The technique of fusing mitotic cells to interphase cells, thereby producing condensation of the chromosomes of the interphase cell (so-called 'premature chromosome condensation' or PCC), has allowed detection of the initial number of chromosome breaks and their repair following ionising radiation. However, the difficulty and tedium of scoring all the chromosome fragments, as well as the inability to readily detect exchange aberrations, has limited the use of PCC. We describe here the use of the recently developed technique of fluorescence in situ hybridisation with whole chromosome libraries to stain individual human chromosomes (also called 'chromosome painting') with the PCC's and show that this overcomes most of the limitations with the analysis of PCC's. First, by focusing on a single chromosome, scoring of breaks in the target chromosome is easy and rapid and greatly expands the radiation dose range over which the PCC technique can be used. Second, it allows the easy recognition of exchange type aberrations. A number of new applications of this technology, such as predicting the radiosensitivity of human tumours in situ, are feasible.
From 1995 to 1996 about 15 people suspected of being overexposed to ionizing radiation were referred to the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, for investigation by chromosome aberration analysis. Biological estimates of accidental overexposure were first obtained by scoring radio-induced unstable structural chromosome aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings, and fragments) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For dose estimates, the yield of these chromosomal aberrations observed in 500 metaphases was compared with the laboratory dose-response relationship established from human blood irradiated in vitro (gamma-rays, 60Co, 0.5 Gy/min). To extend the possibilities of detecting DNA damage from earlier exposures by visualizing stable chromosome aberrations, chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH painting) was developed using a cocktail of three composite whole human chromosome-specific DNA probes (numbers 2, 4, and 12). A laboratory calibration curve for scoring terminal and/or reciprocal translocations was established for the same radiation quality and dose rate as those used for conventional cytogenetics (gamma-rays, 60Co, 0.5 Gy/min). For dosimetry purposes, it was also important to verify whether FISH painting could be applied to each human blood sample assessed for conventional expertise. For each individual, 2000 metaphases were scored for the presence or absence of reciprocal and terminal translocations. We present here a comparison between the results obtained by the two technologies for each of the cases studied separately. We describe their similarities or differences and discuss the suitability of using FISH painting for routine expertise analysis.
Most mutagens and genotoxic carcinogens are efficient inducers of chromosomal alterations in exposed cells. Two important classes of aberrations, namely structural and numerical, are recognized and both types of aberrations are associated with congenital abnormalities and neoplasia in humans. These alterations can be easily detected and quantified in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Conventional staining techniques can be used to detect these aberrations; this technique was used to estimate absorbed dose in the case of a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil. A recently introduced fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) using DNA probes has increased the sensitivity and ease of detecting chromosome aberrations, especially stable chromosome aberrations. This technique allows, to some extent, the estimation of absorbed radiation dose from past exposures. Numerical aberrations can be directly estimated in metaphases by counting the number of FISH-painted chromosomes. Micronuclei are formed by lagging chromosome fragments or whole chromosomes during the anaphase stage of cell division. The nature of micronuclei as to whether they possess a centromere can be determined either by CREST staining (calcinosis, Raynoud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia) or FISH with centromere-specific DNA probes. In several carcinogen-exposed populations, such as heavy smokers or people exposed to arsenic, aneuploidy appears to be more common than structural aberrations. In victims of radiation accidents, aneuploidy (hyperploidy) has been found to be common in addition to structural aberrations.
Purpose:Our purpose was to evaluate the utility of spectral imaging for multicolor, multichromosome enumeration in human interphase cell nuclei.
Methods:Chromosome-specific probes labeled with different fluorochromes or nonfluorescent haptens were obtained commercially or prepared in-house. Metaphase spreads, interphase lymphocytes, or blastomeres cells were hybridized with either 7 or 11 distinctly different probes. Following 46 hr of hybridization, slides were washed and detected using either a filter-based quantitative image processing system (QUIPS) developed in-house or a commercial spectral imaging system.
Results:The filter-based fluorescence microscope system is preferred for simultaneous detection of up to seven chromosome targets because of its high sensitivity and speed. However, this approach may not be applicable to interphase cells when 11 or more targets need to be discriminated. Interferometer-based spectral imaging with a spectral resolution of approximately 10 nm allows labeling of chromosome-specific DNA probes with fluorochromes having greatly overlapping emission spectra. This leads to increases in the number of fluorochromes or fluorochrome combinations available to score unambiguously chromosomes in interphase nuclei.
Conclusions:Spectral imaging provides a significant improvement over conventional filter-based microscope systems for enumeration of multiple chromosomes in interphase nuclei, although further technical development is necessary in its application to embryonic blastomeres. When applied to preconception/preimplantation genetic diagnosis, presently available probes for spectral imaging are expected to detect abnormalities responsible for 70–80% of spontaneous abortions caused by chromosomal trisomies.
aneuploidy; diagnosis; interphase cells; preconception; preimplantation genetic diagnosis; fluorescence in situ hybridization; spectral imaging
Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) has been used increasingly for gene mapping and ordering probes on interphase and metaphase preparations. The association of consistent chromosomal aberrations with certain malignancies allows the possibility of using interphase cytogenetics as a diagnostic tool. In small round cell tumours of children accurate diagnosis may be difficult using existing methods. We have therefore evaluated the diagnostic potential of this technique when applied to the characteristic t(11;22) found in Ewing's sarcoma and peripheral neuroectodermal tumour (ES and PNET). Interphase nuclei were prepared from normal human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF), two Ewing's sarcoma cell lines and several fresh tumour biopsies. DNA probes each side of the breakpoint at 22q12 were labelled with biotin and digoxygenin, hybridised to chromosomes in interphase and detected in different colours. Measurements between pairs of signals arising from each copy of chromosome 22 were taken and statistical analysis performed. There was a highly significant difference (P < 0.0001) between the two populations of measurements obtained (from nuclei with and without the t(11;22)). Studying four tumours and one further ES line (blind) it was found that median values from 30 nuclei could correctly identify which samples contained the t(11;22). This application of interphase cytogenetics contributes a reliable, accurate and conceptually simple diagnostic test for ES and PNET. It may now be applied to other tumours with characteristic translocations, amplifications or deletions when suitable probes are available. This approach is likely to become a routine in clinical diagnosis.
Fusion of an interphase cell with a metaphase cell results in profound changes in the interphase chromatin that have been called "chromosome pulverization" or "premature chromosome condensation" In addition to the usual light microscopy, the nature of the changes has been investigated in the present study with electron microscopy and biochemical techniques Metaphase and interphase cells were mixed and fused at 37°C by means of ultraviolet-inactivated Sendai virus. After cell fusion, morphological changes in interphase nuclei occurred only in binucleate cells which contained one intact set of metaphase chromosomes Irrespective of the nuclear stage at the time of cell fusion, the morphologic changes that occurred 5–20 min later simulated very closely a sequence of events that characterizes the normal G2-prophase transition. Radioautography revealed that, late in the process, substantial amounts of RNA and probably protein were transferred from the interphase nucleus into the cytoplasm of fused cells. Thus, the findings indicate the existence in metaphase cells of factor(s) which are capable of initiating biochemical and morphological events in interphase nuclei intrinsic to the normal mitotic process.
DNase I was used to probe the molecular organization of the chicken ovalbumin (OV) gene and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) gene in interphase nuclei and in metaphase chromosomes of cultured chicken lymphoblastoid cells (MSB-1 line). The OV gene was not transcribed in this cell line, whereas the GPD gene was constitutively expressed. The GPD gene was more sensitive to DNase I digestion than the OV gene in both interphase nuclei and metaphase chromosomes, as determined by Southern blotting and liquid hybridization techniques. In addition, we observed DNase I hypersensitive sites around the 5' region of the GPD gene. These hypersensitive sites were not always at the same locations between the interphase nuclei and metaphase chromosomes. Our results suggest that chromatin condensation and decondensation during cell cycle alters nuclease hypersensitive cleavage sites.
ABSTRACT Analysis for chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes has been developed as an indicator of dose from ionising radiation. This paper outlines the mechanism of production of aberrations, the technique for their analysis and the dose-effect relationships for various types of radiation. During the past ten years the National Radiological Protection Board has developed a service for the UK in which estimates of dose from chromosome aberration analysis are made on people known or suspected of being accidentally over-exposed. This service can provide estimates where no physical dosemeter was worn and is frequently able to resolve anomalous or disputed data from routine film badges. Several problems in the interpretation of chromosome aberration yields are reviewed. These include the effects of partial body irradiation and the response to variations in dose rate and the intermittent nature of some exposures. The dosimetry service is supported by a research programme which includes surveys of groups of patients irradiated for medical purposes. Two surveys are described. In the first, lymphocyte aberrations were examined in rheumatiod arthritis patients receiving intra-articular injections of colloidal radiogold or radioyttrium. A proportion of the nuclide leaked from the joint into the regional lymphatic system. In the second survey a comparison was made between the cytogenetic and physical estimates of whole body dose in patients receiving iodine 131 for thyroid carcinoma.
We exposed human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro to 0.3 and 1 Gy of 60Co gamma rays to evaluate whether the ability and sensitivity to detect chromosomal aberrations by chromosome painting is independent or not to the specific paint probes. To detect structural aberrations (translocations), we painted chromosome spreads simultaneously with two whole-chromosome libraries for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 13, 16, and 18. To compare the rate of chromosome translocations detected by the different pairs of chromosomes, data were normalized according to the fraction of genome painted and evaluated by unconditional logistic regression. Our results show that any combination of paint probes can be used to score induced chromosomal aberrations. We observed that the amounts of translocations are dose dependent and quite homogeneous within each dose of radiation, independently of chromosomes painted. However, the use of small chromosome probes is not recommended because of the high number of cells to be analyzed due to the small amount of genome painted and because it is more difficult to detect translocations in small chromosomes.
Biological dosimetry is an essential tool for estimating radiation doses received to personnel when physical dosimetry is not available or inadequate. The current preferred biodosimetry method is based on the measurement of radiation-specific dicentric chromosomes in exposed individuals' peripheral blood lymphocytes. However, this method is labour-, time- and expertise-demanding. Consequently, for mass casualty applications, strategies have been developed to increase its throughput. One such strategy is to develop validated cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory networks, both national and international. In a previous study, the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) was validated in our cytogenetic biodosimetry network involving five geographically dispersed laboratories. A complementary strategy to further enhance the throughput of the DCA among inter-laboratory networks is to use a triage DCA where dose assessments are made by truncating the labour-demanding and time-consuming metaphase-spread analysis to 20 to 50 metaphase spreads instead of routine 500 to 1000 metaphase spread analysis. Our laboratory network also validated this triage DCA, however, these dose estimates were made using calibration curves generated in each laboratory from the blood samples irradiated in a single laboratory. In an emergency situation, dose estimates made using pre-existing calibration curves which may vary according to radiation type and dose rate and therefore influence the assessed dose. Here, we analyze the effect of using a pre-existing calibration curve on assessed dose among our network laboratories. The dose estimates were made by analyzing 1000 metaphase spreads as well as triage quality scoring and compared to actual physical doses applied to the samples for validation. The dose estimates in the laboratory partners were in good agreement with the applied physical doses and determined to be adequate for guidance in the treatment of acute radiation syndrome.
Radiotherapists are highly interested in optimizing doses especially for patients who tend to suffer from side effects of radiotherapy (RT). It seems to be helpful to identify radiosensitive individuals before RT.
Thus we examined aberrations in FISH painted chromosomes in in vitro irradiated blood samples of a group of patients suffering from breast cancer. In parallel, a follow-up of side effects in these patients was registered and compared to detected chromosome aberrations.
Blood samples (taken before radiotherapy) were irradiated in vitro with 3 Gy X-rays and analysed by FISH-painting to obtain aberration frequencies of first cycle metaphases for each patient. Aberration frequencies were analysed statistically to identify individuals with an elevated or reduced radiation response. Clinical data of patients have been recorded in parallel to gain knowledge on acute side effects of radiotherapy.
Eight patients with a significantly elevated or reduced aberration yield were identified by use of a t-test criterion. A comparison with clinical side effects revealed that among patients with elevated aberration yields one exhibited a higher degree of acute toxicity and two patients a premature onset of skin reaction already after a cumulative dose of only 10 Gy. A significant relationship existed between translocations in vitro and the time dependent occurrence of side effects of the skin during the therapy period.
The results suggest that translocations can be used as a test to identify individuals with a potentially elevated radiosensitivity.
Resveratrol, a polyphenol compound with reported antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects, a wide range of molecular targets, and toxicity only at extreme doses, has received considerable attention. We evaluated the radioprotective effect of orally administered resveratrol on the frequencies of chromosome aberrations in irradiated mouse bone marrow cells. CBA/CaJ mice were divided into four groups: (1) no treatment, (2) resveratrol only, (3) radiation only, and (4) resveratrol and radiation. Resveratrol treatment (100 mg/kg daily) was initiated 2 days prior to irradiation. Bone marrow was then harvested at 1 and 30 days after a single dose of 3 Gy whole-body γ radiation. A statistically significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the mean total chromosome aberration frequency per metaphase at both times postirradiation in the resveratrol and radiation group compared to the radiation-only group was observed. This study is the first to demonstrate that resveratrol has radioprotective effects in vivo. These results support the use of resveratrol as a radioprotector with the potential for widespread application.
We report here several experiences of interphase cytogenetics, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, for the detection of chromosome aberrations. FISH, using alpha satellite specific probes of 18, X, Y chromosomes, was done in interphase nuclei from peripheral blood of patients with Edwards' syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome and Turner's syndrome with healthy male and female controls, respectively. The distributions of fluorescent signals in 100 interphase nuclei were well correlated with metaphase findings. Nowadays FISH plays an increasingly important role in a variety of research areas, including cytogenetics, prenatal diagnosis, tumor biology, gene amplification and gene mapping.
Chromosome aberration-based dicentric assay is expected to be used after mass casualty life-threatening radiation exposures to assess radiation dose to individuals. This will require processing of a large number of samples for individual dose assessment and clinical triage to aid treatment decisions. We have established an automated, high-throughput, cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory to process a large number of samples for conducting the dicentric assay using peripheral blood from exposed individuals according to internationally accepted laboratory protocols (i.e., within days following radiation exposures). The components of an automated cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory include blood collection kits for sample shipment, a cell viability analyzer, a robotic liquid handler, an automated metaphase harvester, a metaphase spreader, high-throughput slide stainer and coverslipper, a high-throughput metaphase finder, multiple satellite chromosome-aberration analysis systems, and a computerized sample tracking system. Laboratory automation using commercially available, off-the-shelf technologies, customized technology integration, and implementation of a laboratory information management system (LIMS) for cytogenetic analysis will significantly increase throughput.
This paper focuses on our efforts to eliminate data transcription errors, increase efficiency, and maintain samples’ positive chain-of-custody by sample tracking during sample processing and data analysis. This sample tracking system represents a “beta” version, which can be modeled elsewhere in a cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory, and includes a customized LIMS with a central server, personal computer workstations, barcode printers, fixed station and wireless hand-held devices to scan barcodes at various critical steps, and data transmission over a private intra-laboratory computer network. Our studies will improve diagnostic biodosimetry response, aid confirmation of clinical triage, and medical management of radiation exposed individuals.
Effects of gamma irradiation on the worm survival and chromosomal aberration of Clonorchis sinensis were studied. The metacercariae irradiated with various amounts of gamma radiation (ranging from 5 Gy to 50 Gy) were fed to rats, and the effects were compared with those of non-irradiated controls. Recovery rates of adult worms in irradiated groups were reduced gradually as increasing of the irradiation doses. No worm was recovered from rats which were fed with 50 Gy irradiated metacercariae. The chromosome number was 2n = 56 in all worms from all experimental groups. However, the groups irradiated with 20 Gy, 25 Gy or 30 Gy showed variations in the chromosome number, depending on different cells in the same individual. Radiation doses used in this study did not appear to induce chromosome aberrations, however, irradiation with 30 Gy showed slightly reduced chromosome size.
Clonorchis sinensis; gamma rays; chromosomes
We have used immunofluorescence staining to study the subcellular distribution of cyclin A and B1 during the somatic cell cycle. In both primary human fibroblasts and in epithelial tumor cells, we find that cyclin A is predominantly nuclear from S phase onwards. Cyclin A may associated with condensing chromosomes in prophase, but is not associated with condensed chromosomes in metaphase. By contrast, cyclin B1 accumulates in the cytoplasm of interphase cells and only enters the nucleus at the beginning of mitosis, before nuclear lamina breakdown. In mitotic cells, cyclin B1 associates with condensed chromosomes in prophase and metaphase, and with the mitotic apparatus. Cyclin A is degraded during metaphase and cyclin B1 is precipitously destroyed at the metaphase----anaphase transition. Cell fractionation and immunoprecipitation studies showed that both cyclin A and cyclin B1 are associated with PSTAIRE-containing proteins. The nuclear, but not the cytoplasmic form, of cyclin A is associated with a 33-kD PSTAIRE- containing protein. Cyclin B1 is associated with p34cdc2 in the cytoplasm. Thus we propose that the different localization of cyclin A and cyclin B1 in the cell cycle could be the means by which the two types of mitotic cyclin confer substrate specificity upon their associated PSTAIRE-containing protein kinase subunit.
Accurate chromosome alignment at metaphase and subsequent segregation of condensed chromosomes is a complex process involving elaborate and only partially characterized molecular machinery. Although several spindle associated molecular motors have been shown to be essential for mitotic function, only a few chromosome arm–associated motors have been described. Here, we show that human chromokinesin human HKIF4A (HKIF4A) is an essential chromosome-associated molecular motor involved in faithful chromosome segregation. HKIF4A localizes in the nucleoplasm during interphase and on condensed chromosome arms during mitosis. It accumulates in the mid-zone from late anaphase and localizes to the cytokinetic ring during cytokinesis. RNA interference–mediated depletion of HKIF4A in human cells results in defective prometaphase organization, chromosome mis-alignment at metaphase, spindle defects, and chromosome mis-segregation. HKIF4A interacts with the condensin I and II complexes and HKIF4A depletion results in chromosome hypercondensation, suggesting that HKIF4A is required for maintaining normal chromosome architecture. Our results provide functional evidence that human KIF4A is a novel component of the chromosome condensation and segregation machinery functioning in multiple steps of mitotic division.
chromokinesin; spindle; chromosome condensation; molecular motor
Whole comparative genomic hybridization (W-CGH) is a new technique that reveals cryptic differences in highly repetitive DNA sequences, when different genomes are compared using metaphase or interphase chromosomes. W-CGH provides a quick approach to identify differential expansion of these DNA sequences at the single-chromosome level in the whole genome. In this study, we have determined the frequency of constitutive chromatin polymorphisms in the centromeric regions of human chromosomes using a whole-genome in situ cross-hybridization method to compare the whole genome of five different unrelated individuals. Results showed that the pericentromeric constitutive heterochromatin of chromosome 6 exhibited a high incidence of polymorphisms in repetitive DNA families located in pericentromeric regions. The constitutive heterochromatin of chromosomes 5 and 9 was also identified as highly polymorphic. Although further studies are necessary to corroborate and assess the overall incidence of these polymorphisms in human populations, the use of W-CGH could be pertinent and of clinical relevance to assess rapidly, from a chromosomal viewpoint, genome similarities and differences in closely related genomes such as those of relatives, or in more specific situations such as bone marrow transplantation where chimerism is produced in the recipient.
comparative genomics; constitutive heterochromatin; human chromosomes; whole comparative genomic hybridization; W-CGH.
Common fragile sites are specific chromosomal loci that show gaps, breaks, or rearrangements in metaphase chromosomes under conditions that interfere with DNA replication. The mechanism underlying the chromosomal instability at fragile sites was hypothesized to associate with late replication time. Here, we aimed to investigate the replication pattern of the common fragile site FRA7H, encompassing 160 kb on the long arm of human chromosome 7. Using in situ hybridization on interphase nuclei, we revealed that the replication of this region is initiated relatively early, before 30% of S phase is completed. However, a high fraction (∼35%) of S-phase nuclei showed allelic asynchrony, indicating that the replication of FRA7H is accomplished at different times in S phase. This allelic asynchrony is not the result of a specific replication time of each FRA7H allele. Analysis of the replication pattern of adjacent clones along FRA7H by using cell population and two-color fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses showed significant differences in the replication of adjacent clones, under normal growth condition and upon aphidicolin treatment. This pattern significantly differed from that of two nonfragile regions which showed a coordinated replication under both conditions. These results indicate that aphidicolin is enhancing an already existing difference in the replication time along the FRA7H region. Based on our replication analysis of FRA7H and on previous analysis of the common fragile site FRA3B, we suggest that delayed replication is underlying the fragility at aphidicolin-induced common fragile sites.
The amounts of DNA in interphase nuclei were compared with the amounts of DNA in metaphase and anaphase figures in Feulgen-stained tissue sections of 5 specimens of the human ovarian papillary serous adenocarcinoma. The relative amounts of DNA per cell were determined by cytophotometric measurements of interphase nuclei at a single wavelength and of mitotic figures by the two wavelength method. The 5 specimens conformed to the stem cell concept of cell proliferation since anaphase distributions of amounts of DNA were restricted to a narrow range of DNA values indicating the successful mitosis of a single cell type (stem cell) out of several cell types whose presence were suggested by the wide spread of interphase and metaphase values. In addition, the data indicated that, in some instances, only the amounts of DNA in anaphase figures can reliably identify the stem cell. Changes in the frequency of dividing cells having doubled amounts of DNA, and/or the presence of cells resulting from endoreduplication can distort the interphase distribution of amounts of DNA and thus give rise to a modal DNA interphase value which is not the same as the DNA value of the stem cell (anaphase figures).
Cultures of a pseudodiploid cell line (Don) of Chinese hamster origin were exposed to varying doses of tritiated thymidine (TdR-3H) for relatively long periods of time. In addition to previously observed chromosomal aberrations) such as breaks and reunions, a substantial number of interphasic cells with micronuclei and of metaphases associated with pulverized chromosomes was found; both phenomena were dependent on exposure time to and concentration of TdR-3H. The former phenomenon appeared to result from the effects of the β-emissions originating in the TdR-3H. A possible interpretation for chromosome pulverization induction is presented, emphasizing the derivation of the pulverized material from micronuclei in a common cytoplasm with a metaphase nucleus. These observations further substantiate our previously advanced hypothesis regarding the essential role played by substances present in a mitotic cell in the induction of chromosome pulverization and nuclear membrane dissolution.
The action of chronic irradiation (dose rate 2.9 Gy/day) on human lymphocyte culture was investigated. Whole blood was irradiated at 37 degrees C. Aliquots (0.2 ml) of whole blood were cultivated by the standard method. A medium containing phytohemagglutinin was added immediately after irradiation. All structural chromosome- and chromatid-type changes were recorded. The experimental data showed that the conditions of irradiation of lymphocytes affected neither the background level of chromosome damage nor their radiosensitivity. The obtained dose-response curve of chromosome aberrations was described by a linear regression, which then became a plateau. There is no statistically significant difference between the results for the low doses (10-50 cGy) of chronic and acute radiation.
Premature centromere division, or premature centromere separation (PCS), occurs when chromatid separation is dysfunctional, occurring earlier than usual during the interphase stage of mitosis. This phenomenon, seen in Robert's syndrome and various cancers, has also been documented in peripheral as well as neuronal cells of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the latter instances, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), applied to the centromere region of the X-chromosome in interphase nuclei of lymphocytes from peripheral blood in AD patients, demonstrated premature chromosomal separation before mitotic metaphase directly after completion of DNA replication in G2 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, and perhaps unexpectedly given the presumptive post-mitotic status of terminally differentiated neurons, neurons in AD patients also showed significantly increased levels of PCS of the X-chromosome. Taken together with other phenomena such as cell cycle reactivation and ectopic re-expression of cyclins and cycline depedent proteins, we propose that AD is an oncogenic phenotype leading to accelarated aging of the affected brain.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether an enhanced skin radiation reaction correlated with an enhanced chromosome radiation response. Twelve patients with late radiation skin ulcers formed after courses of radiation therapy were chosen as a group of individuals with elevated skin radiosensitivity. Half of the venous blood samples from each donor were irradiated with 2 Gy gamma-rays; the other half remained unexposed. Using standard cytogenetic technique, lymphocyte cultures were prepared with all samples. On the metaphase preparations, all chromosome aberrations detectable without karyotype identification were scored. The frequency of various aberrations in each patient were compared with relevant mean values in healthy unexposed donors. In several patients, the frequency of one aberration type or another exceeded the control value significantly. Comparison of aberration patterns in irradiated and nonirradiated cultures and consideration of elapsed time after therapeutic exposures suggested that the observed increased aberration levels reflected individual features of the patients' radiosensitivity, rather than lesions induced by previous in vivo exposures. Therefore, the question of a correlation between skin and chromosome radiosensitivity can be answered positively. Analysis of the peculiarities of cellular distribution of aberrations and of the relative contribution of different aberration types in patients and healthy donors indicates that the investigation of in vitro-induced aberrations is more suitable for the assessment of individual radiosensitivity than the study of aberrations observed in unexposed cultures.
Recently, several high-resolution methods of chromosome analysis have been developed. It is important to compare these methods and to select reliable combinations of techniques to analyze complex chromosomal rearrangements in tumours. In this study we have compared array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and multipoint FISH (mpFISH) for their ability to characterize complex rearrangements on human chromosome 3 (chr3) in tumour cell lines. We have used 179 BAC/PAC clones covering chr3 with an approximately 1 Mb resolution to analyze nine carcinoma lines. Chr3 was chosen for analysis, because of its frequent rearrangements in human solid tumours.
The ploidy of the tumour cell lines ranged from near-diploid to near-pentaploid. Chr3 locus copy number was assessed by interphase and metaphase mpFISH. Totally 53 chr3 fragments were identified having copy numbers from 0 to 14. MpFISH results from the BAC/PAC clones and array-CGH gave mainly corresponding results. Each copy number change on the array profile could be related to a specific chromosome aberration detected by metaphase mpFISH. The analysis of the correlation between real copy number from mpFISH and the average normalized inter-locus fluorescence ratio (ANILFR) value detected by array-CGH demonstrated that copy number is a linear function of parameters that include the variable, ANILFR, and two constants, ploidy and background normalized fluorescence ratio.
In most cases, the changes in copy number seen on array-CGH profiles reflected cumulative chromosome rearrangements. Most of them stemmed from unbalanced translocations. Although our chr3 BAC/PAC array could identify single copy number changes even in pentaploid cells, mpFISH provided a more accurate analysis in the dissection of complex karyotypes at high ploidy levels.