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1.  A Mouse Model for the Metabolic Effects of the Human Fat Mass and Obesity Associated FTO Gene 
PLoS Genetics  2009;5(8):e1000599.
Human FTO gene variants are associated with body mass index and type 2 diabetes. Because the obesity-associated SNPs are intronic, it is unclear whether changes in FTO expression or splicing are the cause of obesity or if regulatory elements within intron 1 influence upstream or downstream genes. We tested the idea that FTO itself is involved in obesity. We show that a dominant point mutation in the mouse Fto gene results in reduced fat mass, increased energy expenditure, and unchanged physical activity. Exposure to a high-fat diet enhances lean mass and lowers fat mass relative to control mice. Biochemical studies suggest the mutation occurs in a structurally novel domain and modifies FTO function, possibly by altering its dimerisation state. Gene expression profiling revealed increased expression of some fat and carbohydrate metabolism genes and an improved inflammatory profile in white adipose tissue of mutant mice. These data provide direct functional evidence that FTO is a causal gene underlying obesity. Compared to the reported mouse FTO knockout, our model more accurately reflects the effect of human FTO variants; we observe a heterozygous as well as homozygous phenotype, a smaller difference in weight and adiposity, and our mice do not show perinatal lethality or an age-related reduction in size and length. Our model suggests that a search for human coding mutations in FTO may be informative and that inhibition of FTO activity is a possible target for the treatment of morbid obesity.
Author Summary
Geneticists have identified many gene regions that cause human disease by using multiple genetic markers in large populations to find gene regions associated with disease. However, it is often not clear precisely which gene in any given region causes the disease or how the gene exerts its functional effect. For example, a gene variant in the non-coding region of FTO enhances obesity risk, but it is not clear if this is an effect of the FTO gene itself or another gene located nearby. We therefore tested whether FTO regulates body weight in the mouse. We found that a single change (mutation) in the sequence coding for the mouse FTO protein decreases the functional activity of FTO and causes reduced fat mass and body weight. Food intake and activity were normal, but the mutant mice had a higher metabolic rate. In addition, their fat mass was lower than that of normal mice when both were fed a high-fat diet. Our study provides direct evidence that FTO directly affects fat mass and thus is likely to have a role in human obesity. As reduced FTO function decreases body weight in mice, it is worth exploring if pharmaceutical agents that inhibit FTO activity might help reduce human obesity.
PMCID: PMC2719869  PMID: 19680540
2.  Adult Onset Global Loss of the Fto Gene Alters Body Composition and Metabolism in the Mouse 
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(1):e1003166.
The strongest BMI–associated GWAS locus in humans is the FTO gene. Rodent studies demonstrate a role for FTO in energy homeostasis and body composition. The phenotypes observed in loss of expression studies are complex with perinatal lethality, stunted growth from weaning, and significant alterations in body composition. Thus understanding how and where Fto regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition is a challenge. To address this we generated a series of mice with distinct temporal and spatial loss of Fto expression. Global germline loss of Fto resulted in high perinatal lethality and a reduction in body length, fat mass, and lean mass. When ratio corrected for lean mass, mice had a significant increase in energy expenditure, but more appropriate multiple linear regression normalisation showed no difference in energy expenditure. Global deletion of Fto after the in utero and perinatal period, at 6 weeks of age, removed the high lethality of germline loss. However, there was a reduction in weight by 9 weeks, primarily as loss of lean mass. Over the subsequent 10 weeks, weight converged, driven by an increase in fat mass. There was a switch to a lower RER with no overall change in food intake or energy expenditure. To test if the phenotype can be explained by loss of Fto in the mediobasal hypothalamus, we sterotactically injected adeno-associated viral vectors encoding Cre recombinase to cause regional deletion. We observed a small reduction in food intake and weight gain with no effect on energy expenditure or body composition. Thus, although hypothalamic Fto can impact feeding, the effect of loss of Fto on body composition is brought about by its actions at sites elsewhere. Our data suggest that Fto may have a critical role in the control of lean mass, independent of its effect on food intake.
Author Summary
The fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene has one of the strongest links with body mass index (BMI) in the human population. One in six people have the “risk” alteration and weigh 3 kg more than those with the unaltered gene, but it is not understood how this gene influences BMI and obesity. We set out to understand how and where in the body FTO affects food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition using a mouse model that can be manipulated to lack FTO at particular times and/or places. Removing FTO everywhere from conception had a dramatic effect on body composition and resulted in stunted growth and some lethality. Removing FTO everywhere but only in adult animals resulted in better viability and normal growth but, surprisingly, reduced lean mass and increased fat mass with a change in the type of metabolic fuel being used. Finally, we removed FTO from the hypothalamus of adult animals, an important brain region involved in energy metabolism. These animals showed a mild reduction in food intake and weight gain. Our experiments show that FTO has an important role in body composition and that other brain areas outside of the hypothalamus are also important in determining its effects.
PMCID: PMC3536712  PMID: 23300482
3.  Hypothalamic-Specific Manipulation of Fto, the Ortholog of the Human Obesity Gene FTO, Affects Food Intake in Rats 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(1):e8771.
Sequence variants in the first intron of FTO are strongly associated with human obesity and human carriers of the risk alleles show evidence for increased appetite and food intake. Mice globally lacking Fto display a complex phenotype characterised by both increased energy expenditure and increased food intake. The site of action of FTO on energy balance is unclear. Fasting reduces levels of Fto mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus, a site where Fto expression is particularly high. In this study, we have extended this nutritional link by demonstrating that consumption of a high fat diet (45%) results in a 2.5 fold increase in Arc Fto expression. We have further explored the role of hypothalamic Fto in the control of food intake by using stereotactic injections coupled with AAV technology to bi-directionally modulate Fto expression. An over expression of Fto protein by 2.5-fold in the ARC results in a 14% decrease in average daily food intake in the first week. In contrast, knocking down Arc Fto expression by 40% increases food intake by 16%. mRNA levels of Agrp, Pomc and Npy, ARC-expressed genes classically associated with the control of food intake, were not affected by the manipulation of Fto expression. However, over expression of Fto resulted in a 4-fold increase in the mRNA levels of Stat3, a signalling molecule critical for leptin receptor signalling, suggesting a possible candidate for the mediation of Fto's actions. These data provide further support for the notion that FTO itself can influence key components of energy balance, and is therefore a strong candidate for the mediation of the robust association between FTO intronic variants and adiposity. Importantly, this provide the first indication that selective alteration of FTO levels in the hypothalamus can influence food intake, a finding consistent with the reported effects of FTO alleles on appetite and food intake in man.
PMCID: PMC2808248  PMID: 20098739
4.  Reproducibility and accuracy of body composition assessments in mice by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and time domain nuclear magnetic resonance 
To assess the accuracy and reproducibility of dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA; PIXImus™) and time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR; Bruker Optics) for the measurement of body composition of lean and obese mice.
Subjects and measurements
Thirty lean and obese mice (body weight range 19–67 g) were studied. Coefficients of variation for repeated (x 4) DXA and NMR scans of mice were calculated to assess reproducibility. Accuracy was assessed by comparing DXA and NMR results of ten mice to chemical carcass analyses. Accuracy of the respective techniques was also assessed by comparing DXA and NMR results obtained with ground meat samples to chemical analyses. Repeated scans of 10–25 gram samples were performed to test the sensitivity of the DXA and NMR methods to variation in sample mass.
In mice, DXA and NMR reproducibility measures were similar for fat tissue mass (FTM) (DXA coefficient of variation [CV]=2.3%; and NMR CV=2.8%) (P=0.47), while reproducibility of lean tissue mass (LTM) estimates were better for DXA (1.0%) than NMR (2.2%) (

DXA and NMR provide comparable levels of reproducibility in measurements of body composition lean and obese mice. While DXA and NMR measures are highly correlated with chemical analysis measures, DXA consistently overestimates LTM and FTM (by ~8% and ~46%, respectively), while NMR only slightly underestimates LTM (by ~0.2%) and overestimates FTM (~15%.) The NMR method also has practical advantages compared to DXA, such as speed of measurement and the ability to scan unanesthetized animals.
PMCID: PMC3169293  PMID: 21909234
DXA; NMR; adiposity; obesity
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e25261.
Intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition program hyperphagia, adiposity and glucose intolerance in offspring. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been linked to increased risk of obesity. FTO is highly expressed in hypothalamic regions critical for energy balance and hyperphagic phenotypes were linked with FTO SNPs. As nutrition during fetal development can influence the expression of genes involved in metabolic function, we investigated the impact of maternal obesity on FTO.
Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or high fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1 (PND1), some litters were adjusted to 3 pups (vs. 12 control) to induce postnatal overnutrition. At PND20, rats were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. FTO mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and liver, as well as hepatic markers of lipid metabolism were measured.
At weaning, hypothalamic FTO mRNA expression was increased significantly in offspring of obese mothers and FTO was correlated with both visceral and epididymal fat mass (P<0.05); body weight approached significance (P = 0.07). Hepatic FTO and Fatty Acid Synthase mRNA expression were decreased by maternal obesity. At 18 weeks, FTO mRNA expression did not differ between groups; however body weight was significantly correlated with hypothalamic FTO. Postnatal HFD feeding significantly reduced hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1a but did not affect the expression of other hepatic markers investigated. FTO was not affected by chronic HFD feeding.
Maternal obesity significantly impacted FTO expression in both hypothalamus and liver at weaning. Early overexpression of hypothalamic FTO correlated with increased adiposity and later food intake of siblings exposed to HFD suggesting upregulation of FTO may contribute to subsequent hyperphagia, in line with some human data. No effect of maternal obesity was observed on FTO in adulthood.
PMCID: PMC3182187  PMID: 21980407
Nutrition & Diabetes  2011;1(10):e19-.
Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a strong association between obesity and common variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene. FTO has been detected in the hypothalamus, but little is known about its regulation in that particular brain structure. The present study addressed the hypothesis that hypothalamic FTO expression is regulated by nutrients, specifically by glucose, and that its regulation by nutrients is impaired in obesity.
Research design and methods:
The effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of glucose on hypothalamic Fto mRNA levels was examined in fasted mice. Additionally, the effect of glucose on Fto mRNA levels was also investigated ex vivo using mouse hypothalamic explants. Lastly, the effect of i.p. glucose injection on hypothalamic Fto immunoreactivity and food intake was compared between lean wild-type and obese ob/ob mice.
In wild-type mice, fasting reduced both Fto mRNA levels and the number of Fto-immunoreactive cells in the hypothalamus, whereas i.p. glucose treatment reversed this effect of fasting. Furthermore, i.c.v. glucose treatment also increased hypothalamic Fto mRNA levels in fasted mice. Incubation of hypothalamic explants at high glucose concentration increased Fto mRNA levels. In ob/ob mice, both fasting and i.p. glucose treatment failed to alter the number of Fto-immunoreactive cells in the hypothalamus. Glucose-induced feeding suppression was abolished in ob/ob mice.
Reduction in hypothalamic Fto expression after fasting likely arises at least partly from reduced circulating glucose levels and/or reduced central action of glucose. Obesity is associated with impairments in glucose-mediated regulation of hypothalamic Fto expression and anorexia. Hypothalamic Fto-expressing neurons may have a role in the regulation of metabolism by monitoring metabolic states of the body.
PMCID: PMC3302139  PMID: 23154321
hypothalamus; obesity; nutrient; gene expression; feeding
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105349.
The metabolic syndrome is a worldwide problem mainly caused by obesity. FTO was found to be a obesity-risk gene in humans and FTO deficiency in mice led to reduction in adipose tissue. Thus, FTO is an important factor for the development of obesity. Leptin-deficient mice are a well characterized model for analysing the metabolic syndrome. To determine the relevance of FTO for the development of the metabolic syndrome we analysed different parameters in combined homozygous deficient mice (Lepob/ob;Fto−/−). Lepob/ob;Fto−/− mice showed an improvement in analysed hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome in comparison to leptin-deficient mice wild type or heterozygous for Fto. Lepob/ob;Fto−/− mice did not develop hyperglycaemia and showed an improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, extension of beta-cell mass was prevented in Lepob/ob;Fto−/−mice and accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver was reduced. In conclusion this study demonstrates that FTO deficiency has a protective effect not only on the development of obesity but also on the metabolic syndrome. Thus, FTO plays an important role in the development of metabolic disorders and is an interesting target for therapeutic agents.
PMCID: PMC4140775  PMID: 25144618
Diabetes  2009;59(1):311-318.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 1 of fat mass– and obesity-associated gene (FTO) are strongly associated with human adiposity, whereas Fto−/− mice are lean and Fto+/− mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity. We aimed to determine whether FTO mutations are disproportionately represented in lean or obese humans and to use these mutations to understand structure-function relationships within FTO.
We sequenced all coding exons of FTO in 1,433 severely obese and 1,433 lean individuals. We studied the enzymatic activity of selected nonsynonymous variants.
We identified 33 heterozygous nonsynonymous variants in lean (2.3%) and 35 in obese (2.4%) individuals, with 8 mutations unique to the obese and 11 unique to the lean. Two novel mutations replace absolutely conserved residues: R322Q in the catalytic domain and R96H in the predicted substrate recognition lid. R322Q was unable to catalyze the conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate in the presence or absence of 3-methylthymidine. R96H retained some basal activity, which was not enhanced by 3-methylthymidine. However, both were found in lean and obese individuals.
Heterozygous, loss-of-function mutations in FTO exist but are found in both lean and obese subjects. Although intron 1 SNPs are unequivocally associated with obesity in multiple populations and murine studies strongly suggest that FTO has a role in energy balance, it appears that loss of one functional copy of FTO in humans is compatible with being either lean or obese. Functional analyses of FTO mutations have given novel insights into structure-function relationships in this enzyme.
PMCID: PMC2797938  PMID: 19833892
Nature  2014;507(7492):371-375.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reproducibly associated variants within introns of FTO with increased risk for obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D) 1–3. While the molecular mechanisms linking these noncoding variants with obesity are not immediately obvious, subsequent studies in mice demonstrated that FTO expression levels influence body mass and composition phenotypes 4–6. Yet, no direct connection between the obesity-associated variants and FTO expression or function has been made 7–9. Here, we show that the obesity-associated noncoding sequences within FTO are functionally connected, at megabase distances, with the homeobox gene IRX3. The obesity-associated FTO region directly interacts with the promoters of IRX3 as well as FTO in the human, mouse, and zebrafish genomes. Furthermore, long-range enhancers within this region recapitulate aspects of IRX3 expression, suggesting that the obesity-associated interval belongs to the regulatory landscape of IRX3. Supporting this, obesity-associated SNPs are associated with expression of IRX3, but not FTO, in human brains. Directly linking IRX3 expression with regulation of body mass and composition, Irx3-deficient mice exhibit a 25–30% reduction in body weight, primarily through the loss of fat mass and increase in basal metabolic rate with browning of white adipose tissue. Furthermore, hypothalamic expression of a dominant negative form of Irx3 reproduces the metabolic phenotypes of Irx3-deficient mice. Our data posit that IRX3 is a functional long-range target of obesity-associated variants within FTO, and represents a novel determinant of body mass and composition.
PMCID: PMC4113484  PMID: 24646999
Human Molecular Genetics  2012;22(5):1050-1058.
Genetic variations in fat mass- and obesity (FTO)-associated gene, a well-replicated gene locus of obesity, appear to be associated also with reduced regional brain volumes in elderly. Here, we examined whether FTO is associated with total brain volume in adolescence, thus exploring possible developmental effects of FTO. We studied a population-based sample of 598 adolescents recruited from the French Canadian founder population in whom we measured brain volume by magnetic resonance imaging. Total fat mass was assessed with bioimpedance and body mass index was determined with anthropometry. Genotype–phenotype associations were tested with Merlin under an additive model. We found that the G allele of FTO (rs9930333) was associated with higher total body fat [TBF (P = 0.002) and lower brain volume (P = 0.005)]. The same allele was also associated with higher lean body mass (P = 0.03) and no difference in height (P = 0.99). Principal component analysis identified a shared inverse variance between the brain volume and TBF, which was associated with FTO at P = 5.5 × 10−6. These results were replicated in two independent samples of 413 and 718 adolescents, and in a meta-analysis of all three samples (n = 1729 adolescents), FTO was associated with this shared inverse variance at P = 1.3 × 10−9. Co-expression networks analysis supported the possibility that the underlying FTO effects may occur during embryogenesis. In conclusion, FTO is associated with shared inverse variance between body adiposity and brain volume, suggesting that this gene may exert inverse effects on adipose and brain tissues. Given the completion of the overall brain growth in early childhood, these effects may have their origins during early development.
PMCID: PMC3606009  PMID: 23201753
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2009;18(2):322-326.
The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is the first obesity-susceptibility gene identified by genome-wide association scans and confirmed in several follow-up studies. Homozygotes for the risk allele (A/A) have 1.67 times greater risk of obesity than those who do not have the allele. However, it is not known if regular exercise-induced changes in body composition are influenced by the FTO genotype. The purpose of our study was to test if the FTO genotype is associated with exercise-induced changes in adiposity. Body composition was derived from underwater weighing before and after a 20-week endurance training program in 481 previously sedentary white subjects of the HERITAGE Family Study. FTO SNP rs8050136 was genotyped using Illumina GoldenGate assay. In the sedentary state, the A/A homozygotes were significantly heavier and fatter than the heterozygotes and the C/C homozygotes in men (p=0.004) but not in women (p=0.331; gene-by-sex interaction p=0.0053). The FTO genotype was associated with body fat responses to regular exercise (p<0.005; adjusted for age, sex, and baseline value of response trait): carriers of the C-allele showed three times greater fat mass and %body fat losses than the A/A homozygotes. The FTO genotype explained 2% of the variance in adiposity changes. Our data suggest that the FTO obesity-susceptibility genotype influences the body fat responses to regular exercise. Resistance to exercise-induced reduction in total adiposity may represent one mechanism by which the FTO A allele promotes overweight and obesity.
PMCID: PMC2838609  PMID: 19543202
Adiposity; exercise; genotype; obesity; weight loss
European Journal of Human Genetics  2013;21(12):1417-1422.
Common intronic SNPs in the human fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are strongly associated with body mass index (BMI). In mouse models, inactivation of the Fto gene results in a lean phenotype, whereas overexpression of Fto leads to increased food intake and obesity. The latter finding suggests that copy number variants at the FTO locus might be associated with extremes of adiposity. To address this question, we searched for rare, private or de novo copy number variation in a cohort of 985 obese and 869 lean subjects of European ancestry drawn from the extremes of the BMI distribution, genotyped on Affymetrix 6.0 arrays. A ∼680 kb duplication, confirmed by real-time PCR and G-to-FISH analyses, was observed between ∼rs11859825 and rs9932411 in a 68-year-old male with severe obesity. The duplicated region on chromosome 16 spans the entire genome-wide association studies risk locus for obesity, and further encompasses RBL2, AKTIP, RPGRIP1L and all but the last exon of the FTO gene. Affected family members exhibit a unique obesity phenotype, characterized by increased fat distribution in the shoulders and neck with a significantly increased neck circumference. This phenotype was accompanied by increased peripheral blood expression of RBL2 with no alteration in expression of FTO or other genes in the region. No other duplications or deletions in this region were identified in the cohort of obese and lean individuals or in a further survey of 4778 individuals, suggesting that large rare copy number variants surrounding the FTO gene are not a frequent cause of obesity.
PMCID: PMC3831078  PMID: 23591406
FTO; RBL2; CNV; obesity
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2008;16(Suppl 3):S33-S39.
The genetics of human body fat content (obesity) are clearly complex. Genetic and physiological analysis of rodents have helped enormously in pointing to critical molecules and cells in central nervous system and “peripheral” pathways mediating the requisite fine control over the defense of body fat. Human and animal studies are consistent with inferences from evolutionary considerations that the strengths of defenses against fat loss are greater than those against gain. Many of the genes participating in these pathways have reciprocal effects on both energy intake and expenditure, though different genes may have primary roles in respective responses to weight gain or loss. Such distinctions have important consequences for both research and treatment strategies. The body mass index (BMI) is a useful gross indicator of adiposity, but more refined measurements of body composition and energy homeostasis will be required to understand the functional consequences of allelic variation in genes of interest. Phenotypes related to energy intake and expenditure—which clearly are the major determinants of net adipose tissue storage—are not salient when individuals are in energy balance (weight stable); measurements obtained during weight perturbation studies are likely to provide more revealing phenotypes for genetic analysis. The advent of high-density genome-wide scans in large numbers of human subjects for association analysis will revolutionize the study of the genetics of complex traits such as obesity by generating substantial numbers of powerful linkage signals from smaller genetic intervals. Many of the genes implicated will not have been previously related to energy homeostasis (e.g., recent experience with FTO/FTM as described below), and will have relatively small effects on the associated phenotype(s). The mouse will again prove useful in determining the relevant physiology of these new genes. New analytic tools will have to be developed to permit the necessary analysis of the gene × gene interactions that must ultimately convey aggregate genetic effects on adiposity.
PMCID: PMC2682366  PMID: 19037210
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97162.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the first intron of the fat-mass-and-obesity-related gene FTO are associated with increased body weight and adiposity. Increased expression of FTO is likely underlying this obesity phenotype, as mice with two additional copies of Fto (FTO-4 mice) exhibit increased adiposity and are hyperphagic. FTO is a demethylase of single stranded DNA and RNA, and one of its targets is the m6A modification in RNA, which might play a role in the regulation of gene expression. In this study, we aimed to examine the changes in gene expression that occur in FTO-4 mice in order to gain more insight into the underlying mechanisms by which FTO influences body weight and adiposity. Our results indicate an upregulation of anabolic pathways and a downregulation of catabolic pathways in FTO-4 mice. Interestingly, although genes involved in methylation were differentially regulated in skeletal muscle of FTO-4 mice, no effect of FTO overexpression on m6A methylation of total mRNA was detected.
PMCID: PMC4026227  PMID: 24842286
BMC Neuroscience  2009;10:129.
Polymorphism in the FTO gene is strongly associated with obesity, but little is known about the molecular bases of this relationship. We investigated whether hypothalamic FTO is involved in energy-dependent overconsumption of food. We determined FTO mRNA levels in rodent models of short- and long-term intake of palatable fat or sugar, deprivation, diet-induced increase in body weight, baseline preference for fat versus sugar as well as in same-weight animals differing in the inherent propensity to eat calories especially upon availability of diverse diets, using quantitative PCR. FTO gene expression was also studied in organotypic hypothalamic cultures treated with anorexigenic amino acid, leucine. In situ hybridization (ISH) was utilized to study FTO signal in reward- and hunger-related sites, colocalization with anorexigenic oxytocin, and c-Fos immunoreactivity in FTO cells at initiation and termination of a meal.
Deprivation upregulated FTO mRNA, while leucine downregulated it. Consumption of palatable diets or macronutrient preference did not affect FTO expression. However, the propensity to ingest more energy without an effect on body weight was associated with lower FTO mRNA levels. We found that 4-fold higher number of FTO cells displayed c-Fos at meal termination as compared to initiation in the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of re-fed mice. Moreover, ISH showed that FTO is present mainly in hunger-related sites and it shows a high degree of colocalization with anorexigenic oxytocin.
We conclude that FTO mRNA is present mainly in sites related to hunger/satiation control; changes in hypothalamic FTO expression are associated with cues related to energy intake rather than feeding reward. In line with that, neurons involved in feeding termination express FTO. Interestingly, baseline FTO expression appears linked not only with energy intake but also energy metabolism.
PMCID: PMC2774323  PMID: 19860904
PLoS ONE  2010;5(11):e14005.
FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) was identified as an obesity-susceptibility gene by several independent large-scale genome association studies. A cluster of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) located in the first intron of FTO was found to be significantly associated with obesity-related traits, such as body mass index, hip circumference, and body weight. FTO encodes a protein with a novel C-terminal α-helical domain and an N-terminal double-strand β-helix domain which is conserved in Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase family. In vitro, FTO protein can demethylate single-stranded DNA or RNA with a preference for 3-methylthymine or 3-methyluracil. Its physiological substrates and function, however, remain to be defined. Here we report the generation and analysis of mice carrying a conditional deletion allele of Fto. Our results demonstrate that Fto plays an essential role in postnatal growth. The mice lacking Fto completely display immediate postnatal growth retardation with shorter body length, lower body weight, and lower bone mineral density than control mice, but their body compositions are relatively normal. Consistent with the growth retardation, the Fto mutant mice have reduced serum levels of IGF-1. Moreover, despite the ubiquitous expression of Fto, its specific deletion in the nervous system results in similar phenotypes as the whole body deletion, indicating that Fto functions in the central nerve system to regulate postnatal growth.
PMCID: PMC2982835  PMID: 21103374
Fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) plays an important role in appetite control and energy consumption in human and mice. In order to examine FTO expression influence on fat deposition in Suzhong pigs, FTO mRNA expression was detected in 16 tissues by RT-PCR, FTO protein expression was detected in 5 tissues by western blot, and association of FTO polymorphism with meat quality traits was analyzed in Suzhong populations with 714 records. RT-PCR results revealed that FTO mRNA was expressed in all sixteen tissues with significant differences (p<0.05), expression in backfat was significantly higher than that of any other tissue (p<0.05), and expression in longissimus dorsi muscle had the second highest significance level (p<0.05). Western blot results demonstrated that FTO protein was highly expressed in backfat and longissimus dorsi muscle. Furthermore, FTO mRNA and protein expression in tissues of high-fat pigs was significantly higher than that of low-fat pigs (p<0.05), suggesting FTO expression had advantageous effects on fat deposition. FTO polymorphism results evidenced that at A227G locus, G allele seemed to have advantageous effects on fat deposition, indicating it could be a significant candidate gene for improving pork quality in Suzhong pigs.
PMCID: PMC4093081  PMID: 25049719
FTO; Fat Deposition; Expression; Polymorphism; Suzhong Pig
Nature genetics  2010;42(12):1086-1092.
Genome-wide association studies have identified SNPs within the human FTO gene that display a strong association with obesity. Individuals homozygous for the at-risk rs9939609 A allele weigh ~3kg more. Loss of function and/or expression of FTO in mice leads to increased energy expenditure and a lean phenotype. We show here that ubiquitous overexpression of Fto leads to a dose-dependent increase in body and fat mass, irrespective of whether mice are fed a standard or high fat diet. The increased body mass results primarily from increased food intake. Glucose intolerance develops with increased Fto expression on a high fat diet. This study provides the first direct evidence that increased Fto expression causes obesity in mice.
PMCID: PMC3018646  PMID: 21076408
Diabetes  2009;58(10):2402-2408.
Common variants in FTO (the fat mass– and obesity-associated gene) associate with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The regulation and biological function of FTO mRNA expression in target tissue is unknown. We investigated the genetic and nongenetic regulation of FTO mRNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and their influence on in vivo glucose and fat metabolism.
The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped in two twin cohorts: 1) 298 elderly twins aged 62–83 years with glucose tolerance ranging from normal to type 2 diabetes and 2) 196 young (25–32 years) and elderly (58–66 years) nondiabetic twins examined by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp including indirect calorimetry. FTO mRNA expression was determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue (n = 226) and skeletal muscle biopsies (n = 158).
Heritability of FTO expression in both tissues was low, and FTO expression was not influenced by FTO rs9939609 genotype. FTO mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was regulated by age and sex, whereas age and BMI were predictors of adipose tissue FTO mRNA expression. FTO mRNA expression in adipose tissue was associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. In skeletal muscle, FTO mRNA expression was negatively associated to fat and positively to glucose oxidation rates as well as positively correlated with expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation including PGC1α.
The heritability of FTO expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is low and not influenced by obesity-associated FTO genotype. The age-dependent decline in FTO expression is associated with peripheral defects of glucose and fat metabolism.
PMCID: PMC2750213  PMID: 19587359
The fat mass and obesity associated, FTO, gene has been shown to be associated with obesity in human in several genome-wide association scans. In vitro studies suggest that Fto may function as a single-stranded DNA demethylase. In addition, homologous recombination-targeted knockout of Fto in mice resulted in growth retardation, loss of white adipose tissue, and increase energy metabolism and systemic sympathetic activation. Despite these intense investigations, the exact function of Fto remains unclear. We show here that Fto is a transcriptional coactivator that enhances the transactivation potential of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) from unmethylated as well as methylation-inhibited gene promoters. Fto also exhibits nuclease activity. We showed further that Fto enhances the binding C/EBP to unmethylated and methylated DNA. The coactivator role of FTO in modulating the transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis by C/EBPs is consistent with the temporal progressive loss of adipose tissue in the Fto-deficient mice, thus suggesting a role for Fto in the epigenetic regulation of the development and maintenance of fat tissue. How FTO reactivates transcription from methyl-repressed gene needs to be further investigated.
PMCID: PMC2963669  PMID: 20858458
Obesity; adipogenesis; transcriptional coactivator; Fto; CCAAT/enhancer binding protein; DNA methylation
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51082.
Fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) is the first gene associated with body mass index (BMI) and risk for diabetes. FTO is highly expressed in the brain and pancreas, and is involved in regulating dietary intake and energy expenditure. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of FTO expression, we created 5′-deletion constructs of the FTO promoter to determine which transcription factors are most relevant to FTO expression. The presence of an activation region at −201/+34 was confirmed by luciferase activity analysis. A potential Foxa2 (called HNF-3β) binding site and an upstream stimulatory factor (USF)-binding site was identified in the −100 bp fragment upstream of the transcription start site (TSS). Furthermore, using mutagenesis, we identified the Foxa2 binding sequence (−26/−14) as a negative regulatory element to the activity of the human FTO promoter. The USF binding site did not affect the FTO promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to confirm Foxa2 binding to the FTO promoter. Overexpression of Foxa2 in HEK 293 cells significantly down-regulated FTO promoter activity and expression. Conversely, knockdown of Foxa2 by siRNA significantly up-regulated FTO expression. These findings suggest that Foxa2 negatively regulates the basal transcription and expression of the human FTO gene.
PMCID: PMC3517585  PMID: 23236435
Diabetologia  2013;56(10):2113-2121.
Genome-wide association studies have revealed that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the first intron of the gene encoding fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) are robustly associated with BMI and obesity. Subsequently, this association with body weight, which is replicable across multiple populations and different age groups, has been unequivocally linked to increased food intake. Although evidence from a number of animal models with perturbed FTO expression indicates a role for FTO in energy homeostasis, to date, no conclusive link has been made between the risk alleles and FTO expression or its physiological role. FTO is a nucleic acid demethylase, and a deficiency in FTO leads to a complex phenotype highlighted by postnatal growth retardation, pointing to some fundamental developmental role. Recent emerging data now points to a role for FTO in the sensing of nutrients and the regulation of translation and growth. In this review, we explore the in vivo and in vitro evidence detailing the complex biology of FTO and discuss how these might link to the regulation of body weight.
PMCID: PMC3764322  PMID: 23896822
Demethylation; Food intake; Genetics; Growth; GWAS; mTOR; Nutrients; Obesity; Review; Translation
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e98984.
Previous studies have suggested that fat mass-and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is associated with body mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity. This study aims to assess the association of five FTO polymorphisms (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs1558902, rs3751812 and rs6499640) with obesity and relative parameters in Han Chinese adolescents.
We examined a total of 401 adolescents, 223 normal weights (58.7% boys, 41.3% girls), 178 overweight (60.1% boys, 39.9% girls), aging from 14 to 18-years-old, recruited randomly from public schools in the central region of Wuxi, a southern city of China. DNA samples were genotyped for the five polymorphisms by Sequenom Plex MassARRAY. Association of the FTO polymorphisms with BMI, serum fasting plasm glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FIns), triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (TC) were investigated.
1) Serum FPG, FIns, TG and TC were statistically significant higher than that in normal control group. 2) We found that BMI was higher in the rs9939609 TA+AA, rs8050136 AC+AA, rs1558902 TA+AA and rs3751812 GT+TT genotypes than in wild TT genotypes (rs9939609: P = 0.038; rs1558902: P = 0.038;), CC genotypes(rs8050136: P = 0.024) and GG genotypes (rs3751812: P = 0.024), which were not significant on adjusting for multiple testing. 3) In case-control studies, five polymorphisms were not significantly associated with overweight (p>0.05), haplotype analyses showed non-haplotype is significantly associated with a higher risk of being overweight (p>0.05). 4) There existed no significant statistical difference about FPG, FIns, TG and TC in genotype model for any SNP.
Our study has conducted a genetic association study of the FTO polymorphisms with BMI, serum fasting plasm glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FIns), triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (TC). Our study found BMI of subjects with A allele of FTO rs9939609 is higher than that with T allele. Further studies on other polymorphisms from FTO and increasing the sample size are needed.
PMCID: PMC4049598  PMID: 24911064
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2013;123(8):3539-3551.
Polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) are associated with human obesity and obesity-prone behaviors, including increased food intake and a preference for energy-dense foods. FTO demethylates N6-methyladenosine, a potential regulatory RNA modification, but the mechanisms by which FTO predisposes humans to obesity remain unclear. In adiposity-matched, normal-weight humans, we showed that subjects homozygous for the FTO “obesity-risk” rs9939609 A allele have dysregulated circulating levels of the orexigenic hormone acyl-ghrelin and attenuated postprandial appetite reduction. Using functional MRI (fMRI) in normal-weight AA and TT humans, we found that the FTO genotype modulates the neural responses to food images in homeostatic and brain reward regions. Furthermore, AA and TT subjects exhibited divergent neural responsiveness to circulating acyl-ghrelin within brain regions that regulate appetite, reward processing, and incentive motivation. In cell models, FTO overexpression reduced ghrelin mRNA N6-methyladenosine methylation, concomitantly increasing ghrelin mRNA and peptide levels. Furthermore, peripheral blood cells from AA human subjects exhibited increased FTO mRNA, reduced ghrelin mRNA N6-methyladenosine methylation, and increased ghrelin mRNA abundance compared with TT subjects. Our findings show that FTO regulates ghrelin, a key mediator of ingestive behavior, and offer insight into how FTO obesity-risk alleles predispose to increased energy intake and obesity in humans.
PMCID: PMC3726147  PMID: 23867619
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(3):e33.
The developmental overnutrition hypothesis suggests that greater maternal obesity during pregnancy results in increased offspring adiposity in later life. If true, this would result in the obesity epidemic progressing across generations irrespective of environmental or genetic changes. It is therefore important to robustly test this hypothesis.
Methods and Findings
We explored this hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) with offspring dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)–determined fat mass measured at 9 to 11 y (4,091 parent–offspring trios) and by using maternal FTO genotype, controlling for offspring FTO genotype, as an instrument for maternal adiposity. Both maternal and paternal BMI were positively associated with offspring fat mass, but the maternal association effect size was larger than that in the paternal association in all models: mean difference in offspring sex- and age-standardised fat mass z-score per 1 standard deviation BMI 0.24 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22 to 0.26) for maternal BMI versus 0.13 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.15) for paternal BMI; p-value for difference in effect < 0.001. The stronger maternal association was robust to sensitivity analyses assuming levels of non-paternity up to 20%. When maternal FTO, controlling for offspring FTO, was used as an instrument for the effect of maternal adiposity, the mean difference in offspring fat mass z-score per 1 standard deviation maternal BMI was −0.08 (95% CI: −0.56 to 0.41), with no strong statistical evidence that this differed from the observational ordinary least squares analyses (p = 0.17).
Neither our parental comparisons nor the use of FTO genotype as an instrumental variable, suggest that greater maternal BMI during offspring development has a marked effect on offspring fat mass at age 9–11 y. Developmental overnutrition related to greater maternal BMI is unlikely to have driven the recent obesity epidemic.
Using parental-offspring associations and theFTO gene as an instrumental variable for maternal adiposity, Debbie Lawlor and colleagues found that greater maternal BMI during offspring development does not appear to have a marked effect on offspring fat mass at age 9-11.
Editors' Summary
Since the 1970s, the proportion of children and adults who are overweight or obese (people who have an unhealthy amount of body fat) has increased sharply in many countries. In the US, 1 in 3 adults is now obese; in the mid-1970s it was only 1 in 7. Similarly, the proportion of overweight children has risen from 1 in 20 to 1 in 5. An adult is considered to be overweight if their body mass index (BMI)—their weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared—is between 25 and 30, and obese if it is more than 30. For children, the healthy BMI depends on their age and gender. Compared to people with a healthy weight (a BMI between 18.5 and 25), overweight or obese individuals have an increased lifetime risk of developing diabetes and other adverse health conditions, sometimes becoming ill while they are still young. People become unhealthily fat when they consume food and drink that contains more energy than they need for their daily activities. It should, therefore, be possible to avoid becoming obese by having a healthy diet and exercising regularly.
Why Was This Study Done?
Some researchers think that “developmental overnutrition” may have caused the recent increase in waistline measurements. In other words, if a mother is overweight during pregnancy, high sugar and fat levels in her body might permanently affect her growing baby's appetite control and metabolism, and so her offspring might be at risk of becoming obese in later life. If this hypothesis is true, each generation will tend to be fatter than the previous one and it will be very hard to halt the obesity epidemic simply by encouraging people to eat less and exercise more. In this study, the researchers have used two approaches to test the developmental overnutrition hypothesis. First, they have asked whether offspring fat mass is more strongly related to maternal BMI than to paternal BMI; it should be if the hypothesis is true. Second, they have asked whether a genetic indicator of maternal fatness—the “A” variant of the FTO gene—is related to offspring fat mass. A statistical association between maternal FTO genotype (genetic make-up) and offspring fat mass would support the developmental nutrition hypothesis.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
In 1991–1992, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) enrolled about 14,000 pregnant women and now examines their offspring at regular intervals. The researchers first used statistical methods to look for associations between the self-reported prepregnancy BMI of the parents of about 4,000 children and the children's fat mass at ages 9–11 years measured using a technique called dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both maternal and paternal BMI were positively associated with offspring fat mass (that is, fatter parents had fatter children) but the effect of maternal BMI was greater than the effect of paternal BMI. When the researchers examined maternal FTO genotypes and offspring fat mass (after allowing for the offspring's FTO genotype, which would directly affect their fat mass), there was no statistical evidence to suggest that differences in offspring fat mass were related to the maternal FTO genotype.
What Do These Findings Mean?
Although the findings from first approach provide some support for the development overnutrition hypothesis, the effect of maternal BMI on offspring fat mass is too weak to explain the recent obesity epidemic. Developmental overnutrition could, however, be responsible for the much slower increase in obesity that began a century ago. The findings from the second approach provide no support for the developmental overnutrition hypothesis, although these results have wide error margins and need confirming in a larger study. The researchers also note that the effects of developmental overnutrition on offspring fat mass, although weak at age 9–11, might become more important at later ages. Nevertheless, for now, it seems unlikely that developmental overnutrition has been a major driver of the recent obesity epidemic. Interventions that aim to improve people's diet and to increase their physical activity levels could therefore slow or even halt the epidemic.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
See a related PLoS Medicine Perspective article
The MedlinePlus encyclopedia has a page on obesity (in English and Spanish)
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information on all aspects of obesity (in English and Spanish)
The UK National Health Service's health Web site (NHS Direct) provides information about obesity
The International Obesity Taskforce provides information about preventing obesity and on childhood obesity
The UK Foods Standards Agency, the United States Department of Agriculture, and Shaping America's Health all provide useful advice about healthy eating for adults and children
The ALSPAC Web site provides information about the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and its results so far
PMCID: PMC2265763  PMID: 18336062

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