Peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity is potentiated in both clinical and experimental chronic heart failure (CHF). NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide mediates angiotensin II (Ang II)-enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor sensitivity in CHF rabbits, and tempol, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic, inhibits this Ang II- and CHF-enhanced superoxide anion effect. Here we investigated the role of cytoplasmic SOD [CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD)] in the CB on chemoreceptor activity and function in CHF rabbits.
Methods and results
CuZnSOD protein expression was decreased in CBs from CHF rabbits vs. sham (P < 0.05). Adenoviral CuZnSOD (Ad CuZnSOD) gene transfer to the CBs increased CuZnSOD protein expression and significantly reduced the baseline renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and the response of RSNA to hypoxia in the CHF rabbits (P < 0.05). Single-fibre discharge from CB chemoafferents during normoxia (baseline, at ∼100 mmHg PO2) and in response to hypoxia were enhanced in CHF vs. sham rabbits (P < 0.05). Ad CuZnSOD decreased the baseline discharge (7.6 ± 1.3 vs. 12.6 ± 1.7 imp/s at ∼100 mmHg PO2) and the response to hypoxia (22.4 ± 1.6 vs. 32.3 ± 1.2 imp/s at ∼40 mmHg PO2, P < 0.05) in CHF rabbits. Ad CuZnSOD also normalized the blunted outward K+ current (IK) in CB glomus cells from CHF rabbits (369 ± 14 vs. 565 ± 31 pA/pF at +70 mV, P < 0.05). In addition, Ad CuZnSOD reduced the elevation of superoxide level in CBs from CHF rabbits.
Downregulation of CuZnSOD in the CB contributes to the enhanced activity of CB chemoreceptors and chemoreflex function in CHF rabbits.
Superoxide dismutase; Adenoviral vector; Carotid body; Sympathetic nerve activity; Chemoreceptor; Glomus cell; Chronic heart failure
The carotid body (CB) plays an important role in the control of breathing and in autonomic control of cardiovascular function. CB chemoreceptor activity is enhanced in chronic heat failure (CHF) and contributes to the sympathetic hyperactivity that exacerbates the progression of the disease. Studies in the past few years have revealed that a local angiotensin (Ang) system exists in the CB and plays an important role in altering CB function in CHF as well as other conditions, such as chronic hypoxia. This brief review highlights recent revelations that Ang I metabolites exert effects within the CB, and focuses on the influence of Ang II and Ang-(1–7) on CB function in CHF.
Carotid Body; Angiotensin; Heart Failure
The extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3), a secretory copper-containing enzyme, regulates angiotensin II (Ang II)–induced hypertension by modulating levels of extracellular superoxide anion. The present study was designed to determine the role of the copper transporter Menkes ATPase (MNK) in Ang II–induced SOD3 activity and hypertension in vivo. Here we show that chronic Ang II infusion enhanced systolic blood pressure and vascular superoxide anion production in MNK mutant (MNKmut) mice as compared with those in wild-type mice, which are associated with impaired acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in MNKmut mice. These effects in MNKmut mice are rescued by infusion of the SOD mimetic Tempol. By contrast, norepinephrine-induced hypertension, which is not associated with an increase in vascular superoxide anion production, is not affected in MNKmut mice. Mechanistically, basal and Ang II infusion-induced increase in vascular SOD3-specific activity is significantly inhibited in MNKmut mice. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis reveals that Ang II stimulation promotes association of MNK with SOD3 in cultured vascular smooth muscle cell and in mouse aortas, which may contribute to SOD3-specific activity by increasing copper delivery to SOD3 through MNK. In summary, MNK plays an important role in modulating Ang II–induced hypertension and endothelial function by regulating SOD3 activity and vascular superoxide anion production and becomes a potential therapeutic target for oxidant stress-dependent cardiovascular diseases.
angiotensin II; hypertension; MNK protein; norepinephrine; oxidative stress; SOD1; SOD3
Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, and may be associated with an overactive renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Angiotensin (Ang) II, a potent vasoconstrictor hormone of the RAS, also impairs baroreflex and mitochondrial function. Most deleterious cardiovascular actions of Ang II are thought to be mediated by NADPH-oxidase- (NOX-) derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may also stimulate mitochondrial oxidant release and alter redox-sensitive signaling pathways in the brain. Within the RAS, the actions of Ang II are counterbalanced by Ang-(1–7), a vasodilatory peptide known to mitigate against increased oxidant stress. A balance between Ang II and Ang-(1–7) within the brain dorsal medulla contributes to maintenance of normal blood pressure and proper functioning of the arterial baroreceptor reflex for control of heart rate. We propose that Ang-(1–7) may negatively regulate the redox signaling pathways activated by Ang II to maintain normal blood pressure, baroreflex, and mitochondrial function through attenuating ROS (NOX-generated and/or mitochondrial).
Angiotensin II (Ang II) causes skeletal muscle wasting via an increase in muscle catabolism. To determine whether the wasting effects of Ang II were related to its ability to increase NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) we infused wild-type C57BL/6J or p47phox−/− mice with vehicle or Ang II for 7 days. Superoxide production was increased 2.4 fold in the skeletal muscle of Ang II infused mice, and this increase was prevented in p47phox−/− mice. Apocynin treatment prevented Ang II-induced superoxide production in skeletal muscle, consistent with Ang II increasing NADPH oxidase derived ROS. Ang II induced loss of body and skeletal muscle weight in C57BL/6J mice, whereas the reduction was significantly attenuated in p47phox−/− animals. The reduction of skeletal muscle weight caused by Ang II was associated with an increase of proteasome activity, and this increase was completely prevented in the skeletal muscle of p47phox−/− mice. In conclusion, Ang II-induced skeletal muscle wasting is in part dependent on NADPH oxidase derived ROS.
Angiotensin II; Skeletal Muscle; Oxidative Stress; NADPH oxidase; Atrophy
Clinical trials and experimental animal studies have confirmed the contribution of arterial baroreflex impairment in causing excess morbidity and mortality in type-1 diabetes. Our previous study has shown that angiotensin II (Ang II)-NADPH oxidase-superoxide signaling is associated with the reduced cell excitability in the aortic baroreceptor neurons (a primary afferent limb of the arterial baroreflex) from diabetic rats. In this study, we examined whether above-mentioned signaling might contribute to the blunted baroreflex sensitivity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Using Ang II 125I radioimmunoassay and lucigenin chemiluminescence method, we found Ang II concentration, NADPH oxidase activity, and superoxide production in the nodose ganglia were enhanced in diabetic rats, compared to sham rats. As an index of the arterial baroreflex sensitivity, the reflex decreases in blood pressure and heart rate evoked by unilateral steady-frequency aortic depressor nerve stimulation were attenuated in diabetic rats. Local microinjection (50 nl) of losartan (an AT1 receptor antagonist, 1 nmol), apocynin (a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, 1 nmol), and tempol (a superoxide dismutase mimetic, 10 nmol) into the nodose ganglia significantly improved the arterial baroreflex sensitivity in diabetic rats. In addition, these three chemicals also normalized exogenous Ang II-attenuated arterial baroreflex sensitivity in sham rats. These results indicate that overactivation of the Ang II-NADPH oxidase-superoxide signal pathway in the nodose ganglia contributes to the blunted baroreflex sensitivity in diabetes.
Angiotensin II; Baroreflex; Diabetes; NADPH oxidase; Superoxide
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) exerts a tremendous influence over fluid balance and arterial pressure. Angiotensin II (Ang-II), the effector peptide of the RAS, acts in the CNS to regulate neurohumoral outflow and thirst. Dysregulation of Ang-II signaling in the CNS is implicated in cardiovascular diseases, however the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently we established that NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived superoxide acting in the forebrain subfornical organ (SFO) is critical in the physiologic responses to central Ang-II. In addition, we have found that Nox2 and Nox4 are the most abundantly expressed Nox homologues within Ang-II-sensitive sites in the forebrain. To dissect out the functional importance and unique roles of these Nox enzymes in the pressor and dipsogenic effects of central Ang-II, we developed adenoviral vectors expressing siRNA to selectively silence Nox2 or Nox4 expression in the SFO. Our results demonstrate that both Nox2 and Nox4 are required for the full vasopressor effects of brain Ang-II, but that only Nox2 is coupled to the Ang-II-induced water intake response. These studies establish the importance of both Nox2- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidases in the actions of Ang-II in the CNS, and are the first to reveal differential involvement of these Nox enzymes in the various physiologic effects of central Ang-II.
hypertension; blood pressure; water intake; subfornical organ; adenovirus; siRNA
In chronic heart failure (CHF), arterial baroreflex function is impaired, in part, by activation of the central renin-angiotensin system. A metabolite of Angiotensin II (Ang II), Ang-(1–7), has been shown to exhibit cardiovascular effects that are in opposition to that of Ang II. However, the action of Ang-(1–7) on sympathetic outflow and baroreflex function is not well understood, especially in CHF. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang-(1–7) on baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in conscious rabbits with CHF. We hypothesized that central Ang-(1–7) would improve baroreflex function in CHF. Ang-(1–7) (2 nmol/1 μl/hour) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (1 μl/hour) was infused by an osmotic mini-pump for 4 days in sham and pacing-induced CHF rabbits (n=3–6/group). Ang-(1–7) treatment had no effects in sham rabbits but reduced HR and increased baroreflex gain (7.4±1.5 bpm/mm Hg vs. 2.5±0.4 bpm/mm Hg, P<0.05) in CHF rabbits. The Ang-(1–7) antagonist A779 (8 nmol/1 μl/hr) blocked the improvement in baroreflex gain in CHF. Baroreflex gain increased in CHF+Ang-(1–7) animals when only the vagus was allowed to modulate baroreflex control by acute treatment with the β-1 antagonist metoprolol, indicating increased vagal tone. Baseline RSNA was significantly lower and baroreflex control of RSNA was enhanced in CHF rabbits receiving Ang-(1–7). These data suggest that augmentation of central Ang-(1–7) inhibits sympathetic outflow and increases vagal outflow in CHF thus contributing to enhanced baroreflex gain in this disease state.
angiotensin-(1–7); heart failure; sympathetic nervous system; baroreflex; vagus nerve; blood pressure; heart rate
In this review, we summarize the present state of knowledge of the functional characteristics of the carotid body (CB) chemoreflex with respect to control of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in chronic heart failure (CHF). Evidence from both CHF patients and animal models of CHF has clearly established that the CB chemoreflex is enhanced in CHF and contributes to the tonic elevation in SNA. This adaptive change derives from altered function at the level of both the afferent and central nervous system (CNS) pathways of the reflex arc. At the level of the CB, an elevation in basal afferent discharge occurs under normoxic conditions in CHF rabbits, and the discharge responsiveness to hypoxia is enhanced. Outward voltage-gated K+ currents (IK) are suppressed in CB glomus cells from CHF rabbits, and their sensitivity to hypoxic inhibition is enhanced. These changes in IK derive partly from downregulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) / NO signaling and upregulation of angiotensin II (Ang II) / Ang II receptor (AT1R) signaling in glomus cells. At the level of the CNS, interactions of the enhanced input from CB chemoreceptors with altered input from baroreceptor and cardiac afferent pathways and from central Ang II further enhance sympathetic drive. In addition, impaired function of NO in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus participates in the increased SNA response to CB chemoreceptor activation. These results underscore the principle that multiple mechanisms involving Ang II and NO at the level of both the CB and CNS represent complementary and perhaps redundant adaptive mechanisms to enhance CB chemoreflex function in CHF.
Angiotensin-II (Ang-II) plays a key role in myocardial hypertrophy, remodeling and failure. We investigated whether Ang-II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is dependent on WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), a pro growth factor. Ang-II induced hypertrophy and WISP1 expression in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM), effects that were significantly inhibited by pre-treatment with the AT1 antagonist losartan and by WISP1 knockdown. Further, Ang-II induced WISP1 was superoxide-dependent, and inhibited by DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases, and by knockdown of NOX2. AT1 physically associated with NOX2 both in vitro and in vivo, and Ang-II increased this interaction in vivo. Ang-II induced WISP1 expression via superoxide/Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin/TCF/LEF and by Akt-dependent CREB activation. Further, Ang-II also activated CREB via superoxide-mediated p38MAPK and ERK activation. Continuous infusion of Ang-II for 7 days induced myocardial hypertrophy in rats, and was associated with increased Akt, phospho-Akt, p-p38 MAPK, p-ERK1/2, and WISP1 expression. These results demonstrate that Ang-II induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is mediated through AT1, NOX2 and the induction of WISP1, and may involve the direct interaction of AT1 with NOX2. Thus targeting both WISP1 and NOX2 may have a therapeutic potential in improving cardiomyocyte survival and growth following myocardial injury and remodeling.
Chronic exposure to intermittent hypoxia (CIH) increases carotid sinus nerve activity in normoxia and in response to acute hypoxia. We hypothesized that CIH augments basal and chemoreflex-stimulated sympathetic outflow through an angiotensin receptor-dependent mechanism. Rats were exposed to CIH for 28 days: a subset was treated with losartan. Then, lumbar sympathetic activity was recorded under anesthesia during 20-second apneas, isocapnic hypoxia, and potassium cyanide. We measured carotid body superoxide production and expression of angiotensin II type-1 receptor, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and NADPH oxidase. Sympathetic activity was higher in CIH vs. control rats at baseline, during apneas and isocapnic hypoxia, but not cyanide. Carotid body superoxide production and expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase were elevated in CIH rats, whereas expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase was reduced. None of these differences were evident in animals treated with losartan. CIH-induced augmentation of chemoreflex sensitivity occurs, at least in part, via the renin-angiotensin system.
chemoreceptors; angiotensin II; superoxide; angiotensin antagonist; oxidative stress
Congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are characterized by chronically elevated angiotensin II (Ang II) and muscle wasting. Ang II causes skeletal muscle wasting by reducing appetite and by enhancing catabolism. The serine/threonine kinase 5'-Adenosine Monophosphate Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) functions mainly as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is energy sparing and favors ATP generation. We hypothesized that Ang II induces muscle wasting in part by inhibiting AMPK signaling and altering cellular energy balance. Our results show that Ang II infusion in mice reduced gastrocnemius muscle weight by 26% and depleted ATP by 74%. Further, Ang II upregulated the protein phosphatase PP2Cα by 2.6 fold and reduced AMPK phosphorylation and signaling in muscle. Importantly, the pharmacological AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) restored AMPK activity to levels of pair-fed controls and reversed Ang II-mediated ATP depletion and muscle wasting. Moreover, AICAR activated Akt and inhibited Ang II-induced increases in E3 ubiquitin ligase expression. These novel results demonstrate critical roles for energy depletion and AMPK inhibition in Ang II-induced skeletal muscle wasting, and suggest a therapeutic potential for AMPK activators in diseases characterized by muscle wasting.
ATP; AMPK; AICAR; Mitochondria; Atrogin-1; MuRF-1; Akt
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a pro-oxidant and fibrogenic cytokine. We investigated the role of NADPH oxidase in Ang II–induced effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a fibrogenic cell type. Human HSCs express mRNAs of key components of nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase. Ang II phosphorylated p47phox, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase, and induced reactive oxygen species formation via NADPH oxidase activity. Ang II phosphorylated AKT and MAPKs and increased AP-1 DNA binding in a redox-sensitive manner. Ang II stimulated DNA synthesis, cell migration, procollagen α1(I) mRNA expression, and secretion of TGF-β1 and inflammatory cytokines. These effects were attenuated by N-acetylcysteine and diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Moreover, Ang II induced upregulation of genes potentially involved in hepatic wound-healing response in a redox-sensitive manner, as assessed by microarray analysis. HSCs isolated from p47phox–/– mice displayed a blunted response to Ang II compared with WT cells. We also assessed the role of NADPH oxidase in experimental liver fibrosis. After bile duct ligation, p47phox–/– mice showed attenuated liver injury and fibrosis compared with WT counterparts. Moreover, expression of smooth muscle α-actin and expression of TGF-β1 were reduced in p47phox–/– mice. Thus, NADPH oxidase mediates the actions of Ang II on HSCs and plays a critical role in liver fibrogenesis.
Sinus node dysfunction (SND) is a major public health problem that is associated with sudden cardiac death and requires surgical implantation of artificial pacemakers. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms that cause SND. Most SND occurs in the setting of heart failure and hypertension, conditions that are marked by elevated circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) and increased oxidant stress. Here, we show that oxidized calmodulin kinase II (ox-CaMKII) is a biomarker for SND in patients and dogs and a disease determinant in mice. In wild-type mice, Ang II infusion caused sinoatrial nodal (SAN) cell oxidation by activating NADPH oxidase, leading to increased ox-CaMKII, SAN cell apoptosis, and SND. p47–/– mice lacking functional NADPH oxidase and mice with myocardial or SAN-targeted CaMKII inhibition were highly resistant to SAN apoptosis and SND, suggesting that ox-CaMKII–triggered SAN cell death contributed to SND. We developed a computational model of the sinoatrial node that showed that a loss of SAN cells below a critical threshold caused SND by preventing normal impulse formation and propagation. These data provide novel molecular and mechanistic information to understand SND and suggest that targeted CaMKII inhibition may be useful for preventing SND in high-risk patients.
Vascular NADPH oxidase plays a pivotal role in producing superoxide in endothelial cells and thus acts in the initiation and development of inflammatory cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin derived from green tea, has multiple beneficial effects for treating cardiovascular disease but the effect of EGCG on the expression of vascular NADPH oxidase remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) by which EGCG might inhibit the expression of subunits of NADPH oxidase, namely p47phox, p67phox and p22phox, induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Ang II increased the expression levels of p47phox, p67phox, and p22phox, but EGCG counteracted this effect on p47phox. Moreover, EGCG did not affect the production of reactive oxygen species induced by Ang II. These data suggest a novel mechanism whereby EGCG might provide direct vascular benefits for treating inflammatory cardiovascular diseases.
EGCG; NADPH oxidase; Angiotensin II; ROS; HUVEC
NADPH oxidase is a multi-protein complex producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) both in phagocytic cells, being essential in host defense, and in non-phagocytic cells, regulating intracellular signalling. In the liver, NADPH oxidase plays a central role in fibrogenesis. A functionally active form of the NADPH oxidase is expressed not only in Kupffer cells (phagocytic cell type) but also in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) (non-phagocytic cell type), suggesting a role of the non-phagocytic NADPH oxidase in HSC activation. Consistent with this concept, profibrogenic agonists such as Angiotensin II (Ang II) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), or apoptotic bodies exert their activity through NADPH oxidase-activation in HSCs. Both pharmacological inhibition with DPI and genetic studies using p47phox knockout mice provided evidence for a central role of NADPH oxidase in the regulation of HSC-activity and liver fibrosis. In addition to the p47phox component, only rac1 has been identified as a functional active component of the NADPH oxidase complex in HSCs.
Liver fibrosis; Hepatic stellate cells; NADPH oxidase (NOX); Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS); Angiotensis II; PDGF; Apoptotic bodies; p47phox component; Rac1 component
We have previously reported that the expression of Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptors (AT1R) was increased in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) of rabbits with chronic heart failure (CHF) and in the RVLM of normal rabbits infused with intracerebroventricular (ICV) Ang II. The present study investigated if oxidant stress plays a role in Ang II induced AT1R up-regulation and its relationship to the transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP1) in CHF rabbits and in the CATHa neuronal cell line. In CATHa cells, Ang II significantly increased AT1R mRNA by 123 ± 11%, P<0.01; c-Jun mRNA by 90 ± 20%, P<0.01; c-fos mRNA by 148 ± 49%, P<0.01; NADPH oxidase activity by 126 ± 43%, P<0.01 versus untreated cells. Tempol and Apocynin reversed the increased expression of AT1R mRNA, c-Jun mRNA, c-fos mRNA, and superoxide production induced by Ang II. We also examined the effect of ICV Tempol on the RVLM of CHF rabbits. Compared to vehicle treated CHF rabbits, Tempol significantly decreased AT1R protein expression (1.6±0.29 vs 0.88±0.16, P<0.05), phosphorylated Jnk protein (0.4 ± 0.05 vs 0.2 ± 0.04, P<0.05), cytosolic phosphorylated c-Jun (0.56 ± 0.1 vs 0.36 ± 0.05, P<0.05), and nuclear phosphorylated c-Jun (0.67±0.1 vs 0.3±0.08, P<0.01). Tempol also significantly decreased the AP-1-DNA binding activity in the RVLM of CHF rabbits compared to the vehicle group (9.14 × 103 vs 41.95 × 103 grey level P<0.01). These data suggest that Ang II induces AT1R up-regulation at the transcriptional level by induction of oxidant stress and activation of AP1 in both cultured neuronal cells and in intact brain of rabbits. Antioxidant agents may be beneficial in CHF and other states where brain Ang II is elevated by decreasing AT1R expression through the Jnk and AP1 pathway.
Clinical trials and animal studies have revealed a role for the renin-angiotensin system in the enhanced thrombus development that is associated with hypertension. Since T-lymphocytes have been implicated in the vascular dysfunction and blood pressure elevation associated with increased angiotensin II (AngII) levels, we evaluated the role of the adaptive immune system in mediating the enhanced thrombosis during AngII-induced hypertension. Light/dye-induced thrombosis was induced in cremaster arterioles of wild type (WT), immunodeficient Rag-1−/−, CD8+ or CD4+-lymphocyte-deficient, and NADPH oxidase (gp91phox) deficient mice implanted with an AngII-loaded pump for 2 weeks. Chronic AngII infusion enhanced arteriolar thrombosis in WT mice but not in Rag-1−/−, CD4+T-cell deficient, or gp91phox−/− mice. CD8+ T-cell−/−-mice exhibited partial protection. Adoptive transfer of T-cells derived from WT- or gp91phox−/−-mice into Rag-1−/− restored the prothrombotic phenotype induced by AngII. T-lymphocytes (CD4+ and, to a lesser extent, CD8+) play a major role in mediating the accelerated microvascular thrombosis associated with AngII-induced hypertension. NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species, produced by cells other T-lymphocytes, also appear critical for the AngII-enhanced, T-cell dependent thrombosis response.
thrombosis; angiotensin II; T-lymphocytes; NADPH oxidase
Muscle atrophy (cachexia) is a muscle wasting syndrome associated with several pathological conditions in humans such as congestive heart failure, diabetes, AIDS, cancer and renal failure, and the presence of cachexia worsens outcome. Many of the conditions associated with cachexia are accompanied by stimulation of the reninangiotensin system and elevation in angiotensin II (ang II) levels. Ang II infusion induces skeletal muscle atrophy in rodents and mechanisms include increased expression of the E3 ligases atrogin-1/MuRF-1, an elevated rate of ubiquitin-proteasome mediated proteolysis and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, closely mimicking conditions of human cachexia. Ang II-induced oxidative stress contributes to muscle atrophy in a mouse model. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase- and mitochondria-derived ROS contribute to ang II-induced oxidative stress. Specific targeting of ROS and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase/mitochondria cross-talk could be a beneficial, novel therapy to treat cachexia.
Angiotensin II; Muscle atrophy; Oxidative stress
It has been recognized that the sympathetic nervous system is abnormally activated in chronic heart failure, and leads to further worsening chronic heart failure. In the treatment of chronic heart failure many clinical studies have already suggested that the inhibition of the abnormal sympathetic hyperactivity by beta blockers is beneficial. It has been classically considered that abnormal sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic heart failure is caused by the enhancement of excitatory inputs including changes in peripheral baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes and chemical mediators that control sympathetic outflow. Recently, the abnormalities in the central regulation of sympathetic nerve activity mediated by brain renin angiotensin system-oxidative stress axis and/or proinflammatory cytokines have been focused. Central renin angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines, and the interaction between them have been determined as the target of the sympathoinhibitory treatment in experimental animal models with chronic heart failure. In conclusion, we must recognize that chronic heart failure is a syndrome with an abnormal sympathoexcitation, which is caused by the abnormalities in the central regulation of sympathetic nerve activity.
The binding of renin or prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) promotes angiotensin (Ang) II formation and mediates Ang II-independent signaling pathways. In the central nervous system (CNS), Ang II regulates blood pressure via inducing oxidative stress; however, the role of PRR-mediated Ang II-independent signaling pathways in oxidative stress in the CNS remains undefined. To address this question, Neuro-2A cells were infected with control virus or an adeno-associated virus encoding the human PRR. Human PRR over-expression alone increased ROS levels, NADPH oxidase activity, as well as NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoforms 2 and 4 mRNA expression levels and these effects were not blocked by losartan. Moreover, the increase in NOX 2 and NOX 4 mRNA levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and ROS levels induced by PRR over-expression was prevented by mitogen activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (MAPK/ERK1/2) inhibition, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt (IP3/Akt) inhibition, indicating that PRR regulates NOX activity and ROS formation in neuro-2A cells through Ang II-independent ERK1/2 and IP3/Akt activation. Interestingly, at a concentration of 2 nM or higher, prorenin promoted Ang II formation, and thus further increased the ROS levels in cultured Neuro-2A cells via PRR. In conclusion, human PRR over-expression induced ROS production through both angiotensin II-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We showed that PRR-mediated angiotensin II-independent ROS formation is associated with activation of the MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3/Akt signaling pathways and up-regulation of mRNA level of NOX 2 and NOX4 isoforms in neuronal cells.
Overexpressing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1; also called Cu/ZnSOD), an intracellular superoxide (O2•−) scavenging enzyme, in central neurons inhibits angiotensin II (AngII) intra-neuronal signaling and normalizes cardiovascular dysfunction in diseases associated with enhanced AngII signaling in the brain including hypertension and heart failure. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neuronal cell membranes impose tremendous impediment for the delivery of SOD1 to central neurons, which hinders the potential therapeutic impact of SOD1 treatment on these diseases. To address this, we developed conjugates of SOD1 with poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer (Pluronic) (SOD1-P85 and SOD1-L81), which retained significant SOD1 enzymatic activity. The modified SOD1 effectively scavenged xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine-derived O2•−, as determined in HPLC and the measurement of 2-hydroxyethidium. Using catecholaminergic (CATH.a) neurons, we observed an increase in neuronal uptake of SOD1-Pluronic after 1, 6, or 24 hrs, compared to neurons treated with pure SOD1 or PEG-SOD1. Importantly, without inducing neuronal toxicity, SOD1-Pluronic conjugates significantly inhibited AngII-induced increases in intra-neuronal O2•−-levels. These data indicate that SOD1-Pluronic conjugates penetrate neuronal cell membranes, which results in elevated intracellular levels of functional SOD1. Pluronic conjugation may be a new delivery system for SOD1 into central neurons and therapeutically beneficial for AngII-related cardiovascular diseases.
Superoxide dismutase 1; Pluronic; Angiotensin II; superoxide; cellular delivery; protein-polymer conjugation; CATH.a neurons; 2-hydroxyethidium
Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) contributes to sympathetic activation and angiotensin II (Ang II) in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) augments the CSAR in vagotomized (VT) and baroreceptor denervated (BD) rats with chronic heart failure (CHF). This study was designed to determine whether it is true in intact (INT) rats with CHF and to determine the effects of cardiac and baroreceptor afferents on the CSAR and sympathetic activity in CHF.
Sham-operated (Sham) or coronary ligation-induced CHF rats were respectively subjected to BD+VT, VT, cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD) or INT. Under anesthesia, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded, and the CSAR was evaluated by the RSNA and MAP responses to epicardial application of capsaicin. Either CSAR or the responses of RSNA, MAP and CSAR to Ang II in PVN were enhanced in CHF rats treated with BD+VT, VT or INT. Treatment with VT or BD+VT potentiated the CSAR and the CSAR responses to Ang II in both Sham and CHF rats. Treatment with CSD reversed the capsaicin-induced RSNA and MAP changes and the CSAR responses to Ang II in both Sham and CHF rats, and reduced the RSNA and MAP responses to Ang II only in CHF rats.
The CSAR and the CSAR responses to Ang II in PVN are enhanced in intact CHF rats. Baroreceptor and vagal afferent activities inhibit CSAR and the CSAR responses to Ang II in intact Sham and CHF rats.
The role of superoxide and its active byproduct peroxynitrite as mediators of nociceptive signaling is emerging. We have recently reported that nitration and inactivation of spinal mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) provides a critical source of these reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during central sensitization associated with the development of morphine-induced hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance. In this study, we demonstrate that activation of spinal NADPH oxidase is another critical source for superoxide generation. Indeed, the development of morphine-induced hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance was associated with increased activation of NADPH oxidase and superoxide release. Co-administration of morphine with systemic delivery of two structurally unrelated NADPH oxidase inhibitors namely apocynin or diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), blocked NADPH oxidase activation and the development of hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance at doses devoid of behavioral side effects. These results suggest that activation of spinal NADPH oxidase contributes to the development of morphine-induced hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance. The role of spinal NADPH oxidase was confirmed by showing that intrathecal delivery of apocynin blocked these events. Our results are the first to implicate the contribution of NADPH oxidase as an enzymatic source of superoxide and thus peroxynitrite in the development of central sensitization associated with morphine-induced hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance. These results continue to support the critical role of these reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in pain while advancing our knowledge of their biomolecular sources.
superoxide; peroxynitrite; morphine antinociceptive tolerance; NADPH oxidase
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important intra-neuronal signaling intermediates in angiotensin II (AngII)-related neuro-cardiovascular diseases associated with excessive sympathoexcitation, including hypertension and heart failure. ROS-sensitive effector mechanisms, such as modulation of ion channel activity, indicate that elevated levels of ROS increase neuronal activity. Nitric oxide, which may work to counter the effects of ROS, particularly superoxide, has been identified as a signaling molecule in angiotensin-1-7 (Ang-(1-7)) stimulated neurons. This review focuses on recent studies that have revealed details on the AngII-activated sources of ROS, the downstream redox-sensitive effectors, Ang-(1-7)-stimulated increase in nitric oxide, and the neuro-cardiovascular (patho)physiological responses modulated by these reactive species. Understanding these intra-neuronal signaling mechanisms should provide insight for the development of new redox-based therapeutics for the improved treatment of angiotensin-dependent neuro-cardiovascular diseases.