retest reproducibility. Considering concurrent validity all correlations were found to be statistically significant at the 0.01 level among related domains and generally demonstrated high correlation coefficient.
Conclusion
The adapted Greek version of the SRS-22 questionnaire is valid and reliable and can be used for the assessment of the outcome of the treatment of the Greek speaking patients with idiopathic scoliosis.
doi:10.1186/1748-7161-4-14
PMCID: PMC2720382  PMID: 19607720
5.  Validation of the Spanish versions of the long (26 items) and short (12 items) forms of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) 
Background
Self-compassion is a key psychological construct for assessing clinical outcomes in mindfulness-based interventions. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish versions of the long (26 item) and short (12 item) forms of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS).
Methods
The translated Spanish versions of both subscales were administered to two independent samples: Sample 1 was comprised of university students (n = 268) who were recruited to validate the long form, and Sample 2 was comprised of Aragon Health Service workers (n = 271) who were recruited to validate the short form. In addition to SCS, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory–Trait (STAI-T), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) were administered. Construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were tested.
Results
The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the long and short forms of the SCS confirmed the original six-factor model in both scales, showing goodness of fit. Cronbach’s α for the 26 item SCS was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.85-0.90) and ranged between 0.72 and 0.79 for the 6 subscales. Cronbach’s α for the 12-item SCS was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.81-0.88) and ranged between 0.71 and 0.77 for the 6 subscales. The long (26-item) form of the SCS showed a test-retest coefficient of 0.92 (95% CI = 0.89–0.94). The Intraclass Correlation (ICC) for the 6 subscales ranged from 0.84 to 0.93. The short (12-item) form of the SCS showed a test-retest coefficient of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.87-0.93). The ICC for the 6 subscales ranged from 0.79 to 0.91. The long and short forms of the SCS exhibited a significant negative correlation with the BDI, the STAI and the PSQ, and a significant positive correlation with the MAAS. The correlation between the total score of the long and short SCS form was r = 0.92.
Conclusion
The Spanish versions of the long (26-item) and short (12-item) forms of the SCS are valid and reliable instruments for the evaluation of self-compassion among the general population. These results substantiate the use of this scale in research and clinical practice.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-12-4
PMCID: PMC3896764  PMID: 24410742
Self-compassion; Validation; Spanish; Mindfulness
6.  Validation of the International Prostate Symptom Score in Chinese males and females with lower urinary tract symptoms 
Objectives
To evaluate the translation of the IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 1) and to assess the applicability, validity, reliability and sensitivity of the instrument in both males and females with LUTS in Chinese population.
Methods
The translation of the IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 1) was reviewed through back translation. Modifications were made, resulting in the development of The IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 2). The content validity was assessed by contend validity index. 233 subjects with LUTS were recruited in Hong Kong primary care settings for pilot psychometric testing. The construct validity was assessed by corrected item-total correlation and Pearson’s correlation test against ICIQ-UI SF, IIQ-7 and SF-12 v2. The reliability was assessed by the internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient) and test –retest reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient). The Sensitivity was determined by performing known group comparisons by independent T-test.
Results
The content validity index for all items could reach 1. Corrected item-total correlation scores were ≥0.4 for four symptom questions (feeling of incomplete bladder emptying, intermittency, weak stream and straining). Overall, the total symptom score moderately correlated with ICIQ-UI SF. The quality of life score moderately correlated with the IIQ-7 but weakly correlated with SF-12 v2. Overall, the reliability of the IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 2) was acceptable (Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient = 0.71, ICC of the symptom questions =0.8, ICC of the quality of life question =0.7). The symptoms questions and quality of life questions of the IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese versions 2) were sensitive in detecting differences between groups.
Conclusions
The IPSS (Hong Kong Chinese version 2) is a valid, reliable and sensitive measure to assess Chinese females and males with lower urinary tract symptoms. The IPSS quality of life question is more sensitive than the generic quality of life measure to differentiate subgroups.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-12-1
PMCID: PMC3883473  PMID: 24382363
Questionnaires; Psychometric; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Quality of life; Urinary bladder diseases
7.  Psychometric properties of the Greek version of the NEI-VFQ 25 
BMC Ophthalmology  2008;8:4.
Background
To evaluate the reliability and construct validity of a Greek version of the NEI-VFQ-25 in patients with chronic ophthalmic diseases.
Methods
We developed the Greek version of the instrument using forward and backward translation. One hundred-eighty-six patients responded to the questionnaire. To examine reliability, Cronbach's alpha for each subscale was used as an index of internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficients. Regarding construct validity, both convergent and discriminant validities were calculated by means of multi-trait analysis. Rasch analysis was used to estimate the visual ability required by each item for a particular response, and each patient's visual ability. Correspondingly, instrument validity was evaluated by estimating the distribution of residuals for item and subject measures.
Results
Four patient groups were studied, each including participants with a single cause of visual impairment. Group 1 consisted of 84 glaucoma subjects. Group 2 included 30 subjects with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD); group 3 included 25 subjects with dry-eye syndrome, whereas group 4 included 18 cataract patients. Twenty-nine healthy individuals comprised the control group. NEI-VFQ scores (mean ± SD) for the glaucoma, ARMD, dry-eye, cataract and control groups were: 76.9 ± 20.2, 70.9 ± 20.2, 81.6 ± 16.5, 73.5 ± 24.0 and 93.7 ± 8.9 respectively. Item analysis revealed no significant data skewing. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.678 to 0.926, with most subscales having high internal consistency. Intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.717 to 0.910 for all subscales. All items passed the convergent and discriminant validity tests. Strong correlations were detected between visual acuity and "general vision", "distant activities" and "near activities" subscales. Significant correlations were also detected between visual field deficits and the "peripheral vision" and "general vision" subscales. Rasch analysis revealed potential weaknesses of the instrument that are associated with the assumptions of the model itself. Specifically, low precision of the "agreement" items was detected in the estimation of visual ability. Twenty-three percent of the subjects had fit statistics that fell outside the tolerance box.
Conclusion
Although traditional validation methods indicated that the Greek version of the NEI-VFQ-25 is a valid and reliable instrument for VS-QoL assessment, Rasch analysis detected significant misfits to the model, especially of the "agreement" items. This means that results of the corresponding subscales should be interpreted with extreme caution.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-8-4
PMCID: PMC2287166  PMID: 18325083
8.  Validation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the Physicians' Reactions to Uncertainty scales 
Background
The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Physicians' Reaction to Uncertainty scales (PRU) in primary care physicians.
Methods
In a structured process, the original questionnaire was translated, culturally adapted and assessed after administering it to 93 GPs. Test-retest reliability was tested by sending the questionnaire to the GPs again after two weeks.
Results
The principal factor analysis confirmed the postulated four-factor structure underlying the 15 items. In contrast to the original version, item 5 achieved a higher loading on the 'concern about bad outcomes' scale. Consequently, we rearranged the scales. Good item-scale correlations were obtained, with Pearson's correlation coefficient ranging from 0.56–0.84. As regards the item-discriminant validity between the scales 'anxiety due to uncertainty' and 'concern about bad outcomes', partially high correlations (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.02–0.69; p < 0.001) were found, indicating an overlap between both constructs. The assessment of internal consistency revealed satisfactory values; Cronbach's alpha of the rearranged version was 0.86 or higher for all scales. Test-retest-reliability, assessed by means of the intraclass-correlation-coefficient (ICC), exceeded 0.84, except for the 'reluctance to disclose mistakes to physicians' scale (ICC = 0.66). In this scale, some substantial floor effects occurred, with 29.3% of answers showing the lowest possible value.
Conclusion
Dealing with uncertainty is an important issue in daily practice. The psychometric properties of the rearranged German version of the PRU are satisfying. The revealed floor effects do not limit the significance of the questionnaire. Thus, the German version of the PRU could contribute to the further evaluation of the impact of uncertainty in primary care physicians.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-7-81
PMCID: PMC1903353  PMID: 17562018
9.  Validity and Reliability of the Greek Version of the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality-of-Life Questionnaire 
Background and Purpose
There are no data regarding psychometrically validated, health-related quality-of-life instruments designed specifically for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in Greece. Recently, the MS International Quality-of-Life questionnaire (MusiQoL), a multidimensional, self-administered questionnaire, which is available in 14 languages (including Greek), has been validated using a large international sample. We investigated the validity and reliability of the Greek version of the MusiQoL.
Methods
Consecutive patients with different types and severities of MS were recruited from two tertiary-care centers in Greece. All patients completed the MusiQoL, the Short-Form-36 quality-of-life questionnaire (SF-36), and a symptom checklist at baseline and 21±7 days (mean±SD) later. Data regarding sociodemographic status, MS history, and functional outcome were also collected prospectively. Construct validity, internal consistency, reproducibility, and external consistency were tested.
Results
A total of 92 patients was evaluated. The construct validity was confirmed in terms of satisfactory item-internal consistency correlations and scaling success (87.5-100%) of item-discriminant validity. The dimensions of the MusiQoL exhibited high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.63-0.96), and reproducibility was satisfactory (intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.69-0.99). External validity testing indicated that the MusiQoL correlated significantly with all SF-36 dimension scores (Spearman's correlation: 0.43-0.76).
Conclusions
The Greek version of the MusiQoL appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring quality of life in Greek MS patients.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2009.5.4.173
PMCID: PMC2806539  PMID: 20076798
epilepsy; quality of life; questionnaire; Greece
10.  Validation of the Korean version Moorehead-Ardelt quality of life questionnaire II 
Purpose
To investigate the weight loss effects with higher sensitivity, disease specific quality of life (QoL) instruments were important. The Moorehead-Ardelt quality of life questionnaire II (MA-II) is widely used, because it was simple and validated the several languages. The aims of present study was performed the translation of MA-II Korean version and the validation compared with EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D), obesity-related problems scale (OP-scale), and impact of weight quality of life-lite (IWQoL-Lite).
Methods
The study design was a multicenter, cross-sectional survey and this study was included the postoperative patients. The validation procedure is translation-back translation procedure, pilot study, and field study. The instruments of measuring QoL included the MA-II, EQ-5D, OP-scale, and IWQoL-lite. The reliability was checked through internal consistency using Cronbach alpha coefficients. The construct validity was assessed the Spearman rank correlation between 6 domains of MA-II and EQ-5D, OP-scale, and 5 domains of IWQoL-Lite.
Results
The Cronbach alpha of MA-II was 0.763, so the internal consistency was confirmed. The total score of MA-II was significantly correlated with all other instruments; EQ-5D, OP-scale, and IWQoL-Lite. IWQoL-lite (ρ = 0.623, P < 0.001) was showed the strongest correlation compared with MA-II, followed by OP-scale (ρ = 0.588, P < 0.001) and EQ-5D (ρ = 0.378, P < 0.01).
Conclusion
The Korean version MA-II was valid instrument of measuring the obesity-specific QoL. Through the present study, the MA-II was confirmed to have good reliability and validity and it was also answered simple for investigating. Thus, MA-II could be estimated sensitive and exact QoL in obesity patients.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.87.5.265
PMCID: PMC4217256  PMID: 25368853
QOL; MA-II; BAROS; Bariatric surgery; Validation
11.  Risser patient satisfaction scale: a validation study in Greek cancer patients 
BMC Nursing  2012;11:27.
Background
The current healthcare climate is characterized by a constant battle for the provision of quality care with limited resources and with patient satisfaction receiving increased attention, there is a need for reliable and valid assessment measures. This study describes the adaptation, testing and validation of the Risser Patient satisfaction Scale in an oncology care setting in Greece. The rationale for this study lies in the scarcity of such measures in the Greek language.
Methods
This is a test retest validation study in Greece. Data were collected from 298 hospitalized cancer patients. The validation methodology included the assessment of the item internal consistency, using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. The test-retest reliability was tested by the Kappa correlation coefficient.
Results
The scale demonstrated very good psychometric properties. The internal consistency of the instrument was good, Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.78 (p<0.001) and Kappa coefficient for reproducibility was found to be K=0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.91 p<0.0001).
Conclusion
The findings demonstrated strong agreement of the scale, suggesting that the Greek version offers substantial reliability. This study provides a valid and reliable tool to assess patient satisfaction in oncology settings. Means to monitor patient satisfaction, a key aspect of the policy agenda for quality care remain important for nurse leaders to develop better care in oncology settings.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-11-27
PMCID: PMC3531274  PMID: 23190625
Nursing care; Patient satisfaction; Validation; Risser patient satisfaction scale; Cancer settings; Cancer patients
12.  Quality of life in burn patients in Greece 
Summary
The Burn Specific Health Scale – Brief (BSHS-B) is one of the most commonly used instruments for the evaluation of quality of life after burn injury. It can be self-administered, and it is useful in evaluating psychopathological symptoms in burn victims. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the BSHS-B into Greek, assessing its internal consistency and validity. The cultural adaptation included forward and backward translation, reconciliation, and a pilot study. The Greek version was administered to a sample of 40 adult burn victims admitted to our Burn Centre. Internal consistency was verified using Cronbach’s alpha, and construct validity was evaluated through correlation with the Short Form of Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) using Spearman analysis. The Cronbach alpha coefficient of the questionnaire’s total score was 0.954, demonstrating that the internal consistency of the Greek version was very high. The test-retest coefficient using kappa correlation was 0.830 (p < 0.001). Significant correlations were identified between BSHS-B subscales and the SF-36 subscales - Physical and Social Functioning, and Emotional Role. Despite the limited size of the sample, the Greek version of the BSHS-B shows good reliability and construct validity and can be used in clinical practice for further evaluations of burn patients’ quality of life.
PMCID: PMC3664527  PMID: 23766752
quality of life; burn injury; post-burn patient evaluation; specific instrument
13.  The greek translation of the symptoms rating scale for depression and anxiety: preliminary results of the validation study 
BMC Psychiatry  2003;3:21.
Background
The aim of the current study was to assess the reliability, validity and the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the Symptoms Rating Scale For Depression and Anxiety. The scale consists of 42 items and permits the calculation of the scores of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-21, the BDI 13, the Melancholia Subscale, the Asthenia Subscale, the Anxiety Subscale and the Mania Subscale
Methods
29 depressed patients 30.48 ± 9.83 years old, and 120 normal controls 27.45 ± 10.85 years old entered the study. In 20 of them (8 patients and 12 controls) the instrument was re-applied 1–2 days later. Translation and Back Translation was made. Clinical Diagnosis was reached by consensus of two examiners with the use of the SCAN v.2.0 and the IPDE. CES-D and ZDRS were used for cross-validation purposes. The Statistical Analysis included ANOVA, the Spearman Correlation Coefficient, Principal Components Analysis and the calculation of Cronbach's alpha.
Results
The optimal cut-off points were: BDI-21: 14/15, BDI-13: 7/8, Melancholia: 8/9, Asthenia: 9/10, Anxiety: 10/11. Chronbach's alpha ranged between 0.86 and 0.92 for individual scales. Only the Mania subscale had very low alpha (0.12). The test-retest reliability was excellent for all scales with Spearman's Rho between 0.79 and 0.91.
Conclusions
The Greek translation of the SRSDA and the scales that consist it are both reliable and valid and are suitable for clinical and research use with satisfactory properties. Their properties are close to those reported in the international literature. However one should always have in mind the limitations inherent in the use of self-report scales.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-3-21
PMCID: PMC317317  PMID: 14667249
Scales; depression; transcultural psychiatry; reliability; validity; Greece
14.  Development and validation of a Greek language version of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index 
Background
The Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI) is a 19 item questionnaire used to assess the severity and impact of foot pain. The aim of this study was to develop a Greek-language version of the MFPDI and to assess the instrument's psychometric properties.
Methods
The MFPDI was translated into Greek by three bilingual content experts and two bilingual language experts, and then back-translated into English to assess for equivalence. The final Greek version was administered, along with a questionnaire consisting medical history and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), to 104 Greek-speaking, community-dwelling people (64 female, 40 male), aged between 64 and 90 years (mean 73.00, SD 5.26) with disabling foot pain.
Results
The Greek translation of the MFPDI was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach's α= 0.89, and item-total correlation coefficients from 0.33 to 0.72). Principal components analysis revealed a four-factor structure representing the constructs of functional limitation, pain intensity, concern with appearance and activity restriction, which explained 60.8% of the variance, with 38.9% of the variance explained by the first construct (functional limitation). Six items demonstrated different factor loadings to the original English version.
Conclusion
The Greek-language version of the MFPDI appears to be a valid tool in assessing foot pain in Greek-speaking older people. The total MFPDI scores are comparable between the Greek and English version, however due to differences in the factor loadings of some items, between-language comparisons of MFPDI should be undertaken with some caution.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-6-39
PMCID: PMC2430552  PMID: 18513444
15.  Reliability and psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y: Preliminary data 
Background
The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y is a brief self-rating scale for the assessment of state and trait anxiety. The aim of the current preliminary study was to assess the psychometric properties of its Greek translation.
Materials and methods
121 healthy volunteers 27.22 ± 10.61 years old, and 22 depressed patients 29.48 ± 9.28 years old entered the study. In 20 of them the instrument was re-applied 1–2 days later. Translation and Back Translation was made. The clinical diagnosis was reached with the SCAN v.2.0 and the IPDE. The Symptoms Rating Scale for Depression and Anxiety (SRSDA) and the EPQ were applied for cross-validation purposes. The Statistical Analysis included the Pearson Correlation Coefficient and the calculation of Cronbach's alpha.
Results
The State score for healthy subjects was 34.30 ± 10.79 and the Trait score was 36.07 ± 10.47. The respected scores for the depressed patients were 56.22 ± 8.86 and 53.83 ± 10.87. Both State and Trait scores followed the normal distribution in control subjects. Cronbach's alpha was 0.93 for the State and 0.92 for the Trait subscale. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient between State and Trait subscales was 0.79. Both subscales correlated fairly with the anxiety subscale of the SRSDA. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with Pearson coefficient being between 0.75 and 0.98 for individual items and equal to 0.96 for State and 0.98 for Trait.
Conclusion
The current study provided preliminary evidence concerning the reliability and the validity of the Greek translation of the STAI-form Y. Its properties are generally similar to those reported in the international literature, but further research is necessary.
doi:10.1186/1744-859X-5-2
PMCID: PMC1373628  PMID: 16448554
16.  Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the VSP-A (Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Adolescent), a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument for adolescents, in a healthy Brazilian population 
BMC Pediatrics  2011;11:8.
Background
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment, encompassing the adolescents' perceptions of their mental, physical, and social health and well-being is increasingly considered an important outcome to be used to identify population health needs and to provide targeted medical care. Although validated instruments are essential for accurately assessing HRQoL outcomes, there are few cross-culturally adapted tools for use in Brazil, and none designed exclusively for use among adolescents. The Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Adolescent (VSP-A) is a generic, multidimensional self-reported instrument originally developed and validated in France that evaluates HRQoL of ill and healthy adolescents.
Purpose
To cross-culturally adapt and validate the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the VSP-A, a generic HRQoL measure for adolescents originally developed in France.
Methods
The VSP-A was translated following a well-validated forward-backward process leading to the Brazilian version. The psychometric evaluation was conducted in a sample of 446 adolescents (14-18 years) attending 2 public high schools of São Gonçalo City. The adolescents self-reported the Brazilian VSP-A, the validated Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and socio-demographic information. A retest evaluation was carried out on a sub-sample (n = 195) at a two-week interval.
The internal construct validity was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), multi-trait scaling analyses, Rasch analysis evaluating unidimensionality of each scale and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The reproducibility was evaluated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Zumbo's ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) between the Brazilian and the French items. External construct validity was investigated testing expected differences between groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Mann-Whitney tests and the univariate general regression linear model.
Results
CFA showed an acceptable fit (RMSEA=0.05; CFI=0.93); 94% of scaling success was found for item-internal consistency and 98% for item discriminant validity. The items showed good fit to the Rasch model except 3 items with an INFIT at the upper threshold. Cronbach's Alpha ranged from 0.60 to 0.85. Test-retest reliability was moderate to good (ICC=0.55-0.82). DIF was evidenced in 4 out of 36 items. Expected patterns of differences were confirmed with significantly lower physical, psychological well being and vitality reported by symptomatic adolescents.
Conclusions
Although DIF in few items and responsiveness must be further explored, the Brazilian version of VSP-A demonstrated an acceptable validity and reliability in adolescents attending school and might serve as a starting point for more specific clinical investigations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-8
PMCID: PMC3042386  PMID: 21272317
17.  Psychometric properties and factor structure of the Spanish version of the HC-PAIRS questionnaire 
European Spine Journal  2012;22(5):985-994.
Objective
To develop a Spanish version of the Health Care Providers’ Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS) and to test its psychometric properties.
Methods
A forward and backward translation methodology was used to translate the questionnaire, which was then applied to 206 participants (174 physiotherapy students and 32 family physicians). The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess test–retest reliability. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha and item analysis. Construct validity was measured using Pearson correlation coefficients between HC-PAIRS and FABQ, FABQ-Phys, FABQ-Work and the responses given by participants to three clinical case scenarios. An exploratory factor analysis was carried out following the Kaiser normalization criteria and principal axis factoring with an oblique rotation (quartimax). Sensitivity to change was assessed after a teaching module.
Results
Test–retest reliability was ICC 0.50 (p < 0.01) and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.825. The HC-PAIRS scores correlated significantly with the scores of the FABQ and also with the recommendations for work and activity given by the participants in the three clinical case scenarios. Sensitivity to change test showed an effect size of 1.5, which is considered a large change. Factor analysis suggests that the Spanish version of HC-PAIRS measures a unidimensional construct.
Conclusion
The Spanish version of the HC-PAIRS has proven to be a reliable, valid and sensitive instrument to assess health care providers’ attitudes and beliefs about LBP. It can be used in evaluating clinical practice and in undergraduate acquisition of skills and knowledge.
doi:10.1007/s00586-012-2604-5
PMCID: PMC3657040  PMID: 23224033
Low back pain; Attitudes and beliefs; HC-PAIRS; Reliability; Internal consistency
18.  The Control Attitudes Scale-Revised: Psychometric Evaluation in Three Groups of Cardiac Patients 
Nursing research  2009;58(1):42-51.
Background
Perceived control is a construct with important theoretical and clinical implications for healthcare providers, yet practical application of the construct in research and clinical practice awaits development of an easily administered instrument to measure perceived control with evidence of reliability and validity.
Objective
To test the psychometric properties of the Control Attitudes Scale-Revised using a sample of 3,396 individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD), 513 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, and 146 patients with heart failure (HF).
Methods
Analyses were done separately in each patient group. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha to determine internal consistency, and item homogeneity was assessed using item-total correlations, and interitem correlations. Validity was examined using principal component analysis and testing hypotheses about known associations.
Results
Cronbach’s alphas for the CAS-R in patients with CHD, AMI, and HF were all greater than .70. Item–total correlation coefficients and interitem correlation coefficients for all items were acceptable in the groups. In factor analyses, the same single factor was extracted in all groups, and all items were loaded moderately or strongly to the factor in each group. As hypothesized in the final construct validity test, in all groups, patients with higher levels of perceived control had less depression and less anxiety compared with patients who had lower levels of perceived control.
Conclusion
This study provided evidence of the reliability and validity of the 8-item CAS-R as a measure of perceived control in cardiac patients and provides important insight into a key patient construct.
doi:10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181900ca0
PMCID: PMC2668922  PMID: 19092554
instrument; reliability; validity; heart failure; acute coronary syndrome; acute myocardial infarction; perceived control
19.  Converting Three General-Cognitive Function Scales into Persian and Assessment of Their Validity and Reliability 
Objectives:
Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), Galveston Amnesia and orientation Test (GOAT) and Disability Rating Scale (DRS) are three popular outcome measure tools used principally in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. We conducted this study to provide a Farsi version of these outcome scales for use in Iran.
Methods:
Following a comprehensive literature review, Farsi transcripts were prepared by “forward-backward” translation and reviewed by subject experts. After a pretest on a few patients, the final versions were obtained. 38 patients with closed head injury were interviewed simultaneously by two interviewers. Main statistics used to assess validity and reliability included “Factor analysis” for construct validity, Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency, and Pearson Correlation and Kappa Coefficient for inter-rater agreement.
Results:
Factor analysis for Farsi-GOAT (FGOAT) revealed 5 independent factors with a total distribution variance of 80.2%. For Farsi-DRS (FDRS), 3 independent factors were found with a 92.3% variance. The Cronbach’s alpha (95% confidence interval) was 0.84 (0.763- 0.919) and 0.91 (0.901-0.919) for FGOAT and FDRS, respectively. Pearson Correlation between total scores of two raters was 0.98 and 0.97 for FGOAT and FDRS, in order. Kappa coefficient (95% CI) between outcome rankings of raters was 0.73 (0.618-0.852) and 0.68 (0.594-0.770) for FGOAT and FDRS, respectively. As for Farsi-GOSE scale, Kappa value was 0.4 (0.285-0.507) for 8-level outcome ranking and improved to 0.7 (0.585-0.817) for 5-level scale. We found a good correlation between FDRS and FGOSE predicted prognoses (Spearman’s rho= 0.74, 95% CI: 0.676-0.802).
Conclusions:
FDRS and FGOAT had appropriate validity and reliability. The 8-level outcome FGOSE scale disclosed a low inter-rater agreement, but a suitable observer agreement was achieved when the 5-level outcome was applied.
PMCID: PMC3093777  PMID: 21603013
Disability Rating Scale; Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended; Galveston Amnesia and Orientation Test; Closed Head Injury; Cognitive function; General function; Rehabilitation
20.  Validity of the Italian adaptation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory; focus on quality of life and psychological distress in tinnitus-sufferers 
Summary
The aim of this study was to determine the validity of the Italian translation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) by Newman et al. in order to make this self-report measure of perceived tinnitus handicap available both for clinical and research purposes in our country and to contribute to its cross-cultural validation as a self-report measure of perceived severity of tinnitus. The Italian translation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was administered to 100 outpatients suffering from chronic tinnitus, aged between 20 and 82 years, who attended the audiological tertiary centres of the University Hospital of Modena and the Regional Hospital of Treviso. No segregation of cases was made on audiometric results; patients suffering from vertigo and neurological diseases were excluded. Pyschoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus (loudness and pitch) were determined and all patients also completed the MOS 36-Item Short Form Health Survey to assess self-perceived quality of life and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as a measure of self-perceived levels of anxiety and depression. The THI-I showed a robust internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.91) that was only slightly lower than the original version (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory-US; Cronbach’s alpha = 0.93) and its Danish (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.93) and Portuguese (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.94) translations. Also its two subscales (Functional and Emotional) showed a good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.85 and 0.86, respectively). On the other hand, the Catastrophic subscale showed an unacceptable internal consistency reliability as it is too short in length (5 items). A confirmatory factor analysis failed to demonstrate that the 3 subscales of the THI-I correspond to 3 different factors. Close correlations were found between the total score of the Italian translation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and all the subscales of the MOS 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores indicating a good construct validity. Moreover, these statistically significant correlations (p < 0.005) confirmed that the self-report tinnitus handicap is largely related to psychological distress and a deterioration in the quality of life. On the other hand, it was confirmed that the tinnitus perceived handicap is totally independent (p > 0.05) from its audiometrically-derived measures of loudness and pitch thus supporting previous studies that focused on the importance of non-auditory factors, namely somatic attention, psychological distress and coping strategies, in the generation of tinnitus annoyance. Finally the results of the present study suggest that the THI-I maintains its original validity and should be incorporated, together with other adequate psychometric questionnaires, in the audiological examination of patients suffering from tinnitus and that psychiatric counselling should be recommended for the suspected co-morbidity between tinnitus annoyance and psychological distress.
PMCID: PMC2644986  PMID: 18646574
Tinnitus; Anxiety; Depression; Quality of life
21.  Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity 
Background
The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument.
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC) and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability.
Results
One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90.
Conclusions
The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-24
PMCID: PMC3579716  PMID: 23327598
Patient satisfaction; Psychometrics; Quality of health care; Scales
22.  Cross-cultural French adaptation and validation of the Impact On Family Scale (IOFS) 
Background
The IOFS (Impact On Family Scale) questionnaire is a useful instrument to assess the impact of chronic childhood conditions on general family quality of life. As this instrument was not validated in French, we proposed to translate, adapt and validate the IOFS questionnaire for clinical and research use in French-speaking populations.
Findings
The sample studied comprised French-speaking parents with a child presenting a cleft lip or cleft lip and palate, aged 6 to 12 years and treated in the University Hospital of Strasbourg, France. The 15-item version of the IOFS was translated into French and then sent to the parents by post. The structure of the measure was studied using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability was studied by calculating the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC).
A total of 209 parents answered the questionnaire. Its acceptability was good, with 67.9% of mothers and 59.9% of fathers answering the questionnaire. EFA identified one main factor that explained 77% of the variance. Internal consistency was good, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.93. Finally, the ICC values were 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.66–0.85) and 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.80–0.92) for inter- and intra-observer reliability respectively.
Conclusions
The French version of the IOFS questionnaire exhibited very good psychometric properties. For practitioners, this instrument will facilitate the assessment of the impact of chronic childhood conditions on quality of life among French-speaking families.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-11-67
PMCID: PMC3674924  PMID: 23617959
Quality of life; Family; Child; Cleft lip; Cleft palate; Validation studies
23.  Stroke and aphasia quality of life scale in Kannada-evaluation of reliability, validity and internal consistency 
Background:
Quality of life (QoL) dwells in a person's overall well-being. Recently, QoL measures have become critical and relevant in stroke survivors. Instruments measuring QoL of individuals with aphasia are apparently rare in the Indian context. The present study aimed to develop a Kannada instrument to measure the QoL of people with aphasia. Study objectives were to validate Stroke and aphasia quality of life-39 (SAQOL-39) into Kannada, to measure test–retest reliability and internal consistency.
Materials and Methods:
The original English instrument was modified considering socio-cultural differences among native English and Kannada speakers. Cross-linguistic adaptation of SAQOL-39 into Kannada was carried out through forward–backward translation scheme. The scale was administered on 32 people from Karnataka (a state in India) having aphasia. For a direct understanding of the subject's QoL, scores were categorized into QoL severity levels. Item reliability of the Kannada version was examined by measuring Cronbach's alpha. Test–retest reliability was examined by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
Results:
Kannada SAQOL-39 showed good acceptability with minimum missing data and excellent test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.8). Value of Cronbach's α observed for four items modified in the original version was 0.9 each and the mean α of all Kannada items was 0.9, demonstrating high internal consistency.
Conclusions:
The present study offers a valid, reliable tool to measure QoL in Kannada-speaking individuals with aphasia. This tool is useful in a cross-center, cross-national comparison of QoL data from people with aphasia. This instrument also permits direct translation into other Indian languages as the items are culturally validated to the Indian population. This study promotes future research using the Kannada SAQOL-39.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.116932
PMCID: PMC3788281  PMID: 24101817
Aphasia; Kannada; quality of life; stroke and aphasia quality of life-39; stroke
24.  Development and Validation of the Chinese Attitudes to Starting Insulin Questionnaire (Ch-ASIQ) for Primary Care Patients with Type 2 Diabetes 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e78933.
Objectives
To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Chinese questionnaire which assesses the barriers and enablers to commencing insulin in primary care patients with poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes.
Research Design and Method
Questionnaire items were identified using literature review. Content validation was performed and items were further refined using an expert panel. Following translation, back translation and cognitive debriefing, the translated Chinese questionnaire was piloted on target patients. Exploratory factor analysis and item-scale correlations were performed to test the construct validity of the subscales and items. Internal reliability was tested by Cronbach’s alpha.
Results
Twenty-seven identified items underwent content validation, translation and cognitive debriefing. The translated questionnaire was piloted on 303 insulin naïve (never taken insulin) Type 2 diabetes patients recruited from 10 government-funded primary care clinics across Hong Kong. Sufficient variability in the dataset for factor analysis was confirmed by Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity (P<0.001). Using exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, 10 factors were generated onto which 26 items loaded with loading scores > 0.4 and Eigenvalues >1. Total variance for the 10 factors was 66.22%. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure was 0.725. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the first four factors were ≥0.6 identifying four sub-scales to which 13 items correlated. Remaining sub-scales and items with poor internal reliability were deleted. The final 13-item instrument had a four scale structure addressing: ‘Self-image and stigmatization’; ‘Factors promoting self-efficacy; ‘Fear of pain or needles’; and ‘Time and family support’.
Conclusion
The Chinese Attitudes to Starting Insulin Questionnaire (Ch-ASIQ) appears to be a reliable and valid measure for assessing barriers to starting insulin. This short instrument is easy to administer and may be used by healthcare providers and researchers as an assessment tool for Chinese diabetic primary care patients, including the elderly, who are unwilling to start insulin.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078933
PMCID: PMC3827341  PMID: 24236071
25.  Validation of a Spanish version of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) 
Background
The Revised version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) was published in 2009. The aim of this study was to prepare a Spanish version, and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia.
Methods
The FIQR was translated into Spanish and administered, along with the FIQ, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), to 113 Spanish fibromyalgia patients. The administration of the Spanish FIQR was repeated a week later.
Results
The Spanish FIQR had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α was 0.91 and 0.95 at visits 1 and 2 respectively). The test-retest reliability was good for the FIQR total score and its function and symptoms domains (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC > 0.70), but modest for the overall impact domain (ICC = 0.51). Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) were also found between the FIQR and the FIQ scores, as well as between the FIQR scores and the remaining scales’ scores.
Conclusions
The Spanish version of the FIQR has a good internal consistency and our findings support its validity for assessing fibromyalgia patients. It might be a valid instrument to apply in clinical and investigational grounds.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-11-132
PMCID: PMC3770447  PMID: 23915386
Fibromyalgia; Revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire; Linguistic validation; Psychometric properties; Instrumental study; Fibromialgia; Cuestionario de impacto de fibromialgia revisado; Validación lingüística; Propiedades psicométricas; Estudio instrumental

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