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1.  Prevalence and risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease in an adult population from southern China 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2008;24(4):1205-1212.
Background. Population-based studies evaluating the prevalence of kidney damage in different communities have been limited in developing countries. We conducted a population-based screening study in the southern Chinese city of Guangzhou that aimed to identify the prevalence and associated risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in southern Chinese populations.
Methods. We interviewed 6311 residents (>20 years) from six districts of Guangzhou from July 2006 to June 2007 and tested for haematuria, albuminuria and reduced renal function. Associations between age, gender, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperuricaemia and kidney damage were examined.
Results. There were 6311 subjects enrolled in this study. After adjustment for age and gender, the prevalence of albuminuria, haematuria and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 6.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.5–7.6%], 3.8% (95% CI: 3.4%, 4.3%) and 3.2% (95% CI: 2.4%, 3.3%), respectively. Approximately 12.1% (95% CI: 11.3%, 12.9%) of the sample population had at least one indicator of kidney damage. Age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, central obesity, hyperlipidaemia and use of nephrotoxic medications were independently associated with albuminuria; hyperuricaemia, age, gender, hypertension and use of nephrotoxic medications were independently associated with reduced eGFR, and female gender was independently associated with haematuria.
Conclusions. In the general adult population from southern China, 12.1% has either proteinuria, haematuria and/or reduced eGFR, indicating the presence of kidney damage, with an awareness of only 9.6%. The high prevalence and low awareness of CKD in this population suggest an urgent need for CKD prevention programmes in China.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfn604
PMCID: PMC3203397  PMID: 18952699
chronic kidney disease; epidemiology; screening
2.  Risk Models to Predict Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Progression: A Systematic Review 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(11):e1001344.
A systematic review of risk prediction models conducted by Justin Echouffo-Tcheugui and Andre Kengne examines the evidence base for prediction of chronic kidney disease risk and its progression, and suitability of such models for clinical use.
Background
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common, and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease, which are potentially preventable through early identification and treatment of individuals at risk. Although risk factors for occurrence and progression of CKD have been identified, their utility for CKD risk stratification through prediction models remains unclear. We critically assessed risk models to predict CKD and its progression, and evaluated their suitability for clinical use.
Methods and Findings
We systematically searched MEDLINE and Embase (1 January 1980 to 20 June 2012). Dual review was conducted to identify studies that reported on the development, validation, or impact assessment of a model constructed to predict the occurrence/presence of CKD or progression to advanced stages. Data were extracted on study characteristics, risk predictors, discrimination, calibration, and reclassification performance of models, as well as validation and impact analyses. We included 26 publications reporting on 30 CKD occurrence prediction risk scores and 17 CKD progression prediction risk scores. The vast majority of CKD risk models had acceptable-to-good discriminatory performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve>0.70) in the derivation sample. Calibration was less commonly assessed, but overall was found to be acceptable. Only eight CKD occurrence and five CKD progression risk models have been externally validated, displaying modest-to-acceptable discrimination. Whether novel biomarkers of CKD (circulatory or genetic) can improve prediction largely remains unclear, and impact studies of CKD prediction models have not yet been conducted. Limitations of risk models include the lack of ethnic diversity in derivation samples, and the scarcity of validation studies. The review is limited by the lack of an agreed-on system for rating prediction models, and the difficulty of assessing publication bias.
Conclusions
The development and clinical application of renal risk scores is in its infancy; however, the discriminatory performance of existing tools is acceptable. The effect of using these models in practice is still to be explored.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Chronic kidney disease (CKD)—the gradual loss of kidney function—is increasingly common worldwide. In the US, for example, about 26 million adults have CKD, and millions more are at risk of developing the condition. Throughout life, small structures called nephrons inside the kidneys filter waste products and excess water from the blood to make urine. If the nephrons stop working because of injury or disease, the rate of blood filtration decreases, and dangerous amounts of waste products such as creatinine build up in the blood. Symptoms of CKD, which rarely occur until the disease is very advanced, include tiredness, swollen feet and ankles, puffiness around the eyes, and frequent urination, especially at night. There is no cure for CKD, but progression of the disease can be slowed by controlling high blood pressure and diabetes, both of which cause CKD, and by adopting a healthy lifestyle. The same interventions also reduce the chances of CKD developing in the first place.
Why Was This Study Done?
CKD is associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal disease, which is treated with dialysis or by kidney transplantation (renal replacement therapies), and of cardiovascular disease. These life-threatening complications are potentially preventable through early identification and treatment of CKD, but most people present with advanced disease. Early identification would be particularly useful in developing countries, where renal replacement therapies are not readily available and resources for treating cardiovascular problems are limited. One way to identify people at risk of a disease is to use a “risk model.” Risk models are constructed by testing the ability of different combinations of risk factors that are associated with a specific disease to identify those individuals in a “derivation sample” who have the disease. The model is then validated on an independent group of people. In this systematic review (a study that uses predefined criteria to identify all the research on a given topic), the researchers critically assess the ability of existing CKD risk models to predict the occurrence of CKD and its progression, and evaluate their suitability for clinical use.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified 26 publications reporting on 30 risk models for CKD occurrence and 17 risk models for CKD progression that met their predefined criteria. The risk factors most commonly included in these models were age, sex, body mass index, diabetes status, systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, protein in the urine, and serum albumin or total protein. Nearly all the models had acceptable-to-good discriminatory performance (a measure of how well a model separates people who have a disease from people who do not have the disease) in the derivation sample. Not all the models had been calibrated (assessed for whether the average predicted risk within a group matched the proportion that actually developed the disease), but in those that had been assessed calibration was good. Only eight CKD occurrence and five CKD progression risk models had been externally validated; discrimination in the validation samples was modest-to-acceptable. Finally, very few studies had assessed whether adding extra variables to CKD risk models (for example, genetic markers) improved prediction, and none had assessed the impact of adopting CKD risk models on the clinical care and outcomes of patients.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that the development and clinical application of CKD risk models is still in its infancy. Specifically, these findings indicate that the existing models need to be better calibrated and need to be externally validated in different populations (most of the models were tested only in predominantly white populations) before they are incorporated into guidelines. The impact of their use on clinical outcomes also needs to be assessed before their widespread use is recommended. Such research is worthwhile, however, because of the potential public health and clinical applications of well-designed risk models for CKD. Such models could be used to identify segments of the population that would benefit most from screening for CKD, for example. Moreover, risk communication to patients could motivate them to adopt a healthy lifestyle and to adhere to prescribed medications, and the use of models for predicting CKD progression could help clinicians tailor disease-modifying therapies to individual patient needs.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001344.
This study is further discussed in a PLOS Medicine Perspective by Maarten Taal
The US National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse provides information about all aspects of kidney disease; the US National Kidney Disease Education Program provides resources to help improve the understanding, detection, and management of kidney disease (in English and Spanish)
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information for patients on chronic kidney disease, including some personal stories
The US National Kidney Foundation, a not-for-profit organization, provides information about chronic kidney disease (in English and Spanish)
The not-for-profit UK National Kidney Federation support and information for patients with kidney disease and for their carers, including a selection of patient experiences of kidney disease
World Kidney Day, a joint initiative between the International Society of Nephrology and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations, aims to raise awareness about kidneys and kidney disease
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001344
PMCID: PMC3502517  PMID: 23185136
3.  Prevalence of chronic kidney disease across levels of glycemia among adults in Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:253.
Background
Few population-based studies have examined the relationship between glycemic status and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in China. We examined the prevalence of CKD across categories of glycemia [diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] ≥ 126 mg/dL), prediabetes (FPG 100–126 mg/dL) and normal glycemia (FPG <100 mg/dL)] among Chinese adults and assessed the relative contribution of dysglycemia (prediabetes and/or diabetes) to the burden of CKD.
Methods
5,584 Chinese adults aged 20–79 years were selected from the Pudong New Area of Shanghai through a multistage random sampling. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure were measured. Biochemical assays included FPG, serum creatinine and lipids, urinary creatinine and albumin. Prevalence of albuminuria [urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥ 30 mg/g], decreased kidney function and CKD (either decreased kidney function or albuminuria) across levels of glycemia were estimated.
Results
The prevalence of albuminuria, decreased kidney function and CKD each increased with higher glycemic levels (P < 0.001). Based on the MDRD Study equation, the unadjusted CKD prevalence was 30.9%, 28.5%, 14.1% and 9.2% in those with diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes and normoglycemia, respectively. The corresponding age-, gender- and hypertension-adjusted CKD prevalence were 25.8%, 25.0%, 12.3% and 9.1%, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, the factors associated with CKD were hypertension (Odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-2.03), dysglycemia (OR 1.65, 95% CI: 1.39-1.95), female gender (OR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.25-1.75), higher triglycerides (OR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08-1.20 per mmol/L), higher body mass index (OR 1.08, 95% CI: 1.05-1.10 per kg/m2), and older age (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01 -1.03 per year). The population attributable risks (PARs) associated with diabetes, prediabetes, dysglycemia (diabetes and prediabetes) and hypertension were 18.4%, 19.7%, 30.3% and 44.5% for CKD as defined by the MDRD study equation, and 15.8%, 24.4%, 29.2% and 10.0% with the CKD-EPI equation. Estimates of prevalence and ORs of the relative contribution of various risk factors to CKD obtained with the CKD-EPI equation were similar.
Conclusions
As much as 30% of the CKD burden may be associated with dysglycemia among Chinese adults, independent of age, gender and hypertension status. Prevention and control of diabetes and prediabetes should be a high priority in reducing the CKD burden in China.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-253
PMCID: PMC4225706  PMID: 24238578
Chronic kidney disease; Glycemia; Epidemiology
4.  Association of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(7):e1001680.
In a systematic review and meta-analysis, Giovanni Musso and colleagues examine the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic kidney disease.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent, under-recognized condition and a risk factor for renal failure and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence connects non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to CKD. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether the presence and severity of NAFLD are associated with the presence and severity of CKD.
Methods and Findings
English and non-English articles from international online databases from 1980 through January 31, 2014 were searched. Observational studies assessing NAFLD by histology, imaging, or biochemistry and defining CKD as either estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or proteinuria were included. Two reviewers extracted studies independently and in duplicate. Individual participant data (IPD) were solicited from all selected studies. Studies providing IPD were combined with studies providing only aggregate data with the two-stage method. Main outcomes were pooled using random-effects models. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were used to explore sources of heterogeneity and the effect of potential confounders. The influences of age, whole-body/abdominal obesity, homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and duration of follow-up on effect estimates were assessed by meta-regression. Thirty-three studies (63,902 participants, 16 population-based and 17 hospital-based, 20 cross-sectional, and 13 longitudinal) were included. For 20 studies (61% of included studies, 11 cross-sectional and nine longitudinal, 29,282 participants), we obtained IPD. NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of prevalent (odds ratio [OR] 2.12, 95% CI 1.69–2.66) and incident (hazard ratio [HR] 1.79, 95% CI 1.65–1.95) CKD. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was associated with a higher prevalence (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.58–4.05) and incidence (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.42–3.17) of CKD than simple steatosis. Advanced fibrosis was associated with a higher prevalence (OR 5.20, 95% CI 3.14–8.61) and incidence (HR 3.29, 95% CI 2.30–4.71) of CKD than non-advanced fibrosis. In all analyses, the magnitude and direction of effects remained unaffected by diabetes status, after adjustment for other risk factors, and in other subgroup and meta-regression analyses. In cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, the severity of NAFLD was positively associated with CKD stages. Limitations of analysis are the relatively small size of studies utilizing liver histology and the suboptimal sensitivity of ultrasound and biochemistry for NAFLD detection in population-based studies.
Conclusion
The presence and severity of NAFLD are associated with an increased risk and severity of CKD.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Chronic kidney disease (CKD)—the gradual loss of kidney function—is becoming increasingly common. In the US, for example, more than 10% of the adult population (about 26 million people) and more than 25% of individuals older than 65 years have CKD. Throughout life, the kidneys perform the essential task of filtering waste products (from the normal breakdown of tissues and from food) and excess water from the blood to make urine. CKD gradually destroys the kidneys' filtration units, the rate of blood filtration decreases, and dangerous amounts of waste products build up in the blood. Symptoms of CKD, which rarely occur until the disease is very advanced, include tiredness, swollen feet, and frequent urination, particularly at night. There is no cure for CKD, but progression of the disease can be slowed by controlling high blood pressure and diabetes (two risk factors for CKD), and by adopting a healthy lifestyle. The same interventions also reduce the chances of CKD developing in the first place.
Why Was This Study Done?
CKD is associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal (kidney) disease and of cardiovascular disease. These life-threatening complications are potentially preventable through early identification and treatment of CKD. Because early recognition of CKD has the potential to reduce its health-related burden, the search is on for new modifiable risk factors for CKD. One possible new risk factor is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which, like CKD is becoming increasingly common. Healthy livers contain little or no fat but, in the US, 30% of the general adult population and up to 70% of patients who are obese or have diabetes have some degree of NAFLD, which ranges in severity from simple fatty liver (steatosis), through non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), to NASH with fibrosis (scarring of the liver) and finally cirrhosis (extensive scarring). In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the researchers investigate whether NAFLD is a risk factor for CKD by looking for an association between the two conditions. A systematic review identifies all the research on a given topic using predefined criteria, meta-analysis uses statistical methods to combine the results of several studies.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified 33 studies that assessed NAFLD and CKD in nearly 64,000 participants, including 20 cross-sectional studies in which participants were assessed for NAFLD and CKD at a single time point and 13 longitudinal studies in which participants were assessed for NAFLD and then followed up to see whether they subsequently developed CKD. Meta-analysis of the data from the cross-sectional studies indicated that NAFLD was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of prevalent (pre-existing) CKD (an odds ratio [OR]of 2.12; an OR indicates the chance that an outcome will occur given a particular exposure, compared to the chance of the outcome occurring in the absence of that exposure). Meta-analysis of data from the longitudinal studies indicated that NAFLD was associated with a nearly 2-fold increased risk of incident (new) CKD (a hazard ratio [HR] of 1.79; an HR indicates often a particular event happens in one group compared to how often it happens in another group, over time). NASH was associated with a higher prevalence and incidence of CKD than simple steatosis. Similarly, advanced fibrosis was associated with a higher prevalence and incidence of CKD than non-advanced fibrosis.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that NAFLD is associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of CKD and that increased severity of liver disease is associated with an increased risk and severity of CKD. Because these associations persist after allowing for established risk factors for CKD, these findings identify NAFLD as an independent CKD risk factor. Certain aspects of the studies included in this meta-analysis (for example, only a few studies used biopsies to diagnose NAFLD; most used less sensitive tests that may have misclassified some individuals with NAFLD as normal) and the methods used in the meta-analysis may limit the accuracy of these findings. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that individuals with NAFLD should be screened for CKD even in the absence of other risk factors for the disease, and that better treatment of NAFLD may help to prevent CKD.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001680.
The US National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse provides information about all aspects of kidney disease; the US National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse provides information about non-alcoholic liver disease
The US National Kidney Disease Education Program provides resources to help improve the understanding, detection, and management of kidney disease (in English and Spanish)
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information for patients on chronic kidney disease, including some personal stories, and information on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
The US National Kidney Foundation, a not-for-profit organization, provides information about chronic kidney disease (in English and Spanish)
The not-for-profit UK National Kidney Federation provides support and information for patients with kidney disease and for their carers
The British Liver Trust, a not-for-profit organization, provides information about non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including a patient story
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001680
PMCID: PMC4106719  PMID: 25050550
5.  Americans’ Use of Dietary Supplements That Are Potentially Harmful in CKD 
Background
The prevalence in the United States of dietary supplement use that may be harmful to those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. We sought to characterize potentially harmful supplement use by individual CKD status.
Study Design
Cross-sectional national survey (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008)
Setting & Participants
Community-based survey of 21,169 non-pregnant, non-institutionalized U.S. civilian adults (≥20 years)
Predictor
CKD status (no CKD, at risk for CKD [presence of diabetes, hypertension and/or cardiovascular disease], stage 1/2 [albuminuria only (albumin-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g)], or stage 3/4 [estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15-59 ml/min/1.73 m2]).
Outcome
Self-reported use of dietary supplements containing any of 37 herbs the National Kidney Foundation identified as potentially harmful in the setting of CKD.
Measurements
Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate assessed from urine and blood samples; demographics and comorbid conditions assessed by standardized questionnaire.
Results
An estimated 8.0% of U.S. adults reported potentially harmful supplement use within the last 30 days. Lower crude estimated prevalence of potentially harmful supplement use was associated with higher CKD severity (no CKD, 8.5%; at risk, 8.0%; stage 1/2, 6.1%; and stage 3/4, 6.2%; p<0.001). However, after adjustment for confounders, those with or at risk for CKD were as likely to use a potentially harmful supplement as those without CKD: at-risk OR, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.79 -1.09); stage 1/2 OR, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.64 -1.08); stage 3/4 OR, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.63 -1.18); all vs. no CKD.
Limitations
Herb content was not available and the list of potentially harmful supplements examined is unlikely to be exhaustive.
Conclusions
The use of dietary supplements potentially harmful to people with CKD is common, regardless of CKD status. Healthcare providers should discuss the use and potential risks of supplements with patients with and at risk for CKD.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.12.018
PMCID: PMC3628413  PMID: 23415417
6.  Limited knowledge of chronic kidney disease and its main risk factors among Iranian community: an appeal for promoting national public health education programs 
Background: The aim of this survey was to explore the baseline knowledge of the Iranian community about Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) definition and its two main risk factors, i.e. diabetes and hypertension. This study also introduced a model of public education program with the purpose of reducing the incidence of CKD in high-risk groups and thereby decreasing the economic burden of CKD in Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on world kidney day 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires evaluating the knowledge of CKD and its risk factors were distributed among subjects who participated in a kidney disease awareness campaign. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the differences in the level of knowledge across different socio-demographic groups.
Results: The questionnaires were completed by 748 respondents. The majority of these respondents believed that "pain in the flanks" and "difficulty in urination" was the early symptoms of CKD. Roughly, 10.4% knew that CKD could be asymptomatic in the initial stages. Only 12.7% knew diabetes and 14.4% knew hypertension was a CKD risk factor. The respondents who had a CKD risk factor (i.e. diabetes and/or hypertension) were significantly more likely than respondents without CKD risk factor to select "unmanaged diabetes" [Odds Ratio (OR)= 2.2, Confidence Interval (CI) (95%): 1.4–3.6] and "unmanaged hypertension" [OR= 1.9, CI(95%): 1.2–3.0] as "very likely to result in CKD". No more than 34.6% of all respondents with diabetes and/or hypertension reported that their physician has ever spoken with them about their increased risk for developing CKD.
Conclusion: The knowledge of Iranian population about CKD and its risk factors is low. Future public health education programs should put efforts in educating Iranian community about the asymptomatic nature of CKD in its initial stages and highlighting the importance of regular renal care counseling. The high-risk individuals should receive tailored education and be encouraged to adopt lifestyle modifications to prevent or slow the progression of CKD.
doi:10.15171/ijhpm.2014.37
PMCID: PMC4025092  PMID: 24847481
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD); Knowledge; Diabetes; Hypertension; Prevention; Iran
7.  Prevalence of diminished kidney function in a representative sample of middle and older age adults in the Irish population 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:144.
Background
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) using available estimating equations with the Republic of Ireland is unknown.
Methods
A randomly selected population based cross-sectional study of 1,098 adults aged 45 years and older was conducted using data from the 2007 Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN). Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) was calculated from a single IDMS aligned serum creatinine using the CKD-EPI and the MDRD equations, and albumin to creatinine ratio was based on a single random urine sample.
Results
The sample clinical characteristics and demography was similar to middle and older age adults in the general Irish population, though with an underrepresentation of subjects >75 years and of males. All results are based on subjects with available blood and urine samples. Applying weighting to obtain survey based population estimates, using Irish population census data, the estimated weighted prevalence of CKD-EPI eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73m2 was 11.6%, (95% confidence interval; 9.0, 14.2%), 12.0% ( 9.0, 14.2%) of men and 11.2% (7.3, 15.2%) of women. Unweighted prevalence estimates were similar at 11.8% (9.9, 13.8%). Albuminuria increased with lower CKD-EPI eGFR category. 10.1% of all subjects had albuminuria and an eGFR≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 giving an overall weighted estimated prevalence of National Kidney Foundation (NKF) defined CKD 21.3% (18.0, 24.6%), with the unadjusted estimate of 21.9% (19.5, 24.4%). MDRD related estimates for eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and NFK defined CKD were higher than CKD-EPI and differences were greater in younger and female subjects.
Conclusions
CKD is highly prevalent in middle and older aged adults within the Republic of Ireland. In this population, there is poor agreement between CKD-EPI and MDRD equations especially at higher GFRs. CKD is associated with lower educational status and poor self rated health.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-144
PMCID: PMC3537756  PMID: 23121733
Chronic kidney disease; Glomerular filtration rate; Albuminuria; Population survey
8.  A population-based survey of Chronic REnal Disease In Turkey—the CREDIT study 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2010;26(6):1862-1871.
Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing health problem worldwide that leads to end-stage kidney failure and cardiovascular complications. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CKD in Turkey, and to evaluate relationships between CKD and cardiovascular risk factors in a population-based survey.
Methods. Medical data were collected through home visits and interviews. Serum creatinine, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and uric acid were determined from 12-h fasting blood samples, and spot urine tests were performed for subjects who gave consent to laboratory evaluation.
Results. A total of 10 872 participants were included in the study. The final analysis was performed on 10 748 subjects (mean age 40.5 ± 16.3 years; 55.7% women) and excluded 124 pregnant women. A low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (< 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) was present in 5.2% of the subjects who were evaluated for GFR, while microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were observed in 10.2% and 2% of the subjects, respectively. The presence of CKD was assessed in subjects who gave consent for urinary albumin excretion measurement (n = 8765). The overall prevalence of CKD was 15.7%; it was higher in women than men (18.4% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and increased with increasing age of the subjects. The prevalence of hypertension (32.7% in the general population), diabetes (12.7%), dyslipidaemia (76.3%), obesity (20.1%) and metabolic syndrome (31.3%) was significantly higher in subjects with CKD than subjects without CKD (P < 0.001 for all).
Conclusions. The prevalence of CKD in Turkey is 15.7%. Cardiovascular risk factors were significantly more prevalent in CKD patients.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfq656
PMCID: PMC3107767  PMID: 21051501
chronic kidney disease; epidemiology and outcomes; risk factors
9.  High prevalence of undiagnosed chronic kidney disease among at-risk population in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo 
BMC Nephrology  2009;10:18.
Background
There is limited knowledge of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) among high risk populations, especially in the developing countries. We report our study of testing for CKD in at-risk subjects.
Methods
In a cross-sectional study, 527 people from primary and secondary health care areas in the city of Kinshasa were studied from a random sample of at-risk out-patients with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, or HIV+. We measured blood pressure (BP), blood glucose level, proteinuria, body mass index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR by MDRD equation) using calibrated creatinine levels based on one random measurement. The associations between health characteristics, indicators of kidney damage (proteinuria) and kidney function (<60 ml/min/1.73 m2) were also examined.
Results
The prevalence of CKD in this study was 36%, but only 12% were aware of their condition. 4% of patients had stage 1 CKD, 6% stage 2, 18% stage 3, 2% stage 4, and 6% had stage 5. 24 hour quantitative proteinuria (>300 mg/day) was found in 19%. In those with the at-risk conditions, the % of CKD was: 44% in patients with hypertension, 39% in those with diabetes; 16% in the obese and 12% in those who were HIV+. 82% of those with a history of diabetes had elevated serum glucose levels at screening (≥ 126 mg/dl). Only 6% of individuals with hypertension having CKD had reduced BP to lower than 130/80 mmHg. In multivariate analysis, diabetes, proteinuria and hypertension were the strongest determinants of CKD 3+.
Conclusion
It appears that one out of three people in this at-risk population has undiagnosed CKD and poorly controlled CKD risk factors. This growing problem poses clear challenges to this developing country. Therefore, CKD should be addressed through the development of multidisciplinary teams and improved communication between traditional health care givers and nephrology services. Attention to CKD risk factors must become a priority.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-10-18
PMCID: PMC2724413  PMID: 19622160
10.  Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2014;38(2):109-119.
Background
Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Korean patients with diabetes.
Methods
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652), and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011) was used to define CKD (n=21,521). Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.
Results
Among subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes.
Conclusion
Korean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes.
doi:10.4093/dmj.2014.38.2.109
PMCID: PMC4021298  PMID: 24851205
Albuminuria; Chronic renal disease; Diabetes mellitus; Diabetic nephropathy; Korea
11.  Comparison of the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study Equations: Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus in CKD in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) 
Background
Diabetes is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether reclassification of CKD stages based on glomerular filtration rate estimated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation versus the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation modifies estimates of prevalent risk factors across stages is unknown.
Methods
This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), a community-based health screening program targeting individuals 18 years and older with diabetes, hypertension, or a family history of diabetes, hypertension, or kidney disease. Of 109,055 participants, 68.2% were women and 31.8% were African American. Mean age was 55.3 ± 0.05 years. Clinical, demographic, and laboratory data were collected from August 2000 through December 2009. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI and MDRD Study equations.
Results
CKD was present in 25.6% and 23.5% of the study population using the MDRD Study and CKD-EPI equations, respectively. Diabetes was present in 42.4% and 43.8% of participants with CKD, respectively. Prevalent risk factors for diabetes included obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2), 44.0%; hypertension, 80.5%; cardiovascular disease, 23.2%; family history of diabetes, 55.9%; and dyslipidemia, 43.0%. In a logistic regression model after adjusting for age and other risk factors, odds for diabetes increased significantly compared with no CKD with each CKD stage based on the CKD-EPI equation and similarly with stages based on the MDRD Study equation. Using a CKD-EPI–adjusted model, ORs were: stage 1, 2.08 (95% CI, 1.90–2.27); stage 2, 1.86 (95% CI, 1.72–2.02); stage 3, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.17–1.30); stage 4, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.42–2.03); and stage 5, 2.46 (95% CI, 1.46–4.14).
Conclusions
Using the CKD-EPI equation led to a lower prevalence of CKD but to similar diabetes prevalence rates associated with CKD across all stages compared with the MDRD Study equation. Diabetes and other CKD risk factor prevalence was increased compared with the non-CKD population.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.11.009
PMCID: PMC3237700  PMID: 21338847
Chronic kidney disease; diabetes mellitus; estimated glomerular filtration rate
12.  High Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors for Impaired Renal Function and Urinary Abnormalities in a Rural Adult Population from Southern China 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47100.
Background
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased and will continue to rise worldwide. However, data regarding the prevalence of CKD in a rural area of China are limited. We therefore investigated the prevalence and associated risk factors of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in an adult rural population in southern China.
Methods
Between December 2006 and January 2007, residents older than 20 years from four villages in Zhuhai city were randomly selected using a stratified, multistage sampling technique. All participants were interviewed and tested for hematuria, albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The associations between age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperuricemia, education level and indicators of renal damage were examined.
Results
Overall, 1,214 subjects were enrolled in this study. After adjustment for age and gender, the prevalence of albuminuria was 7.1% (95% CI: 4.5, 8.1), reduced eGFR was 2.6% (95% CI: 1.7%, 3.3%), and hematuria was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.0%). Approximately 13.6% (95% CI: 12.0%, 15.1%) of the patients had at least one indicator of renal damage, but only 8.3% were previously aware. Age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, use of nephrotoxic medications, coronary heart disease and history of CKD were independently associated with impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities. Additionally, age, diabetes, and hypertension were independently associated with albuminuria. Age, hypertension, hyperuricemia, central obesity, and coronary heart disease were independently associated with reduced renal function.
Conclusions
The high prevalence and low awareness of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in this population illustrates the urgent need to implement a CKD prevention program in the rural areas of southern China.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047100
PMCID: PMC3467213  PMID: 23056593
13.  Waist to Hip Ratio, Body Mass Index and Subsequent Kidney Disease and Death 
Background
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and obesity are important public health concerns. We examined the association between anthropomorphic measures and incident CKD and mortality.
Design
Cohort
Setting and Participants
Individual patient data pooled from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and the Cardiovascular Health Study
Exposures
Waist to hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI)
Outcomes
Incident CKD defined as serum creatinine rise of >0.4 mg/dL with baseline creatinine ≤1.4 mg/dL in men and 1.2 mg/dL in women and final creatinine above these levels, and, in separate analyses, as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline ≥15 mL/min/1.73m2 with baseline eGFR ≥60 and final eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2.
Analysis
Multivariable logistic regression to determine the association between waist to hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) and outcomes. Cox models to evaluate a secondary composite outcome of all-cause mortality and incident CKD.
Results
Among 13,324 individuals, mean WHR was 0.96 in men and 0.89 in women and mean BMI was 27.2 kg/m2 in both men and women. Over 9.3 years, 300 (2.3%) in creatinine-based models and 710 (5.5%) in eGFR-based models developed CKD. In creatinine-based models, each standard deviation increase in WHR was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD [Odds ratio=1.22 (1.05, 1.43)] and the composite outcome [Hazard ratio=1.12 (1.06, 1.18)], while each standard deviation increase in BMI was not associated with CKD [Odds ratio=1.05 (0.93, 1.20)] and appeared protective for the composite outcome [Hazard ratio=0.94 (0.90, 0.99)]. Results of eGFR-based models were similar.
Limitations
Single measures of creatinine, no albuminuria data.
Conclusions
WHR but not BMI is associated with incident CKD and mortality. Assessment of CKD risk should utilize WHR rather than BMI as an anthropomorphic measure of obesity.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2008.02.363
PMCID: PMC4052757  PMID: 18511168
14.  Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adults in a rural community in South India: Results from the kidney disease screening (KIDS) project 
Indian Journal of Nephrology  2014;24(4):214-221.
Prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) appears to be increasing in India. A few studies have studied the prevalence of CKD in urban populations, but there is a paucity of such studies in the rural populations. This project was undertaken to study the prevalence of CKD among adults in a rural population near Shimoga, Karnataka and to study the risk factor profile. Door-to-door screening of 2091 people aged 18 and above was carried out. Demographic and anthropometric data were obtained, urine was analyzed for protein by dipstick and serum creatinine was measured in all participants. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) using the 4-variable modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation and Cockcroft-Gault equation corrected to the body surface area (CG-BSA). The total number of subjects studied was 2091. Mean age was 39.88 ± 15.87 years. 45.57% were males. The prevalence of proteinuria was 2.8%. CKD was seen in 131 (6.3%) subjects when GFR was estimated by MDRD equation. The prevalence of CKD was 16.54% by the CG-BSA method. There was a statistically significant relationship of CKD with gender, advancing age, abdominal obesity, smoking, presence of diabetes and hypertension. The prevalence of CKD is higher compared to the previous studies from rural India and is comparable to that in the studies from the urban Indian populations. The wide difference between the CKD prevalence between MDRD and CG-BSA equations suggests the need for a better measure of kidney function applicable to Indian population.
doi:10.4103/0971-4065.132990
PMCID: PMC4119333  PMID: 25097333
Chronic kidney disease; community-based study; estimated glomerular filtration rate; India; prevalence; rural population
15.  Associations of serum uric acid with cardiovascular events and mortality in moderate chronic kidney disease 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2008;24(4):1260-1266.
Background. It is unclear whether the presence of kidney disease modifies the associations of uric acid with cardiovascular events and death.
Methods. In the limited access, public use Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) database, associations of serum uric acid levels with cardiovascular events and death were analysed using a parametric proportional hazards model and the modification of these associations by the presence of CKD was assessed using a likelihood ratio test.
Results. Of the 15 366 ARIC participants included in this analysis, 461 had CKD (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2). In both non-CKD and CKD sub-groups, participants with hyperuricaemia (≥ 7 mg/dl in men and ≥ 6 mg/dl in women) compared to those with normal serum uric acid levels had higher waist circumference and fasting serum insulin levels. In the entire cohort, in a multivariate parametric proportional hazards model, each mg/dl increase in serum uric acid was associated with an increased hazard of cardiovascular events (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05–1.12) and death. A multiplicative interaction term of serum uric acid and CKD when added to the above models was significant (P < 0.001). The likelihood ratio test of the models with and without the interaction term was also significant (P < 0.001). In the non-CKD population, a multivariate analysis after adjusting for comorbidities and metabolic syndrome showed a significant association between hyperuricaemia and mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04–1.33) but not for cardiovascular events (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96–1.19). In the CKD population, the association was not significant for both mortality and cardiovascular events.
Conclusion. We conclude that hyperuricaemia is associated with insulin resistance and mortality in the non-CKD population. The presence of CKD attenuates the associations of uric acid with mortality. Interventional studies are warranted to establish the biological role of hyperuricaemia in mortality in non-CKD and CKD populations.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfn621
PMCID: PMC2721426  PMID: 19033255
cardiovascular events; chronic kidney disease; insulin resistance; mortality; uric acid
16.  Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease among American Indians and Alaska Natives – Findings from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program 
American Journal of Nephrology  2008;29(5):440-446.
Background
American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIAN) have a high incidence of end-stage renal disease. Less is known about chronic kidney disease (CKD) among AIAN and whether risk factors differ for low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) versus albuminuria with a normal eGFR.
Methods
Cross-sectional study examining the associations of age, sex, smoking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, family history, and geographic region with CKD among a screened population of AIAN participants in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program from 2000 to 2006. CKD was defined by the presence of either a low eGFR, <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, or albuminuria, a urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g.
Results
The prevalence of any CKD was 29%, of low eGFR was 17%, and of albuminuria with a normal eGFR was 12%. Older age was the strongest predictor of low eGFR (61+ years OR 8.42, 95% CI 5.92–11.98), followed by hypertension (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.74–3.26). In contrast, diabetes (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.57–2.64) and hypertension (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.93–3.59) were the only predictors of albuminuria among persons with a normal eGFR.
Conclusion
The burden of CKD was high among this screened population of AIAN, and different risk factor patterns were associated with low eGFR and albuminuria. Innovative programs and longitudinal research are needed to address CKD among AIAN.
doi:10.1159/000174857
PMCID: PMC2821946  PMID: 19011277
Chronic kidney disease; Risk factors; American Indians; Alaska Natives
17.  Prevalence and determinants of chronic kidney disease in community-dwelling elderly by various estimating equations 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:343.
Background
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a global public health problem. Few data exist in the elderly. The objective of the current study is to estimate the prevalence of CKD by means of various established and new equations and to identify the main determinants of CKD in elderly.
Methods
The ActiFE Ulm (Activity and Function in the Elderly in Ulm) study is a population-based cohort study in people of 65 years and older. Kidney function was assessed by means of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on two creatinine- (Cr-; MDRD, CKD-EPI) and one cystatin C - (CysC-) based method. The relationship between various potential risk factors and CKD was quantified using unconditional logistic regression.
Results
A total of 1471 subjects were in the final analysis (mean age 75.6 years, SD 6.56). Overall, prevalence of CKD (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) was 34.3% by MDRD, 33.0% by CKD-EPI, and 14.6% by the CysC-based eGFR. All eGFRs showed statistically significant correlations with C-reactive protein, uric acid, as well as with lipid values. In multivariable analysis age was clearly related to prevalence of CKD and the risks were highest with the CysC-based equation. Females had a higher risk for CKD stages 3–5 with MDRD (OR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.23–2.16) whereas the OR was 1.23 (95% CI 0.92–1.65) with the CKD-Epi and OR = 0.89 (95% CI 0.58–1.34) with the CysC-based equation after multivariable adjustment. Although the cystatin C based definition of CKD resulted in a lower prevalence compared to the creatinine based ones, other measures of renal damage such as albuminuria were more prevalent in those defined by CysC-eGFR.
Conclusions
Prevalence of CKD is very variable based on the used estimating equation. More work is needed to evaluate the various estimating equations especially in elderly before we are able to assess the practical consequences of the observed differences.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-343
PMCID: PMC3490787  PMID: 22574773
Elderly; Chronic kidney disease; Population-based study; Estimating equations; Risk factors
18.  Treatment needs and diagnosis awareness in primary care patients with chronic kidney disease 
The British Journal of General Practice  2012;62(597):e227-e232.
Background
GPs in England are required to keep a register of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines recommend regular follow-up, but patients are perceived to be low risk and not requiring active management.
Aim
To assess treatment needs of CKD stage 3 patients in primary care, as well as their awareness of CKD.
Design and setting
A cross-sectional analysis from a longitudinal prospective study in 32 general practices.
Method
A total of 1741 participants underwent clinical assessment including urine and blood tests. Participants were asked about awareness of their CKD. Results were reviewed and a letter recommending treatment in line with NICE guidelines was sent to their GP.
Results
The mean age of participants was 73 ± 9 years; 60% (n = 1052) were female and diabetes was present in 17%; 67% of participants required further intervention. Most required improved control of hypertension (n = 1576; 33.1% of cohort). Other recommendations included advice to investigate anaemia (n = 1142; 8.2%) or stop nephrotoxic drugs (n = 1120; 7.5%). Less than 6% of participants met NICE criteria for referral to nephrology services and 41% were unaware of their CKD diagnosis. Multivariable analysis identified subjects with formal educational qualifications, age <75 years, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 30–44 ml/min/1.73 m2, and significant albuminuria as more likely to be aware of their diagnosis.
Conclusion
The study data show that the majority of patients required at least one intervention to improve the management of their CKD. Most interventions could be delivered in primary care and only a minority required nephrology referral. Many patients were unaware of their CKD diagnosis, and efforts should be made to improve this to facilitate involvement in their care.
doi:10.3399/bjgp12X636047
PMCID: PMC3310028  PMID: 22520909
awareness; kidney disease, chronic; primary care; treatment
19.  Prevalence and Awareness of CKD Among African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study 
Background
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and is a growing epidemic throughout the world. In the United States, African Americans have an incidence of ESRD four times that of Whites.
Study Design
Cross Sectional to examine the prevalence and awareness of CKD in African Americans
Setting & Participants
Observational Cohort in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS)
Predictor
CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, presence of albuminuria, or being on dialysis
Outcomes and Measurements
Data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) were analyzed. Medical history including disease awareness and drug therapy, anthropometric measurements, serum, and urine samples were obtained from JHS participants at the baseline visit. Associations between CKD prevalence and awareness and selected demographic, socioeconomic, healthcare access, and disease status parameters were assessed utilizing logistic regression models.
Results
The prevalence of CKD in the JHS was 20%; CKD awareness was only 15.8%. Older participants had higher prevalence but were also more aware of CKD. Hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increasing age and waist circumference as well as being single or less physically active were associated with CKD. Only advancing of CKD stage was associated with awareness.
Limitations
Cross-sectional assessment, single urine measurement
Conclusions
The JHS has a high prevalence and low awareness of CKD, especially those with less severe disease status. This emphasizes the need for earlier diagnosis and increased education of health care providers and the general population.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2008.08.035
PMCID: PMC2668959  PMID: 19166799
renal insufficiency; proteinuria; African American; chronic disease; epidemiology; population
20.  Early Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease: Results of the PolNef Study 
American Journal of Nephrology  2008;29(3):264-273.
Background
Continuous increase in the number of patients with end-stage renal disease demands early detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the present study was to diagnose CKD in its earliest stages in a randomly selected population using a diagnostic algorithm developed by the working group.
Methods
An algorithm for the diagnostic procedure was created to identify patients with CKD requiring further nephrological care. Randomly chosen adult inhabitants of a city with a population of 60,000 were invited to participate in this study. Screening procedures included a microalbuminuria dipstick test accompanied by blood pressure measurement and medical questionnaire. In further diagnosis of CKD, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin concentration in urine, urinalysis and ultrasound examination were used according to the algorithm. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify associations between participants’ characteristics and albuminuria.
Results
Out of 9,700 invited subjects, 2,471 individuals participated in the PolNef study. Albuminuria was detected in 15.6% of the investigated population using the dipstick test and thereafter confirmed in 11.9% by the turbidimetric method. The modeling of multivariate logistic regression indicated the following independent predictors of albuminuria: male sex, diabetes, nocturia and hypertension. For people without diabetes and without hypertension, nocturia independently predicted detection of albuminuria. 481 people received a consultation with a nephrologist, and 96% of them were recognized as having CKD. At least 9% of patients with CKD had eGFR by MDRD <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Six persons were referred for further treatment because of newly diagnosed kidney tumor.
Conclusions
CKD in early stages occurs frequently in the studied population. The proposed diagnostic algorithm seems to be a powerful tool to identify subjects at risk of CKD. The role of nocturia as an independent predictor of albuminuria, both in the general population and in people without diabetes or hypertension, should be further examined.
doi:10.1159/000158526
PMCID: PMC2786021  PMID: 18812692
Albuminuria; Chronic kidney disease; Diagnostic algorithm; Nocturia
21.  Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in northern region of Senegal: a community-based study in 2012 
Introduction
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging worldwide epidemic but few data are available in African populations. We aimed to assess prevalence of CKD in adult populations of Saint-Louis (northern Senegal).
Methods
In a population-based survey between January and May 2012, we included 1,037 adults aged =18 years living in Saint-Louis. Socio-demographical, clinical and biological data were collected during household visits. Serum creatinine was measured by Jaffé method. We estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the 4-variables MDRD equation and CKD was defined by eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 and/or albuminuria > 1g/L. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with CKD.
Results
Mean participants’ age was 47.9 ±16.9 years (18-87) and sex-ratio was 0.52. Majority of participants lived in urban areas (55.3% rural) and had school education (65.6%). Overall prevalences of hypertension, diabetes and obesity were 39.1%, 12.7% and 23.4% respectively. Prevalence of CKD was 4.9% (95% CI= 3.5 – 6.2) and 0.9% had GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73m2. Albuminuria >1g/l was found in 3.5% of people. CKD was significantly more frequent among hypertensive patients compared to normotensive participants. Only 23% of patients were aware of their disease before the survey. After multivariate logistic analysis, presence of CKD was significantly associated with hypertension (OR=1.12, p= 0.02) and age (OR=1.03, p= 0.02).
Conclusion
CKD is frequent in adult population living Northern Senegal. Main associated factors are hypertension and age. Prevention strategy is urgently needed to raise awareness and promote CKD detection and early treatment in both urban and rural areas.
doi:10.11604/pamj.2014.18.307.3636
PMCID: PMC4247887  PMID: 25469200
Chronic kidney disease; epidemiology; population; Senegal
22.  Prevalence and Risk Factors of CKD in Chinese Patients with Periodontal Disease 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e70767.
Background
Periodontal disease is common among adults and is associated with an increasing risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in patients with periodontal disease in China.
Methods
In the current cross-sectional study, patients with periodontal disease were included from Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital between March 2011 and August 2011. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, the presence of albuminuria, or hematuria. All patients with periodontal disease underwent a periodontal examination, including periodontal probing pocket depth, gingival recession, and clinical attachment level by Florida Probe. They completed a questionnaire and had blood and urine samples taken. The adjusted prevalence of indicators of kidney damage was calculated and risk factors associated with CKD were analyzed.
Results
A total of 1392 patients with periodontal disease were invited to participate this study and 1268 completed the survey and examination. After adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence of reduced eGFR, albuminuria, and hematuria was 2.7% (95% CI 1.7–3.7), 6.7% (95% CI 5.5–8.1) and 10.9% (95% CI 9.2–12.5), respectively. The adjusted prevalence of CKD was 18.2% (95% CI 16.2–20.3). Age, male, diabetes, hypertension, history of CKD, hyperuricemia, and interleukin-6 levels (≥7.54 ng/L) were independent risk factors for reduced eGFR. Female, diabetes, hypertension, history of CKD, hyperuricemia, high level of cholesterol, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (≥1.03 mg/L) and TNF-α levels (≥1.12 ng/L) were independently associated with an increased risk of albuminuria. Female, lower education (
Conclusions
18.2% of Chinese patients with periodontal disease have proteinuria, hematuria, or reduced eGFR, indicating the presence of kidney damage. Whether prevention or treatment of periodontal disease can reduce the high prevalence of CKD, however, remains to be further investigated.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070767
PMCID: PMC3737364  PMID: 23951003
BMJ Open  2011;1(2):e000308.
Objective
To evaluate the effects of introducing the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) reporting in the adult population in routine clinical practice with clinician-directed testing.
Design
Retrospective study of all creatinine measurements and calculation of eGFRs using Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and CKD-EPI formulae.
Setting
General population, Oxfordshire, UK.
Participants
An unselected population of around 660 000.
Interventions
Reporting of eGFRs using MDRD or CKD-EPI formulae.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Evaluation of the effects of the CKD-EPI formula on the prevalence of different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Results
The CKD-EPI formula reduced the prevalence of CKD (stages 2–5) by 16.4% in patients tested in primary care. At the important stage 2–stage 3 cut-off, there was a relative reduction of 7.5% in the prevalence of CKD stages 3–5 from 15.7% to 14.5%. The CKD-EPI formula reduced the prevalence of CKD stages 3–5 in those aged <70 but increased it at ages >70. Above 70 years, the prevalence of stages 3–5 was similar with both equations for women (around 41.2%) but rose in men from 33.3% to 35.5%. CKD stages 4–5 rose by 15% due exclusively to increases in the over 70s, which could increase specialist referral rates. The CKD classification of 18.3% of all individuals who had a creatinine measurement was altered by a change from the MDRD to the CKD-EPI formula. In the UK population, the classification of up to 3 million patients could be altered, the prevalence of CKD could be reduced by up to 1.9 million and the prevalence of CKD stages 3–5 could fall by around 200 000.
Conclusions
Introduction of the CKD-EPI formula for eGFR reporting will reduce the prevalence of CKD in a primary care setting with current testing practice but will raise the prevalence in the over 70s age group. This has implications for clinical practice, healthcare policy and current prevalence-based funding arrangements.
Article summary
Article focus
Estimated glomerular filtration rates form the basis for clinical and health policy decisions in chronic kidney disease.
The new CKD-EPI formula for estimated glomerular filtration rates estimates renal function better than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula in current use.
We have studied the effects of using the CKD-EPI formula in a UK population of over half a million.
Key messages
Overall, the CKD-EPI formula produces higher better estimated glomerular filtration rates, which reduces the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease. However, in men older than 70 years, it produces lower worse estimated glomerular filtration rates and increases the number with chronic kidney disease stages 3–5.
Our results predict a net reduction of around 200 000 in the numbers with chronic kidney disease stages 3–5 in the UK. This would reduce the primary care chronic kidney disease registers, inappropriate disease labelling and patient monitoring.
The chronic kidney disease classification of up to 3 million patients could be altered by the use of the CKD-EPI formula in the UK.
Strengths and limitations of this study
The study is large and unbiased. All primary care samples taken during the study period were analysed, so the results represent current clinical testing practice.
Estimated glomerular filtration rates are sufficient to diagnose chronic kidney disease stages 3–5, but stages 1–2 also require proteinuria or a structural abnormality, which cannot be assessed in this study. However, a change in estimated glomerular filtration rate can still alter the classification of stage 1 or 2.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000308
PMCID: PMC3244664  PMID: 22184586
Nephro-urology Monthly  2014;6(5):e19085.
Background:
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging worldwide epidemic but littledata concerning African populations are available.
Objectives:
We aimed to assess prevalence of CKD in adult populations of Saint-Louis, northern Senegal.
Patients and Methods:
In a population-based survey between January and May 2012, we included 1037 adults ≥ 18 years of age who resided in Saint-Louis. Socio-demographic, clinical, and biologic data were collected during household visits. Serum creatinine was measured by Jaffé method. We estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation and CKD was defined by eGFR< 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or albuminuria > 1 g/L. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with CKD.
Results:
The mean of participants’ age was 47.9 ± 16.9 years (range, 18-87) and sex ratio (male to female) was 0.52. Majority of participants lived in urban areas (55.3%) and had school education (65.6%). Hypertension, diabetes, and obesity were present respectively in 39.1%, 12.7%, and 23.4% of participants. Overall CKD prevalence was 4.9% (95% CI, 3.5-6.2) with eGFR< 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 in 0.9%. Albuminuria > 1 g/L was found in 3.5% of patients. CKD was significantly more frequent among hypertensive patients in comparison with normotensive ones. Risk factors associated with CKD were hypertension (12% of risk excess) and age (3% of risk excess).
Conclusions:
CKD is frequent in adult population living in Northern Senegal. Main associated factors are hypertension and age. Prevention strategies are urgently needed to raise public awareness and promote early CKD detection and treatment in both urban and rural areas.
doi:10.5812/numonthly.19085
PMCID: PMC4318016
Kidney Disease; Epidemiology; Population; Senegal
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:36.
Background
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and metabolic diseases has increased at different rates in different regions in China. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of CKD and to analyze associated risk factors of CKD in Zhejiang province, Eastern China.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey of 11,013 adults was conducted from September 2009 to June 2012 in Zhejiang Province, located in Eastern China. CKD was defined as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or the presence of albuminuria. Medical history, physical examination and laboratory data were used to diagnose metabolic diseases. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence was calculated using the data on the population distribution in China in 2010. We examined risk factors associated with decreased renal function and albuminuria using multivariate logistic regression.
Results
A total of 10,384 adults (94.3%) completed the screening. The standardized prevalence of reduced renal function (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) was 1.83% (95% CI 1.52–2.13) and that of albuminuria was 8.65% (95% CI 7.98–9.31). The overall prevalence of CKD was 9.88% (95% CI 9.18–10.59). The prevalence of reduced renal function was greater in the eastern rural areas in Zhejiang province. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that metabolic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and hyperuricemia were independent risk factors of CKD. Patients with metabolic diseases had a significantly (P < 0.001) higher prevalence of CKD than those without such diseases.
Conclusions
CKD has become a severe public health problem in Zhejiang Province, and metabolic diseases may increase the risk of CKD in Zhejiang population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-36
PMCID: PMC3936864  PMID: 24559433
Cross-sectional survey; Chronic kidney disease; Metabolic diseases; Prevalence; Risk factors; Eastern China

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