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1.  Pharmacodynamics of SMP-601 (PTZ601) against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Neutropenic Murine Thigh Infection Models▿  
SMP-601 (also known as PTZ601, PZ-601, or SM-216601) is a novel parenteral carbapenem with potent activity against multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens, including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The pharmacodynamics of SMP-601 against VREF and MRSA were investigated in neutropenic murine thigh infection models. The percentage of the dosing interval that the unbound SMP-601 concentration exceeded the MIC (f%T>MIC) was the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameter that correlated most closely with efficacy with R2 values of 0.81 to 0.84 for two strains of VREF and 0.92 to 0.93 for two strains of MRSA, whereas the R2 values for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h divided by the MIC were 0.12 to 0.89, and the R2 values for the peak level divided by the MIC were 0 to 0.22. The f%T>MIC levels required for static or killing efficacy against two strains of VREF (9 to 19%) apparently were lower than those against two strains of MRSA (23 to 37%). These results suggested that SMP-601 showed time-dependent in vivo efficacy against VREF and MRSA, and SMP-601 had a sufficient therapeutic effect against VREF infections at lower exposure conditions compared to those for with MRSA infections.
PMCID: PMC2715632  PMID: 19487438
2.  Treatment of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium with RP 59500 (Quinupristin-Dalfopristin) Administered by Intermittent or Continuous Infusion, Alone or in Combination with Doxycycline, in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Infection Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1998;42(10):2710-2717.
Quinupristin-dalfopristin is a streptogramin antibiotic combination with activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF), but emergence of resistance has been recently reported. We studied the activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin against two clinical strains of VREF (12311 and 12366) in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs) to determine the potential for resistance selection and possible strategies for prevention. Baseline MICs/minimal bactericidal concentrations (μg/ml) for quinupristin-dalfopristin, quinupristin, dalfopristin, and doxycycline were 0.25/2, 64/>512, 4/512, and 0.125/8 for VREF 12311 and 0.25/32, 128/>512, 2/128, and 0.25/16 for VREF 12366, respectively. Quinupristin-dalfopristin regimens had significantly less activity against VREF 12366 than VREF 12311. An 8-μg/ml simulated continuous infusion was the only bactericidal regimen with time to 99.9% killing = 90 hours. The combination of quinupristin-dalfopristin every 8 h with doxycycline resulted in more killing compared to either drug alone. Quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant mutants (MICs, 4 μg/ml; resistance proportion, ∼4 × 10−4) emerged during the quinupristin-dalfopristin monotherapies for both VREF strains. Resistance was unstable in VREF 12311 and stable in VREF 12366. The 8-μg/ml continuous infusion or addition of doxycycline to quinupristin-dalfopristin prevented the emergence of resistance for both strains over the 96-h test period. These findings replicated the development of resistance reported in humans and emphasized bacterial factors (drug susceptibility, high inoculum, organism growth phase) and infectious conditions (penetration barriers) which could increase chances for clinical resistance. The combination of quinupristin-dalfopristin with doxycycline and the administration of quinupristin-dalfopristin as a high-dose continuous infusion warrant further study to determine their potential clinical utility.
PMCID: PMC105924  PMID: 9756782
3.  Comparative In Vitro Activities of Daptomycin and Vancomycin against Resistant Gram-Positive Pathogens 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2000;44(12):3447-3450.
The in vitro activity of daptomycin against 224 current gram-positive clinical isolates including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. (MRSS), and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) was evaluated. The MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited for daptomycin and vancomycin, respectively, were as follows: MRSA, 1 and 2 μg/ml; MRSS, 1 and 4 μg/ml; PRSP, 1 and 0.5 μg/ml; and VREF, 2 and >64 μg/ml. Daptomycin was bactericidal against 82% of 17 VREF isolates. The antibacterial activity of daptomycin was strongly dependent on the calcium concentration of the medium. Daptomycin was active against all gram-positive cocci tested.
PMCID: PMC90222  PMID: 11083657
4.  Intracellular activities of RP 59500 (quinupristin-dalfopristin) and sparfloxacin against Enterococcus faecium. 
RP 59500, a combination of the streptogramins quinupristin and dalfopristin, and sparfloxacin are new antibiotics with good in vitro activities against Enterococcus faecium, which is an increasingly important nosocomial pathogen with resistance to multiple antimicrobials. Since fluoroquinolones and related macrolides have displayed high intracellular concentrations inside host cells, we evaluated the intracellular activities of these agents inside neutrophils against three strains each of vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSEF) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREF). At concentrations equal to four times the MIC, RP 59500 and sparfloxacin decreased the number of intracellular VSEF organisms, while both antibiotics were at best bacteriostatic against intracellular VREF strains. At concentrations equal to one-fourth of the MIC, both antibiotics were bacteriostatic against intracellular VSEF strains but were ineffective in inhibiting the growth of VREF strains. Despite their anticipated markedly higher intracellular human neutrophil (PMN) concentrations, RP 59500 and sparfloxacin activities in medium alone were equal to or greater than those inside PMNs against almost all strains. We conclude that the intracellular PMN concentrations of these antibiotics may not be directly related to their intracellular activities in our assay. The reason for the differences in their activities against VSEF versus VREF remains undefined.
PMCID: PMC163224  PMID: 8849245
5.  Bactericidal Activities of Two Daptomycin Regimens against Clinical Strains of Glycopeptide Intermediate-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium, and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations 
Daptomycin is an investigational lipopeptide antibiotic active against gram-positive organisms. The mechanism of action is unique, resulting in interference with cell membrane transport. The bactericidal activity of daptomycin was evaluated against glycopeptide-intermediate susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (GISA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in an in vitro infection model with simulated endocardial vegetations. Simulated regimens of daptomycin at 6 mg/kg/day (D6) and 10 mg/kg/day (D10) were utilized. MICs and MBCs for daptomycin were determined in the absence and in the presence of albumin with the following results (MIC/MBC): for GISA-992, 0.5/1.0 and 16/16; for VREF-590, 2.0/2.0 and 32/32; and for MRSA-494, 0.25/0.25 and 1.0/4.0 μg/ml, respectively. During the first 8 h daptomycin significantly reduced the inoculum for all organisms. Daptomycin at 6 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day had log10 CFU/g reductions of 5 and 6, 3.4 and 5, and 6.4 and 6.5 by 8 h for GISA-992, VREF-590, and MRSA-494, respectively. Against both GISA-992 and VREF-590, the D10 regimen achieved the limit of detection at 72 h, with D6 regimens showing slight regrowth. A concentration-dependent killing effect was noted to occur, with daptomycin demonstrating a more rapid and greater kill from the D10 versus the D6 regimen. The results of this study suggest that daptomycin demonstrates significant (P < 0.05) activity against gram-positive organisms in a simulated sequestered infection site.
PMCID: PMC90312  PMID: 11158740
6.  Daptomycin Dose-Effect Relationship against Resistant Gram-Positive Organisms 
Daptomycin exhibits in vitro bactericidal activity against clinically significant gram-positive bacteria. We employed pharmacodynamic modeling to determine a once-daily dosing regimen of daptomycin that correlates to pharmacodynamic endpoints for different resistant gram-positive clinical strains. An in vitro pharmacodynamic model with an initial inoculum of 6 log10 CFU/ml was used to simulate daptomycin regimens ranging in dose from 0 to 9 mg/kg of body weight/day, with corresponding exposures reflecting free-daptomycin concentrations in serum. Bacterial density was profiled over 48 h for two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-67 and -R515), two glycopeptide intermediate-resistant S. aureus (GISA-992 and -147398), and two vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF-12366 and -SF12047) strains. A sigmoid dose-response model was used to estimate the effective dose required to achieve 50% (ED50) and 80% (ED80) bacterial density reduction at 48 h. Daptomycin MICs for study isolates ranged from 0.125 to 4 μg/ml. Model fitting resulted in an r2 of >0.80 for all tested isolates. Control growths at 48 h ranged from 7.3 to 8.5 log10 CFU/ml. Sigmoid relationships were not superimposable between categorical resistant species: ED50 and ED80 values were 1.9 and 3.1, 4.2 and 5.6, and 5.4 and 6.8 mg/kg for MRSA, GISA, and VREF isolates, respectively. Doses required to achieve ED50 and ED80 values correlated with MIC differences between tested organisms. Corresponding area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h/MIC exposure ratios demonstrated a wide range of ED80 values among the tested isolates. Doses ranging between 3 and 7 mg/kg produced significant bactericidal activity (ED80) against these multidrug-resistant S. aureus and E. faecium isolates.
PMCID: PMC153299  PMID: 12709328
7.  Antimicrobial Evaluation of Nocathiacins, a Thiazole Peptide Class of Antibiotics 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2004;48(10):3697-3701.
Nocathiacins are cyclic thiazolyl peptides with inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria. BMS-249524 (nocathiacin I), identified from screening a library of compounds against a multiply antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium strain, was used as a lead chemotype to obtain additional structurally related compounds. The MIC assay results of BMS-249524 and two more water-soluble derivatives, BMS-411886 and BMS-461996, revealed potent in vitro activities against a variety of gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium. Analysis of killing kinetics revealed that these compounds are bactericidal for S. aureus with at least a 3-log10 reduction of bacterial growth within 6 h of exposure to four times the MICs. Nocathiacin-resistant mutants were characterized by DNA sequence analyses. The mutations mapped to the rplK gene encoding the L11 ribosomal protein in the 50S subunit in a region previously shown to be involved in the binding of related thiazolyl peptide antibiotics. These compounds demonstrated potential for further development as a new class of antibacterial agents with activity against key antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacterial pathogens.
PMCID: PMC521901  PMID: 15388422
8.  Pharmacodynamic Analysis of the Activity of Quinupristin-Dalfopristin against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium with Differing MBCs via Time-Kill-Curve and Postantibiotic Effect Methods 
Quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D) is a new water-soluble, semisynthetic antibiotic that is derived from natural streptogramins and that is combined in a 30:70 ratio. A number of studies have described the pharmacodynamic properties of this drug, but most have investigated only staphylococci or streptococci. We evaluated the relationship between Q-D, quinupristin (Q), and/or dalfopristin (D) susceptibility parameters and antibacterial activities against 22 clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) by using the concentration-time-kill-curve method and by measuring postantibiotic effects. Q-D, Q, and D MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) ranged from 0.125 to 1 and 0.25 to 64, 8 to 512 and >512, and 2 to 8 and 8 to 512 μg/ml, respectively. There were no significant relationships between susceptibilities to the individual components and the susceptibilities to the Q-D combination product. In the time-kill-curves studies, Q-D at a concentration of 6 μg/ml was at least bacteriostatic against all VREF tested. There was increased activity against more susceptible isolates when the isolates were grouped either by Q-D MBCs or by Q MICs. By multivariate regression analyses, the percent change in the inoculum from that at the baseline was significantly correlated with the Q MIC (R = 0.74; P = 0.008) and the Q-D concentration-to-MBC ratio (R = 0.58; P = 0.02) and was inversely correlated with the Q-D MBC-to-MIC ratio (R = 0.68; P = 0.003). A strong correlation existed between the killing rate and the Q-D concentration-to-MBC ratio (R = 0.99; P < 0.0001). Time to 99.9% killing was best correlated with the Q-D MBC (R = 0.96; P < 0.0001). The postantibiotic effect ranged from 0.2 to 3.2 h and was highly correlated with the Q-D concentration-to-MBC ratio (R = 0.96; P < 0.0001) and was less highly correlated with the Q MIC (R = 0.42; P = 0.04). Further study of these relationships with in vitro or in vivo infection models that simulate Q-D pharmacokinetics should further define the utility of these pharmacodynamic parameters in the prediction of Q-D activity for the treatment of VREF infections in humans.
PMCID: PMC105772  PMID: 9736533
9.  Comparative in vitro activities of teicoplanin, daptomycin, ramoplanin, vancomycin, and PD127,391 against blood isolates of gram-positive cocci. 
The in vitro activities of teicoplanin, daptomycin, ramoplanin, and PD127,391, a new quinolone, were compared with that of vancomycin. Teicoplanin showed the lowest MICs against Enterococcus faecalis. Ramoplanin was slightly more active than the other peptide antibiotics against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The MICs of the four peptide antibiotics were similar for the oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus. Daptomycin had good activity against staphylococci but was the least active agent against E. faecalis. The MICs of vancomycin against all isolates were in general higher than those of the new antibiotics, with the exceptions of the MICs of daptomycin against E. faecalis and teicoplanin against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. PD127,391 was the most active agent against all staphylococcal isolates.
PMCID: PMC191623  PMID: 1324649
10.  In vitro postantibiotic effect of daptomycin (LY146032) against Enterococcus faecalis and methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. 
The suppression of bacterial growth that persists after brief exposure to antimicrobial agents has been termed the postantibiotic effect (PAE). This pharmacodynamic interaction varies for each microorganism-antimicrobial agent combination. Daptomycin (LY146032) is a new lipopeptide antibiotic with activity against gram-positive organisms. We studied the in vitro bactericidal activities and PAEs of the following drugs: daptomycin compared with penicillin G and vancomycin, without and with gentamicin against Enterococcus faecalis strains; daptomycin compared with nafcillin and vancomycin against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains; and daptomycin compared with vancomycin against methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains. Daptomycin, alone and when used in combination with gentamicin, exhibited greater bactericidal activity and in general produced a longer PAE than standard effective regimens against the organism strains studied.
PMCID: PMC172624  PMID: 2552901
11.  Antimicrobial Activities of Mefloquine and a Series of Related Compounds 
Mefloquine was found to have bactericidal activity against methicillin- and fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and gentamicin- and vancomycin-resistant strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. The MICs were 16 μg/ml, and the minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were 16 to 32 μg/ml. These concentrations cannot be achieved in serum. Mefloquine was active at a more achievable concentration against penicillin-susceptible and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, with MICs of 0.2 to 1.5 μg/ml. Mefloquine was not active against gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. In an attempt to find more active derivatives, 400 mefloquine-related compounds were selected from the chemical inventory of The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. We identified a series of compounds containing a piperidine methanol group attached to pyridine, quinoline, and benzylquinoline ring systems. These had activities similar to that of mefloquine against S. pneumoniae but were far more active against other gram-positive bacteria (MICs for staphylococci, 0.8 to 6.3 μg/ml). They had activities similar to that of amphotericin B against Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans. Combinations of the compounds with gentamicin and vancomycin were additive against staphylococci and pneumococci. The MIC and MBC of gentamicin were decreased by four- to eightfold when this drug was combined with limiting dilutions of the compounds. There was no antagonism with other antimicrobial drugs. The compounds were rapidly bactericidal. They appear to act by disrupting cell membranes. Combinations of the compounds with aminoglycoside antibiotics may have potential for therapeutic use.
PMCID: PMC89781  PMID: 10722480
12.  In vitro activity of LY264826, a new glycopeptide antibiotic, against gram-positive bacteria isolated from patients with cancer. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1990;34(11):2137-2141.
The in vitro activity of LY264826, a novel glycopeptide antibiotic produced by Amycolatopsis orientalis, was compared with those of vancomycin, teicoplanin, and oxacillin against 311 gram-positive clinical isolates from patients with cancer, LY264826 had lower MICs for 90% of isolates (MIC90) than vancomycin for all species tested. It was active against oxacillin-resistant isolates including Staphylococcus aureus (MIC90, 0.5 micrograms/ml), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (MIC90, 2.0 micrograms/ml), Enterococcus spp. (MIC90, 0.5 micrograms/ml), Bacillus cereus (MIC90, 0.25 micrograms/ml), and Corynebacterium jeikeium (MIC90, 0.12 micrograms/ml). For S. aureus, including oxacillin-resistant isolates, the MICs of LY264826 were similar to those of teicoplanin. For coagulase-negative staphylococci, however, LY264826 had MICs that were 4- to 32-fold lower than those of teicoplanin. Against most streptococcal species the activities of LY264826 and teicoplanin were similar. Bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus spp. and most Streptococcus pyogenes isolates was less than or equal to 1 dilution of the MIC. One isolate of S. pyogenes and all Enterococcus faecalis strains tested were tolerant of LY264826, with MBCs greater than or equal to 32-fold greater than the MICs. The addition of 50% human serum resulted in a significant increase in activity only against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Variations in pH from 6.4 to 8.4 and in inoculum from 10(3) to 10(7) CFU/ml did not significantly affect the activity of LY264826.
PMCID: PMC172013  PMID: 2149921
13.  TOC-39, a novel parenteral broad-spectrum cephalosporin with excellent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. 
TOC-39, a new parenteral cephalosporin, is a hydroxyimino-type cephem antibiotic with vinylthio-pyridyl moiety at the 3 position. TOC-39 was evaluated for antibacterial activity against various clinically isolated strains. TOC-39 had excellent activity, stronger than that of methicillin, oxacillin, the cephalosporins tested, imipenem, gentamicin, minocycline, tobramycin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and had an MIC comparable to that of vancomycin (the MICs of TOC-39 and vancomycin for 90% of the strains tested were 3.13 and 1.56 micrograms/ml, respectively). Against Enterococcus faecalis strains, which are resistant to cephalosporins, TOC-39 was twice as active as ampicillin. Against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus pneumoniae, TOC-39 was twice as active as or more active than cefotiam, ceftazidime, flomoxef, and cefpirome. Against Streptococcus pyogenes, TOC-39 was superior to cefotiam, ceftazidime, and flomoxef and was similar to cefpirome. In addition, the activity of TOC-39 was equal to or greater than that of cefotiam, ceftazidime, flomoxef, and cefpirome against Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Morganella morganii. In terms of bactericidal effect against MRSA, TOC-39 was superior to vancomycin. No mutant resistant to TOC-39 or vancomycin was obtained from susceptible MRSA strains. In murine systemic infection models, TOC-39 showed potent activity against S. aureus and E. coli. Against highly MRSA, the activity of TOC-39 was comparable to that of vancomycin.
PMCID: PMC162694  PMID: 7625799
14.  Serum Bactericidal Activities of High-Dose Daptomycin with and without Coadministration of Gentamicin against Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2006;50(11):3529-3534.
The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and serum bactericidal titers (SBTs) of daptomycin alone and in combination with gentamicin against strains of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci to determine if there might be any benefit to the addition of the aminoglycoside. A multiple-dose, randomized crossover study was performed in 11 healthy volunteers to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetic profile of 6 mg/kg of body weight daptomycin once daily with or without 1 mg/kg gentamicin every 8 h. SBTs were determined against clinical isolates of nosocomial (MRSA 494) and community-acquired (CA-MRSA 44) methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis (VSEF 49452), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF 80), and quality control strains of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (ATCC 29213) and vancomycin-susceptible E. faecalis (ATCC 29212). Enhancement of bactericidal activity was evaluated by calculating and comparing the areas under the bactericidal curve (AUBC) for each dosing regimen against each isolate. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h and clearance for daptomycin alone were 645 ± 91 μg · h/ml and 9.47 ± 1.4 mg/h/kg, respectively, compared with 642 ± 69 μg · h/ml and 9.45 ± 1.0 mg/h/kg for daptomycin plus gentamicin. Daptomycin alone displayed sustained bactericidal activity against five of the six isolates over the entire 24-h dosing interval; bactericidal activity was maintained for 8 h against VREF 80. Mean AUBCs for daptomycin alone ranged from 935 to 1,263 and 36 to 238 against staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates, respectively, compared with 902 to 972 and 34 to 213 against staphylococci and enterococci when coadministered with gentamicin. The results of this study suggest that the addition of gentamicin does not alter the pharmacokinetic profile or enhance the bactericidal activity of daptomycin against staphylococcal or enterococcal isolates.
PMCID: PMC1635189  PMID: 17065618
15.  In vitro activity and spectrum of LY333328, a novel glycopeptide derivative. 
Reference methods were used to determine the potency of LY333328, a semisynthetic glycopeptide derivative with a key N-alkylation substitution, against 833 strains (393 gram-positive strains and representative gram-negative bacilli) with various defined resistance mechanisms. The MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC90S) (in micrograms per milliliter) of LY333328 and the percentages of strains at < or = 8 micrograms/ml were as follows: for oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, 2 and 100%, and for oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 4 and 100%; for oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermis, 4 and 100%, and for oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 8 and 96%; for Streptococcus serogroups A, B, C, and G, 0.25 to 1 and 100%; for Streptococcus pneumoniae < or = 0.015 to 0.06 and 100%; for Enterococcus faecalis, 2 and 100%; and for vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium, 0.25 and 100%, and for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, 4 and 100%. LY333328 was not active (MIC50, > or = 16 micrograms/ml) against more than 400 representative strains of Enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonads, Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, pathogenic Neisseria spp., and anaerobic gram-negative bacilli. Gram-positive anaerobes were LY333328 susceptible (MICs, < or = 2 micrograms/ml). Test methods and conditions may have affected MICs of LY333328, with most (species variation) agar dilution MICs being greater than the broth microdilution MICs.
PMCID: PMC163738  PMID: 9021216
16.  Pharmacodynamics of Telavancin (TD-6424), a Novel Bactericidal Agent, against Gram-Positive Bacteria 
Telavancin (TD-6424) is a novel lipoglycopeptide that produces rapid and concentration-dependent killing of clinically relevant gram-positive organisms in vitro. The present studies evaluated the in vivo pharmacodynamics of telavancin in the mouse neutropenic thigh (MNT) and mouse subcutaneous infection (MSI) animal models. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies in the MNT model demonstrated that the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio was the best predictor of efficacy. Telavancin produced dose-dependent reduction of thigh titers of several organisms, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), penicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. The 50% effective dose (ED50) estimates for telavancin ranged from 0.5 to 6.6 mg/kg of body weight (administered intravenously), and titers were reduced by up to 3 log10 CFU/g from pretreatment values. Against MRSA ATCC 33591, telavancin was 4- and 30-fold more potent (on an ED50 basis) than vancomycin and linezolid, respectively. Against MSSA ATCC 13709, telavancin was 16- and 40-fold more potent than vancomycin and nafcillin, respectively. Telavancin, vancomycin, and linezolid were all efficacious and more potent against MRSA ATCC 33591 in the MSI model compared to the MNT model. This deviation in potency was, however, disproportionately greater for vancomycin and linezolid than for telavancin, suggesting that activity of telavancin is less affected by the immune status. The findings of these studies collectively suggest that once-daily dosing of telavancin may provide an effective approach for the treatment of clinically relevant infections with gram-positive organisms.
PMCID: PMC478526  PMID: 15273119
17.  In vitro activity of the trinem sanfetrinem (GV104326) against gram-positive organisms. 
The in vitro activity of the trinem sanfetrinem (formerly GV104326) (GV) was compared with that of vancomycin, ampicillin, and/or nafcillin against 287 gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant enterococci, by the agar and microbroth dilution methods. GV demonstrated 2 to 16 times more activity than ampicillin and nafcillin against the majority of these organisms. The MIC range of GV was 16 to 64 micrograms/ml for 19 Enterococcus faecium strains that were highly resistant to ampicillin (ampicillin MIC range, 64 to 512 micrograms/ml) and vancomycin resistant and 0.25 to 32 micrograms/ml for resistant Rhodococcus spp. Similar activities (+/-1 dilution) were observed by either the agar or the broth microdilution method. GV demonstrated bactericidal activity against a beta-lactamase-producing Enterococcus faecalis strain and against two methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains in 10(5)-CFU/ml inocula. Synergy between GV and gentamicin was observed against an E. faecalis strain that lacked high-level gentamicin resistance. The activity of GV suggests this compound warrants further study.
PMCID: PMC163488  PMID: 8878596
18.  Evaluation of Standard- and High-Dose Daptomycin versus Linezolid against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Isolates in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations 
Daptomycin MICs for enterococci are typically 1- to 2-fold higher than those for Staphylococcus aureus, and there is an imminent need to establish the optimal dose for appropriate treatment of enterococcal infections. We investigated the bactericidal activity of daptomycin at various dose exposures compared to that of linezolid against vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model utilizing simulated endocardial vegetations over 96 h. Daptomycin at doses of 6, 8, 10, and 12 mg/kg of body weight/day and linezolid at a dose of 600 mg every 12 h were evaluated against two clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains (EFm11499 and 09-184D1051), one of which was linezolid resistant (09-184D1051), and one clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strain (EFs11496). Daptomycin MICs were 4, 2, and 0.5 μg/ml for EFm11499, 09-184D1051, and EFs11496, respectively. Bactericidal activity, defined as a ≥3 log10 CFU/g reduction from the initial colony count, was demonstrated against all three isolates with all doses of daptomycin; however, bactericidal activity was not sustained with the daptomycin 6- and 8-mg/kg/day regimens. Linezolid was bacteriostatic against EFm11499 and displayed no appreciable activity against 09-184D1051 or EFs11496. Concentration-dependent killing was displayed with more sustained reduction in colony count (3.58 to 6.46 and 5.89 to 6.56 log10 CFU/g) at 96 h for the simulated regimen of daptomycin at doses of 10 and 12 mg/kg/day, respectively (P ≤ 0.012). No E. faecium mutants with reduced susceptibility were recovered at any dosage regimen; however, the E. faecalis strain developed reduced daptomycin susceptibility with daptomycin at 6, 8, and 10 but not at 12 mg/kg/day. Daptomycin displayed a dose-dependent response against three VRE isolates, with high-dose daptomycin producing sustained bactericidal activity. Further research is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3370794  PMID: 22470111
19.  In vitro activity of rifampin in combination with oxacillin against Staphylococcus aureus. 
The in vitro activity of rifampin alone and in combination with oxacillin was determined for 75 Staphylococcus aureus strains (64 susceptible and 11 resistant to oxacillin). Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by broth microdilution; antibiotic combinations were evaluated by microdilution checkerboard and time-kill studies. The 90% MIC of rifampin was less than or equal to 0.015 micrograms/ml after both 24 and 48 h of incubation. The 90% MBC of rifampin was less than or equal to 2.0 micrograms/ml on subculture at 24 h of incubation and less than or equal to 0.5 micrograms/ml on subculture at 48 h. MIC checkerboards with oxacillin-susceptible strains revealed an additive or indifferent effect in 35 strains (55%) and antagonism in 29 strains (45%). MBC checkerboards performed by subculture at 24 h demonstrated antagonism for all but one of the oxacillin-susceptible strains, with sub-MBCs of rifampin impairing the bactericidal activity of oxacillin. MBC checkerboards performed by 48-h subculture revealed antagonism with 37 strains (58%); in 26 additional strains (40%), a synergistic, additive, or indifferent effect was observed at low antibiotic concentrations, but antagonism was seen at higher concentrations. Time-kill studies tended to show indifference rather than antagonism with oxacillin plus rifampin. In checkerboards performed with oxacillin-resistant strains, the addition of rifampin did not improve oxacillin inhibitory or bactericidal activity to a clinically significant extent; however, the addition of oxacillin improved the bactericidal activity of rifampin at easily achievable serum concentrations.
PMCID: PMC184703  PMID: 6859835
20.  Antimicrobial Properties of MX-2401, an Expanded-Spectrum Lipopeptide Active in the Presence of Lung Surfactant▿ 
MX-2401 is an expanded-spectrum lipopeptide antibiotic selective for Gram-positive bacteria that is a semisynthetic analog of the naturally occurring lipopeptide amphomycin. It was active against Enterococcus spp., including vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus (VSE), vanA-, vanB-, and vanC-positive vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), linezolid- and quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant isolates (MIC90 of 4 μg/ml), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) (MIC90 of 2 μg/ml), coagulase-negative staphylococci, including methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis (MSSE) and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) (MIC90 of 2 μg/ml), and Streptococcus spp. including viridans group streptococci, and penicillin-resistant, penicillin-sensitive, penicillin-intermediate and macrolide-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90 of 2 μg/ml). MX-2401 demonstrated a dose-dependent postantibiotic effect varying from 1.5 to 2.4 h. Furthermore, MX-2401 was rapidly bactericidal at 4 times the MIC against S. aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, with more than 99.9% reduction in viable bacterial attained at 4 and 24 h, respectively. The MICs of MX-2401 against MRSA, MSSA, VSE, and VRE strains serially exposed for 15 passages to sub- to supra-MICs of MX-2401 remained within three dilutions of the original MIC. In contrast to that of the lipopeptide daptomycin, the antibacterial activity of MX-2401 was not affected in vitro by the presence of lung surfactant, and MX-2401 was active in vivo in the bronchial-alveolar pneumonia mouse model, in which daptomycin failed to show any activity. Moreover, the activity of MX-2401 was not as strongly dependent on the Ca2+ concentration as is the activity of daptomycin. In conclusion, MX-2401 is a promising new-generation lipopeptide for the treatment of serious infections with Gram-positive bacteria, including hospital-acquired pneumonia.
PMCID: PMC3147646  PMID: 21576435
21.  MICs of Mutacin B-Ny266, Nisin A, Vancomycin, and Oxacillin against Bacterial Pathogens 
Peptide antibiotics, particularly lantibiotics, are good candidates for replacing antibiotics to which bacteria have become resistant. In order to compare two such lantibiotics with two antibiotics, the MICs of nisin A, mutacin B-Ny266, vancomycin, and oxacillin against various bacterial pathogens were determined. The results indicate that nisin A and mutacin B-Ny266 are as active as vancomycin and oxacillin against most of the strains tested. Furthermore, mutacin B-Ny266 remains active against strains that are resistant to nisin A, oxacillin, or vancomycin. The wide spectrum of activity of mutacin B-Ny266, its low MICs against bacterial pathogens, and its activity against bacteria resistant to other inhibitors support the development of this substance for therapeutic use.
PMCID: PMC89623  PMID: 10602718
22.  In vitro activity of RP59500, an injectable streptogramin antibiotic, against vancomycin-resistant gram-positive organisms. 
The in vitro activity of RP59500, a streptogramin antibiotic, against 146 clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria was examined. Five strains of the species Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum, for which the MIC of vancomycin was 8 micrograms/ml, were also studied. Twenty-eight vancomycin-susceptible strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were included for comparison. The drug was highly active against Leuconostoc spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Pediococcus spp. (MICs, < or = 2 micrograms/ml). RP59500 was more active against vancomycin-susceptible strains of E. faecium than E. faecalis (MICs for 90% of the strains [MIC90s], 1.0 versus 32 micrograms/ml). Vancomycin-resistant strains of E. faecalis were as resistant to RP59500 as vancomycin-susceptible strains (MIC90, 32 micrograms/ml), but some vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains were relatively more resistant to the new agent (MIC90, 16; MIC range, 0.5 to 32 micrograms/ml) than were vancomycin-susceptible organisms of this species.
PMCID: PMC187713  PMID: 8460927
23.  In Vitro Activity of Linezolid against Key Gram-Positive Organisms Isolated in the United States: Results of the LEADER 2004 Surveillance Program 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2005;49(12):5024-5032.
Since the approval of linezolid in 2000, sporadic reports of resistance have been given and a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms of resistance has been gained. However, since these developments, an updated status of the in vitro activity of linezolid against gram-positive organisms from the United States has not been reported. The LEADER 2004 surveillance initiative was undertaken to obtain current and representative data on the activity of linezolid against key species, including isolates with significant resistance phenotypes. Organisms were isolated during 2004 and included 2,872 Staphylococcus aureus, 496 coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS), 428 Enterococcus faecalis, 196 Enterococcus faecium, and 422 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. All S. aureus isolates (54.2% oxacillin resistant) were susceptible to linezolid (MIC90 = 2 μg/ml); MIC distributions were consistent, regardless of oxacillin or multidrug resistance status. For CNS, one nonsusceptible isolate was encountered (Staphylococcus epidermidis; MIC = 32 μg/ml), but overall, the MIC90 (1 μg/ml) was lower than that obtained with S. aureus. For E. faecalis and E. faecium, 99.5% and 96.4% of isolates, respectively, were linezolid susceptible. Both species had an MIC90 of 2 μg/ml, and MIC distributions did not vary with the vancomycin susceptibility status of the populations analyzed. Linezolid nonsusceptibility was not encountered among the S. pneumoniae isolates. These findings indicate that linezolid nonsusceptibility has remained rare among staphylococci and uncommon and sporadic among enterococci. Nonetheless, careful and ongoing monitoring of the in vitro effectiveness of linezolid will be needed so that any changes to the current status may be detected as soon as possible.
PMCID: PMC1315934  PMID: 16304168
24.  Site-Directed Mutations in the Lanthipeptide Mutacin 1140 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2013;79(13):4015-4023.
The oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans, strain JH1140, produces the antibiotic mutacin 1140. Mutacin 1140 belongs to a group of antibiotics called lanthipeptides. More specifically, mutacin 1140 is related to the epidermin type A(I) lanthipeptides. Mutagenesis experiments of this group of lanthipeptides have been primarily restricted to the posttranslationally modified meso-lanthionine and 3-methyllanthionine residues. Site-directed mutagenesis of the core peptide of mutacin 1140 was performed using the suicide vector pVA891. Substitutions of the N-terminal residue, the charged residue in the hinge region, and residues in ring A and intertwined rings C and D were investigated. A truncation and insertion of residues in ring A and intertwined rings C and D were also performed to determine whether or not they would alter the antimicrobial activity of the producing strain. Bioassays revealed that five of 14 mutants studied had improved antimicrobial activity against the indicator strain Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240. MICs against Streptococcus mutans UA159, Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 27336, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Clostridium difficile UK1, and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240 were determined for three mutacin 1140 variants that had the most significant increases in bioactivity in the M. luteus bioassay. This mutagenesis study of the epidermin group of lanthipeptides shows that antimicrobial activity can be significantly improved.
PMCID: PMC3697549  PMID: 23603688
25.  The lantibiotic mersacidin is a strong inducer of the cell wall stress response of Staphylococcus aureus 
BMC Microbiology  2008;8:186.
The lantibiotic mersacidin is an antimicrobial peptide of 20 amino acids that is ribosomally produced by Bacillus sp. strain HIL Y-85,54728. Mersacidin acts by complexing the sugar phosphate head group of the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II, thereby inhibiting the transglycosylation reaction of peptidoglycan biosynthesis.
Here, we studied the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of mersacidin. Transcriptional data revealed an extensive induction of the cell wall stress response, which is partly controlled by the two-component regulatory system VraSR. In contrast to other cell wall-active antibiotics such as vancomycin, very low concentrations of mersacidin (0.15 × MIC) were sufficient for induction. Interestingly, the cell wall stress response was equally induced in vancomycin intermediately resistant S. aureus (VISA) and in a highly susceptible strain. Since the transcription of the VraDE ABC transporter genes was induced up to 1700-fold in our experiments, we analyzed the role of VraDE in the response to mersacidin. However, the deletion of the vraE gene did not result in an increased susceptibility to mersacidin compared to the wild type strain. Moreover, the efficacy of mersacidin was not affected by an increased cell wall thickness, which is part of the VISA-type resistance mechanism and functions by trapping the vancomycin molecules in the cell wall before they reach lipid II. Therefore, the relatively higher concentration of mersacidin at the membrane might explain why mersacidin is such a strong inducer of VraSR compared to vancomycin.
In conclusion, mersacidin appears to be a strong inducer of the cell wall stress response of S. aureus at very low concentrations, which reflects its general mode of action as a cell wall-active peptide as well as its use of a unique target site on lipid II. Additionally, mersacidin does not seem to be a substrate for the resistance transporter VraDE.
PMCID: PMC2592248  PMID: 18947397

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