The technique of fusing mitotic cells to interphase cells, thereby producing condensation of the chromosomes of the interphase cell (so-called 'premature chromosome condensation' or PCC), has allowed detection of the initial number of chromosome breaks and their repair following ionising radiation. However, the difficulty and tedium of scoring all the chromosome fragments, as well as the inability to readily detect exchange aberrations, has limited the use of PCC. We describe here the use of the recently developed technique of fluorescence in situ hybridisation with whole chromosome libraries to stain individual human chromosomes (also called 'chromosome painting') with the PCC's and show that this overcomes most of the limitations with the analysis of PCC's. First, by focusing on a single chromosome, scoring of breaks in the target chromosome is easy and rapid and greatly expands the radiation dose range over which the PCC technique can be used. Second, it allows the easy recognition of exchange type aberrations. A number of new applications of this technology, such as predicting the radiosensitivity of human tumours in situ, are feasible.
From 1995 to 1996 about 15 people suspected of being overexposed to ionizing radiation were referred to the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, for investigation by chromosome aberration analysis. Biological estimates of accidental overexposure were first obtained by scoring radio-induced unstable structural chromosome aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings, and fragments) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For dose estimates, the yield of these chromosomal aberrations observed in 500 metaphases was compared with the laboratory dose-response relationship established from human blood irradiated in vitro (gamma-rays, 60Co, 0.5 Gy/min). To extend the possibilities of detecting DNA damage from earlier exposures by visualizing stable chromosome aberrations, chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH painting) was developed using a cocktail of three composite whole human chromosome-specific DNA probes (numbers 2, 4, and 12). A laboratory calibration curve for scoring terminal and/or reciprocal translocations was established for the same radiation quality and dose rate as those used for conventional cytogenetics (gamma-rays, 60Co, 0.5 Gy/min). For dosimetry purposes, it was also important to verify whether FISH painting could be applied to each human blood sample assessed for conventional expertise. For each individual, 2000 metaphases were scored for the presence or absence of reciprocal and terminal translocations. We present here a comparison between the results obtained by the two technologies for each of the cases studied separately. We describe their similarities or differences and discuss the suitability of using FISH painting for routine expertise analysis.
Most mutagens and genotoxic carcinogens are efficient inducers of chromosomal alterations in exposed cells. Two important classes of aberrations, namely structural and numerical, are recognized and both types of aberrations are associated with congenital abnormalities and neoplasia in humans. These alterations can be easily detected and quantified in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Conventional staining techniques can be used to detect these aberrations; this technique was used to estimate absorbed dose in the case of a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil. A recently introduced fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) using DNA probes has increased the sensitivity and ease of detecting chromosome aberrations, especially stable chromosome aberrations. This technique allows, to some extent, the estimation of absorbed radiation dose from past exposures. Numerical aberrations can be directly estimated in metaphases by counting the number of FISH-painted chromosomes. Micronuclei are formed by lagging chromosome fragments or whole chromosomes during the anaphase stage of cell division. The nature of micronuclei as to whether they possess a centromere can be determined either by CREST staining (calcinosis, Raynoud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia) or FISH with centromere-specific DNA probes. In several carcinogen-exposed populations, such as heavy smokers or people exposed to arsenic, aneuploidy appears to be more common than structural aberrations. In victims of radiation accidents, aneuploidy (hyperploidy) has been found to be common in addition to structural aberrations.
Fusion of an interphase cell with a metaphase cell results in profound changes in the interphase chromatin that have been called "chromosome pulverization" or "premature chromosome condensation" In addition to the usual light microscopy, the nature of the changes has been investigated in the present study with electron microscopy and biochemical techniques Metaphase and interphase cells were mixed and fused at 37°C by means of ultraviolet-inactivated Sendai virus. After cell fusion, morphological changes in interphase nuclei occurred only in binucleate cells which contained one intact set of metaphase chromosomes Irrespective of the nuclear stage at the time of cell fusion, the morphologic changes that occurred 5–20 min later simulated very closely a sequence of events that characterizes the normal G2-prophase transition. Radioautography revealed that, late in the process, substantial amounts of RNA and probably protein were transferred from the interphase nucleus into the cytoplasm of fused cells. Thus, the findings indicate the existence in metaphase cells of factor(s) which are capable of initiating biochemical and morphological events in interphase nuclei intrinsic to the normal mitotic process.
Purpose:Our purpose was to evaluate the utility of spectral imaging for multicolor, multichromosome enumeration in human interphase cell nuclei.
Methods:Chromosome-specific probes labeled with different fluorochromes or nonfluorescent haptens were obtained commercially or prepared in-house. Metaphase spreads, interphase lymphocytes, or blastomeres cells were hybridized with either 7 or 11 distinctly different probes. Following 46 hr of hybridization, slides were washed and detected using either a filter-based quantitative image processing system (QUIPS) developed in-house or a commercial spectral imaging system.
Results:The filter-based fluorescence microscope system is preferred for simultaneous detection of up to seven chromosome targets because of its high sensitivity and speed. However, this approach may not be applicable to interphase cells when 11 or more targets need to be discriminated. Interferometer-based spectral imaging with a spectral resolution of approximately 10 nm allows labeling of chromosome-specific DNA probes with fluorochromes having greatly overlapping emission spectra. This leads to increases in the number of fluorochromes or fluorochrome combinations available to score unambiguously chromosomes in interphase nuclei.
Conclusions:Spectral imaging provides a significant improvement over conventional filter-based microscope systems for enumeration of multiple chromosomes in interphase nuclei, although further technical development is necessary in its application to embryonic blastomeres. When applied to preconception/preimplantation genetic diagnosis, presently available probes for spectral imaging are expected to detect abnormalities responsible for 70–80% of spontaneous abortions caused by chromosomal trisomies.
aneuploidy; diagnosis; interphase cells; preconception; preimplantation genetic diagnosis; fluorescence in situ hybridization; spectral imaging
Potentially lethal damage (PLD) and its repair (PLDR) were studied in confluent human fibroblasts by analyzing the kinetics of chromosome break rejoining after X-ray or heavy-ion exposures. Cells were either held in the non-cycling G0 phase of the cell cycle for 12 h, or forced to proliferate immediately after irradiation. Fusion premature chromosome condensation (PCC) was combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to study chromosomal aberrations in interphase. The culture condition had no impact on the rejoining kinetics of PCC breaks during the 12 h after X-ray or heavy-ion irradiation. However, 12 h after X-ray and silicon irradiation, cycling cells had more chromosome exchanges than non-cycling cells. After 6 Gy X-rays, the yield of exchanges in cycling cells was 2.8 times higher than that in non-cycling cells, and after 2 Gy of 55 keV/μm silicon ions the yield of exchanges in cycling cells was twice that of non-cycling cells. In contrast, after exposure to 2 Gy 200-keV/μm or 440-keV/μm iron ions the yield of exchanges was similar in non-cycling and cycling cells. Since the majority of repair in G0/G1 occurs via the non-homologous end joining process (NHEJ), increased PLDR in X-ray and silicon-ion irradiated cells may result from improved cell cycle-specific rejoining fidelity through the NHEJ pathway, which is not the case in high-LET iron-ion irradiated cells.
heavy ion; PLDR (potentially lethal damage repair); premature chromosome condensation; FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization); misrepair
Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) has been used increasingly for gene mapping and ordering probes on interphase and metaphase preparations. The association of consistent chromosomal aberrations with certain malignancies allows the possibility of using interphase cytogenetics as a diagnostic tool. In small round cell tumours of children accurate diagnosis may be difficult using existing methods. We have therefore evaluated the diagnostic potential of this technique when applied to the characteristic t(11;22) found in Ewing's sarcoma and peripheral neuroectodermal tumour (ES and PNET). Interphase nuclei were prepared from normal human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF), two Ewing's sarcoma cell lines and several fresh tumour biopsies. DNA probes each side of the breakpoint at 22q12 were labelled with biotin and digoxygenin, hybridised to chromosomes in interphase and detected in different colours. Measurements between pairs of signals arising from each copy of chromosome 22 were taken and statistical analysis performed. There was a highly significant difference (P < 0.0001) between the two populations of measurements obtained (from nuclei with and without the t(11;22)). Studying four tumours and one further ES line (blind) it was found that median values from 30 nuclei could correctly identify which samples contained the t(11;22). This application of interphase cytogenetics contributes a reliable, accurate and conceptually simple diagnostic test for ES and PNET. It may now be applied to other tumours with characteristic translocations, amplifications or deletions when suitable probes are available. This approach is likely to become a routine in clinical diagnosis.
Cells of the lung are at risk from exposure to low and moderate doses of ionizing radiation from a range of environmental and medical sources. To help assess human health risks from such exposures, a better understanding of the frequency and types of chromosome aberration initially-induced in human lung cell types is required to link initial DNA damage and rearrangements with transmission potential and, to assess how this varies with radiation quality.
Materials and methods:
We exposed normal human bronchial lung epithelial (NHBE) cells in vitro to 0.5 and 1 Gy low-linear energy transfer (LET) γ-rays and a low fluence of high-LET α-particles and assayed for chromosome aberrations in premature chromosome condensation (PCC) spreads by 24-color multiplex-fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH).
Both simple and complex aberrations were induced in a LET and dose-dependent manner; however, the frequency and complexity observed were reduced in comparison to that previously reported in spherical cell types after exposure to comparable doses or fluence of radiation. Approximately 1–2% of all exposed cells were categorized as being capable of transmitting radiation-induced chromosomal damage to future NHBE cell generations, irrespective of dose.
One possible mechanistic explanation for this reduced complexity is the differing geometric organization of chromosome territories within ellipsoid nuclei compared to spherical nuclei. This study highlights the need to better understand the role of nuclear organization in the formation of exchange aberrations and, the influence three-dimensional (3D) tissue architecture may have on this in vivo.
M-FISH; geometry of cell nucleus; radiation exposure; human lung
DNase I was used to probe the molecular organization of the chicken ovalbumin (OV) gene and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) gene in interphase nuclei and in metaphase chromosomes of cultured chicken lymphoblastoid cells (MSB-1 line). The OV gene was not transcribed in this cell line, whereas the GPD gene was constitutively expressed. The GPD gene was more sensitive to DNase I digestion than the OV gene in both interphase nuclei and metaphase chromosomes, as determined by Southern blotting and liquid hybridization techniques. In addition, we observed DNase I hypersensitive sites around the 5' region of the GPD gene. These hypersensitive sites were not always at the same locations between the interphase nuclei and metaphase chromosomes. Our results suggest that chromatin condensation and decondensation during cell cycle alters nuclease hypersensitive cleavage sites.
Resveratrol, a polyphenol compound with reported antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects, a wide range of molecular targets, and toxicity only at extreme doses, has received considerable attention. We evaluated the radioprotective effect of orally administered resveratrol on the frequencies of chromosome aberrations in irradiated mouse bone marrow cells. CBA/CaJ mice were divided into four groups: (1) no treatment, (2) resveratrol only, (3) radiation only, and (4) resveratrol and radiation. Resveratrol treatment (100 mg/kg daily) was initiated 2 days prior to irradiation. Bone marrow was then harvested at 1 and 30 days after a single dose of 3 Gy whole-body γ radiation. A statistically significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the mean total chromosome aberration frequency per metaphase at both times postirradiation in the resveratrol and radiation group compared to the radiation-only group was observed. This study is the first to demonstrate that resveratrol has radioprotective effects in vivo. These results support the use of resveratrol as a radioprotector with the potential for widespread application.
Chromosome aberration-based dicentric assay is expected to be used after mass casualty life-threatening radiation exposures to assess radiation dose to individuals. This will require processing of a large number of samples for individual dose assessment and clinical triage to aid treatment decisions. We have established an automated, high-throughput, cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory to process a large number of samples for conducting the dicentric assay using peripheral blood from exposed individuals according to internationally accepted laboratory protocols (i.e., within days following radiation exposures). The components of an automated cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory include blood collection kits for sample shipment, a cell viability analyzer, a robotic liquid handler, an automated metaphase harvester, a metaphase spreader, high-throughput slide stainer and coverslipper, a high-throughput metaphase finder, multiple satellite chromosome-aberration analysis systems, and a computerized sample tracking system. Laboratory automation using commercially available, off-the-shelf technologies, customized technology integration, and implementation of a laboratory information management system (LIMS) for cytogenetic analysis will significantly increase throughput.
This paper focuses on our efforts to eliminate data transcription errors, increase efficiency, and maintain samples’ positive chain-of-custody by sample tracking during sample processing and data analysis. This sample tracking system represents a “beta” version, which can be modeled elsewhere in a cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory, and includes a customized LIMS with a central server, personal computer workstations, barcode printers, fixed station and wireless hand-held devices to scan barcodes at various critical steps, and data transmission over a private intra-laboratory computer network. Our studies will improve diagnostic biodosimetry response, aid confirmation of clinical triage, and medical management of radiation exposed individuals.
When investigating radiation accidents, it is very important to determine the exposition dose to the individuals. In the case of exposures over 1 Gy, clinicians may expect deterministic effects arising the following weeks and months, in these cases dose estimation will help physicians in the planning of therapy. Nevertheless, for doses below 1 Gy, biodosimetry data are important due to the risk of developing late stochastic effects. Finally, some accidental overexposures are lack of physical measurements and the only way of quantifying dose is by biological dosimetry.
The analysis of chromosomal aberrations by different techniques is the most developed method of quantifying dose to individuals exposed to ionising radiations.1,2 Furthermore, the analysis of dicentric chromosomes observed in metaphases from peripheral lymphocytes is the routine technique used in case of acute exposures to assess radiation doses.
Materials and methods
Solid stain of chromosomes is used to determine dicentric yields for dose estimation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for translocations analysis is used when delayed sampling or suspected chronically irradiation dose assessment. Recommendations in technical considerations are based mainly in the IAEA Technical Report No. 405.2
Experience in biological dosimetry at Gregorio Marañón General Hospital is described, including own calibration curves used for dose estimation, background studies and real cases of overexposition.
Dose assessment by biological dosimeters requires a large previous standardization work and a continuous update. Individual dose assessment involves high qualification professionals and its long time consuming, therefore requires specific Centres. For large mass casualties cooperation among specialized Institutions is needed.
Biodosimetry; Dicentrics; Translocations; FISH
Heat denaturation of DNA in situ, in unbroken cells, was studied in relation to the cell cycle. DNA in metaphase cells denatured at lower temperatures (8 degrees-10 degrees C lower) than DNA in interphase cells. Among interphase cells, small differences between G1, S, and G2 cells were observed at temperatures above 90 degrees C. The difference between metaphase and interphase cells increased after short pretreatment with formaldehyde, decreased when cells were heated in the presence of 1 mM MgCl2, and was abolished by cell pretreatment with 0.5 N HCl. The results suggest that acid-soluble constituents of chromatin confer local stability to DNA and that the degree of stabilization is lower in metaphase chromosomes than in interphase nuclei. These in situ results remain in contrast to the published data showing no difference in DNA denaturation in chromatin isolated from interphase and metaphase cells. It is likely that factors exist which influence the stability of DNA in situ are associated with the super-structural organization of chromatin in intact nuclei and which are lost during chromatin isolation and solubilization. Since DNA denaturation is assayed after cell cooling, there is also a possibility that the extent of denatured DNA may be influenced by some factors that control strand separation and DNA reassociation. The different stainability of interphase vs. metaphase cells, based on the difference in stability of DNA, offers a method for determining mitotic indices by flow cytofluorometry, and a possible new parameter for sorting cells in metaphase.
Premature centromere division, or premature centromere separation (PCS), occurs when chromatid separation is dysfunctional, occurring earlier than usual during the interphase stage of mitosis. This phenomenon, seen in Robert's syndrome and various cancers, has also been documented in peripheral as well as neuronal cells of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the latter instances, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), applied to the centromere region of the X-chromosome in interphase nuclei of lymphocytes from peripheral blood in AD patients, demonstrated premature chromosomal separation before mitotic metaphase directly after completion of DNA replication in G2 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, and perhaps unexpectedly given the presumptive post-mitotic status of terminally differentiated neurons, neurons in AD patients also showed significantly increased levels of PCS of the X-chromosome. Taken together with other phenomena such as cell cycle reactivation and ectopic re-expression of cyclins and cycline depedent proteins, we propose that AD is an oncogenic phenotype leading to accelarated aging of the affected brain.
ABSTRACT Analysis for chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes has been developed as an indicator of dose from ionising radiation. This paper outlines the mechanism of production of aberrations, the technique for their analysis and the dose-effect relationships for various types of radiation. During the past ten years the National Radiological Protection Board has developed a service for the UK in which estimates of dose from chromosome aberration analysis are made on people known or suspected of being accidentally over-exposed. This service can provide estimates where no physical dosemeter was worn and is frequently able to resolve anomalous or disputed data from routine film badges. Several problems in the interpretation of chromosome aberration yields are reviewed. These include the effects of partial body irradiation and the response to variations in dose rate and the intermittent nature of some exposures. The dosimetry service is supported by a research programme which includes surveys of groups of patients irradiated for medical purposes. Two surveys are described. In the first, lymphocyte aberrations were examined in rheumatiod arthritis patients receiving intra-articular injections of colloidal radiogold or radioyttrium. A proportion of the nuclide leaked from the joint into the regional lymphatic system. In the second survey a comparison was made between the cytogenetic and physical estimates of whole body dose in patients receiving iodine 131 for thyroid carcinoma.
In the living interphase nucleus no chromosomal structures are visible. Yet in the injured cell and after treatment with most histological fixatives chromatin structures become apparent. Under certain conditions this appearance of structure in the living interphase nucleus is reversible. We have found that this change in the interphase nucleus is the result of a change in the state of the chromosomes. In the living nucleus the chromosomes are in a greatly extended state, filling the entire nucleus. Upon injury the chromosomes condense and therefore become visible. At the same time the nuclear volume decreases. This behavior of the chromosomes is connected with their content of desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This view is based on the following observations: (a) Distribution of DNA in the Nucleus.—(1) The living interphase nucleus of uninjured cells absorbs diffusely at 2537 Å. No chromosomal structures are visible in ultraviolet photographs unless they are also distinct in ordinary light. If the chromosomes are made to condense they become visible and the absorption at 2537 Å is now localized in these structures. (2) After fixation with formalin and osmic acid interphase nuclei stain diffusely with Feulgen. These fixatives preserve the extended state of the chromosomes. (3) If nuclei are teased out in non-electrolytes (sucrose, glycerin) the chromosomes are extended. Such nuclei stain homogeneously with methyl green. On adding salts the chromosomes condense and the methyl green is now restricted to the visible structures. (b) Extension and Condensation of Isolated Chromosomes.—When chromosomes isolated from interphase nuclei of calf thymus are suspended in sucrose, their volume is four to five times larger than in saline, but they retain their characteristic shapes. Chromosomes from which DNA and histone have been removed do not show this reversible extension and condensation, neither do lampbrush chromosomes of frog oocytes which contain very little DNA. During mitosis a partial condensation of the DNA occurs in prophase, so that the mitotic chromosomes now occupy a much smaller volume of the nucleus. At telophase the chromosomes swell again to fill the entire nucleus.
We exposed human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro to 0.3 and 1 Gy of 60Co gamma rays to evaluate whether the ability and sensitivity to detect chromosomal aberrations by chromosome painting is independent or not to the specific paint probes. To detect structural aberrations (translocations), we painted chromosome spreads simultaneously with two whole-chromosome libraries for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 13, 16, and 18. To compare the rate of chromosome translocations detected by the different pairs of chromosomes, data were normalized according to the fraction of genome painted and evaluated by unconditional logistic regression. Our results show that any combination of paint probes can be used to score induced chromosomal aberrations. We observed that the amounts of translocations are dose dependent and quite homogeneous within each dose of radiation, independently of chromosomes painted. However, the use of small chromosome probes is not recommended because of the high number of cells to be analyzed due to the small amount of genome painted and because it is more difficult to detect translocations in small chromosomes.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether an enhanced skin radiation reaction correlated with an enhanced chromosome radiation response. Twelve patients with late radiation skin ulcers formed after courses of radiation therapy were chosen as a group of individuals with elevated skin radiosensitivity. Half of the venous blood samples from each donor were irradiated with 2 Gy gamma-rays; the other half remained unexposed. Using standard cytogenetic technique, lymphocyte cultures were prepared with all samples. On the metaphase preparations, all chromosome aberrations detectable without karyotype identification were scored. The frequency of various aberrations in each patient were compared with relevant mean values in healthy unexposed donors. In several patients, the frequency of one aberration type or another exceeded the control value significantly. Comparison of aberration patterns in irradiated and nonirradiated cultures and consideration of elapsed time after therapeutic exposures suggested that the observed increased aberration levels reflected individual features of the patients' radiosensitivity, rather than lesions induced by previous in vivo exposures. Therefore, the question of a correlation between skin and chromosome radiosensitivity can be answered positively. Analysis of the peculiarities of cellular distribution of aberrations and of the relative contribution of different aberration types in patients and healthy donors indicates that the investigation of in vitro-induced aberrations is more suitable for the assessment of individual radiosensitivity than the study of aberrations observed in unexposed cultures.
Nonrandom chromosomal breaks in chromosomes 1 and 17 were provoked in human embryonic kidney cells 24 hr after infection with adenovirus type 12. These chromosomal changes disappeared in persistently infected cultures. Neutralization of the virus with type-specific antiviral serum prior to infection prevented the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations. No viral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, as determined by autoradiography, was seen in metaphases containing adenovirus type 12-induced chromosomal aberrations. Ultraviolet irradiation of the virus reduced chromosomal aberrations linearly. This reduction in aberrations was fourfold slower than the inactivation of viral infectivity. At 24 hr after infection of cells with purified 3H-labeled adenovirus type 12, the isotope was found to be associated with the nuclei. The uptake of isotope was reduced ninefold when the labeled virus was neutralized with type-specific antiviral serum. This difference is considered to account for neutralization of labeled virions. In metaphases infected with labeled viruses, most of the clustered grains were seen only on one arm of the chromatid, even after 72 hr. Isochromatid labeling was found, however, in a small percentage of chromosomes, and increased with time after infection. This increase was threefold between 24 and 72 hr after infection, whereas the mean grain counts decreased twofold during the same period. This has been tentatively interpreted to mean that most of the viral DNA molecules or parts thereof are merely attached to cellular chromatin, but a small fraction of them becomes gradually integrated as time proceeds. Certain chromosomal sites appeared to be preferentially labeled when chromosome 2 was used as a model for evaluation.
The action of chronic irradiation (dose rate 2.9 Gy/day) on human lymphocyte culture was investigated. Whole blood was irradiated at 37 degrees C. Aliquots (0.2 ml) of whole blood were cultivated by the standard method. A medium containing phytohemagglutinin was added immediately after irradiation. All structural chromosome- and chromatid-type changes were recorded. The experimental data showed that the conditions of irradiation of lymphocytes affected neither the background level of chromosome damage nor their radiosensitivity. The obtained dose-response curve of chromosome aberrations was described by a linear regression, which then became a plateau. There is no statistically significant difference between the results for the low doses (10-50 cGy) of chronic and acute radiation.
We report here several experiences of interphase cytogenetics, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, for the detection of chromosome aberrations. FISH, using alpha satellite specific probes of 18, X, Y chromosomes, was done in interphase nuclei from peripheral blood of patients with Edwards' syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome and Turner's syndrome with healthy male and female controls, respectively. The distributions of fluorescent signals in 100 interphase nuclei were well correlated with metaphase findings. Nowadays FISH plays an increasingly important role in a variety of research areas, including cytogenetics, prenatal diagnosis, tumor biology, gene amplification and gene mapping.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE:
Primed in situ labeling/synthesis (PRINS) technique is an alternative to fluorescent in situ hybridization for chromosome analysis. This study was designed to evaluate the application of PRINS for rapid diagnosis of common chromosomal aneuploidy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
We have carried out PRINS using centromere specific oligonucleotide primers for chromosome X, Y, 13, 18 and 21 on lymphocyte metaphase and interphase cells spread. Specific primer was annealed in situ, followed by elongation of primer by Taq DNA polymerase in presence of labeled nucleotides. Finally, reaction was stopped and visualized directly under fluorescent microscope.
Discrete centromere specific signals were observed with each primer.
PRINS seems to be a rapid and reliable method to detect common chromosome aneuploidy in peripheral blood lymphocyte metaphase and interphase cells.
Aneuploidies; Chromosome X; Y; 13; 18; and 21; PRINS
Radiotherapists are highly interested in optimizing doses especially for patients who tend to suffer from side effects of radiotherapy (RT). It seems to be helpful to identify radiosensitive individuals before RT.
Thus we examined aberrations in FISH painted chromosomes in in vitro irradiated blood samples of a group of patients suffering from breast cancer. In parallel, a follow-up of side effects in these patients was registered and compared to detected chromosome aberrations.
Blood samples (taken before radiotherapy) were irradiated in vitro with 3 Gy X-rays and analysed by FISH-painting to obtain aberration frequencies of first cycle metaphases for each patient. Aberration frequencies were analysed statistically to identify individuals with an elevated or reduced radiation response. Clinical data of patients have been recorded in parallel to gain knowledge on acute side effects of radiotherapy.
Eight patients with a significantly elevated or reduced aberration yield were identified by use of a t-test criterion. A comparison with clinical side effects revealed that among patients with elevated aberration yields one exhibited a higher degree of acute toxicity and two patients a premature onset of skin reaction already after a cumulative dose of only 10 Gy. A significant relationship existed between translocations in vitro and the time dependent occurrence of side effects of the skin during the therapy period.
The results suggest that translocations can be used as a test to identify individuals with a potentially elevated radiosensitivity.
Biological dosimetry is an essential tool for estimating radiation doses received to personnel when physical dosimetry is not available or inadequate. The current preferred biodosimetry method is based on the measurement of radiation-specific dicentric chromosomes in exposed individuals' peripheral blood lymphocytes. However, this method is labour-, time- and expertise-demanding. Consequently, for mass casualty applications, strategies have been developed to increase its throughput. One such strategy is to develop validated cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory networks, both national and international. In a previous study, the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) was validated in our cytogenetic biodosimetry network involving five geographically dispersed laboratories. A complementary strategy to further enhance the throughput of the DCA among inter-laboratory networks is to use a triage DCA where dose assessments are made by truncating the labour-demanding and time-consuming metaphase-spread analysis to 20 to 50 metaphase spreads instead of routine 500 to 1000 metaphase spread analysis. Our laboratory network also validated this triage DCA, however, these dose estimates were made using calibration curves generated in each laboratory from the blood samples irradiated in a single laboratory. In an emergency situation, dose estimates made using pre-existing calibration curves which may vary according to radiation type and dose rate and therefore influence the assessed dose. Here, we analyze the effect of using a pre-existing calibration curve on assessed dose among our network laboratories. The dose estimates were made by analyzing 1000 metaphase spreads as well as triage quality scoring and compared to actual physical doses applied to the samples for validation. The dose estimates in the laboratory partners were in good agreement with the applied physical doses and determined to be adequate for guidance in the treatment of acute radiation syndrome.
We have used immunofluorescence staining to study the subcellular distribution of cyclin A and B1 during the somatic cell cycle. In both primary human fibroblasts and in epithelial tumor cells, we find that cyclin A is predominantly nuclear from S phase onwards. Cyclin A may associated with condensing chromosomes in prophase, but is not associated with condensed chromosomes in metaphase. By contrast, cyclin B1 accumulates in the cytoplasm of interphase cells and only enters the nucleus at the beginning of mitosis, before nuclear lamina breakdown. In mitotic cells, cyclin B1 associates with condensed chromosomes in prophase and metaphase, and with the mitotic apparatus. Cyclin A is degraded during metaphase and cyclin B1 is precipitously destroyed at the metaphase----anaphase transition. Cell fractionation and immunoprecipitation studies showed that both cyclin A and cyclin B1 are associated with PSTAIRE-containing proteins. The nuclear, but not the cytoplasmic form, of cyclin A is associated with a 33-kD PSTAIRE- containing protein. Cyclin B1 is associated with p34cdc2 in the cytoplasm. Thus we propose that the different localization of cyclin A and cyclin B1 in the cell cycle could be the means by which the two types of mitotic cyclin confer substrate specificity upon their associated PSTAIRE-containing protein kinase subunit.