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1.  Elevated NT-pro-BNP Levels Are Associated with Comorbidities among HIV-Infected Women 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2009;25(10):997-1004.
Abstract
HIV infection is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis. These conditions result in elevation of plasma natriuretic peptide (NP) levels. The present study compares N-terminal-pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP) levels in HIV-infected and -uninfected women and identifies factors influencingNT-pro-BNP levels in HIV-infected women. A total of 454 HIV-infected and 200 HIV-uninfected participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) had NT-pro-BNP determination. Elevated NT-pro-BNP level was defined using previously determined age stratified cut-off values of >164 ng/liter (age <60 years) and >225 (age ≥ 60 years). HIV-infected women were older (41.6 ± 8.9 vs. 38.9 ± 10.5 years, p < 0.01) and were more likely to have anemia, hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, and kidney dysfunction than HIV-uninfected women. HIV-infected women had significantly higher NT-pro-BNP levels (142.4 ± 524.8 vs. 73.6 ± 115.1 ng/liter, p = 0.01) and a higher prevalence of elevated NT-pro-BNP (12.1% vs. 7.5%; p = 0.08). In univariate analyses, elevated NT-pro-BNP was significantly associated with age, systolic BP, hypertension, anemia, triglyceride levels, kidney disease, and HCV seropositivity, but not HIV infection. In multivariate analysis, elevated NT-pro-BNP levels were significantly associated with anemia and kidney function, and had a borderline association with the presence of HCV antibodies. Among HIV-infected women, NT-pro-BNP levels were not independently associated with measures of severity of infection or with HAART use. Although HIV-infected women have higher NT-pro-BNP levels than HIV-uninfected women, the differences are due to non-HIV factors such as anemia, kidney disease, and HCV coinfection. These findings suggest that natriuretic peptide levels are a global marker of comorbidity in the setting of HIV infection.
doi:10.1089/aid.2009.0038
PMCID: PMC2791362  PMID: 19803714
2.  B-type natriuretic peptide versus amino terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide: selecting the optimal heart failure marker in patients with impaired kidney function 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:117.
Background
The effect of impaired kidney function on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) is vague. This study was performed to examine the effect of kidney dysfunction on the afore-mentioned markers and determine appropriate cutoffs for systolic heart failure (SHF).
Methods
In this cross sectional study adults with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min for ≥3 months were identified in consulting clinics from June 2009 to March 2010. SHF was defined as documented by a cardiologist with ejection fraction of < 40% and assessed by New York Heart Association classification (NYHA). Plasma was assayed for creatinine (Cr), BNP and NT-proBNP.
Results
A total of 190 subjects were enrolled in the study, 95 with and 95 without SHF. The mean age of patients was 58 (±15) years, 67.4% being males. Mean BNP levels showed a 2.5 fold and 1.5 fold increase from chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 to stage 5 in patients with and without SHF respectively. NT-proBNP levels in non-heart failure group were 3 fold higher in CKD stage 5 compared to stage 3. Mean NT-proBNP levels were 4 fold higher in CKD stage 5 compared to stage 3 in patients with SHF. Optimal BNP and NT-proBNP cutoffs of SHF diagnosis for the entire CKD group were 300 pg/ml and 4502 pg/ml respectively.
Conclusion
BNP and NT-proBNP were elevated in kidney dysfunction even in the absence of SHF; however the magnitude of increase in NT-proBNP was greater than that of BNP. BNP and NT-proBNP can be useful in diagnosing SHF, nonetheless, by using higher cutoffs stratified according to kidney dysfunction. NT-proBNP appears to predict heart failure better than BNP.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-117
PMCID: PMC3680180  PMID: 23725445
B-Type natriuretic peptide; Heart failure; NT-proBNP; Kidney
3.  Direct Immunochemiluminescent Assay for proBNP and Total BNP in Human Plasma proBNP and Total BNP Levels in Normal and Heart Failure 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e53233.
Background
Recent studies have shown that in addition to brain (or B-type) natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the N-terminal proBNP fragment, levels of intact proBNP are also increased in heart failure. Moreover, present BNP immunoassays also measure proBNP, as the anti-BNP antibody cross-reacts with proBNP. It is important to know the exact levels of proBNP in heart failure, because elevation of the low-activity proBNP may be associated with the development of heart failure.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We therefore established a two-step immunochemiluminescent assay for total BNP (BNP+proBNP) and proBNP using monoclonal antibodies and glycosylated proBNP as a standard. The assay enables measurement of plasma total BNP and proBNP within only 7 h, without prior extraction of the plasma. The detection limit was 0.4 pmol/L for a 50-µl plasma sample. Within-run CVs ranged from 5.2%–8.0% in proBNP assay and from 7.0%–8.4% in total BNP assay, and between-run CVs ranged from 5.3–7.4% in proBNP assay and from 2.9%–9.5% in total BNP assay, respectively. The dilution curves for plasma samples showed good linearity (correlation coefficients = 0.998–1.00), and analytical recovery was 90–101%. The mean total BNP and proBNP in plasma from 116 healthy subjects were 1.4±1.2 pM and 1.0±0.7 pM, respectively, and were 80±129 pM and 42±70 pM in 32 heart failure patients. Plasma proBNP levels significantly correlate with age in normal subjects.
Conclusions/Significance
Our immunochemiluminescent assay is sufficiently rapid and precise for routine determination of total BNP and proBNP in human plasma.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053233
PMCID: PMC3554706  PMID: 23365636
4.  Usefulness of natriuretic peptides in primary health care: An exploratory study in elderly patients 
Objective
To explore the negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), sensitivity, and specificity of natriuretic peptides, cut-off levels, and the impact of gender and age in elderly patients with systolic heart failure (HF).
Design
Cross-sectional exploratory study.
Setting
One primary healthcare centre.
Patients
A total of 109 patients with symptoms of HF were referred for echocardiographic examination with a cardiovascular consultation. Systolic HF was diagnosed (ESC guidelines) in 48 patients (46% men, 54% women, mean age 79 years) while 61 patients (21% men, 79% women, mean age 76 years) had no HF.
Main outcome measures
NPV, PPV, sensitivity, specificity, and cut-off levels.
Results
Including all 109 patients, NPV was 88% for NT-proBNP (200 ng/L) and 87% for BNP (20 pg/ml). PPV was 81% for NT-proBNP (500 ng/L) and 68% for BNP (50 pg/ml). Sensitivity was 96% for NT-proBNP (100 ng/L) and 96% for BNP (10-20 pg/ml). Specificity was 87% for NT-proBNP (500 ng/L) and 71% for BNP (50 pg/ml). Nt-proBNP (β = 0.035; p < 0.001) and BNP (β = 0.030; p < 0.001) were associated with age, but not with gender. In a multivariate analysis age (β = 0.036; p < 0.001) and male gender (β = 0.270; p = 0.014) were associated with NT-proBNP, but only age for BNP (β = 0.030; p < 0.001).
Conclusion
Natriuretic peptides in an elderly population showed high NPVs, but not as high as in younger patients with HF in other studies. Age and male gender were associated with higher levels of NT-proBNP while only age was related to elevated BNP levels.
doi:10.3109/02813430903345074
PMCID: PMC3440611  PMID: 20192890
Echocardiography; elderly; family practice; gender; natriuretic peptides; primary health care; systolic heart failure
5.  Association of cardiac and renal function with extreme N-terminal fragment Pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels in elderly patients 
Background
The data are inconsistent regarding whether extreme N-terminal fragment pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP) levels are associated with impaired renal function. Furthermore, the relationship between extreme NT pro-BNP levels and cardiac and renal function in elderly patients has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to examine a hypothesis that extreme NT pro-BNP levels may be associated with impaired cardiac and renal function in elderly patients.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the data of demographic, clinical, and echocardiographic features on 152 consecutive elderly patients aged more than 80 years old (average age, 83.65 ± 3.58 years) with NT pro-BNP levels ≥ 3000 pg/ml. The participants were divided into two categories according to their NT pro-BNP levels: (1) 3000–10000 pg/mL and (2) >10000 pg /mL.
Results
The number of patients with impaired renal function (P = 0.019) and the mortality (P < 0.001) in the period of inpatient was higher in the group with NT pro-BNP > 10000 pg /mL. The levels of serum creatinine and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) in the group of NT pro-BNP > 10000 pg / mL were higher than those in the group of NT pro-BNP = 3000-10000 pg/mL (P = 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively). Furthermore, no significant difference in the distribution by NYHA class in different NT pro-BNP levels was observed. Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that with NT pro-BNP levels as the dependent variable, NT pro-BNP levels were positively correlated with CK-MB (β = 0.182, P = 0.024) and creatinine levels (β = 0.281, P = 0.001). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve of NT pro-BNP levels and clinical diagnosis of impaired renal function was 0.596 and reached significant difference (95%CI:0.503-0.688, P = 0.044).
Conclusion
These data suggest that the extreme elevation of NT pro-BNP levels (≥3000 pg/ml) is mainly determined by impaired renal function in elderly patients above 80 years. Extreme NT pro-BNP levels may be useful for assessing the severity of impaired renal function.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-57
PMCID: PMC3422193  PMID: 22834778
NT pro-BNP; Factors; Elderly; Impaired renal function
6.  The ability of NT-proBNP to detect chronic heart failure and predict all-cause mortality is higher in elderly Chinese coronary artery disease patients with chronic kidney disease 
Objective
To analyze the relationship between N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and renal function, and compare the ability and cut-off thresholds of NT-proBNP to detect chronic heart failure (CHF) and predict mortality in elderly Chinese coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Methods
The study included 999 CAD patients older than 60 years. The endpoint was all-cause mortality over a mean follow-up period of 417 days.
Results
The median age was 86 years (range: 60–104 years), and the median NT-proBNP level was 409.8 pg/mL. CKD was present in 358 patients. Three hundred and six patients were positive for CHF. One hundred and ten CKD patients and 105 non-CKD patients died. Not only CKD, but also estimated glomerular filtration rate independently affected NT-proBNP. NT-proBNP detected CHF with a cut-off value of 298.4 pg/mL in non-CKD patients and a cut-off value of 435.7 pg/mL in CKD patients. NT-proBNP predicted death with a cut-off value of 369.5 pg/mL in non-CKD patients and a cut-off value of 2584.1 pg/mL in CKD patients. The NT-proBNP level was significantly related to the prevalence of CHF and all-cause mortality in CAD patients with and without CKD; this effect persisted after adjustment. The crude and multiple adjusted hazard ratios of NT-proBNP to detect CHF and predict mortality were significantly higher in patients with CKD compared with the remainder of the population. The addition of NT-proBNP to the three-variable and six-variable models generated a significant increase in the C-statistic.
Conclusion
Amongst elderly Chinese CAD patients, there was an independently inverse association between NT-proBNP and renal function. With the higher cutoff points, NT-proBNP better detected CHF and better predicted mortality in CKD patients than in non-CKD patients.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S42700
PMCID: PMC3665499  PMID: 23723693
aged; coronary artery disease; chronic kidney disease; N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; prognosis
7.  N-Terminal Fragment of the Prohormone Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), Cardiovascular Events, and Mortality in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease 
Context
Identification of individuals at high risk for cardiovascular events is important for the optimal use of primary and secondary prevention measures.
Objective
To determine whether plasma levels of amino terminal fragment of the prohormone brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predict cardiovascular events or death independent of other available prognostic tests.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Prospective cohort study (2000–2002) of 987 individuals in California with stable coronary heart disease in the Heart and Soul Study, who were followed up for a mean of 3.7 (range, 0.1–5.3) years.
Main Outcome Measures
The association of baseline NT-proBNP levels with death or cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure). Traditional clinical risk factors, echocardiographic measures, ischemia, other biomarkers, and New York Heart Association classification were adjusted for to determine whether NT-proBNP levels were independent of other prognostic factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the incremental prognostic value of adding NT-proBNP level to these other measures.
Results
A total of 256 participants (26.2%) had a cardiovascular event or died. Each increasing quartile of NT-proBNP level (range of quartile 1, 8.06–73.95 pg/mL; quartile 2, 74–174.5 pg/mL; quartile 3, 175.1–459 pg/mL; quartile 4, ≥460 pg/mL) was associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular events or death, ranging from 23 of 247 (annual event rate, 2.6%) in the lowest quartile to 134 of 246 (annual event rate, 19.6%) in the highest quartile (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] for quartile 4 vs quartile 1, 7.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.0–12.1; P<.001). Each SD increase in log NT-proBNP level (1.3 pg/mL) was associated with a 2.3-fold increased rate of adverse cardiovascular outcomes (unadjusted HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 2.0–2.6; P<.001), and this association persisted after adjustment for all of the other prognostic measures (adjusted HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3–2.2; P<.001). The addition of NT-proBNP level to standard clinical assessment and complete echocardiographic parameters significantly improved the area under the ROC curves for predicting subsequent adverse cardiovascular outcomes (0.80 for clinical risk factors and echocardiographic parameters plus log NT-proBNP vs 0.76 for clinical risk factors and echocardiographic parameters only; P=.006).
Conclusions
Elevated levels of NT-proBNP predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independent of other prognostic markers, and identify at-risk individuals even in the absence of systolic or diastolic dysfunction by echocardiography. Level of NT-proBNP may help guide risk stratification of high-risk individuals, such as those with coronary heart disease.
doi:10.1001/jama.297.2.169
PMCID: PMC2848442  PMID: 17213400
8.  Increased circulating pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients with cirrhosis: relation to cardiovascular dysfunction and severity of disease 
Gut  2003;52(10):1511-1517.
Background and aims: Cardiac dysfunction may be present in patients with cirrhosis. This study was undertaken to relate plasma concentrations of cardiac peptides reflecting early ventricular dysfunction (pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)) to markers of severity of liver disease, cardiac dysfunction, and hyperdynamic circulation in patients with cirrhosis.
Patients and methods: Circulating levels of proBNP and BNP were determined in 51 cirrhotic patients during a haemodynamic investigation.
Results: Plasma proBNP and BNP were significantly increased in cirrhotic patients (19 and 12 pmol/l, respectively) compared with age matched controls (14 and 6 pmol/l; p<0.02) and healthy subjects (<15 and <5.3 pmol/l; p<0.002). Circulating proBNP and BNP were closely correlated (r = 0.89, p<0.001), and the concentration ratio proBNP/BNP was similar to that of control subjects (1.8 v 2.3; NS). Circulating proBNP and BNP were related to severity of liver disease (Child score, serum albumin, coagulation factors 2, 7, and 10, and hepatic venous pressure gradient) and to markers of cardiac dysfunction (QT interval, heart rate, plasma volume) but not to indicators of the hyperdynamic circulation. Moreover, in multiple regression analysis, proBNP and BNP were also related to arterial carbon dioxide and oxygen tensions. The rate of hepatic disposal of proBNP and BNP was not significantly different in cirrhotic patients and controls.
Conclusion: Elevated circulating levels of proBNP and BNP in patients with cirrhosis most likely reflects increased cardiac ventricular generation of these peptides and thus indicates the presence of cardiac dysfunction, rather than being caused by the hyperdynamic circulatory changes found in these patients.
PMCID: PMC1773816  PMID: 12970147
brain natriuretic peptide; cardiac dysfunction; cirrhotic cardiomyopathy; pro-brain natriuretic peptide; QT interval; cardiac ventricular peptides
9.  Elevated NT-proBNP Levels are Associated with Poor Cognitive Function in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from the Rancho Bernardo Study 
The American journal of medicine  2011;124(7):670.e1-670.e8.
Background
Natriuretic peptides (NP’s) have prognostic value across a wide spectrum of cardiovascular diseases and may predict cognitive dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease even in the absence of prior stroke. Little is known about the association of NP’s with cognitive function in community-dwelling adults. We assessed the association between NT-proBNP levels and cognitive function in community-dwelling ambulatory older adults in the Rancho Bernardo Study.
Methods
We studied 950 men and women, aged 60 years and older, who attended a research clinic visit where a medical history and examination were performed, and blood for cardiovascular disease risk factors and NT-proBNP levels were obtained. Three cognitive function tests were administered: Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), Trail-Making Test B (Trails B), and Category Fluency.
Results
Participants with high NT-proBNP levels (≥450 pg/mL, n=198) were older and had a higher prevalence of coronary heart disease (12% vs. 30%), and stroke (5% vs. 11%) (both p’s≤0.001). In unadjusted analyses, all three cognitive function test scores were significantly associated with NT-proBNP levels (p<0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, education, hypertension, body mass index, exercise, alcohol use, smoking, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatinine clearance, and prior cardiovascular disease, elevated NT-proBNP levels remained independently associated with poor cognitive performance on MMSE (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.0 [1.1–3.6], p=0.02) and Trails B (1.7 [1.2–2.7], p=0.01), but not Category Fluency (1.4 [0.9–2.2], p=0.19). Results were unchanged after excluding the 6% of participants with a history of stroke.
Conclusions
NT-proBNP levels were strongly and independently associated with poor cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults.
doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.02.027
PMCID: PMC3173742  PMID: 21683832
natriuretic peptides; cerebrovascular disorders; cardiovascular diseases; community; elderly; cognitive function
10.  High circulating N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and tumor necrosis factor-α in mixed cryoglobulinemia 
AIM: To evaluate serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in a large series of patients with hepatitis C associated with mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC+HCV).
METHODS: Serum NTproBNP and TNF-α levels were assayed in 50 patients with MC+HCV, and in 50 sex- and age-matched controls.
RESULTS: Cryoglobulinemic patients showed significantly higher mean NTproBNP and TNF-α levels than controls (P < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U test). By defining high NTproBNP level as a value higher than 125 pg/mL (the single cut-off point for outpatients under 75 years of age), 30% of MC+HCV and 6% of controls had high NTproBNP (χ2, P < 0.01). With a cut-off point of 300 pg/mL (used to rule out heart failure (HF) in patients under 75 years of age), 8% of MC+HCV and 0 controls had high NTproBNP (χ2, P < 0.04). With a cut-off point of 900 pg/mL (used for ruling in HF in patients aged 50-75 years; such as the patients of our study), 6% of MC+HCV and 0 controls had high NTproBNP (χ2, P = 0.08).
CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates high levels of circulating NTproBNP and TNF-α in MC+HCV patients. The increase of NTproBNP may indicate the presence of a subclinical cardiac dysfunction.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.5074
PMCID: PMC2768887  PMID: 19860001
NTProBNP; Tumor necrosis factor α; Hepatitis C; Mixed cryoglobulinemia; Heart failure
11.  Natriuretic peptide testing for the evaluation of critically ill patients with shock in the intensive care unit: a prospective cohort study 
Critical Care  2006;10(1):R37.
Introduction
Amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is useful in evaluating heart failure, but its role in evaluating patients with shock in the intensive care unit (ICU) is not clear.
Method
Forty-nine consecutive patients in four different ICUs with shock of various types and with an indication for pulmonary artery catheter placement were evaluated. Analyses for NT-proBNP were performed on blood obtained at the time of catheter placement and results were correlated with pulmonary artery catheter findings. Logistic regression identified independent predictors of mortality.
Results
A wide range of NT-proBNP levels were observed (106 to >35,000 pg/ml). There was no difference in median NT-proBNP levels between patients with a cardiac and those with a noncardiac origin to their shock (3,046 pg/ml versus 2,959 pg/ml; P = 0.80), but an NT-proBNP value below 1,200 pg/ml had a negative predictive value of 92% for cardiogenic shock. NT-proBNP levels did not correlate with filling pressures or hemodynamics (findings not significant). NT-proBNP concentrations were higher in patients who died in the ICU (11,859 versus 2,534 pg/ml; P = 0.03), and the mortality rate of patients in the highest log-quartile of NT-proBNP (66.7%) was significantly higher than those in other log-quartiles (P < 0.001); NT-proBNP independently predicted ICU mortality (odds ratio 14.8, 95% confidence interval 1.8–125.2; P = 0.013), and was superior to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and brain natriuretic peptide in this regard.
Conclusion
Elevated levels of NT-proBNP do not necessarily correlate with high filling pressures among patients with ICU shock, but marked elevation in NT-proBNP is strongly associated with ICU death. Low NT-proBNP values in patients with ICU shock identifed those at lower risk for death, and may be useful in excluding the need for pulmonary artery catheter placement in such patients.
doi:10.1186/cc4839
PMCID: PMC1550815  PMID: 16507171
12.  Analysis of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and cardiac index in multiple injured patients: a prospective cohort study 
Critical Care  2008;12(5):R118.
Introduction
Increased serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been identified for diagnosis and prognosis of impaired cardiac function in patients suffering from congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, and sepsis. However, the prognostic value of BNP in multiple injured patients developing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains undetermined. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) in multiple injured patients and to correlate the results with invasively assessed cardiac output and clinical signs of MODS.
Methods
Twenty-six multiple injured patients presenting a New Injury Severity Score of greater than 16 points were included. The MODS score was calculated on admission as well as 24, 48, and 72 hours after injury. Patients were subdivided into groups: group A showed minor signs of organ dysfunction (MODS score less than or equal to 4 points) and group B suffered from major organ dysfunction (MODS score of greater than 4 points). Venous blood (5 mL) was collected after admission and 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after injury. NT-proBNP was determined using the Elecsys proBNP® assay. The hemodynamic monitoring of cardiac index (CI) was performed using transpulmonary thermodilution.
Results
Serum NT-proBNP levels were elevated in all 26 patients. At admission, the serum NT-proBNP values were 116 ± 21 pg/mL in group A versus 209 ± 93 pg/mL in group B. NT-proBNP was significantly lower at all subsequent time points in group A in comparison with group B (P < 0.001). In contrast, the CI in group A was significantly higher than in group B at all time points (P < 0.001). Concerning MODS score and CI at 24, 48, and 72 hours after injury, an inverse correlation was found (r = -0.664, P < 0.001). Furthermore, a correlation was found comparing MODS score and serum NT-proBNP levels (r = 0.75, P < 0.0001).
Conclusions
Serum NT-proBNP levels significantly correlate with clinical signs of MODS 24 hours after multiple injury. Furthermore, a distinct correlation of serum NT-proBNP and decreased CI was found. The data of this pilot study may indicate a potential value of NT-proBNP in the diagnosis of post-traumatic cardiac impairment. However, further studies are needed to elucidate this issue.
doi:10.1186/cc7013
PMCID: PMC2592747  PMID: 18789145
13.  N-Terminal Pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide Levels in the Korean General Population 
Korean Circulation Journal  2010;40(12):645-650.
Background and Objectives
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) levels may serve as a useful marker of cardiovascular risk for screening of the general population. We evaluated reference levels and distribution of NT-proBNP in the Korean general population based on a large cohort study.
Subjects and Methods
We included 1,518 adult subjects (ages 40-69) of a community-based cohort from the Korea Rural Genomic Cohort (KRGC) Study. Thorough biochemical and clinical data were recorded for all subjects. Levels of NT-proBNP from all participants were determined. In order to determine normal reference levels, subjects with factors known to influence NT-proBNP levels were excluded.
Results
The characteristics of the cohort are described below; subjects were 41.2% male, and the mean age was 54.8±8.4 years. The distribution of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the cohort included hypertension (25%), left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiography (ECG-LVH) (15%), hypercholestolemia (4.5%), smoking (32%), diabetes (10.9%), history of coronary heart disease (4.9%), history of heart failure (0.9%), symptoms of heart failure (6.1%), elevated serum creatinine (≥1.5, 3.7%), and severe obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2, 4.6%). The levels of NT-proBNP of all subjects are shown below; the mean was 60.1±42.1, and the median was 36.5 pg/mL. In addition, the levels of NT-proBNP of normal subjects (which did not have any risk factors, n=224) are shown below; the mean was 40.8, and the median was 32.1 pg/mL. In normal subjects, the NT-proBNP level was slightly higher in females (25.7±24.8 vs. 46.9±35.4, p<0.001). NT-proBNP level increased with age in both the normal population and the total population. There were no significant differences in NT-proBNP levels in subjects who smoked, or had diabetes mellitus, hypertension or ECG-LVH. However, in subjects with a history of congestive heart failure (CHF) (58.5±103.29 vs. 213.8±258.8, p<0.005), elevated serum creatinine levels (≥1.5 mg/dL, 146.2±98.2 vs. 54.3±38.1, p<0.001), or who were older (≥60, 48.4 vs. 84.2±139.5 pg/mL, p<0.05), the BNP level was higher. In addition, patients with more than 3 risk factors for CHF had higher BNP levels (risk 0: 40.8±34.0, 1-2: 57.4±93.2, ≥3: 85.0±152.9 pg/mL). NT-proBNP levels were also related with age, sex, urine albumin, serum Cr, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (p<0.05).
Conclusion
We determined the reference value and distribution of NT-proBNP in the Korean adult general population. We also found that adjustments for the independent effects of age, sex and renal function appear necessary when determining cardiac risk based on proBNP levels.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2010.40.12.645
PMCID: PMC3025338  PMID: 21267387
Natriuretic peptides; Cohort studies; Population surveillance; Reference values
14.  Amino-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in the General Community Determinants and Detection of Left Ventricular Dysfunction 
OBJECTIVES
This study sought to characterize factors influencing amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and to evaluate the ability of NT-proBNP to detect left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in a large community sample.
BACKGROUND
Secretion of BNP increases in cardiac disease, making BNP an attractive biomarker. Amino-terminal proBNP, a fragment of the BNP prohormone, is a new biomarker. We evaluated factors influencing NT-proBNP in normal patients and compared the ability of NT-proBNP and BNP to detect LV dysfunction in a large community sample.
METHODS
Amino-terminal pro-BNP was determined in plasma samples of a previously reported and clinically and echocardiographically characterized random sample (n = 1,869, age ≥ 45 years) of Olmsted County, Minnesota.
RESULTS
In normal patients (n = 746), female gender and older age were the strongest independent predictors of higher NT-proBNP. Test characteristics for detecting an LV ejection fraction ≤ 40% or ≤ 50% were determined in the total sample with receiver operating characteristic curves. Amino-terminal pro-BNP had significantly higher areas under the curve for detecting an LV ejection fraction ≤ 40% or ≤ 50% than BNP in the total population and in several male and age subgroups, whereas areas were equivalent in female subgroups. Age- and gender-adjusted cutpoints improved test characteristics of NT-proBNP. Both assays detected patients with systolic and/or moderate to severe diastolic dysfunction to a similar degree, which was less robust than the detection of LV systolic dysfunction alone.
CONCLUSIONS
Amino-terminal pro-BNP in normal patients is affected primarily by gender and age, which should be considered when interpreting values. Importantly, in the entire population sample NT-proBNP performed at least equivalently to BNP in detecting LV dysfunction and was superior in some subgroups in detecting LV systolic dysfunction.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2005.09.025
PMCID: PMC2647136  PMID: 16412859
15.  Minimally Elevated Cardiac Troponin T and Elevated N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Predict Mortality in Older Adults: Results From the Rancho Bernardo Study 
Objectives
This study investigated the prognostic value of detectable cardiac troponin T (TnT) and elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in a population of community-dwelling older adults.
Background
Minimally elevated levels of TnT, a marker of cardiomyocyte injury, have been found in small subsets of the general population, with uncertain implications. A marker of ventricular stretch, NT-proBNP has clinical utility in many venues, but its long-term prognostic value in apparently healthy older adults and in conjunction with TnT is unknown.
Methods
Participants were 957 older adults from the Rancho Bernardo Study with plasma NT-proBNP and TnT measured at baseline (1997 to 1999) and followed up for mortality through July 2006.
Results
Participants with detectable TnT (≥0.01 ng/ml, n = 39) had an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] by Cox proportional hazards analysis: 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29 to 3.28, p = 0.003 for all-cause mortality; HR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.03 to 4.12, p = 0.040 for cardiovascular mortality); elevated NT-proBNP also predicted an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted HR per unit-log increase in NT-proBNP: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.36 to 2.52, p < 0.001 for all-cause mortality; HR: 2.51, 95% CI: 1.55 to 4.08, p < 0.001 for cardiovascular mortality). Those with both elevated NT-proBNP and detectable TnT had poorer survival (HR for high NT-proBNP and detectable TnT vs. low NT-proBNP and any TnT: 3.20, 95% CI: 1.91 to 5.38, p < 0.001). Exclusion of the 152 participants with heart disease at baseline did not materially change the TnT mortality or NT-proBNP mortality associations.
Conclusions
Apparently healthy adults with detectable TnT or elevated NT-proBNP levels are at increased risk of death. Those with both TnT and NT-proBNP elevations are at even higher risk, and the increased risk persists for years.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2008.04.033
PMCID: PMC2613773  PMID: 18672166
aging; cardiovascular diseases; epidemiology; natriuretic peptides; prognosis; risk factors; survival
16.  NT Pro BNP Plasma Level and Atrial Volume Are Linked to the Severity of Liver Cirrhosis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e68364.
Background and Aims
Plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP, a natriuretic peptide precursor, are raised in the presence of fluid retention of cardiac origin and can be used as markers of cardiac dysfunction. Recent studies showed high levels of NT pro BNP in patients with cirrhosis. We assessed NT pro-BNP and other parameters of cardiac dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis, with or without ascites, in order to determine whether the behaviour of NT pro BNP is linked to the stage of liver disease or to secondary cardiac dysfunction.
Methods
Fifty eight consecutive hospitalized patients mostly with viral or NAFLD-related cirrhosis were studied. All underwent abdominal ultrasound and upper GI endoscopy. Cardiac morpho-functional changes were evaluated by echocardiography and NT-pro-BNP plasma levels determined upon admission. Twenty-eight hypertensive patients, without evidence of liver disease served as controls.
Results
Fifty eight cirrhotic patients (72% men) with a median age of 62 years (11% with mild arterial hypertension and 31% with type 2 diabetes) had a normal renal function (mean creatinine 0.9 mg/dl, range 0.7–1.06). As compared to controls, cirrhotic patients had higher NT pro-BNP plasma levels (365.2±365.2 vs 70.8±70.6 pg/ml; p<0.001). Left atrial volume (LAV) (61.8±26.3 vs 43.5±14.1 ml; p = 0.001), and left ventricular ejection fraction (62.7±6.9 vs. 65.5±4%,; p = 0.05) were also altered in cirrhotic patients that in controls. Patients with F2-F3 oesophageal varices as compared to F0/F1, showed higher e' velocity (0.91±0.23 vs 0.66±0.19 m/s, p<0.001), and accordingly a higher E/A ratio (1.21±0.46 vs 0.89±0.33 m/s., p = 0.006).
Conclusion
NT-pro-BNP plasma levels are increased proportionally to the stage of chronic liver disease. Advanced cirrhosis and high NT-pro-BNP levels are significantly associated to increased LAV and to signs of cardiac diastolic dysfunction. NT pro-BNP levels could hence be an useful prognostic indicators of early decompensation of cirrhosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068364
PMCID: PMC3734231  PMID: 23940514
17.  N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide is Associated with Sudden Cardiac Death Risk: the Cardiovascular Health Study 
Background
Sudden cardiac death (SCD), the cause of 250,000-450,000 deaths per year, is a major public health problem. The majority of those affected do not have a prior cardiovascular diagnosis. Elevated B-type natriuretic peptide levels have been associated with the risk of heart failure and mortality, as well as sudden death in women.
Objective
To examine the relationship between N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and SCD in the Cardiovascular Health Study population.
Methods
The risk of SCD associated with baseline NT-proBNP was examined in 5447 participants. Covariate-adjusted Cox model regressions were used to estimate the hazard ratios of developing SCD as a function of baseline NT-proBNP
Results
Over a median follow-up of 12.5 years (maximum of 16), there were 289 cases of SCD. Higher NT-proBNP levels were strongly associated with SCD, with an unadjusted hazard ratio of 4.2 (95% CI: 2.9, 6.1, p<0.001) in the highest quintile compared to the lowest. NT-proBNP remained associated with SCD even after adjustment for numerous clinical characteristics and risk-factors (age, sex, race, and other associated conditions), with an adjusted hazard ratio for the 5th versus the 1st quintile of 2.5 (95% CI: 1.6, 3.8, p<0.001).
Conclusion
NT-proBNP provides information regarding the risk of sudden cardiac death in a community based population of older adults, beyond other traditional risk factors. This biomarker may ultimately prove useful in targeting the population at risk with aggressive medical management of comorbid conditions.
doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2010.10.038
PMCID: PMC3826546  PMID: 21044699
Sudden cardiac death; B-type natriuretic peptide; BNP; NT-proBNP
18.  Correlation between N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Doppler Echocardiographic Parameters of Left Ventricular Filling Pressure in Atrial Fibrillation 
Background
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia with a population prevalence of about 1%. Natriuretic peptide level is elevated in patients with AF with diastolic dysfunction even with a normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. The N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level and Doppler echocardiographic parameters for diastolic function have shown correlation with LV filling pressures. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between echocardiographic parameters and serum NT-proBNP in patients with AF with preserved LV ejection fraction.
Methods
We examined transthoracic echocardiography and NT-proBNP levels in the patients with AF and patients with sinus rhythm. Blood samples were taken for serum NT-proBNP measurements within 24 hours of echocardiographic examination. The group 1 was the patients with sinus rhythm (n = 30, mean age 68 ± 13 years) and the group 2 was the patients with AF (n = 33, mean age 70 ± 14 years).
Results
The group 2 patients had significantly higher mitral E, E' (lateral annulus), E/E' (septal annulus), left atrial (LA) volume index, LA size, pulmonary vein diastolic velocity, and NT-proBNP level than those of group 1 patients (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve showed a NT-proBNP had good diagnostic power for E/E' (septal annulus) > 15 in patients with AF at cutoff value of 433 pg/mL.
Conclusion
NT-proBNP level is well correlated with Doppler echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function in patients with AF and preserved LV ejection fraction. NT-proBNP level more than 433 pg/mL may suggest elevated LV filling pressure in patients with AF.
doi:10.4250/jcu.2011.19.1.26
PMCID: PMC3079081  PMID: 21519489
Atrial fibrillation; NT-proBNP; Doppler echocardiography
19.  Association of Serum Carotenoid Levels With N-Terminal Pro-Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide: A Cross-Sectional Study in Japan 
Journal of Epidemiology  2013;23(3):163-168.
Background
Several epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse association between serum levels of carotenoids and cardiovascular disease risk. However, no studies have reported an association between serum carotenoids and N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the general population.
Methods
In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether serum carotenoids were associated with serum NT-proBNP in 1056 Japanese subjects (390 men, 666 women) who attended a health examination. Serum levels of carotenoids were separately determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum NT-proBNP level was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.
Results
Serum NT-proBNP was elevated (≥55 pg/ml) in 31.8% of men and 48.2% of women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for confounding factors showed a significant association between the highest quartile of serum α-carotene and elevated NT-proBNP in men (odds ratio [OR] = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19–0.82, P for trend = 0.005) and women (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.39–0.99, P for trend = 0.047). In women, moreover, elevated serum NT-proBNP was significantly associated with serum canthaxanthin (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.36–0.90 for highest quartile, P for trend = 0.026) and β-cryptoxanthin (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32–0.85 for highest quartile, P for trend = 0.026), after adjusting for potential confounders.
Conclusions
Higher levels of serum carotenoids were associated with lower risk of elevated serum NT-proBNP levels after adjusting for possible confounders, which suggests that a diet rich in carotenoids could help prevent cardiac overload in the Japanese population.
doi:10.2188/jea.JE20120087
PMCID: PMC3700260  PMID: 23474820
carotenoids; N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide; cross-sectional study
20.  Pro–B-Type Natriuretic Peptide1–108 Circulates in the General Community 
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to investigate circulating pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP1–108) in the general community and evaluate its ability to detect left ventricular (LV) dysfunction.
Background
The current concept for cardiac endocrine function is that, in response to cardiac stress, the heart secretes B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP1–32) and amino-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP1–76) after intracardiac cleavage of their molecular precursor, proBNP1–108. We hypothesized that proBNP1–108 circulates in normal human subjects and that it is a useful biomarker for LV dysfunction.
Methods
Our population-based study included a cohort of 1,939 adults (age >45 years) from Olmsted County, Minnesota, with 672 participants defined as healthy. Subjects underwent in-depth clinical characterization, detailed echocardiography, and measurement of proBNP1–108. Independent factors associated with proBNP1–108 and test characteristics for the detection of LV dysfunction were determined.
Results
ProBNP1–108 in normal humans was strongly influenced by sex, age, heart rate, and body mass index. The median concentration was 20 ng/l with a mean proBNP1–108 to NT-proBNP1–76 ratio of 0.366, which decreased with heart failure stage. ProBNP1–108 was a sensitive (78.8%) and specific (86.1%) biomarker for detecting LV systolic dysfunction, which was comparable to BNP1–32, but less than NT-proBNP1–76, in several subsets of the population.
Conclusions
ProBNP1–108 circulates in the majority of healthy humans in the general population and is a sensitive and specific biomarker for the detection of systolic dysfunction. The proBNP1–108 to NT-proBNP1–76 ratio may provide insights into altered proBNP1–108 processing during heart failure progression. Thus, this highly specific assay for proBNP1–108 provides important new insights into the biology of the BNP system.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.01.005
PMCID: PMC3927966  PMID: 21414536
biomarker; BNP; heart failure; natriuretic peptide; NT-proBNP; proBNP
21.  Midregional pro-Adrenomedullin in addition to b-type natriuretic peptides in the risk stratification of patients with acute dyspnea: an observational study 
Critical Care  2009;13(4):R122.
Introduction
The identification of patients at highest risk for adverse outcome who are presenting with acute dyspnea to the emergency department remains a challenge. This study investigates the prognostic value of the newly described midregional fragment of the pro-Adrenomedullin molecule (MR-proADM) alone and combined to B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) in patients with acute dyspnea.
Methods
We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study in the emergency department of a University Hospital and enrolled 287 unselected, consecutive patients (48% women, median age 77 (range 68 to 83) years) with acute dyspnea.
Results
MR-proADM levels were elevated in non-survivors (n = 77) compared to survivors (median 1.9 (1.2 to 3.2) nmol/L vs. 1.1 (0.8 to 1.6) nmol/L; P < 0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to predict 30-day mortality were 0.81 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.90), 0.76 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.84) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.74) for MR-proADM, NT-proBNP and BNP, respectively (MRproADM vs. NTproBNP P = 0.38; MRproADM vs. BNP P = 0.009). For one-year mortality the AUC were 0.75 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.81), 0.75 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.81), 0.69 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.76) for MR-proADM, NT-proBNP and BNP, respectively without any significant difference. Using multivariate linear regression analysis, MR-proADM strongly predicted one-year all-cause mortality independently of NT-proBNP and BNP levels (OR = 10.46 (1.36 to 80.50), P = 0.02 and OR = 24.86 (3.87 to 159.80) P = 0.001, respectively). Using quartile approaches, Kaplan-Meier curve analyses demonstrated a stepwise increase in one-year all-cause mortality with increasing plasma levels (P < 0.0001). Combined levels of MR-proADM and NT-proBNP did risk stratify acute dyspneic patients into a low (90% one-year survival rate), intermediate (72 to 82% one-year survival rate) or high risk group (52% one-year survival rate).
Conclusions
MR-proADM alone or combined to NT-proBNP has a potential to assist clinicians in risk stratifying patients presenting with acute dyspnea regardless of the underlying disease.
doi:10.1186/cc7975
PMCID: PMC2750172  PMID: 19627611
22.  Influence of Sex and Hormone Status on Circulating Natriuretic Peptides 
Objectives
To assess the relationship between sex hormones and natriuretic peptide levels in community-based adults
Background
Women have higher circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations than men, but the mechanisms for these sex-related differences and the impact of hormone therapy are unclear. Experimental studies suggest that androgens may suppress natriuretic peptide secretion.
Methods
We measured plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), total testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in 4,056 men and women (mean age 40±9 years) from the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation cohort. Sex/hormone status was grouped as: 1) men, 2) postmenopausal women not receiving hormone replacement therapy, 3) premenopausal women not receiving hormonal contraceptives, 4) postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy and 5) premenopausal women receiving hormonal contraceptives.
Results
Circulating NT-proBNP was associated with sex/hormone status (overall P<0.0001). Men had lower NT-proBNP than women of all menopause or hormone groups, and women receiving hormonal contraceptives had higher NT-proBNP than women who were not receiving hormone therapy (all P<0.0001). These relationships remained significant after adjusting for age, body mass index, and cardiovascular risk factors. Across sex/hormone status groups, FT decreased and SHBG increased in tandem with increasing NT-proBNP. In sex-specific analyses, NT-proBNP decreased across increasing quartiles of free testosterone in men (P for trend<0.01) and in women (P for trend<0.0001). Adjustment for FT markedly attenuated the association between sex/hormone status and NT-proBNP concentrations.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that lower circulating androgens and the potentiating effect of exogenous female hormone therapy contribute to the higher circulating NT-proBNP concentrations in women.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.03.042
PMCID: PMC3170816  PMID: 21798425
natriuretic peptides; sex; hormones
23.  Human Hypertension Is Characterized by a Lack of Activation of the Antihypertensive Cardiac Hormones ANP and BNP 
Objectives
This study sought to investigate plasma levels of circulating cardiac natriuretic peptides, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type or brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), in the general community, focusing on their relative differences in worsening human hypertension.
Background
Although ANP and BNP are well-characterized regulators of blood pressure in humans, little is known at the population level about their relationship with hypertension. The authors hypothesized that hypertension is associated with a lack of activation of these hormones or their molecular precursors.
Methods
The study cohort (N = 2,082, age>45 years) was derived from a random sample from Rochester, Minnesota, and each subject had a medical history, clinical examination, and assessment of different plasma forms of ANP and BNP. Patients were stratified by blood pressure. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess differences in natriuretic peptide levels in worsening hypertension.
Results
Compared to normotensive, BNP1–32 and N-terminal proBNP1–76 (NT-proBNP1–76) were significantly decreased in pre-hypertension (p < 0.05), with BNP1–32 significantly decreased in stage 1 as well (p < 0.05). Although proBNP1–108 remained unchanged, the processed form was significantly increased only in stage 2 hypertension (p < 0.05). ANP1–28 remained unchanged, while NT-ANP1–98 was reduced in pre-hypertension (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
The authors demonstrated the existence of an impaired production and/or release of proBNP1–108 along with a concomitant reduction of BNP1–32 and NT-proBNP1–76 in the early stages of hypertension, with a significant elevation only in stage 2 hypertension. Importantly, they simultaneously demonstrated a lack of compensatory ANP elevation in advanced hypertension.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2012.05.049
PMCID: PMC4041520  PMID: 23058313
ANP; BNP; hypertension; natriuretic peptide; NT-proBNP; proBNP
24.  Association between High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection 
Mediators of Inflammation  2012;2012:730923.
Background. Prior study showed HCV-infected patients have increased serum N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) and a possible left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The objectives of the present paper were to investigate the characteristics of hs-CRP and its correlation with clinical profiles including NT-proBNP and echocardiographic variables in HCV-infected patients. Methods and Results. A total of 106 HCV-infected patients and 106 control healthy individuals were enrolled. The level of serum hs-CRP (median 1.023 mg/L, range 0.03∼5.379 mg/L) was significantly lower in all 106 patients than that in controls (median 3.147 mg/L, range 0.08~7.36 mg/L, P = 0.012). Although hs-CRP did not correlate significantly with NT-proBNP when all patients and controls were included (r = 0.169, P = 0.121), simple regression analysis demonstrated a statistically significant linear correlation between hs-CRP and NT-proBNP in HCV-infected patients group (r = 0.392, P = 0.017). Independent correlates of hs-CRP levels (R2 = 0.13) were older age (β′ = 0.031, P = 0.025) and NT proBNP (β′ = 0.024, P = 0.017). Conclusions. Although the level of serum hs-CRP decreased significantly, there was a significant association between hs-CRP and NT-proBNP in HCV-infected patients.
doi:10.1155/2012/730923
PMCID: PMC3356947  PMID: 22645408
25.  Dynamic cardiovascular risk assessment in the elderly: The role of repeated amino terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide testing 
Objectives
Determine if serial measurement of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in community dwelling elderly would provide additional prognostic information to traditional risk factors.
Background
Accurate cardiovascular risk stratification is challenging in the elderly.
Methods
NT-proBNP was measured at baseline and 2-3 years later in 2,975 community-dwelling older adults free of heart failure in the longitudinal Cardiovascular Health Study. This investigation examined the risk of new-onset heart failure (HF) and death from cardiovascular (CV) causes associated with baseline NT-proBNP and changes in NT-proBNP levels, adjusting for potential confounders.
Results
NT-proBNP levels in the highest quintile (>267.7 pg/mL) were independently associated with greater risks of HF (hazard ratio [HR] =3.05 (95%CI [confidence interval] 2.46-3.78) and CV death (HR=3.02, 95%CI 2.36-3.86) compared to the lowest quintile (<47.5 pg/mL). The inflection point for elevated risk occurred at NT-proBNP=190 pg/mL. Among participants with initially low NT-proBNP (<190 pg/mL), those who developed a >25% increase on follow-up to >190 pg/mL (21%) were at greater adjusted risk of HF (HR=2.13, 95%CI=1.68-2.71) and CV death (HR=1.91, 95%CI=1.43-2.53) compared to those with sustained low levels. Among participants with initially high NT-proBNP, those who developed >25% increase (40%) were at higher risk of HF (HR=2.06 95%CI 1.56 −2.72) and cardiovascular death (HR=1.88, 95%CI 1.37-2.57), whereas those who developed >25% decrease to ≤190pg/mL (15%) were at lower risk of HF (HR=0.58, 95%CI 0.36-0.93) and CV death (HR=0.57, 95%CI 0.32 −1.01) compared to those with unchanged high values.
Conclusion
NT-proBNP levels independently predict heart failure and cardiovascular death in older adults. NT-proBNP levels frequently change over time and these fluctuations reflect dynamic changes in cardiovascular risk.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2009.07.069
PMCID: PMC2840257  PMID: 20117457
biomarkers; risk stratification; heart failure; elderly

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