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1.  Serum pepsinogens and risk of gastric and esophageal cancers in the General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial cohort 
Gut  2009;58(5):636-642.
Objective
Low serum pepsinogen I (PGI) and low pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio (PGI/II ratio) are markers of gastric fundic atrophy. We aimed to prospectively test the association between serum PGI/II ratio and risks of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Design
Case-cohort study nested in a prospective cohort with over 15 years of follow-up.
Setting
Rural region of the People’s Republic of China.
Subjects
Men and women aged 40-69 at study baseline.
Main outcome measures
Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between serum PGI/II ratio and caner risk
Results
Compared to subjects with PGI/II ratio of > 4, those with ≤4 had HRs (95%CIs) of 2.72 (1.77-4.20) and 2.12 (1.42-3.16) for noncardia and cardia gastric cancers, respectively. Risk of both cancers were also increased when other cut points ranging from 3 to 6, or when we used quartile models, or nonlinear continuous models. Risk of ESCC was marginally increased in those with PGI/II ratio ≤4, with HR (95% CI) of 1.56 (0.99-2.47), but quartile models and continuous models showed no increased risk. The nonlinear continuous models suggested that any single cut point collapsed subjects with dissimilar gastric cancer risks, and that using cut points was not an efficient use of data in evaluating these associations.
Conclusion
In this prospective study, we found similar and significantly increased risks of noncardia and cardia gastric adenocarcinomas in subjects with low PGI/II ratio, but little evidence for an association with ESCC risk.
doi:10.1136/gut.2008.168641
PMCID: PMC2792746  PMID: 19136509
Gastric cancer; Esophageal cancer; Pepsinogen; Case-cohort
2.  Gastric atrophy and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: possible interaction with dental health and oral hygiene habit 
British Journal of Cancer  2012;107(5):888-894.
Background:
Gastric fundal atrophy has been hypothesised to increase the risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but studies have shown inconsistent results.
Methods:
We measured serum pepsinogen I (PGI) and pepsinogen II (PGII) among 293 incident cases and 524 matched neighbourhood controls in a high-risk area of Northern Iran. Conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results:
After controlling for age, sex, residence area and other potential confounders, gastric atrophy (defined by a validated criterion, PGI <55 μg dl−1) was associated with a two-fold increased risk (OR=2.01, 95% CI: 1.18, 3.45) of OSCC in the absence of nonatrophic pangastritis (defined as PGII <11.8 μg dl−1). Stratification by PGII decreased the misclassification errors due to cancer-induced gastritis. Presence of both poor dental health, indicated by higher than median sum of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT score), and gastric atrophy further increased the risk of OSCC (OR=4.15, 95% CI: 2.04, 8.42) with relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) of 1.47 (95% CI: −1.15, 4.1). Coexistence of poor oral hygiene habit with gastric atrophy elevated OSCC risk eight times (OR=8.65, 95% CI: 3.65, 20.46) and the additive interaction index was marginally statistically significant (RERI=4.34, 95% CI: −1.07, 9.76).
Conclusion:
Gastric atrophy is a risk factor for OSCC, and poor dental health and oral hygiene habit may act synergistically in increasing the risk.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.332
PMCID: PMC3425966  PMID: 22814581
atrophic gastritis; oesophageal neoplasm; relative risk; dental health; oral hygiene; pepsinogen
3.  Pepsinogen I and II expressions in situ and their correlations with serum pesignogen levels in gastric cancer and its precancerous disease 
Background
Serum pepsinogen (PG) I/II ratio has been widely used as “serological biopsy” for the screening of gastric cancer (GC) and atrophic gastritis (GA). However, study concerning in situ expression of PGs is currently insufficient, particularly for their relationship with serum PGs levels. This study was designed to investigate in situ expression of PGI and PGII in subjects with normal mucosa (NOR), superficial gastritis (GS), GA and GC, and to evaluate the correlations between PGs expressions in situ and in serum.
Methods
185 subjects were enrolled for the study, including 30 NOR, 70 GS, 54 GA and 31 GC. PGI and PGII expressions in situ and in serum were detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. H. pylori immunoglobulin (Ig) G was also determined by ELISA.
Results
In situ expressions of PGI, PGII and PGI/II ratio consistently decreased in sequence of NOR/GS- > GA- > GC. The expressions of PGI, PGII and PGI/II ratio in situ were statistically higher in youngers than in olders (P < 0.05). In the NOR subjects, PGI staining was statistically higher in males than that in females (p = 0.02). For the correlations between in situ and serum expressions of PGI, PGII and PGI/II ratio, a borderline correlation in the total study sample (r = 0.131, P = 0.076) and a statistical correlation in GA cases (r = 0.307, P = 0.027) were observed for the PGI/II ratio. The PGI expression correlated well with that of PGII in situ and in serum.
Conclusions
The in situ levels of PGI, PGII and PGI/II ratio sharply decreased in the GA and GC cases. The youngers exhibited higher levels of PGI, PGII and PGI/II ratios than the olders. The in situ PGI/II ratio rather than PGI and PGII alone showed certain correlation with that in serum, and the PGI expression correlated well with PGII expression. Further studies with large-scale samples are still required to validate our findings.
doi:10.1186/1472-6890-13-22
PMCID: PMC3846408  PMID: 24004680
Pepsinogen; Gastric disease; Correlation
4.  Serum pepsinogens and Helicobacter pylori in relation to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the ATBC Study 
Background
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) can induce gastric atrophy in humans, which in turn increases gastric cancer risk. Whether H. pylori and gastric atrophy also affect the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), however, remains unresolved.
Methods
We performed a nested case-control study within the prospective ATBC Study to assess these relationships. The ATBC Study is composed of 29,133 Finnish male smokers, aged 50–69, who were recruited during 1985–1988. Using baseline sera, we assessed H. pylori status (via IgG antibodies against whole-cell and CagA antigens) and gastric atrophy status (via the biomarkers pepsinogen I (PGI) and II (PGII)) in 79 ESCC cases and 94 controls. Logistic regression with adjustment for age, date of blood draw, education, cigarette smoking, alcohol, body mass index, and fruit and vegetable intake was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI).
Results
Gastric atrophy (PGI:PGII <4) was associated with ESCC (OR=4.58, 95%CI:2.00–10.48). There was no evidence for an association between H. pylori and ESCC (OR=0.94, 95%CI:0.40–2.24).
Conclusions
These results could be explained by misclassification of H. pylori status due to serologic amnesia, ESCC risk being dependent upon the functional consequences or interactions of H. pylori, rather than the infection per se, gastric atrophy having a different histogenesis in ESCC without being primarily dependent upon H. pylori acquisition, or a lack of statistical power to detect an effect.
Impact
Validation of these results may warrant mechanistic studies to determine the route of association between gastric atrophy and ESCC.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0270
PMCID: PMC2919643  PMID: 20647397
Atrophy; Esophageal Neoplasms; Helicobacter pylori; Nested Case-Control Studies; Pepsinogens; Prospective Studies
5.  Serum ghrelin is inversely associated with risk of subsequent oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma 
Gut  2011;61(11):1533-1537.
Background
Oesophageal cancers rank as the eighth most common cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer death, worldwide. Gastric atrophy, as determined by a low serum pepsinogen I/II ratio, may be associated with an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Ghrelin, a hormone which, like pepsinogen, is produced in the fundic glands of the stomach, may be a sensitive and specific marker of gastric atrophy, but its association with OSCC is not known.
Methods
To examine the relationship between baseline serum ghrelin concentration and subsequent risk of OSCC, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. 82 cases of OSCC were matched (1:1) by age and date of blood draw to controls from the ATBC study. Serum ghrelin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders.
Results
For those individuals in the lowest quartile of serum ghrelin, compared to those in the highest, the multivariate odds ratio of subsequent OSCC was 6.83 (95% CI: 1.46, 31.84). These associations were dose dependent (P for trend = 0.005 for both), and independent of the effects of low pepsinogen I/II ratio (a marker of gastric fundic atrophy) and Helicobacter pylori infection. The significance of these associations remained even for individuals developing OSCC up to 10 years after baseline ghrelin measurement, though they become attenuated after 10 years.
Conclusion
Lower baseline concentrations of serum ghrelin were associated with an increase in risk of OSCC. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding in other populations and to explore the role of ghrelin in the aetiology of OSCC.
doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2011-300653
PMCID: PMC3462270  PMID: 22180062
ghrelin; oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma; atrophy
6.  Low Levels of Pepsinogen I and Pepsinogen I/II Ratio are Valuable Serologic Markers for Predicting Extensive Gastric Corpus Atrophy in Patients Undergoing Endoscopic Mucosectomy 
Gut and Liver  2010;4(4):475-480.
Background/Aims
The levels of pepsinogen (PG) I and the PGI/II ratio are useful serologic markers for chronic atrophic gastritis. This study evaluated the performance and clinical implications of these markers in patients undergoing endoscopic mucosectomy.
Methods
We enrolled 142 consecutive patients with early gastric tumors and Helicobacter pylori infection who were eligible for mucosectomy. Chronic gastritis and atrophy were assessed using four defined biopsy procedures. Serum PGs were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. Optimal diagnostic cut-offs and performance were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves.
Results
The PGI level and the PGI/II ratio decreased with corpus-dominant gastritis and as atrophy advanced toward the corpus greater curvature (GC). For the presence of corpus GC atrophy, the areas under the PGI and PGI/II-ratio curves were 0.82 and 0.77, respectively. The optimal cut-off levels were 59.3µg/L for PGI (sensitivity, 83.3%; specificity, 78.4%) and 3.6µg/L for PGI/II ratio (sensitivity, 70.0%; specificity, 78.4%). Using these serologic cut-off levels, we found that the frequency of corpus tumor location differed significantly (32.9% vs 11.1% for PGI <59.3 and ≥59.3µg/L, respectively; and 31.1% vs 14.8% for PGI/II ratio <3.5 and ≥3.5, respectively; p<0.05).
Conclusions
A low PGI level and PGI/II ratio are valuable serologic markers for predicting corpus GC atrophy, and have clinical implications with respect to the corpus location of tumors in mucosectomy patients.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2010.4.4.475
PMCID: PMC3021602  PMID: 21253295
Pepsinogens; Atrophic gastritis; Stomach neoplasia; Helicobacter pylori; Endoscopy
7.  Accuracy and Cut-Off Values of Pepsinogens I, II and Gastrin 17 for Diagnosis of Gastric Fundic Atrophy: Influence of Gastritis 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e26957.
Background
To establish optimal cutoff values for serologic diagnosis of fundic atrophy in a high-risk area for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cancer with high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Northern Iran, we performed an endoscopy-room-based validation study.
Methods
We measured serum pepsinogens I (PGI) and II (PGII), gastrin 17 (G-17), and antibodies against whole H. pylori, or cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) antigen among 309 consecutive patients in two major endoscopy clinics in northeastern Iran. Updated Sydney System was used as histology gold standard. Areas under curves (AUCs), optimal cutoff and predictive values were calculated for serum biomarkers against the histology.
Results
309 persons were recruited (mean age: 63.5 years old, 59.5% female). 84.5% were H. pylori positive and 77.5% were CagA positive. 21 fundic atrophy and 101 nonatrophic pangastritis were diagnosed. The best cutoff values in fundic atrophy assessment were calculated at PGI<56 µg/l (sensitivity: 61.9%, specificity: 94.8%) and PGI/PGII ratio<5 (sensitivity: 75.0%, specificity: 91.0%). A serum G-17<2.6 pmol/l or G-17>40 pmol/l was 81% sensitive and 73.3% specific for diagnosing fundic atrophy. At cutoff concentration of 11.8 µg/l, PGII showed 84.2% sensitivity and 45.4% specificity to distinguish nonatrophic pangastritis. Exclusion of nonatrophic pangastritis enhanced diagnostic ability of PGI/PGII ratio (from AUC = 0.66 to 0.90) but did not affect AUC of PGI. After restricting study samples to those with PGII<11.8, the sensitivity of using PGI<56 to define fundic atrophy increased to 83.3% (95%CI 51.6–97.9) and its specificity decreased to 88.8% (95%CI 80.8–94.3).
Conclusions
Among endoscopy clinic patients, PGII is a sensitive marker for extension of nonatrophic gastritis toward the corpus. PGI is a stable biomarker in assessment of fundic atrophy and has similar accuracy to PGI/PGII ratio among populations with prevalent nonatrophic pangastritis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026957
PMCID: PMC3204997  PMID: 22066020
8.  The Role of Serum Pepsinogen in the Detection of Gastric Cancer 
Gut and Liver  2010;4(3):307-319.
The incidence of gastric cancer is very high in Japan, Korea, and China. Reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with gastric cancer requires early diagnosis, which can be facilitated by applying gastroscopy more frequently in high-risk groups. A strategy of population screening for gastric cancer is currently being adopted in Korea, Japan, and the Matsu region of Taiwan, but using different screening methods. In addition, the history of pepsinogen (PG) in research as a gastric cancer biomarker has varied, in that the use of serum levels of PGI and PGII and the PGI/PGII ratio as gastric cancer screening tools was introduced in Japan before 1990, but in Korea the first research results were only reported in 2008. This review first evaluates the physiology of PG, followed by the usefulness or limitations of serum PG testing with regard to the detection of gastric cancer. Finally, the factors affecting the efficacy of PG tests as a gastric cancer biomarker (i.e., Helicobacter pylori infection status, gender, histopathologic features, and cancer location and depth) are evaluated. It was found that the strategies used to increase the efficacy of PG tests should be individualized in each country according to the seroprevalence of H. pylori.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2010.4.3.307
PMCID: PMC2956341  PMID: 20981206
Pepsinogen; Gastric cancer; Atrophic gastritis; Helicobacter pylori
9.  Validity of Serum Pepsinogen I/II Ratio for the Diagnosis of Gastric Epithelial Dysplasia and Intestinal Metaplasia during the Follow-Up of Patients at Risk for Intestinal-Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma1 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2004;6(5):449-456.
Abstract
A cohort of individuals (n = 136) with lesions as severe as atrophic chronic gastritis (ACG) was cross-sectionally evaluated for the validity assessment of pepsinogen I (PGI) and pepsinogen II (PGII) serum levels for the diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric dysplasia. PGI/PGII ratio [median (range)] was 4 (0.5–7.5) in patients with ACG (n = 35); 4.6 (1.9–6.8) in type I IM (n = 18); 4.2 (1.4–5.9) in type II or type III IM limited to the antrum and incisura (n = 20); 2.4 (0.4–5.6) in extensive incomplete IM (n = 38); and 1.3 (0.4–6.4) in low-grade dysplasia (n = 23) (P = .002). Using histopathologic data as a reference test, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (CI 95%) was 0.73 (0.64–0.82) for extensive IM, 0.72 (0.58–0.85) for the diagnosis of dysplasia, and 0.81 (0.66–0.95) for the diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia. Using a PGI/PGII ratio of ≤3 as the cutoff for dysplasia diagnosis, the sensitivity was 70% (62–78%), the specificity was 65% (57–73%), and the negative predictive value estimates were over 90%. No differences in PG levels according to age or gender were observed. Helicobacter pylori did not significantly influence validity measurement estimates. PGI/PGII serum level ratio can be used even in the management of patients with a high a priori probability for a positive test. It may be useful for the exclusion of more advanced lesions (extensive IM and neoplastic lesions).
PMCID: PMC1531649  PMID: 15548353
Pepsinogens; stomach neoplasms; receiver operating characteristic curve; disease management; precancerous conditions
10.  Squamous dysplasia – the precursor lesion for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for 80% of all esophageal cancers worldwide, and esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD) is the only histopathology that predicts the development of ESCC. The prevalence of ESD parallels rates of invasive ESCC, and is typically found in 25% or more of adults above the age of 35 years in populations in north central China, where risk for ESCC is among the highest in the world. Results of chemoprevention and early detection studies to prevent progression of ESD suggest that these approaches, coupled with emerging endoscopic therapies, offer promise for the prevention of esophageal cancer mortality in high-risk populations. Future research on ESD and ESCC should focus on finding additional modifiable risk factors and on identifying biomarkers to incorporate into early detection strategies.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1347
PMCID: PMC3681095  PMID: 23549398
11.  Seroepidemiology of gastritis in Japanese and Dutch working populations: evidence for the development of atrophic gastritis that is not related to Helicobacter pylori. 
Gut  1995;37(2):199-204.
Serological markers of gastritis, like pepsinogen A, pepsinogen C, gastrin, and Helicobacter pylori antibodies, can be used to explore the state of the gastric mucosa in populations with contrasting cancer risks. A decreasing pepsinogen A:C ratio and an increasing serum gastrin are known to reflect an increasing severity of atrophic corpus gastritis, which is a precursor of gastric cancer. In 723 subjects (without gastroduodenal surgery) from Japanese (n = 225) and Dutch (n = 498) working populations, which had a similar composition of age (mean 48 years), sex (male to female ratio 6:1), and type of occupation, fasting serum samples were analysed for IgG antibodies to H pylori, pepsinogen A, pepsinogen C, and gastrin in the same laboratory. H pylori infection was significantly more prevalent in the Japanese than in the Dutch (74.7% and 31.3%); as was a very low pepsinogen A, indicative of severe mucosal atrophy (4.4% and 1.6%). Among subjects with and without severe mucosal atrophy the H pylori seropositivity rate was similar. Between the Japanese and the Dutch there were significant differences in mean gastrin (31.8 and 13.4 pmol/l) and pepsinogen A:C ratio (1.7 and 2.9). These intercountry differences were as great for H pylori negative subjects (gastrin: 23.7 and 10.3 pmol/l, pepsinogen A:C ratio: 2.4 and 3.2) as for H pylori positive subjects (gastrin: 34.6 and 20.1 pmol/l, pepsinogen A:C ratio: 1.5 and 2.5). The intercountry difference in gastrin nearly disappeared after stratification into categories of pepsinogen A:C ratio. In conclusion, the intercountry differences in pepsinogen A:C ratio and gastrin reflect a higher prevalence of mild and severe mucosal atrophy of the corpus in the Japanese than in the Dutch, both among H pylori positive and negative subjects. Thus, these findings suggest that in the Japanese the development of atrophic gastritis is in part unrelated to H pylori.
PMCID: PMC1382718  PMID: 7557568
12.  Accuracy of screening for gastric cancer using serum pepsinogen concentrations 
Gut  1999;44(5):693-697.
BACKGROUND/AIMS—The characteristics of pepsinogen screening for gastric cancer were investigated to establish a suitable cut off point for identifying gastric cancer, using endoscopic diagnosis as the yardstick. 
SUBJECTS/METHODS—Serum pepsinogen concentrations were measured in 5113 subjects who were also screened for gastric cancer by endoscopy. The cut off point for pepsinogen was determined using receiver operator characteristics curves. 
RESULTS—The most suitable cut off point was a pepsinogen I concentration of less than 70 ng/ml and a ratio of pepsinogen I to pepsinogen II of less than 3.0. Using this cut off point, the sensitivity and specificity of pepsinogen screening for gastric cancer were 84.6% and 73.5% respectively. All cases of gastric cancer in patients with severe atrophic gastritis were detected. However, two of four cases of gastric cancer in patients with mild atrophic gastritis were overlooked. In subjects with mild atrophic gastritis, when gastric cancer arises within the fundic gland region, the size of the lesion determines whether it is possible to detect cancer by serum pepsinogen screening. 
CONCLUSION—Pepsinogen screening has many advantages, including its suitability for combination with other screening methods because it is simple and inexpensive. 


Keywords: pepsinogen; gastric cancer; screening; cut off point; receiver operator characteristics curves; atrophic gastritis
PMCID: PMC1727514  PMID: 10205207
13.  Measuring telomere length for the early detection of precursor lesions of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:578.
Background
Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide; current early detection screening tests are inadequate. Esophageal balloon cytology successfully retrieves exfoliated and scraped superficial esophageal epithelial cells, but cytologic reading of these cells has poor sensitivity and specificity for detecting esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Measuring telomere length, a marker for chromosomal instability, may improve the utility of balloon cytology for detecting ESD and early ESCC.
Methods
We examined balloon cytology specimens from 89 asymptomatic cases of ESD (37 low-grade and 52 high-grade) and 92 age- and sex-matched normal controls from an esophageal cancer early detection screening study. All subjects also underwent endoscopy and biopsy, and ESD was diagnosed histopathologically. DNA was extracted from the balloon cytology cells, and telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia.
Results
Telomere lengths were comparable among the low- and high-grade dysplasia cases and controls, with means of 0.96, 0.96, and 0.92, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.55 for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia. Further adjustment for subject characteristics, including sex, age, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and body mass index did not improve the use of telomere length as a marker for ESD.
Conclusions
Telomere length of esophageal balloon cytology cells was not associated with ESCC precursor lesions. Therefore, telomere length shows little promise as an early detection marker for ESCC in esophageal balloon samples.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-578
PMCID: PMC3882883  PMID: 24308314
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Esophageal squamous dysplasia; Early detection; Screening; Balloon cytology; Telomeres
14.  Inverse background of Helicobacter pylori antibody and pepsinogen in reflux oesophagitis compared with gastric cancer: analysis of 5732 Japanese subjects 
Gut  2001;49(3):335-340.
BACKGROUND—The relationship between Helicobacter pylori and reflux oesophagitis remains controversial.
AIMS—To evaluate the relationship between H pylori and reflux oesophagitis in a large number of Japanese subjects.
SUBJECTS—A total of 5732 consecutive Japanese subjects during a health screening were enrolled.
METHODS—Gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed on all subjects. We simultaneously measured serum anti-H pylori antibody and pepsinogen as markers of H pylori infection together with gastric atrophy. The risk of reflux oesophagitis was evaluated in relation to these markers, and the results were compared with those of gastric cancer.
RESULTS—Reflux oesophagitis was found in 108 subjects. Both positivity for H pylori antibody (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.45-1.0)) and "low" pepsinogen indicating gastric atrophy (OR 0.35 (0.18-0.68)) were negatively associated with reflux oesophagitis. After subjects were classified into four groups based on positivity or negativity for H pylori antibody and "low" pepsinogen, the prevalence of reflux oesophagitis showed a decreasing trend as H pylori induced gastric atrophy became more severe. The risk of gastric cancer showed an increasing trend, exactly the opposite to that of reflux oesophagitis.
CONCLUSIONS—Analysis of a large series of Japanese subjects revealed a decreasing prevalence of reflux oesophagitis in conjunction with progress of gastric atrophy induced by H pylori infection. This pattern was completely opposite to that of gastric cancer cases. A protective role of H pylori for reflux oesophagitis through the development of gastric atrophy has been suggested.


Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; oesophagitis; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; atrophic gastritis; gastric cancer
doi:10.1136/gut.49.3.335
PMCID: PMC1728449  PMID: 11511553
15.  Diagnostic value of serum pepsinogen C in patients with raised serum concentrations of pepsinogen A. 
Gut  1993;34(10):1315-1318.
Hypopepsinogenaemia A is often found in patients with gastric atrophy and gastric surgery. In these conditions serum pepsinogen C provides additional diagnostic information, especially when expressed as pepsinogen A:C ratio. Hyperpepsinogenaemia A has been shown in patients with duodenal ulcer disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, hypertrophic gastropathy, chronic renal failure, and during omeprazole treatment. As patients with hyperpepsinogenaemia A often overlap in symptoms, endoscopical findings, and serum gastrin values, this study has evaluated whether measurement of serum pepsinogen C in subjects with hyperpepsinogenaemia A can help in differentiating clinical conditions. Serum concentrations of pepsinogen A and C were measured in serologically Helicobacter pylori negative blood transfusion donors (127) as reference population, and in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (24), duodenal ulcer (50), hypertrophic gastropathy (5), and chronic renal failure (50), and also in reflux oesophagitis patients on longterm omeprazole treatment (28). A low pepsinogen A:C ratio was found in all patients with hypertrophic gastropathy. A pepsinogen A:C ratio above the critical value of 4.7 was found in 14 (70.0%) of the Zollinger-Ellison patients, two (9.5%) of the duodenal ulcer patients, 11 (25.6%) of the patients with chronic renal failure, and in one (7.1%) of the patients receiving longterm omeprazole treatment. In fact, all but three hyperpepsinogenaemia A patients with a pepsinogen A:C ratio greater than 4.7 and normal renal function had the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. In patients with hyperpepsinogenaemia A, a low pepsinogen A:C ratio may point to hypertrophic gastropathy, while a pepsinogen A:C ratio greater than 4.7 is suggestive for the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
PMCID: PMC1374533  PMID: 8244094
16.  Serum Ghrelin; A New Surrogate Marker of Gastric Mucosal Alterations in Upper Gastrointestinal Carcinogenesis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74440.
Background
A few studies have indicated inverse relationships between serum ghrelin and gastric and esophageal cancers but those associations have been restricted to specific populations, including smokers and overweight individuals. We examined the association between ghrelin and gastroesophageal cancers and atrophic gastritis in a population-based setting.
Methods
In total 220 gastroesophageal cancers, comprising non-cardia and cardia gastric cancer, esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and age and gender-matched controls were recruited. Serum ghrelin, pepsinogen I/II ratio (PGI/II) and anti-H.pylori IgG antibodies were measured. Relationships between ghrelin and gastroesophageal cancers, after adjustment for PGI/II ratio, H.pylori status and smoking, were tested using logistic regression. Furthermore, in 125 endoscopically normal volunteers, with and without histological atrophic gastritis, the relationship with ghrelin was compared.
Results
Serum ghrelin (lowest vs. highest quintile) was inversely associated with gastric cancer: OR (95% CI) 8.71 (1.70–44.59) for cardia and 6.58 (1.26–34.46) for non-cardia cancer. Lower serum ghrelin was also associated with esophageal SCC: OR (95% CI) 5.69 (1.36–23.78), but not with esophageal adenocarcinoma. A similar association was observed between gastric cancer (cardia and non-cardia) and esophageal SCC when serum ghrelin was analysed as a continuous scaled variable. In endoscopically-normal volunteers, extensive atrophic gastritis was associated with low serum ghrelin [OR (95% CI) 0.25 (0.10–0.64)].
Conclusion
Inverse associations between ghrelin and some gastroesophageal cancers suggest a potential role for serum ghrelin as a biomarker of upper gastrointestinal cancers and atrophic gastritis. In areas with a high incidence of gastric and/or esophageal cancer, screening might be more effectively targeted to individuals with low serum ghrelin in addition to the PGI/II ratio.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074440
PMCID: PMC3787044  PMID: 24098650
17.  Serum pepsinogens I and II and gastric mucosal histology after partial gastrectomy. 
Gut  1985;26(11):1179-1182.
We determined the effect of postgastrectomy gastritis on serum pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II concentrations in 108 subjects with subtotal gastric resection. Eleven had normal remnant mucosa, 22 had superficial gastritis, and 75 had atrophic gastritis. In the subjects with superficial gastritis, serum pepsinogen I and II concentrations were significantly higher than in those with normal remnant mucosa, but the ratio of pepsinogen I to II did not differ from normal. In atrophic gastritis, serum pepsinogen I concentrations fell with increasing severity of mucosal damage, but pepsinogen II was persistently raised. Consequently, the ratio of pepsinogen I to II in subjects with atrophic gastritis was significantly lower than in those with superficial gastritis or normal remnant mucosa. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the ratio of pepsinogen I to II, in combination with the absolute level of pepsinogen II, had a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 73%, and a positive predictive value of 87% for atrophic gastritis in this population. We propose that the parallel increase in serum pepsinogen I and II concentrations in postgastrectomy superficial gastritis is because of an increased rate of endocrine release of both zymogens from the fundic glands, and that the dichotomy in pepsinogen I and II concentrations in postgastrectomy atrophic gastritis results from the loss of fundic glands, which produce both zymogens, and the appearance of metaplastic pyloric glands, which produce only pepsinogen II.
PMCID: PMC1432904  PMID: 4065694
18.  Serum 25(OH)-Vitamin D concentration and risk of esophageal squamous dysplasia 
Background
Squamous dysplasia is the precursor lesion for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and nutritional factors play an important role in the etiology of this cancer. Previous studies using a variety of measures of vitamin D exposure have reached different conclusions about the association between vitamin D and risk of developing esophageal cancer.
Methods
We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in a cross-sectional analysis of 720 subjects from Linxian, China, a population at high risk for developing ESCC. All subjects underwent endoscopy and biopsy and were categorized by presence or absence of histologic squamous dysplasia. We used crude and multivariate adjusted generalized linear models to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between squamous dysplasia and sex-specific quartiles of serum 25(OH)D concentration.
Results
Two hundred and thirty (32%) of 720 subjects had squamous dysplasia. Subjects with dysplasia had significantly higher median serum 25(OH)D concentrations then subjects without dysplasia, 36.5 and 31.5 nmol/L respectively (Wilcoxon two-sample test p = 0.0004). In multivariate adjusted models, subjects in the highest compared to the lowest quartile were at significantly increased risk of squamous dysplasia, RR (95% CI) = 1.86 (1.35–2.62). Increased risks were similar when examined in men and women separately: Men RR (95% CI) = 1.74 (1.08–2.93); Women RR (95% CI) = 1.96 (1.28–3.18).
Conclusions
Higher serum 25(OH)D concentration was associated with significantly increased risk of squamous dysplasia. No obvious source of measured or unmeasured confounding explains this finding.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0461
PMCID: PMC2812415  PMID: 17855710
Esophageal cancer; Squamous dysplasia; Vitamin D; Serum 25(OH)D; China
19.  Prevalence of Subjects at a High or Very High Risk of Gastric Cancer in Japan 
Gut and Liver  2009;3(2):95-100.
Background/Aims
The presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection represents a high-risk state of gastric cancer, but the risk is even higher in gastric atrophy. H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) and serum pepsinogen (PG) tests are useful tools for screening present infection and gastric atrophy, respectively. To determine the prevalence of subjects at a high risk (HpSA+ or PG+) or very high risk (PG+) of gastric cancer in Japan, we applied the two tests to a general population.
Methods
The subjects included 311 volunteers. We used Meridian HpSA ELISA for the HpSA test and Pepsinogen RIA Beads for the PG test. PG I at ≤70 µg/L and I/II ratio of ≤3.0 were used as cutoffs for PG-test positivity.
Results
Positivity rates in HpSA and PG tests significantly increased with age in those younger than 60 years and in all age groups, respectively. The proportions of HpSA-/PG- and HpSA+/PG+ sujects decreased and increased with age, respectively. A small proportion of HpSA-/PG+ subjects were older than 40 years. The prevalence of subjects who were either HpSA+ or PG+ increased with age (>50% of those older than 40 years). Half of the subjects older than 60 years were PG+.
Conclusions
In Japan, more than 50% of general population aged ≥40 years is at a high risk of gastric cancer, and half of the population aged ≥60 years is at a very high risk.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2009.3.2.95
PMCID: PMC2852690  PMID: 20431730
Helicobacter pylori; Stool antigen; Pepsinogen; Gastric cancer screening; Epidemiology
20.  Inverse relation of serum Helicobacter pylori antibody titres and extent of intestinal metaplasia. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1996;49(2):112-115.
AIMS: To clarify the relation between the serum titre of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) antibody and the extent of intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa. METHODS: The serum anti-H pylori IgG titres of 95 asymptomatic individuals (mean age 65 years) undergoing an annual health examination were measured and compared with the extent of intestinal metaplasia (absent, moderate, or extensive), determined by examination of multiple endoscopic mucosal biopsy specimens. Serum pepsinogen I (PGI) levels, as a marker for gastric atrophy, were also measured. RESULTS: The prevalence of seropositivity for H pylori antibody was high (> 80%), regardless of the extent of metaplasia. However, there was a negative association between the extent of metaplasia and the anti-H pylori titre: 75% of the subjects in the group without metaplasia had high (3+) antibody levels, as did 43% with moderate, and 37% with extensive metaplasia (absent v extensive). The inverse relation between the titre and the extent of metaplasia was evident when examined in those with normal PGI (> 30 ng/ml), whereas no such relation was apparent in subjects with low PGI (< or = 30 ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: The anti-H pylori titre correlates inversely with the extent of intestinal metaplasia, particularly in subjects with less marked gastric atrophy.
PMCID: PMC500341  PMID: 8655674
21.  The serum pepsinogen level with special reference to the histology of the gastric mucosa 
Gut  1963;4(2):106-111.
Determination of the serum pepsinogen level is simple and the method gives consistent results. The serum pepsinogen level remains steady when the stomach is actively secreting pepsin. Age and sex do not greatly affect the serum pepsinogen concentration.
Serum pepsinogen levels can be correlated with the histological appearances of the gastric mucosa. The parietal cells appear to be more sensitive to injury than the chief cells. The serum pepsinogen levels of patients with pernicious anaemia are very low.
Estimation of the serum pepsinogen level is likely to prove a useful screening test for severe atrophic gastritis and gastric atrophy.
PMCID: PMC1413432  PMID: 18668756
22.  Tissue and serum pepsinogen I and II in gastric cancer identified using immunohistochemistry and rapid ELISA. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1995;48(4):364-367.
AIMS--To investigate the immunohistochemical expression and the serum concentrations of pepsinogen I and II in different histological types of gastric cancer as compared with other gastric disorders. METHODS--Formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue specimens of 38 gastric cancers obtained from surgical cases were used for the immunohistochemical studies performed with the avidin-biotin complex method using monoclonal antibodies against purified pepsinogen I and II. Pepsinogen concentrations from serum obtained from the above patients, from patients with various other gastric disorders, and from normal controls were measured with a rapid non-radioactive one step enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS--Eight of 38 (21%) and seven of 38 (18%) gastric carcinomas showed immunoreactivity to pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II, respectively, without any correlation to histological classification or differentiation. Decreased pepsinogen I concentrations and low pepsinogen I:II ratios were found specifically in cases of gastric carcinoma and polyp, in good accordance with the immunohistochemical results. CONCLUSIONS--Low serum pepsinogen I concentrations and a low pepsinogen I:II ratio are predictive of gastric neoplasia, correlating with low tissue immunoreactivity to monoclonal antibodies raised against pepsinogen I and II. For mass screening of gastric disease including carcinoma, ELISA using a one step immunoassay performed in the present study is a rapid and reliable non-radioactive method of detecting serum pepsinogen. In addition, immunohistochemical studies showed that pepsinogen production may be increased or diminished as a result of tumour histogenesis, depending on the area of origin and the processes of cell transformation and dedifferentiation.
Images
PMCID: PMC502557  PMID: 7615858
23.  Serum pepsinogen II is a better diagnostic marker in gastric cancer 
AIM: To investigate screening makers for gastric cancer, we assessed the association between gastric cancer and serum pepsinogens (PGs).
METHODS: The subjects comprised 450 patients with gastric cancer, 111 individuals with gastric atrophy, and 961 healthy controls. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG), PGIand PG II were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gastric atrophy and gastric cancer were diagnosed by endoscopy and histopathological examinations. Odds ratios and 95%CIs were calculated using multivariate logistic regression.
RESULTS: Rates of H. pylori infection remained high in Northeastern China. Rates of H. pylori IgG positivity were greater in the gastric cancer and gastric atrophy groups compared to the control group (69.1% and 75.7% vs 49.7%, P < 0.001). Higher levels of PG II (15.9 μg/L and 13.9 μg/L vs 11.5 μg/L, P < 0.001) and lower PGI/PG II ratio (5.4 and 4.6 vs 8.4, P < 0.001) were found in patients with gastric cancer or gastric atrophy compared to healthy controls, whereas no correlation was found between the plasma PGIconcentration and risk of gastric cancer (P = 0.537). In addition, multivariate logistic analysis indicated that H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis were independent risk factors for gastric cancer. Lower plasma PGI/PG II ratio was associated with higher risks of atrophy and gastric cancer. Furthermore, plasma PG II level significantly correlated with H. pylori-infected gastric cancer.
CONCLUSION: Serum PG II concentration and PGI/PG II ratio are potential biomarkers for H. pylori-infected gastric disease. PG II is independently associated with risk of gastric cancer.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i48.7357
PMCID: PMC3544042  PMID: 23326145
Gastric cancer; Pepsinogens; Helicobacter pylori; Gastric atrophy; Screening
24.  Serum thyroglobulin, a biomarker for iodine deficiency, is not associated with increased risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers in a large Chinese cohort 
Iodine concentrates in gastric tissue and may act as an antioxidant for the stomach. We previously showed that self-reported goiter was associated with significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) and non-significantly increased risks of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a prospective case-cohort study in a high-risk population in China. Negatively correlated with iodine levels, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is a more sensitive biomarker of iodine deficiency than goiter. This study aimed to determine whether baseline serum Tg was also associated with development of GNCA, GCA, and ESCC in the same cohort, the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial. Sera from approximately 200 subjects of each case type and 400 non-cases were tested for serum Tg concentration using appropriate assays. Tg was modeled as sex- and assay-specific quartiles in Cox regression models adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol, Helicobacter pylori status, pepsinogens I/II ratio, family history, and commune of residence. In the final combined analysis, participants in the highest quartile of serum Tg, compared to those in the lowest quartile, had adjusted Hazard Ratios of 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.50–1.52), 1.14 (0.63–2.05), and 0.78 (0.47–1.31) for GNCA, GCA, and ESCC, respectively. Using serum Tg, a sensitive biomarker of iodine deficiency, we found no association between serum Tg concentrations and risk of these upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers in the study population. Our results do not support the hypothesis that iodine deficiency, as assessed by serum Tg, is associated with an increased risk of UGI cancers.
doi:10.1002/ijc.25789
PMCID: PMC3075342  PMID: 21105043
iodine deficiency; esophageal cancer; gastric cancer; thyroglobulin; China
25.  Helicobacter pylori gastritis and serum pepsinogen levels in a healthy population: development of a biomarker strategy for gastric atrophy in high risk groups. 
British Journal of Cancer  1996;73(6):819-824.
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and type of chronic gastritis in an asymptomatic working population and to determine whether a combination of serum pepsinogen levels and Helicobacter pylori serology could be used to identify a subgroup with atrophic gastritis at elevated risk of gastric carcinoma. A 10% subsample of 544 male volunteer factory workers aged 18-63 years and participating in a larger study underwent endoscopy and biopsy. Of these men, 29 were seropositive for Helicobacter pylori; all but three (89.7%) had chronic gastritis. Serum pepsinogen A levels increased with progression from a corpus predominant pattern of gastritis through pangastritis to an antral predominant pattern. Nine subjects had corpus atrophy, which was in most cases accompanied by fasting hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinaemia. A combination of pepsinogen A below 80 ng ml-1 and Helicobaceter pylori seropositivity detected corpus atrophy with sensitivity 88.9% and specificity 92.3%. A second screening stage, using a pepsinogen A/C ratio of below 2.5 as a cut-off, resulted in a reduction in numbers requiring further investigation but with some loss of sensitivity (77.8%). Application of this two-stage screening programme to the original sample of 544 workers would have resulted in 11 (2.2%) men being selected for follow-up, excluding 25 (5.1%) false negatives. Our results suggest that a combination of serum pepsinogen levels and Helicobacter pylori serology could be useful as a biomarker strategy for detection of individuals at increased risk of gastric carcinoma and for non-invasive investigation of the natural history of Helicobacter pylori gastritis.
PMCID: PMC2074369  PMID: 8611388

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