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1.  Clinicopathological study of gene rearrangement and microRNA expression of primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphomas 
We studied the clinicopathological and imaging characteristics of primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (PCNS-DLBCL). Imaging, pathologic histology, and immunohistochemical staining characteristics were analyzed, and the immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene rearrangement of 25 PCNS-DLBCL cases was examined. MicroRNA was extracted from 10 cases each of PCNS-DLBCL, extracerebral germinal center DLBCL (GC-DLBCL), and extracerebral non-GC-DLBCL (NGC-DLBCL); we conducted chip hybridization and comparatively analyzed the difference among the three. PCNS-DLBCLs typically involved no less than two cerebral lobes (10/25); the frontal lobe was affected most often (6/25). Target-shaped structures were observed in all PCNS-DLBCLs due to the proliferation of centroblast-like large lymphocytes surrounding the vessels. There was strong and diffuse immunostaining for CD20 and CD79a, and negative immunostaining for CD3, CD5, CD23, and cyclin D1 for all PCNS-DLBCLs. The percentage of cells with nuclear positivity for anti-Ki67 antibody ranged 50-90% (mean, 80%). Three, 19, and 22 PCNS-DLBCLs were CD10-, Bcl-6-, and melanoma ubiquitous mutated 1-positive, respectively. Twenty-four PCNS-DLBCLs were B-cell monoclonal. MicroRNA hybridization showed that 788 PCNS-DLBCL microRNAs/segments increased to at least twice that of NGC-DLBCLs, and 401 PCNS-DLBCL microRNAs/segments declined to less than half of that of NGC-DLBCLs. Six hundred and eleven PCNS-DLBCL microRNAs/segments increased to at least twice that of GC-DLBCLs, and 229 PCNS-DLBCL microRNAs/segments declined to less than half of that in GC-DLBCLs. PCNS-DLBCL typically affected multiple sites, tended to occur in older men, arose from activated B cells, had high B-cell monoclonality; its microRNA expression differed from that of NGC-DLBCL and GC-DLBCL.
PMCID: PMC3796226  PMID: 24133582
Central nervous system; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; gene rearrangement; microRNA
2.  A Case of B-cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable, with Features Intermediate between Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma and Burkitt Lymphoma in a Korean Child 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2012;32(2):162-166.
B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) (intermediate DLBCL/BL), is a heterogeneous group with some features resembling DLBCL and others resembling BL. Here, we report a case of intermediate DLBCL/BL in a Korean child. A 2-yr-old male was admitted for evaluation and management of left hip pain. Immunohistochemistry of a biopsy of the femur neck revealed tumor cells positive for CD20, CD10, BCL2, BCL6, and Ki67. A bone marrow (BM) aspirate smear revealed that 49.3% of all nucleated cells were abnormal lymphoid cells, composed of large- and medium-sized cells. Immunophenotyping of the neoplastic cells revealed positivity for CD19, CD10, CD20, and sIg lambda and negativity for CD34, Tdt, and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Cytogenetic and FISH analyses showed a complex karyotype, including t(8;14)(q24.1;q32) and IGH-MYC fusion. Intensive chemotherapy was initiated, including prednisone, vincristine, L-asparaginase, daunorubicin, and central nervous system prophylaxis with intrathecal methotrexate (MTX) and cytarabine. One month after the initial diagnosis, BM examination revealed the persistent of abnormal lymphoid cells; cerebrospinal fluid cytology, including cytospin, showed atypical lymphoid cells. The patient was treated again with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, adriamycin, MTX, and intrathecal MTX and cytarabine. The patient died of sepsis 5 months after the second round of chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC3289783  PMID: 22389885
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Burkitt lymphoma; Gray zone lymphoma
3.  B-cell Lymphomas with Concurrent IGH-BCL2 and MYC Rearrangements Are Aggressive Neoplasms with Clinical and Pathologic Features Distinct from Burkitt Lymphoma and Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma 
B-cell lymphomas with concurrent IGH-BCL2 and MYC rearrangements, also known as “double-hit” lymphomas (DHL), are rare neoplasms characterized by highly aggressive clinical behavior, complex karyotypes, and a spectrum of pathological features overlapping with Burkitt lymphoma (BL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and B-lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (B-LBL). The clinical and pathological spectrum of this rare entity, including comparison to other high-grade B-cell neoplasms, has not been well defined. We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical and pathologic features of 20 cases of DHL seen at our institution during a 5-year period. In addition, we performed case-control comparisons of DHL with BL and International Prognostic Index (IPI)-matched DLBCL. The 11 men and 9 women had a median age of 63.5 years (range 32-91). Six patients had a history of grade 1-2 follicular lymphoma (FL); review of the prior biopsy specimens in 2 of 5 cases revealed blastoid morphology. Eighteen patients had Ann Arbor stage 3 or 4 disease and all had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels at presentation. Extranodal disease was present in 17/20 (85%), bone marrow involvement in 10/17 (59%) and central nervous system (CNS) disease in 5/11 (45%). Nineteen patients were treated with combination chemotherapy, of whom 18 received rituximab and 14 received CNS-directed therapy. Fourteen patients (70%) died within 8 months of diagnosis. Median overall survival in the DHL group (4.5 months) was inferior to both BL (p=0.002) and IPI-matched DLBCL (p=0.04) control patients. Twelve DHL cases (60%) were classified as B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL, 7 cases (35%) as DLBCL, not otherwise specified, and 1 case as B-LBL. Distinguishing features from BL included expression of Bcl2 (p<0.0001), Mum1/IRF4 (p=0.006), Ki-67 <95% (p<0.0001), and absence of EBV-EBER (p=0.006). DHL commonly contained the t(8;22) rather than the t(8;14) seen in most BL controls (p=0.001), and exhibited a higher number of chromosomal aberrations (p=0.0009). DHL is a high-grade B-cell neoplasm with a poor prognosis, resistance to multi-agent chemotherapy, and clinical and pathological features distinct from other high-grade B-cell neoplasms. Familiarity with the morphologic and immunophenotypic spectrum of DHL is important in directing testing to detect concurrent IGH-BCL2 and MYC rearrangements when a karyotype is unavailable. The aggressive clinical behavior and combination of genetic abnormalities seen in these cases may warrant categorization as a separate entity in future classifications and call for novel therapeutic approaches.
PMCID: PMC3152212  PMID: 20118770
MYC; BCL2; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Burkitt lymphoma; cytogenetics; high-grade B-cell lymphoma
4.  Diffuse large B cell lymphoma derived from nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma presents with variable histopathology 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:332.
Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) usually presents in middle aged men and shows an indolent clinical behavior. However, up to 30% of the patients present a secondary transformation into aggressive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The aim of the present study was to characterize morphology and immunophenotype of this kind of DLBCL in detail and compare it with conventional DLBCL.
Morphology and immunophenotype of 33 cases of NLPHL with simultaneous or sequential transformation into DLBCL were investigated. These cases were compared with 41 de novo DLBCL in Finnish men.
The majority of cases exhibited different immunophenotypes in the NLPHL and the DLBCL components. The immunophenotype of the DLBCL secondary to NLPHL was heterogeneous. However, BCL6, EMA, CD75 and J-chain were usually expressed in both components (≥73% positive). Overall, the NLPHL component was more frequently positive for EMA, CD75 and J-chain than the DLBCL component. In contrast, B cell markers, CD10 and BCL2, were more frequently expressed and were expressed at higher levels in the DLBCL component than in the NLPHL component. In the independent series of de novo DLBCL 4 cases could be identified with a growth pattern and immunophenotype that suggested that they had arisen secondarily from NLPHL.
The morphology and immunophenotype of DLBCL arisen from NLPHL is heterogeneous. Further characterization of the particular molecular features of this subgroup is warranted to be able to better identify these cases among conventional DLBCL.
PMCID: PMC4030276  PMID: 24885870
Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma; Diffuse large B cell lymphoma; Transformation
British journal of haematology  2013;161(1):43-56.
Interactions between the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor PCI-32765 and the proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib) were examined in diffuse large-B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells, including those highly resistant to bortezomib. Co-administration of PCI-32765/bortezomib synergistically increased mitochondrial injury and apoptosis in germinal centre- or activated B-cell-like-DLBCL cells and in MCL cells. These events were accompanied by marked AKT and nuclear factor (NF)-κB (NFKB1) inactivation, down-regulation of Mcl-1 (MCL1), Bcl-xL (BCL2L1), and XIAP, and enhanced DNA damage (e.g., γH2A.X formation) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Similar interactions were observed in highly bortezomib-resistant DLBCL and MCL cells, and in primary DLBCL cells. In contrast, PCI-32765/bortezomib regimens displayed minimal toxicity toward normal CD34+ bone marrow cells. Transfection of DLBCL cells with a constitutively active AKT construct attenuated AKT inactivation and significantly diminished cell death, whereas expression of an NF-κB “super-repressor” (IκBαser34/36) increased both PCI-32765 and bortezomib lethality. Moreover, cells in which the ER stress response was disabled by a dominant-negative eIF2α construct were resistant to this regimen. Finally, combined exposure to PCI-32765 and bortezomib resulted in more pronounced and sustained reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and ROS scavengers significantly diminished lethality. Given promising early clinical results for PCI-32765 in DLBCL and MCL, a strategy combining BTK/ proteasome inhibitor warrants attention in these malignancies.
PMCID: PMC3739300  PMID: 23360303
PCI32765; bortezomib; BTK; DLBCL; mantle cell lymphoma
6.  CD20-negative de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in HIV-negative patients: A matched case-control analysis in a single institution 
HIV-negative, CD20-negative de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients has rarely been reported. To elucidate the nature of this entity, we retrospectively reviewed the data of 1,456 consecutive de novo DLBCL patients who were treated at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center between January 1999 and March 2011.
The pathologic characteristics of CD20-negative patients, clinical features, response to initial treatment, and outcomes of 28 patients with available clinical data (n = 21) were reviewed. Then, a matched case-control (1:3) analysis was performed to compare patients with CD20-negative and -positive DLBCL.
The median age of the 28 CD20-negative DLBCL patients was 48 years, with a male-female ratio of 20:8. Seventeen of 22 (77.3%) CD20-negative DLBCL cases were of the non-germinal centre B-cell (non-GCB) subtype. High Ki67 expression (≥80%), an index of cell proliferation, was demonstrated in 17 of 24 (70.8%) cases. Extranodal involvement (≥ 1 site) was observed in 76.2% of the patients. Following initial therapy, 9 of 21 (42.9%) cases achieved complete remission, 4 (19%) achieved partial remission, 1 (4.8%) had stable disease, and 7 (33.3%) had disease progression. The median overall survival was 23 months. The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 30.5% and 35%, respectively. A matched case-control analysis showed that patients with CD20-negative and -positive DLBCL did not exhibit a statistically significant difference with respect to the main clinical characteristics (except extranodal involvement), whereas the patients with CD20-positive DLBCL had a better survival outcome with 3-year PFS (P = 0.008) and OS (P = 0.008) rates of 52% and 74.1%, respectively.
This study suggests that HIV-negative, CD20-negative de novo DLBCL patients have a higher proportion of non-GCB subtype, a higher proliferation index, more frequent extranodal involvement, a poorer response, and a poorer prognosis to conventional treatment compared to patients with CD20-positive DLBCL. Further studies are warranted to investigate new target and optimal therapy of CD20-negative de novo DLBCL.
PMCID: PMC3418184  PMID: 22554077
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; CD20-negative; Clinicopathologic features; HIV-negative
7.  Distinctive patterns of BCL6 molecular alterations and their functional consequences in different subgroups of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma 
Gene expression profiling of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has revealed biologically and prognostically distinct subgroups: germinal center B-cell-like (GCB), activated B-cell-like (ABC) and primary mediastinal (PM) DLBCL. The BCL6 gene is often translocated and/or mutated in DLBCL. Therefore, we examined the BCL6 molecular alterations in these DLBCL subgroups, and their impact on BCL6 expression and BCL6 target gene repression. BCL6 translocations at the major breakpoint region (MBR) were detected in 25 (18.8%) of 133 DLBCL cases, with a higher frequency in the PM (33%) and ABC (24%) subgroups than in the GCB (10%) subgroup. Translocations at the alternative breakpoint region (ABR) were detected in five (6.4%) of 78 DLBCL cases, with three cases in ABC and one case each in the GCB and the unclassifiable subgroups. The translocated cases involved IgH and non-IgH partners in about equal frequency and were not associated with different levels of BCL6 mRNA and protein expression. BCL6 mutations were detected in 61% of DLBCL cases, with a significantly higher frequency in the GCB and PM subgroups (> 70%) than in the ABC subgroup (44%). Exon-1 mutations were mostly observed in the GCB subgroup. The repression of known BCL6 target genes correlated with the level of BCL6 mRNA and protein expression in GCB and ABC subgroups but not with BCL6 translocation and intronic mutations. No clear inverse correlation between BCL6 expression and p53 expression was observed. Patients with higher BCL6 mRNA or protein expression had a significantly better overall survival. The biological role of BCL6 in translocated cases where repression of known target genes is not demonstrated is intriguing and warrants further investigation.
PMCID: PMC2366166  PMID: 17625604
BCL6; mutation; translocation; protein expression; gene expression profiling; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
8.  Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of bone lymphomas: focus on the clinical significance of multifocal bone involvement by primary bone large B-cell lymphomas 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):900.
Malignant bone lymphoma can be classified as primary (PBL) or secondary (SBL) bone lymphoma. However, the clinico-pathological characteristics and prognostic factors of PBL versus SBL have not yet been well defined. Whether lymphoma with multifocal bone involvement should be considered as stage IV PBL or SBL still remain controversial throughout the literature.
In this study, we retrospectively reviewed 127 patients with bone lymphoma diagnosed from1998 to 2013 at the Moffitt Cancer Center. Patients were classified as PBL (81 cases) and SBL (46 cases) using the 2013 WHO Classification of Bone/Soft Tissue Tumors and PBL patients were further subdivided into: 1) PBL with unifocal bone disease (uPBL, 46 cases), 2) PBL with multifocal bone involvement (mPBL, 35 cases). Patient characteristics, survival, and prognostic factors were analyzed.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was the most common histological subtype in all three groups (37/46 of uPBL, 23/35 of mPBL, 23/46 of SBL). B symptoms, lymph node involvement, and bone marrow involvement were found to be more common in mPB-DLBCL and SB-DLBCL groups than in the uPB-DLBCL group. Femur was found to be the most common affected site in uPB-DLBCL patients, while spine was most commonly involved in the other two groups. Survival analysis indicated that uPBL-DLBCL patients had a significantly better progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than those in the other two groups (P < 0.05). We also found by univariate analysis that multifocality, and stage IV were significantly poor prognostic factors for both PFS and OS in PBL patients. Using multivariate analysis, multifocality remained an independent prognostic factor for both PFS and OS (P = 0.0117, RR: 3.789, 95% CI: 1.275-11.256).
Overall, our results suggest that mPBL is more similar to SBL in characteristics and survival rather than uPBL, and thus should be better classified and treated as SBL.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-900) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4265495  PMID: 25465716
Primary bone lymphoma (PBL); Secondary bone lymphoma (SBL); Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); Clinico-pathological characteristics; Prognostic factors; Multifocal bone involvement/multifocality
9.  Primary CNS lymphoma other than DLBCL: a descriptive analysis of clinical features and treatment outcomes 
Annals of Hematology  2011;90(12):1391-1398.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) constitutes most primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL), whereas T-cell, low-grade and Burkitt’s lymphomas (BL) are rarely encountered. Due to the paucity of cases, little is known about the clinical features and treatment outcomes of PCNSL other than DLBCL. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes for patients with PCNSL other than DLBCL. Fifteen patients, newly diagnosed with PCNSLs other than DLBCL between 2000 and 2010, were included. The male to female ratio was 0.67:1 with a median age of diagnosis of 31 years (range 18–59). Pathologic distributions were as follows: peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; n = 7), marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL; n = 1), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL; n = 2), Burkitt’s lymphoma (n = 1), other unspecified (T-cell lineage, n = 2; B-cell lineage, n = 2). Thirteen patients (87%) showed Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG PS) 1–2. The remaining two were one PTCL patient and one Burkitt’s lymphoma patient. Of the nine patients with T-cell lymphoma, five (56%) had multifocal lesions, and one (20%) with LPL of the five patients with B-cell lymphoma showed a single lesion. Leptomeningeal lymphomatosis was identified in two patients (one with Burkitt’s lymphoma and one with unspecified B-cell lymphoma). Two patients (22%) with T-cell lymphoma died 7.7 and 23.3 months later, respectively, due to disease progression, despite HD-MTX-based therapy. Six patients with T-cell lymphoma (6/9, 66.7%) and four patients with low-grade B-cell lymphoma (4/5, 80%) achieved complete response and have survived without relapse (Table 3). One patient with Burkitt’s lymphoma showed poor clinical features with ECOG PS 3, deep structure, multifocal, and leptomeningeal lymphomatosis, and died 7.6 months after the initiation of treatment. In comparison with previously reported DLBCLs (median OS 6.4 years, 95% CI 3.7–9.1 years), T-cell lymphoma showed equivocal or favorable clinical outcomes and low-grade B-cell lymphomas, such as MZBCL and LPL, had a good prognosis. However, primary CNS Burkitt’s lymphoma presented poor clinical outcomes and showed a comparatively aggressive clinical course. In conclusion, primary CNS lymphoma other than DLBCL occurred more in younger patients and showed a generally good prognosis, except for Burkitt’s lymphoma. Further research on treatment strategies for Burkitt’s lymphoma is needed.
PMCID: PMC3210363  PMID: 21479535
Primary CNS lymphoma; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
10.  Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly expresses EBNA3A with conserved CD8+ T-cell epitopes 
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) arise in the immunosuppressed and are frequently Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated. The most common PTLD histological sub-type is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV+DLBCL-PTLD). Restoration of EBV-specific T-cell immunity can induce EBV+DLBCL-PTLD regression. The most frequent B-cell lymphoma in the immunocompetent is also DLBCL. ‘EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly’ (EBV+DLBCL) is a rare but well-recognized DLBCL entity that occurs in the overtly immunocompetent, that has an adverse outcome relative to EBV-negative DLBCL. Unlike PTLD (which is classified as viral latency III), literature suggests EBV+DLBCL is typically latency II, i.e. expression is limited to the immuno-subdominant EBNA1, LMP1 and LMP2 EBV-proteins. If correct, this would be a major impediment for T-cell immunotherapeutic strategies. Unexpectedly we observed EBV+DLBCL-PTLD and EBV+DLBCL both shared features consistent with type III EBV-latency, including expression of the immuno-dominant EBNA3A protein. Extensive analysis showed frequent polymorphisms in EB-NA1 and LMP1 functionally defined CD8+ T-cell epitope encoding regions, whereas EBNA3A polymorphisms were very rare making this an attractive immunotherapy target. As with EBV+DLBCL-PTLD, the antigen presenting machinery within lymphomatous nodes was intact. EBV+DLBCL express EBNA3A suggesting it is amenable to immunotherapeutic strategies.
PMCID: PMC3301425  PMID: 22432076
Epstein-Barr virus; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; EBNA3A; T-cell; epitope; immunotherapy; posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder
11.  The Histological and Biological Spectrum of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma in the WHO Classification 
Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)  2012;18(5):411-420.
Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are aggressive B-cell lymphomas that are clinically, pathologically and genetically diverse, in part reflecting the functional diversity of the B-cell system. The focus in recent years has been towards incorporation of clinical features, morphology, immunohistochemistry and ever evolving genetic data into the classification scheme. The 2008 WHO classification reflects this complexity with the addition of several new entities and variants. The discovery of distinct subtypes by gene expression profiling (GEP) heralded a new era with a focus on pathways of transformation as well as a promise of more targeted therapies, directed at specific pathways. Some DLBCLs exhibit unique clinical characteristics with a predilection for specific anatomic sites; the anatomic site often reflects underlying biological distinctions. Recently, the spectrum of EBV-driven B-cell proliferations in patients without iatrogenic or congenital immunosuppression has been better characterized; most of these occur in patients of advanced age, and include EBV-positive large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly. HHV-8 is involved in the pathogenesis of primary effusion lymphoma, which can present as a “solid variant.” Two borderline categories were created; one deals with tumors at the interface between classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and DLBCL. The second confronts the interface between Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) and DLBCL, so called “B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma” in the 2008 classification. Most cases harbor both MYC and BCL2 translocations, and are highly aggressive. Another interesting entity is ALK+ DLBCL, which renders itself potentially targetable by ALK inhibitors. Ongoing investigations at the genomic level, with both exome and whole genome sequencing, are sure to reveal new pathways of transformation in the future.
PMCID: PMC3458515  PMID: 23006945
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; plasmablastic lymphoma; Burkitt lymphoma; double hit lymphoma; grey zone lymphoma; Hodgkin’s lymphoma; cutaneous lymphoma; central nervous system; immunophenotyping
12.  Prognostic significance of CD44 expression in diffuse large B cell lymphoma of activated and germinal centre B cell-like types: a tissue microarray analysis of 90 cases 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2003;56(10):747-752.
Background: Gene expression profiling of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) revealed three disease types: germinal centre B cell-like (GC), activated B cell-like (ABC), and a “third” type. Expression of CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v) is associated with an unfavourable clinical outcome in DLBCL, but previous studies did not consider the clinicopathological heterogeneity of this disease.
Aims: To analyse the expression and prognostic significance of CD44 in DLBCL types.
Methods: A tissue microarray (TMA) comprising 90 DLBCLs was constructed. CD10, CD20, bcl-2, bcl-6, CD44 standard isoform (CD44s), and CD44v4, CD44v6, and CD44v9 were analysed immunohistochemically and correlated with clinical follow up.
Results: TMA expression of CD10, CD20, bcl-2, and bcl-6 showed 100% concordance with results from conventional sections in 60 cases. Samples were segregated into 22 GC (bcl-6+/CD10+/bcl-2−), 25 ABC (bcl-6−/CD10−/bcl-2+), and 35 unclassifiable DLBCLs. Overall survival (OS) at 30 months was 89%, 44%, and 58% in GC, ABC, and unclassified types, respectively. CD44v6 was coexpressed with bcl-2, appeared predominantly on bcl-6 negative cases, and correlated with disease stage. Cases negative for CD44s could be separated into CD44v6 negative (OS, 82% at 70 months) and CD44v6 positive (OS, 58%).
Conclusions: TMA technology is useful for immunophenotyping and clinicopathological analysis of large lymphoma populations. The GC phenotype of DLBCL is of independent prognostic significance for OS. Expression of CD44v6 correlates with disease stage, and might contribute to lymphoma dissemination. CD44v6 is expressed predominantly in ABC DLBCL, and in CD44 negative cases is associated with worse OS.
PMCID: PMC1770073  PMID: 14514777
diffuse large B cell lymphoma; CD44; prognosis; tissue microarray
13.  Primary platelet-derived growth factor-producing, spindle-shaped diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the skull: a case report and literature review 
A 39-year-old woman with a right frontal mass underwent a cranial bone tumor biopsy. Histopathologic examination of hematoxylin and eosin–stained slides showed spindle-shaped tumor cells in a storiform pattern, appearing somewhat like a sarcoma. However, the tumor cells were CD20-positive by immunohistochemical staining. Therefore, a diagnosis of spindle-shaped diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Sp-DLBCL) was made. There have been at least 35 cases of Sp-DLBCL documented in the literature, and most were of the germinal center type, while the present case is the first report of a vimentin-positive primary Sp-DLBCL of the skull. The DLBCL in this case was immunohistochemically stained for six representative cytokines that might give rise to fibrosis, due to the evidence of fibroblastic proliferation. The DLBCL cells were positive for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and some cells were also positive for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α. Based on these findings, it was inferred that the PDGF and TNFα produced by DLBCL cells induced fibroblastic proliferation. The resultant conspicuous fibrosis caused interfibrous impingement on the DLBCL cells, which deformed them into a spindle shape. The present case is the first reported case of a PDGF-producing Sp-DLBCL.
PMCID: PMC4129058  PMID: 25120823
Spindle cell; storiform; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; skull; platelet-derived growth factor; vimentin
14.  Gene profiling of canine B-cell lymphoma reveals germinal center and post-germinal center subtypes with different survival times, modeling human DLBCL 
Cancer research  2013;73(16):5029-5039.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype, and fewer than half of patients are cured with standard front-line therapy. To improve therapeutic options, better animal models that accurately mimic human DLBCL (hDLBCL) are needed. Canine DLBCL (cDLBCL), one of the most common cancers in veterinary oncology, is morphologically similar to hDLBCL and is treated using similar chemotherapeutic protocols. With genomic technologies, it is now possible to molecularly evaluate dogs as a potential large-animal model for hDLBCL. We evaluated canine B-cell lymphomas (cBCLs) using immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling. Canine B-cell lymphoma expression profiles were similar in many ways to hDLBCLs. For instance, a subset had increased expression of NF-κB pathway genes, mirroring human activated B-cell (ABC)-type DLBCL. Furthermore, immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) ongoing mutation status, which is correlated with ABC/germinal center B-cell (GCB) cell of origin in hDLBCL, separated cBCL into two groups with statistically different progression-free and overall survival times. In contrast with hDLBCL, cBCL rarely expressed BCL6 and MUM1/IRF4 by immunohistochemistry. Collectively, these studies identify molecular similarities to hDLBCL that introduce pet dogs as a representative model of hDLBCL for future studies, including therapeutic clinical trials.
PMCID: PMC3755352  PMID: 23783577
15.  Activation of the STAT3 Signaling Pathway Is Associated With Poor Survival in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With R-CHOP 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2013;31(36):4520-4528.
We previously reported that constitutive STAT3 activation is a prominent feature of the activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (ABC-DLBCL). In this study, we investigated whether STAT3 activation can risk stratify patients with DLBCL.
Patients and Methods
By an immunohistochemical method, we investigated phosphotyrosine STAT3 (PY-STAT3) expression from 185 patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). Cell line-based siRNA experiments were also performed to generate an 11-gene, PY-STAT3 activation signature, which was used to study a previously published cohort of 222 patients with DLBCL. The STAT3 activation status determined by these two methods and by STAT3 mRNA levels were then correlated with survival.
PY-STAT3 was detected in 37% of DLBCL and enriched in ABC-DLBCL cases (P = .03). PY-STAT3 positivity significantly correlated with poor overall survival (OS; P = .01) and event-free survival (EFS; P = .006). Similar observations were made for high levels of STAT3 mRNA. In multivariable analysis, PY-STAT3 status (P = .02), International Prognostic Index (P = .02), and BCL2 expression (P = .046) were independent prognosticators of OS in this cohort. Among the cell-of-origin subgroups, PY-STAT3 was associated with poor EFS among non–germinal center B-cell DLBCL cases only (P = .027). Similarly, the 11-gene STAT3 activation signature correlated with poor survival in the entire DLBCL cohort (OS, P < .001; EFS, P < .001) as well as the ABC-DLBCL subgroup (OS, P = .029; EFS, P = .025).
STAT3 activation correlated with poor survival in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP, especially those with tumors of the ABC-DLBCL subtype.
PMCID: PMC3871513  PMID: 24220563
16.  Role of microRNAs and microRNA machinery in the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma 
Blood Cancer Journal  2013;3(10):e152-.
Deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression has been documented in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the impact of miRNAs and their machinery in DLBCL is not fully determined. Here, we assessed the role of miRNA expression and their processing genes in DLBCL development. Using microarray and RT-qPCR approaches, we quantified global miRNAs and core components of miRNA-processing genes expression in 75 DLBCLs (56 de novo and 19 transformed) and 10 lymph nodes (LN). Differential miRNA signatures were identified between DLBCLs and LNs, or between the de novo and transformed DLBCLs. We also identified subsets of miRNAs associated with germinal center B-cell phenotype, BCL6 and IRF4 expression, and clinical staging. In addition, we showed a significant over-expression of TARBP2 in de novo DLBCLs as compared with LNs, and decreased expression of DROSHA, DICER, TARBP2 and PACT in transformed as compared with de novo cases. Interestingly, cases with high TARBP2 and DROSHA expression had a poorer chemotherapy response. We further showed that TARBP2 can regulate miRNA-processing efficiency in DLBCLs, and its expression inhibition decreases cell growth and increases apoptosis in DLBCL cell lines. Our findings provide new insights for the understanding of miRNAs and its machinery in DLBCL.
PMCID: PMC3816210  PMID: 24121164
microRNA; TARBP2; gene expression; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
17.  Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Gene 3 (EBI3): A Novel Diagnosis Marker in Burkitt Lymphoma and Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e24617.
The distinction between Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), two types of mature aggressive B-cell lymphomas that require distinct treatments, can be difficult because of forms showing features intermediate between DLBCL and BL (here called BL/DLBCL). They can be discriminated by the presence of c-myc translocations characteristic of BL. However, these are not exclusive of BL and when present in DLBCL are associated with lower survival. In this study, we show that Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) is differentially expressed among BL and DLBCL. Analysis of gene expression data from 502 cases of aggressive mature B-cell lymphomas available on Gene Expression Omnibus and immunohistochemical analysis of 184 cases of BL, BL/DLBCL or DLBCL, showed that EBI3 was not expressed in EBV-positive or -negative BL cases, whereas it was expressed by over 30% of tumoral cells in nearly 80% of DLBCL cases, independently of their subtypes. In addition, we show that c-myc overexpression represses EBI3 expression, and that DLBCL or BL/DLBCL cases with c-myc translocations have lower expression of EBI3. Thus, EBI3 immunohistochemistry could be useful to discriminate BL from DLBCL, and to identify cases of BL/DLBCL or DLBCL with potential c-myc translocations.
PMCID: PMC3169615  PMID: 21931777
18.  Immunohistochemical (IHC) Analysis of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) Spectrum According to WHO/REAL Classification: A Single Centre Experience from Punjab, India 
Introduction: The distribution of the major subtypes of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) differs across geographic regions. This study, from the north Indian state of Punjab, has incorporated immunophenotypic findings while investigating the distribution of NHL subtypes based on World Health Organization (WHO)/ Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL) system of classification.
Patients and methods: Over all seventy seven cases of lymphoma over a period of one year (between April 2012 and April 2013) were diagnosed in the Department of Pathology, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar (Punjab). Of these 30 cases (39%) were of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL) and 47 cases (61%) were of Non Hodgkins lymphoma NHL.
Of the total of cases of lympho-proliferative disorders, the diagnosis of NHL was done by light microscopy alone. All the cases diagnosed provisionally as NHL were taken up for immunophenotyping with Immunohistochemical (IHC) studies. There was 100 % concordance between the light microscopy and IHC studies.
The individual NHL cases were classified according to the WHO/REAL classification according to the positive or relevant negative immonophenotypic expression and tabulated to ascertain the morphological spectrum of NHL in this part of the country.
Results: B-cell lymphomas formed 89.3%, whereas T-cell lymphomas formed 10.7% of the NHLs. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) was the most common subtype (46.8% of all NHLs). B-cell small lymphocytic lymphoma, Mantle-Cell Lymphoma (MCL), marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (including MALT lymphomas), Diffuse, mixed small cleaved cell and large-cell type and Follicular centre-cell lymphomas amounted to 17%, 12.8%, 2.1%, 2.1% and 4.3%, respectively. Among the T-cell lymphomas, T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, anaplastic large-cell lymphomas of T/null-cell type, and Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) accounted for 6.4%, 2.1%, and 2.1% of all NHL cases, respectively.
Conclusions: The distribution of NHL subtypes in India shows disparity with those from the rest of the world. Follicular Lymphoma (FL) and MCL are less common in India compared to Europe and the USA. Peripheral T-cell lymphomas and T/NK-cell lymphomas of nasal and nasal types, which are common in many other Asian countries, are also less prevalent. T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma and anaplastic large T/null cell lymphoma are more prevalent in India.
PMCID: PMC3939585  PMID: 24596721
Non Hodgkins lymphoma; WHO/REAL classification; Immunophenotyping; B-cell lymphomas; T-cell lymphomas
19.  Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) and Lymphotoxin-α (LTA) Polymorphisms and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in the InterLymph Consortium 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2010;171(3):267-276.
In an International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium pooled analysis, polymorphisms in 2 immune-system-related genes, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-10 (IL10), were associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. Here, 8,847 participants were added to previous data (patients diagnosed from 1989 to 2005 in 14 case-control studies; 7,999 cases, 8,452 controls) for testing of polymorphisms in the TNF –308G>A (rs1800629), lymphotoxin-α (LTA) 252A>G (rs909253), IL10 –3575T>A (rs1800890, rs1800896), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) 3020insC (rs2066847) genes. Odds ratios were estimated for non-Hispanic whites and several ethnic subgroups using 2-sided tests. Consistent with previous findings, odds ratios were increased for “new” participant TNF –308A carriers (NHL: per-allele odds ratio (ORallelic) = 1.10, Ptrend = 0.001; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): ORallelic = 1.23, Ptrend = 0.004). In the combined population, odds ratios were increased for TNF –308A carriers (NHL: ORallelic = 1.13, Ptrend = 0.0001; DLBCL: ORallelic = 1.25, Ptrend = 3.7 × 10−6; marginal zone lymphoma: ORallelic = 1.35, Ptrend = 0.004) and LTA 252G carriers (DLBCL: ORallelic = 1.12, Ptrend = 0.006; mycosis fungoides: ORallelic = 1.44, Ptrend = 0.015). The LTA 252A>G/TNF –308G>A haplotype containing the LTA/TNF variant alleles was strongly associated with DLBCL (P = 2.9 × 10−8). Results suggested associations between IL10 –3575T>A and DLBCL (Ptrend = 0.02) and IL10 –1082A>G and mantle cell lymphoma (Ptrend = 0.04). These findings strengthen previous results for DLBCL and the LTA 252A>G/TNF –308A locus and provide robust evidence that these TNF/LTA gene variants, or others in linkage disequilibrium, are involved in NHL etiology.
PMCID: PMC2842204  PMID: 20047977
lymphoma; lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; lymphotoxin-alpha; meta-analysis; polymorphism, genetic; polymorphism, single nucleotide; tumor necrosis factor-alpha
20.  MYC Protein Expression in Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Central Nervous System 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114398.
Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS DLBCL) is a rare, aggressive subtype of DLBCL, the biology of which is poorly understood. Recent studies have suggested a prognostic role of MYC protein expression in systemic DLBCL, but little is known about the frequency and significance of MYC protein expression in CNS DLBCL. Hence, we investigated MYC protein expression profiles of CNS DLBCL and assessed the relationship between MYC expression and a variety of histopathologic, immunophenotypic, genetic, and clinical features. Fifty-nine CNS DLBCL diagnosed at our institution over the past 13 years were evaluated. The majority of cases (80%) showed centroblastic morphology, and 12 (20%) displayed a perivascular pattern of infiltration. According to the Hans criteria, 41 (69%) cases had a non-germinal center B-cell and 18 (31%) had a germinal center B-cell cell-of-origin (COO) phenotype. Mean MYC protein expression was 50% (median: 50%, range: 10-80%). Forty-three cases (73%) showed MYC overexpression (≥40%), and 35 (60%) showed MYC/BCL2 coexpression. MYC overexpression was seen in the single case harboring MYC translocation and in the cases showing increased copies of MYC (27%); however, no significant difference in mean MYC expression was seen between groups harboring or lacking MYC aberrations. In our series, age was associated with a significantly increased risk of death, and the perivascular pattern of infiltration was associated with a significantly increased risk of disease progression. Neither MYC expression (with or without BCL2 coexpression) nor other variables, including COO subtype were predictive of clinical outcome. Our findings indicate that the proportion of CNS DLBCL overexpressing MYC is higher compared to systemic DLBCL, and MYC overexpression appears to be independent of genetic MYC abnormalities. Thus, MYC expression and other immunophenotypic markers used for prognostication of systemic DLBCL might not apply to CNS DLBCL due to differences in disease biology.
PMCID: PMC4257680  PMID: 25479599
21.  Angiogenesis in nodal B cell lymphomas: a high throughput study 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2006;60(5):476-482.
To assess the biological significance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, VEGF receptor (Flk‐1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression with respect to microvessel density (MVD), proliferative activity (Ki‐67), expression of p53 and clinical presentation in a large cohort of nodal B cell lymphomas.
An immunohistochemical and morphometric study was performed on a validated tissue microarray containing 271 B cell lymphoma specimens, 197 of which included follow‐up data. Statistical assessment was done by Pearson's χ2 test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, analysis of variance and survival analysis.
266 (98%) cases were evaluable. Strong VEGF expression was observed in only 20 diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). Flk‐1 and COX2 were expressed in 53 and 21 cases, respectively, mainly in DLBCLs, follicular lymphoma (FL) grade 3 and mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs), in a low proportion of cells. MVD decreased in the following order: DLBCLs, FLs, MCLs and small lymphocytic lymphomas/chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (SLL/CLLs). VEGF expression correlated with Ki‐67, p53 and COX2 expression in the whole cohort and in DLBCLs. Flk‐1 expression correlated with Ki‐67 in the cohort and in SLL/CLL and FL grade 1 and 2. COX2 expression correlated with Ki‐67 and p53. The analysed angiogenesis parameters did not correlate with clinical parameters or survival.
Angiogenesis plays a differential role in various B cell lymphomas. Aggressive lymphomas express the potential molecular therapeutic targets VEGF and COX2, and have higher MVD. In a few low proliferation‐fraction lymphomas, Flk‐1 might have a role in proliferative advantage. Therapeutic strategies aimed at angiogenesis should take into account lymphoma heterogeneity.
PMCID: PMC1994554  PMID: 16790692
22.  Clinical and prognostic analysis of hepatitis B virus infection in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:115.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients is a common complication in China. However, the clinical relevance of HBV infection with respect to DLBCL disease stages and patient survival remains unclear. The main objective of the current study was to analyze the clinical features and to evaluate the prognostic factors of HBV infection in DLBCL patients.
In this retrospective study, DLBCL patients were divided into two groups as HBsAg-positive (n = 81) and HBsAg-negative (n = 181) patients. The HBsAg-positive patients were further divided into two subgroups based on their hepatic function during chemotherapy. Various statistical analyses were used to determine the significance of the relevant clinical parameters.
Compared with the HBsAg-negative group, the HBsAg-positive DLBCL group displayed a younger median onset age (46 year vs 51), more advanced stage at grade III/IV (58% vs 42%, p = 0.016), and more frequent hepatic dysfunction before (21% vs 5.5%, p < 0.001) and during (49.4% vs 16.6%, p < 0.001) chemotherapy. Female DLBCL patients exhibited a higher frequency of HBsAg positivity (p = 0.006). However, in both groups the median overall survival (OS) duration (55.8 vs 66.8 months) and response rates (91% vs 90.4%) were similar. In the HBsAg-positive DLBCL group, the poor prognostic factors were advanced stage (p < 0.001) and hepatic dysfunction during chemotherapy (p = 0.02). The OS of HBsAg-positive patients with hepatic dysfunction during chemotherapy was significantly shorter than those without liver dysfunction (p = 0.016), and the OS rates at 3 years were 48% and 72%, respectively. The use of rituximab did not increase the rates of liver dysfunction in HBsAg-positive DLBCL patients.
Compared with HBsAg-negative patients, the HBsAg-positive DLBCL patients had earlier onset and more advanced stage. The disease stage and hepatic dysfunction during chemotherapy and were two significant prognostic factors in the HBsAg-positive DLBCL patients. This study suggests that prophylactic treatment of HBV may be of great importance in the cases of HBsAg-positive patients.
PMCID: PMC2377276  PMID: 18433487
23.  Ki-67 is a valuable prognostic predictor of lymphoma but its utility varies in lymphoma subtypes: evidence from a systematic meta-analysis 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:153.
Ki-67 is a nuclear protein involved in cell proliferation regulation, and its expression has been widely used as an index to evaluate the proliferative activity of lymphoma. However, its prognostic value for lymphoma is still contradictory and inconclusive.
PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched with identical strategies. The impact of Ki-67 expression on survival with lymphoma and various subtypes of lymphoma was evaluated. The relationship between Ki-67 expression and Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) and Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) was also investigated after the introduction of a CD-20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. Furthermore, we evaluated the association between Ki-67 expression and the clinical-pathological features of lymphoma.
A total of 27 studies met the inclusion criteria, which comprised 3902 patients. Meta-analysis suggested that high Ki-67 expression was negatively associated with disease free survival (DFS) (HR = 1.727, 95% CI: 1.159-2.571) and overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.44-2) for lymphoma patients. Subgroup analysis on the different subtypes of lymphoma suggested that the association between high Ki-67 expression and OS in Hodgkin Lymphoma (HR = 1.511, 95% CI: 0.524-4.358) was absent, while high Ki-67 expression was highly associated with worse OS for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (HR = 1.777, 95% CI: 1.463-2.159) and its various subtypes, including NK/T lymphoma (HR = 4.766, 95% CI: 1.917-11.849), DLBCL (HR = 1.457, 95% CI: 1.123-1.891) and MCL (HR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.61-3.81). Furthermore, the pooled HRs for MCL was 1.981 (95% CI: 1.099-3.569) with rituximab and 3.123 (95% CI: 2.049-4.76) without rituximab, while for DLBCL, the combined HRs for DLBCL with and without rituximab was 1.459 (95% CI: 1.084-2.062) and 1.456 (95% CI: 0.951-2.23) respectively. In addition, there was no correlation between high Ki-67 expression and the clinical-pathological features of lymphoma including the LDH level, B symptoms, tumor stage, extranodal site, performance status and IPI score.
This study showed that the prognostic significance of Ki-67 expression varied in different subtypes of lymphoma and in DLBCL and MCL after the introduction of rituximab, which was valuable for clinical decision-making and individual prognostic evaluation.
PMCID: PMC3995999  PMID: 24597851
Ki-67; Prognostic value; Lymphoma; Meta-analysis
24.  Immunostaining to identify molecular subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a population-based epidemiologic study in the pre-rituximab era 
Gene expression profiling studies have distinguished diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) by cell of origin, with distinct pathogenetic mechanisms and prognosis. We attempted to identify DLBCL molecular subtypes in an epidemiologic study of 214 DLBCL patients diagnosed during 1998-2000 with archival tissues to investigate etiology. Immunohistochemical staining for CD10, BCL6, LMO2, MUM1/IRF4, and BCL2 and fluorescence in situ hybridization for t(14;18) were conducted, with ≥93% blinded duplicate agreement. CD10, LMO2, and BCL2 expression was similar to previous reports (32%, 44%, and 44% of DLBCLs, respectively), but BCL6 and MUM1/IRF4 expression was lower than expected (29% and 5%, respectively). We classified 112/214 (52%) cases as germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL (GCB-DLBCL; Hans et al., Blood 2004; CD10+ or CD10-/BCL6+/MUM1-), with no difference in prognosis compared with non-GCB-DLBCL (Cox regression, P=0.48). Comparing other GCB correlates, LMO2 expression and t(14;18) were more common but not exclusive to GCB-DLBCL as defined in our study, whereas BCL2 expression did not differ between DLBCL molecular subtypes. We could not confidently identify patients with GCB-DLBCL using these immunohistochemistry-based markers on archival tissues.
PMCID: PMC3166152  PMID: 21915363
diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; germinal center; molecular epidemiology; immunohistochemistry
25.  Gall Bladder and Extrahepatic Bile Duct Lymphomas: Clinicopathological observations and biological implications 
Lymphomas of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts are exceedingly rare. We present the clinicopathological features of 19 cases from our files; 14 patients had primary lymphoma (13 involving gall bladder and one involving common hepatic duct), while five had systemic lymphoma on further work-up. Most patients presented with symptoms mimicking cholecystitis. The most common primary lymphoma types were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL), B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). Two cases had features of lymphomatous polyposis, one a case of FL and the second a case of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), with disease limited to the mantle zones, so-called in situ MCL. Other rare lymphoma subtypes not previously described in this site included the extracavitary variant of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). Patients with DLBCL and EMZL were older (mean age 75.8 years) than those with other subtypes (mean age 47 years) and more likely to have gallstones (60% vs. 12.5%). A comprehensive literature review revealed 36 primary gall bladder and 16 primary extrahepatic bile duct lymphomas. When compared to primary gall bladder lymphomas, those involving the extrahepatic bile ducts present at a younger age (47 years vs. 63 years) usually with obstructive jaundice, and are less often associated with gallstones (17% vs. 50%) or regional lymph node involvement (6% vs. 31%). In conclusion, primary lymphomas of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts show a broad spectrum of disease types, but in many respects mirror the spectrum of primary lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract.
PMCID: PMC2929270  PMID: 20679881
lymphoma; gallbladder; bile duct; hepatic duct; cystic duct; cholecystitis; cholelithiasis; extranodal; intestinal follicular lymphoma; in situ mantle cell lymphoma; HHV-8/KSHV; plasmablastic lymphoma; primary effusion lymphoma; lymphomatous polyposis

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