A growing body of evidence indicates that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Therefore, we conducted a candidate gene association study of 4 promoter polymorphisms that are known to modify expression levels of the MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 genes and a Gln279Arg polymorphism in exon 6 of MMP-9 that modifies the substrate-binding region. We examined the association of each variant and haplotypes in 385 male veterans with greater than 20 pack-years of cigarette smoking whose COPD status was characterized using spirometry. The association of these polymorphisms was also examined with decline of pulmonary function in a subset of participants. Only the 279Arg variant was more common in participants with COPD and the homozygous variant was associated with a 3-fold increased risk for COPD. In the haplotype analysis, the haplotype comprising the 249Arg and the CA promoter polymorphism within the MMP-9 gene was associated with risk, suggesting that either 279Arg or a linked variant on this haplotype underlies the association. No association of this polymorphism was found with decline in pulmonary function. These studies show that variants of the MMP-9 gene are associated with COPD in this cohort of veterans.
metalloproteinase; smoking; pulmonary function; single nucleotide polymorphism; molecular epidemiology
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family is considered to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis, however, no consistent results have been provided by previous studies. In this report, we performed Meta analysis to investigate the association between four kinds of MMP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, MMP1 -1607 1G/2G, MMP3 -1171 5A/6A, MMP9 -1562 C/T, MMP12 -82 A/G) and COPD risk from 21 studies including 4184 cases and 5716 controls. Both overall and subgroup association between SNP and COPD susceptibility were tested. There was no evident association between MMP polymorphisms and COPD susceptibility in general population. On the other hand, subgroup analysis suggested that MMP9 -1562 C/T polymorphism was related to COPD, as we found that C allele carriers were at lower risk in some subgroups stratified by lung function, age and genotype identification method, compared with TT homozygotes. Our results indicated the genotype TT might be one genetic risk factor of severe COPD.
Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for obstruction of airflow in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or an imbalance between MMPs and their inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs), is considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. We investigated whether the MMPs expression or the imbalance between MMPs and TIMP-1 is associated with the amount of cigarette smoking and the FEV1 value, in the lung parenchyma of 26 subjects (6 non-smokers and 20 cigarette smokers). First, we performed zymographic analysis to identify the profile of the MMPs, which revealed gelatinolytic bands mainly equivalent to MMP-9 in the smokers. We then measured, using enzyme immunoassay, the concentrations of MMP-9 and its inhibitor, TIMP-1. Correlation analysis revealed that both the MMP-9 concentrations and the molar ratios of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 (MMP-9/TIMP-1) were correlated with the amount of cigarette smoking. Furthermore, MMP-9 concentrations were inversely correlated with FEV1. In conclusion, this study shows that MMP-9 expression in human lung parenchyma is associated with cigarette smoking and also with the obstruction of airflow, suggesting that MMP-9 may play a role in the pathogenesis of the cigarette smoke-induced obstruction of airflow known as the characteristic of COPD.
Genetic variants influencing lung function in children and adults may ultimately lead to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly in high-risk groups.
We tested for an association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) and a measure of lung function (prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]) in more than 8300 subjects in seven cohorts that included children and adults. Within the Normative Aging Study (NAS), a cohort of initially healthy adult men, we tested for an association between SNPs that were associated with FEV1 and the time to the onset of COPD. We then examined the relationship between MMP12 SNPs and COPD in two cohorts of adults with COPD or at risk for COPD.
The minor allele (G) of a functional variant in the promoter region of MMP12 (rs2276109 [−82A→G]) was positively associated with FEV1 in a combined analysis of children with asthma and adult former and current smokers in all cohorts (P=2×10−6). This allele was also associated with a reduced risk of the onset of COPD in the NAS cohort (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 0.92; P = 0.02) and with a reduced risk of COPD in a cohort of smokers (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.88; P = 0.005) and among participants in a family-based study of early-onset COPD (P = 0.006).
The minor allele of a SNP in MMP12 (rs2276109) is associated with a positive effect on lung function in children with asthma and in adults who smoke. This allele is also associated with a reduced risk of COPD in adult smokers.
The imbalance between proteases and antiproteases has been proposed to participate to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. Gene level variation in different metalloproteinases, metalloproteinase inhibitors, and cytokines affecting them may contribute to this imbalance and destruction of the lung parenchyma. We investigated whether polymorphisms in selected protease-antiprotease balance pathway genes predispose to different emphysema subtypes (centrilobular, paraseptal, panlobular, and bullae) and airflow limitation among Finnish construction workers.
Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from seven genes (GC: rs7041 and rs4588; MMP1: rs1799750; MMP9: rs3918242; MMP12: rs652438; TIMP2: rs2277698; TNF: rs1799724 and rs1800629; TGFB1: rs1800469, rs1800470, and rs2241718) were analyzed from 951 clinically and radiologically characterized construction workers. The genotype and haplotype data was compared to different emphysematous signs confirmed with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and maximal expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (MEF50) by using linear and logistic regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders.
The TIMP2 rs2277698 SNP was associated with overall (p = 0.022) and paraseptal (p = 0.010) emphysema, as well as with FEV1/FVC ratio (p = 0.035) and MEF50 (p = 0.008). The TGFB1 rs2241718 and MMP9 rs3918242 SNPs were associated with centrilobular emphysema (p = 0.022 and p = 0.008), and the TNF rs1800629 SNP with paraseptal emphysema (p = 0.017). In stratified analysis, individuals with at least one TIMP2 rs2277698 or TNF rs1800629 variant allele were found to be at around two-fold risk for pathological paraseptal changes (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.14-3.30; OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.24-3.56). On the contrary, the risk for pathological centrilobular changes was halved for individuals with at least one MMP9 rs3918242 (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.30-0.86) or TGFB1 rs2241718 (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.30-0.90) variant allele, or TGFB1 rs1800469-rs1800470 AT-haplotype (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33-0.93). MEF50, in turn, was significantly reduced among individuals with at least one TIMP2 rs2277698 variant allele (p = 0.011).
Our findings strengthen the hypothesis of the importance of protease-antiprotease balance in pathogenesis of emphysema and shed light on the aetiology of different emphysema subtypes by associating MMP9 and TGFB1 to centrilobular emphysema, and TIMP2 and TNF to paraseptal emphysema and/or airflow obstruction.
Emphysema; Lung function; Genetics; Protease-antiprotease balance
Genetic variants influencing lung function or immune system may be involved in the development of asthma and/or its symptoms. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to both normal and pathological tissue remodeling and also act as regulatory molecules by processing cytokines or adhesion molecules. In animal models, growing evidences suggest that MMPs play important roles in asthma phenotypes. Some MMP genes (e.g. MMP-9 and MMP-12) have recently been shown to be associated with asthma in Caucasian populations. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MMP-7 and MMP-12 could affect the susceptibility to and clinical phenotypes of asthma in the Japanese population.
We conducted a case-control study between SNPs in MMP-7 and MMP-12 genes and asthma-related phenotypes using childhood and adult Japanese populations (653 childhood asthma patients and 423 controls, and 428 adult asthma patients and 646 controls, respectively). To investigate the effects of amino acid substitutions by SNPs on MMPs' enzymatic activity, MMP activity assays were performed using commercially available kits based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptide. We also evaluated the effect of 3’UTR SNP in MMP-7 on its mRNA stability and the effect of SNP in MMP-12 on its antimicrobial activity.
We found that, in the Japanese population, SNPs of MMP-7 (rs10502001, G/A, Arg77His; rs14983, C/T, 3’UTR) (P = 0.006; odds ratio (OR), 1.46; 95% confidential interval (CI), 1.126-1.903) and MMP-12 (rs652438, A/G, Asn357Ser) (P = 0.015; OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.002-2.556) showed significant association with adult and childhood asthma, respectively. We also found that the SNP (rs652438) in MMP-12 was associated with severity in adult asthma (P = 0.010). Using supernatant from cultured HEK293 cells stably transfected with the pcDNA3.1(+)-MMP-7 or MMP-12 as MMP proteins, we evaluated activation kinetics, rate of proteolytic cleavage of FRET peptide, Michaelis constant, and substrate specificity of the enzyme. In this system, we couldn't detect the functional effects of amino acid substitutions by SNPs on the enzymatic activity.
Our association study suggested that genetic variants of MMP7 and MMP12 conferred risk for development of asthma in the Japanese population.
Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In mice, MMP‐12 plays a crucial role in the development of cigarette smoke induced emphysema. A study was undertaken to investigate the role of MMP‐12 in the development of COPD in human smokers.
Induced sputum samples were collected from patients with stable COPD (n = 28), healthy smokers (n = 14), never smokers (n = 20), and former smokers (n = 14). MMP‐12 protein levels in induced sputum were determined by ELISA and compared between the four study groups. MMP‐12 enzymatic activity in induced sputum was evaluated by casein zymography and by cleaving of a fluorescence quenched substrate.
Median (IQR) MMP‐12 levels were significantly higher in COPD patients than in healthy smokers, never smokers, and former smokers (17.5 (7.1–42.1) v 6.7 (3.9–10.4) v 4.2 (2.4–11.3) v 6.1 (4.5–7.6) ng/ml, p = 0.0002). MMP‐12 enzymatic activity was significantly higher in patients with COPD than in controls (4.11 (1.4–8.0) v 0.14 (0.1–0.2) μg/μl, p = 0.0002).
MMP‐12 is markedly increased in induced sputum from patients with stable COPD compared with controls, suggesting a role for MMP‐12 in the development of COPD in smokers.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; matrix metalloproteinases; induced sputum; MMP‐12; smoking
Rationale: Chromosome 12p has been linked to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study (BEOCOPD), but a susceptibility gene in that region has not been identified.
Objectives: We used high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping to implicate a COPD susceptibility gene and an animal model to determine the potential role of SOX5 in lung development and COPD.
Methods: On chromosome 12p, we genotyped 1,387 SNPs in 386 COPD cases from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial and 424 control smokers from the Normative Aging Study. SNPs with significant associations were then tested in the BEOCOPD study and the International COPD Genetics Network. Based on the human results, we assessed histology and gene expression in the lungs of Sox5−/− mice.
Measurements and Main Results: In the case-control analysis, 27 SNPs were significant at P ≤ 0.01. The most significant SNP in the BEOCOPD replication was rs11046966 (National Emphysema Treatment Trial–Normative Aging Study P = 6.0 × 10−4, BEOCOPD P = 1.5 × 10−5, combined P = 1.7 × 10−7), located 3′ to the gene SOX5. Association with rs11046966 was not replicated in the International COPD Genetics Network. Sox5−/− mice showed abnormal lung development, with a delay in maturation before the saccular stage, as early as E16.5. Lung pathology in Sox5−/− lungs was associated with a decrease in fibronectin expression, an extracellular matrix component critical for branching morphogenesis.
Conclusions: Genetic variation in the transcription factor SOX5 is associated with COPD susceptibility. A mouse model suggests that the effect may be due, in part, to its effects on lung development and/or repair processes.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; emphysema; knockout mice; lung development; single nucleotide polymorphism
An imbalance in Matrix MetalloProteases (MMPs) and Tissue Inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) contributes to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) development. Longitudinal studies investigating Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in MMPs and TIMPs with respect to COPD development and lung function decline in the general population are lacking.
We genotyped SNPs in MMP1 (G-1607GG), MMP2 (-1306 C/T), MMP9 (3 tagging SNPs), MMP12 (A-82G and Asn357Ser) and TIMP1 (Phe124Phe and Ile158Ile) in 1390 Caucasians with multiple FEV1 measurements from a prospective cohort study in the general population. FEV1 decline was analyzed using linear mixed effect models adjusted for confounders. Analyses of the X-chromosomal TIMP1 gene were stratified according to sex. All significant associations were repeated in an independent general population cohort (n = 1152).
MMP2 -1306 TT genotype carriers had excess FEV1 decline (-4.0 ml/yr, p = 0.03) compared to wild type carriers. TIMP1 Ile158Ile predicted significant excess FEV1 decline in both males and females. TIMP1 Phe124Phe predicted significant excess FEV1 decline in males only, which was replicated (p = 0.10) in the second cohort. The MMP2 and TIMP1 Ile158Ile associations were not replicated. Although power was limited, we did not find associations with COPD development.
We for the first time show that TIMP1 Phe124Phe contributes to excess FEV1 decline in two independent prospective cohorts, albeit not quite reaching conventional statistical significance in the replication cohort. SNPs in MMPs evidently do not contribute to FEV1 decline in the general population.
TNF-α mediated inflammation is thought to play a key role in the respiratory and systemic features of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. The aim of the present study was to replicate and extend recent findings in Taiwanese and Caucasian populations of associations between COPD susceptibility and variants of the TNFA gene in a Spanish cohort.
The 3 reported SNPs were complemented with nine tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the TNFA and LTA genes and genotyped in 724 individuals (202 COPD patients, 90 smokers without COPD and 432 healthy controls). Pulmonary function parameters and serum inflammatory markers were also measured in COPD patients.
The TNFA rs1800630 (-863C/A) SNP was associated with a lower COPD susceptibility (ORadj = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.33-0.77, p = 0.001). The -863A allele was also associated with less severe forms of the disease (GOLD stages I and II) (ORadj = 0.303, 95%CI = 0.14-0.65, p = 0.014) and with lower scores of the BODE index (< 2) (ORadj = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.17-0.94, p = 0.037). Moreover, the -863A carrier genotype was associated with a better FEV1 percent predicted (p = 0.004) and a lower BODE index (p = 0.003) over a 2 yrs follow-up period. None of the TNFA or LTA gene variants correlated with the serum inflammatory markers in COPD patients (p > 0.05).
We replicated the previously reported association between the TNFA -863 SNP and COPD. TNFA -863A allele may confer a protective effect to the susceptibility to the disease in the Spanish population.
Elevated circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 and fibrinogen (FG) have been repeatedly associated with many adverse outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To date, it remains unclear whether and to what extent systemic inflammation is primary or secondary in the pathogenesis of COPD.
The aim of this study was to examine the association between haplotypes of CRP, IL6 and FGB genes, systemic inflammation, COPD risk and COPD-related phenotypes (respiratory impairment, exercise capacity and body composition).
Eighteen SNPs in three genes, representing optimal haplotype-tagging sets, were genotyped in 355 COPD patients and 195 healthy smokers. Plasma levels of CRP, IL-6 and FG were measured in the total study group. Differences in haplotype distributions were tested using the global and haplotype-specific statistics.
Raised plasma levels of CRP, IL-6 and fibrinogen were demonstrated in COPD patients. However, COPD population was very heterogeneous: about 40% of patients had no evidence of systemic inflammation (CRP < 3 mg/uL or no inflammatory markers in their top quartile). Global test for haplotype effect indicated association of CRP gene and CRP plasma levels (P = 0.0004) and IL6 gene and COPD (P = 0.003). Subsequent analysis has shown that IL6 haplotype H2, associated with an increased COPD risk (p = 0.004, OR = 4.82; 1.64 to 4.18), was also associated with very low CRP levels (p = 0.0005). None of the genes were associated with COPD-related phenotypes.
Our findings suggest that common genetic variation in CRP and IL6 genes may contribute to heterogeneity of COPD population associated with systemic inflammation.
Adiponectin is reported to be related to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Genetic variants in the gene encoding adiponectin (ADIPOQ) have been reported to be associated with adiponectin level in several genome–wide linkage and association studies. However, relatively little is known about the effects of ADIPOQ gene variants on COPD susceptibility. We determined the frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADIPOQ in a Chinese Han population and their possible association with COPD susceptibility.
We conducted a case–control study of 279 COPD patients and 367 age- and gender-distribution-matched control subjects. Seven tagging SNPs in ADIPOQ, including rs710445, rs16861205, rs822396, rs7627128, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs1063537 were genotyped by SNaPshot. Association analysis of genotypes/alleles and haplotypes constructed from these loci with COPD was conducted under different genetic models.
The alleles or genotypes of rs1501299 distributed significantly differently in COPD patients and controls (allele: P = 0.002, OR = 1.43 and 95%CI = 1.14–1.79; genotype: P = 0.008). The allele A at rs1501299 was potentially associated with an increased risk of COPD in all dominant model analysis (P = 0.009; OR: 1.54; 95%CI: 1.11–2.13), recessive model analyses (P = 0.015; OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.11–2.75) and additive model analyses (P = 0.003; OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.29–3.47). In haplotype analysis, we observed haplotypes AAAAACT and GGACCTC had protective effects, while haplotypes AGAACTC, AGGCCTC, GGAACTC, GGACACT and GGGCCTC were significantly associated with the increased risk of COPD.
We conducted the first investigation of the association between the SNPs in ADIPOQ and COPD risk. Our current findings suggest that ADIPOQ may be a potential risk gene for COPD. Further studies in larger groups are warranted to confirm our results.
The role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene polymorphisms in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been reported with inconsistent results. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the association of MMP-1 -1607G/GG and MMP-9 -1562C/T promoter polymorphisms with COPD susceptibility.
Published case-control studies from Pubmed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were retrieved. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.
A total of fourteen case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled effect size showed an association of MMP-9 -1562 C/T with the risk of COPD (dominant model: TT+CT vs CC; OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.02–2.08; p = 0.04). However, no correlation with COPD was revealed in MMP-1 -1607G/GG polymorphism. When stratified by ethnicity, results indicated MMP-1 -1607G/GG (recessive model: G/G vs G/GG+GG/GG; OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01–1.44; p = 0.04) and MMP-9 -1562 C/T (dominant model; OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01–2.71; p = 0.04) were correlated with COPD susceptibility among Caucasians and Asians respectively. According to source of controls, signifiant association of MMP-9 -1562 C/T (additive model: T vs C; OR:1.71, 95% CI: 1.42–2.07; p<0.00001, and dominant model; OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.34–2.76; p = 0.0004) with COPD susceptibility was revealed in the subgroup with smoker-based controls. However, in the aforementioned risk estimates, only the association of MMP-9 -1562 C/T (additive and dominant models) with the risk of COPD in the subgroup with smoker-based controls persisted significantly after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Moreover, after excluding the studies without Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and/or with small sample size, the pooled results were robust and no publication bias was found in this study.
This meta-analysis suggests, when using healthy smokers as controls, MMP-9 -1562 C/T, but not MMP-1 -1607 G/GG polymorphism is associated with the risk of COPD.
Common genetic variation may play an important role in altering chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk. In Xuanwei, China, the COPD rate is more than twice the Chinese national average, and COPD is strongly associated with in-home coal use. To identify genetic variation that may be associated with COPD in a population with substantial in-home coal smoke exposures, we evaluated 1,261 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 380 candidate genes potentially relevant for cancer and other human diseases in a population-based case-control study in Xuanwei (53 cases; 107 controls). PTEN was the most significantly associated gene with COPD in a minP analysis using 20,000 permutations (P = 0.00005). SNP-based analyses found that homozygote variant carriers of PTEN rs701848 (ORTT = 0.12, 95%CI = 0.03 - 0.47) had a significant decreased risk of COPD. PTEN, or phosphatase and tensin homolog, is an important regulator of cell cycle progression and cellular survival via the AKT signaling pathway. Our exploratory analysis suggests that genetic variation in PTEN may be an important risk factor of COPD in Xuanwei. However, due to the small sample size, additional studies are needed to evaluate these associations within Xuanwei and other populations with coal smoke exposures.
COPD; cell cycle; apoptosis; AKT; PTEN
Genetic data support the notion that polymorphisms in members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of genes play an important role in extracellular matrix remodeling and contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular disease. To identify novel genetic markers for diabetic nephropathy (DN), we examined the relationship between MMP gene polymorphisms and DN in the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) population. Genotypic data from the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) type 1 DN project were analyzed for associations across 21 MMP genes in 1,705 individual with type 1 diabetes, including 885 normoalbuminuric control subjects and 820 advanced DN case subjects. In total, we investigated the role of 1,283 SNPs (198 genotyped SNPs and 1,085 imputed SNPs) mapping to the MMP genes. We identified associations at several correlated SNPs across a 29.2 kb interval on chromosome 11q at the MMP-3/MMP-12 locus. The strongest associations occurred at 2 highly-correlated SNPs, rs610950 (OR = 0.50, P = 1.6×10−5) and rs1277718 (OR = 0.50, P = 2.1×10−5). Further examination of this locus identified 17 SNPs (2 genotyped SNPs and 15 imputed SNPs) in complete linkage disequilibrium associated with DN (P-values < 2.5×10−4), including a non-synonymous SNP (rs652438, Asn357Ser) located in exon 8 of MMP-12 that significantly reduced the risk of DN among carriers of the serine substitution relative to homozygous carriers of asparagine (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.37–0.71, P = 6.2×10−5). Taken together, our study suggests that genetic variations within the MMP-3/MMP-12 locus influence susceptibility of DN in type 1 diabetes.
Diabetic nephropathy; type 1 diabetes; end-stage renal disease; matrix metalloproteinase; genetic association
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death throughout the world and is largely associated with cigarette smoking. Despite the appreciation of the central role of smoking in the development of COPD, only a relatively small number of smokers (15%–20%) develop COPD. Recent studies depicting familial aggregation suggest that some subjects may have a genetic predisposition to developing COPD. In this respect, a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported in association with different COPD features (subphenotypes), although much of this data remains controversial. Classical genetic studies (including twin and family studies) assume an “equal-environment” scenario, but as gene-environment interactions occur in COPD, this assumption needs revision. Thus, new integrated models are needed to examine the major environmental factors associated with COPD which include smoking as well as air pollution, and respiratory infections, and not only genetic predisposition. Revisiting this area, may help answer the question of what has more bearing in the pathogenesis of COPD—the environment or the genomic sequence of the affected subjects. It is anticipated that an improved understanding of this interaction will both enable improved identification of individuals susceptible to developing this disease, as well as improved future treatments for this disease.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; environment; genomics; pathogenesis
Trachoma, an infectious disease of the conjunctiva caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is an important global cause of blindness. A dysregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) proteolysis during the processes of tissue repair following infection and inflammation are thought to play a key role in the development of fibrotic sequelae of infection, which ultimately leads to blindness. Expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a major effector of ECM turnover, is up-regulated in the inflamed conjunctiva of trachoma subjects. Genetic variation within the MMP9 gene affects in vitro MMP9 expression levels, enzymatic activity and susceptibility to various inflammatory and fibrotic conditions.
We genotyped 651 case-control pairs from trachoma endemic villages in The Gambia for coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MMP9 gene using the high-throughput Sequenom® system. Single marker and haplotype conditional logistic regression (CLR) analysis for disease association was performed.
The Q279R mutation located in exon 6 of MMP9 was found to be associated with lower risk for severe disease sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection. This mutation, which leads to a nonsynonymous amino-acid change within the active site of the enzyme may reduce MMP-9-induced degradation of the structural components of the ECM during inflammatory episodes in trachoma and its associated fibrosis.
This work supports the hypothesis that MMP-9 has a role in the pathogenesis of blinding trachoma.
In addition to smoking, genetic predisposition is believed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Genetic association studies of new candidate genes in COPD may lead to improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease.
Two proposed casual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (rs1051740, rs2234922) in microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) and three SNPs (rs1801282, rs1800571, rs3856806) in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), a new candidate gene, were genotyped in a case-control study (272 COPD patients and 301 controls subjects) in Hungary. Allele frequencies and genotype distributions were compared between the two cohorts and trend test was also used to evaluate association between SNPs and COPD. To estimate the strength of association, odds ratios (OR) (with 95% CI) were calculated and potential confounding variables were tested in logistic regression analysis. Association between haplotypes and COPD outcome was also assessed.
The distribution of imputed EPHX1 phenotypes was significantly different between the COPD and the control group (P = 0.041), OR for the slow activity phenotype was 1.639 (95% CI = 1.08- 2.49; P = 0.021) in our study. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for both variants, also age and pack-year, the rare allele of His447His of PPARG showed significant association with COPD outcome (OR = 1.853, 95% CI = 1.09-3.14, P = 0.0218). In haplotype analysis the GC haplotype of PPARG (OR = 0.512, 95% CI = 0.27-0.96, P = 0.035) conferred reduced risk for COPD.
The "slow" activity-associated genotypes of EPHX1 were associated with increased risk of COPD. The minor His447His allele of PPARG significantly increased; and the haplotype containing the minor Pro12Ala and the major His447His polymorphisms of PPARG decreased the risk of COPD.
BACKGROUND: The balance between proteinases and antiproteinases plays an important role in tissue destruction and remodelling. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema, an imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inhibitors of tissue metalloproteinase (TIMPs) has been reported. Alveolar macrophages are considered to be the main source of MMPs. We therefore have analyzed the effects of free and liposomal all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on the expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from patients with COPD and patients with other lung diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: BAL cells were incubated 1-3 day with either liposomal or free ATRA. Supernatants were tested for MMP-9 and TIMP-1 protein in specific ELISA systems; mRNA analysis was performed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and by quantitative LightCycler PCR. RESULTS: We demonstrate that either liposomal or free ATRA selectively down-regulates MMP-9 and up-regulates TIMP-1. At the protein level, MMP-9 is decreased 3-fold and TIMP-1 is increased 3.5-fold compared to the base line with empty liposomes or untreated cells. The ratio of MMP-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1, which may be crucial to the overall proteolytic potential decreased by factor 8. That this countercurrent effect of ATRA is not due to an altered protein stability but to transcriptional regulation could be demonstrated by RT-PCR. Quantitative LightCycler analysis revealed a 2.5-fold decrease of MMP-9 mRNA and a 4.5 fold increase of TIMP- 1 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that ATRA treatment via its impact on the proteinase/antiproteinase ratio may become a new therapeutic strategy for patients with inflammatory destructive lung diseases.
CD14, a co-receptor for endotoxin, plays a significant role in the inflammatory response to this environmentally important pollutant. The C-159T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CD14 gene promoter is reported to affect expression of CD14, with TT homozygous persons having higher CD14 expression. This SNP has been linked to pathogenesis of asthma and with cardiovascular diseases in smokers. We hypothesize that CD14 also plays a role in development of COPD in smokers who are exposed to inhaled endotoxin by cigarette smoking and to endotoxin released from Gram-negative microbes colonizing their airways. To assess the effect of the C-159T SNP of the CD14 gene promoter on lung function and GOLD score in smokers with COPD, we recruited 246 smokers with COPD with a range of 10–156 pack-year smoking exposures. We found that the C-159T single gene polymorphism of the CD14 gene promoter may play a role in modulating severity of obstructive impairment in smokers with COPD: The TT genotype was associated with lower lung function in smokers with a moderate smoking history. However, the CC genotype was associated with decreased lung function in heavy smokers (>56 pack-years). The result on CC genotype in risk for COPD is analogous with the effect of this genotype in risk for asthma. CD14 may be a factor in the pathophysiology of COPD, as it is in asthma and smoking-related cardiovascular diseases.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an essential role in the turnover of the extracellular matrix and cellular behavior. MMP1, MMP2, and MMP9 have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and open angle glaucoma secondary to exfoliation syndrome (XFG), respectively. Functional gene polymorphisms of these MMPs such as MMP1 −1607 1G/2G (rs1799750), MMP2 −1306 C/T (rs243865), MMP2 −1575 G/A (rs243866), and MMP9 Q279R (rs17576) are thus plausible candidates as risk factors for open angle glaucomas. The purpose of the present study was to investigate hypothesized associations between these polymorphisms and the presence of POAG and XFG in a Caucasian population.
The present case-control study included 322 patients with POAG, 202 patients with XFG, and 248 control subjects. Genotyping of polymorphisms was done using polymerase chain reaction.
No significant differences in either genotype distributions or allelic frequencies of MMP1 −1607 1G/2G, MMP2 −1306 C/T, MMP2 −1575 G/A, and MMP9 Q279R were found between patients with POAG and control subjects and patients with XFG and control subjects, respectively (p>0.05). The presence of POAG or XFG was not predicted by any of the investigated polymorphisms.
Our data suggest that the MMP1 −1607 1G/2G, MMP2 −1306 C/T, MMP2 −1575 G/A, and MMP9 Q279R polymorphisms themselves are unlikely major risk factors among Caucasian patients with either POAG or XFG.
Polymorphisms of several candidate genes have been studied and associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One such candidate is the SERPINE2 (Serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E member 2) gene.
Materials and Methods
To assess whether the SERPINE2 gene is associated with COPD in a Chinese Han population. Samples were collected from a Chinese Han population and analyzed for the association of single nucleotide polymor phisms (SNPs) or haplotypes of SERPINE2 gene with COPD in a case-control study. Three SNPs including rs840088 G/A in intron 1, rs1438831 A/G in 5' upstream sequence and rs3795879 G/A in intron 3 were detected using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism technique in 409 COPD subjects and 411 controls. Genotyping of the SREPINE2 polymorphisms at positions rs840088, rs1438831and rs3795879 was performed.
We found that none of the rs840088G/A, rs1438831G/A and rs3795879 G/A polymorphisms were associated with the disease. The p-values were 0.630, 0.208 and 0.398 respectively.
Our data suggested that there was no significant association between SERPINE2 polymorphism and COPD susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; SERPINE2 gene; polymorphism; susceptibility
Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent reports of increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in lungs of patients with emphysema support the paradigm of proteinase/antiproteinase imbalance in the pathogenesis of COPD. We sought to define the signaling pathways activated by smoke and to identify molecules responsible for emphysema-associated MMP-2 expression. In this study, we show that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induced MMP-2 protein expression and increased MMP-2 gelatinase activity of normal lung fibroblasts. We previously identified a transcription factor, early growth response 1 (EGR-1), with robust expression in the lung tissues of patients with COPD compared with control smokers. Here, the treatment of fibroblasts with CSE resulted in marked induction of EGR-1 mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner, accompanied by increased EGR-1 binding activity. CSE-induced MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression and activity were significantly inhibited using EGR-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or in Egr-1–null−/− mouse fibroblasts. Furthermore, we observed induction of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which has an EGR-1–binding site on its promoter, in CSE-treated primary normal lung fibroblasts. The concomitant MT1-MMP expression and MMP-2 activation by CSE are inhibited by EGR-1 siRNA. Rapid activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases was observed in CSE-treated fibroblasts. Chemical inhibitors of ERK1/2 MAPK, but not of p38 and JNK, decreased CSE-induced EGR-1 protein expression and MMP-2 activity of fibroblasts. The identification that induction of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP by CSE from lung fibroblasts is EGR-1–dependent reveals a molecular mechanism for matrix remodeling in cigarette smoke–related emphysema.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; EGR-1; cigarette smoke extract; MMP-2; MT1-MMP
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of disability and death. The most common cause of COPD is smoking. There is evidence suggesting that genetic factors influence COPD susceptibility and variants in several candidate genes have been significantly associated with COPD. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible association of the TNF-α –308, SPB+1580, IL-13 –1055 gene polymorphisms and latent adenovirus C infection with COPD in an Egyptian population.
Material and methods
Our study included 115 subjects (75 smokers with COPD, 25 resistant smokers and 15 non-smokers) who were subjected to spirometric measurements, identification of adenovirus C and genotyping of TNF-α –308G/A, SP-B+1580 C/T and IL-13 –1055 C/T polymorphisms by real-time PCR.
The adenovirus C gene was identified in all subjects. The distribution of TNF-α genotypes showed no significant differences between different groups. However, homozygous A genotype was associated with a significant decrease in FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEF25/75% of predicted in COPD (p < 0.05). As regards SP-B genotypes, resistant smokers had a significantly higher homozygous T genotype frequency compared to COPD and non smokers (p = 0.005). Interleukin 13 genotypes showed no significant difference between different groups. There was a significant decrease in FEF25/75% of predicted in T allele carriers in COPD patients (p = 0.001).
The COPD is a disease caused by the interaction of combined genes and environmental influences, in the presence of smoking and latent adenovirus C infection, TNF-α –308A, SPB +1580 T and IL-13 –1055 T polymorphisms predispose to the development of COPD.
single nucleotide polymorphism; smoking; adenovirus C; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit dominant features of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and/or asthma, with a common phenotype of airflow obstruction. COPD pulmonary physiology reflects the sum of pathological changes in COPD, which can occur in large central airways, small peripheral airways, and the lung parenchyma. Quantitative or high-resolution computed tomography is used as a surrogate measure for assessment of disease progression. Different biological or molecular markers have been reported that reflect the mechanistic or pathogenic triad of inflammation, proteases, and oxidants and correspond to the different aspects of COPD histopathology. Similar to the pathogenic triad markers, genetic variations or polymorphisms have also been linked to COPD-associated inflammation, protease–antiprotease imbalance, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, in recent years, there have been reports identifying aging-associated mechanistic markers as downstream consequences of the pathogenic triad in the lungs from COPD patients. For this review, the authors have limited their discussion to a review of mechanistic markers and genetic variations and their association with COPD histopathology and disease status.
senescence; apoptosis; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; bronchitis; emphysema