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1.  Elevated Soluble Lectin-like Oxidized LDL Receptor 1 (LOX-1) Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2008;16(6):1454-1456.
We investigated the association between soluble lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor 1 (sLOX-1) levels and obesity in older women. Fifty-one (10 lean, 22 overweight, and 19 obese) postmenopausal women were included in this small retrospective analysis. Plasma sLOX-1 levels were measured using a chemiluminescent ELISA. Plasma levels of sLOX-1 were significantly higher in obese women (55.33±4.49 pg/mL) compared to lean (30.91±6.19 pg/mL, p=0.002) and overweight women (38.31±4.18 pg/mL, p=0.017). Plasma sLOX-1 levels were positively associated with body weight, BMI, total body fat, and trunk fat. The relationship between sLOX-1 and BMI was attenuated after adjustment for age, HRT, and body fat. In conclusion, obese women have higher sLOX-1 levels, which may reflect increased LOX-1 expression in adipose tissue.
PMCID: PMC2677801  PMID: 18388896
obesity; postmenopausal women; receptors
2.  Caloric Restriction, Aerobic Exercise Training, and Soluble Lectin-like Oxidized LDL Receptor-1 Levels in Overweight and Obese Postmenopausal Women 
Elevated circulating levels of soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) have been observed in obese persons and are reduced by weight loss. However, it is not known if combining caloric restriction (CR) with exercise training is better in reducing sLOX-1 levels than CR alone.
We examined whether the addition of aerobic exercise to a weight loss intervention differentially affects sLOX-1 levels in 61 abdominally obese postmenopausal women randomly assigned to a CR only (n=22), CR + moderate-intensity exercise (n=22), or CR + vigorous-intensity exercise (n=17) intervention for 20 weeks. The caloric deficit was ~2,800 kcal/week for all groups.
The intervention groups were similar at baseline with respect to body weight, body composition, lipids, and blood pressure. However, plasma sLOX-1 levels were higher in the CR only group (99.90 ± 8.23 pg/ml) compared to both the CR + moderate-intensity exercise (69.39 ± 8.23 pg/ml, p=0.01) and CR + vigorous-intensity exercise (72.83 ± 9.36 pg/ml, p=0.03) groups. All three interventions significantly reduced body weight (~14%), body fat, and waist and hip circumferences to a similar degree. These changes were accompanied by a 23% reduction in sLOX-1 levels overall (−19.00 ± 30.08 pg/ml, p<0.0001), which did not differ among intervention groups (p=0.13). Changes in body weight, body fat, and VO2 max were not correlated with changes in sLOX-1 levels. In multiple regression analyses in all women combined, baseline sLOX-1 levels (β = − 0.70 ± 0.06, p<0.0001), age (β = 0.92 ± 0.43, p=0.03) and baseline BMI (β = 1.88 ± 0.66, p=0.006) were independent predictors of the change in sLOX-1 with weight loss.
Weight loss interventions of equal energy deficit have similar effects on sLOX-1 levels in overweight and obese postmenopausal women, with the addition of aerobic exercise having no added benefit when performed in conjunction with CR.
PMCID: PMC3023845  PMID: 20856256
obesity; weight loss; caloric restriction; aerobic exercise; soluble receptor
3.  Pregnancy Followed by Delivery May Affect Circulating Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Levels in Women of Reproductive Age 
Mediators of Inflammation  2012;2012:837375.
Background/Objective. It is known that menopause or lack of endogenous estrogen is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and CAD. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is involved inmultiple phases of vascular dysfunction.The purpose of the current study was to determine the association between soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) and pregnancy followed by delivery in women of reproductive age. Materials/Methods. Sixty-eight subjects with pregnancy followed by delivery (group 1) and 57 subjects with nongravidity (group 2) were included in this study. Levels of sLOX-1 were measured in serum by EL SA. Results. Plasma levels of sLOX-1 were significantly lower in Group 1 than Group 2 in women of reproductive age (0.52 ± 0.18 ng/mL and 0.78 ± 0.13, resp., P < 0.001). There were strong correlations between sLOX-1 levels and the number of gravida (r = −0.645, P < 0.001). The levels of sLOX-1 highly correlated with the number of parous (r = −0.683, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that serum sLOX-1 levels were associated with pregnancy followed by delivery that might predict endothelial dysfunction. We conclude that pregnancy followed by delivery may delay the beginning and progress of arteriosclerosis and its clinical manifestations in women of reproductive age.
PMCID: PMC3350984  PMID: 22619487
4.  Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 as a Biochemical Marker for Atherosclerosis-Related Diseases 
Disease markers  2013;35(5):413-418.
Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), the main oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) in endothelial cells, is upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions and is involved in several cellular processes that regulate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The LOX-1 expressed on the cell surface can be proteolytically cleaved and released in a soluble form (sLOX-1) in the circulation under pathological conditions. Serum levels of sLOX-1, in fact, are elevated at the early stages of acute coronary syndrome and are associated with coronary plaque vulnerability and with the presence of multiple complex coronary lesions. Moreover, in subjects with stable CAD, levels of serum sLOX-1 are associated with the presence of lesions in the proximal and mid-segments of the left anterior descending artery that are the most prone to rupture; in subjects undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, baseline preprocedural serum sLOX-1 levels are associated with the incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction. Altogether, these findings suggest that circulating levels of sLOX-1 might be a diagnostic and prognostic marker for atherosclerotic-related events.
PMCID: PMC3809739  PMID: 24198442
5.  Procoagulant activity of circulating microparticles is associated with the presence of moderate calcified plaque burden detected by multislice computed tomography 
Circulating microparticles (MPs) have been reported to be associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we explored the relationship between MPs procoagulant activity and characteristics of atherosclerotic plaque detected by 64-slice computed tomography angiography (CTA).
In 127 consecutive patients with CAD but without acute coronary syndrome and who underwent 64-slice CTA, MPs procoagulant activity in plasma (by a thrombin generation test), soluble form of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) circulating levels (by ELISA) were measured. A quantitative volumetric analysis of the lumen and plaque burden of the vessel wall (soft and calcific components), for the three major coronary vessels, was performed. The patients were classified in three groups according to the presence of calcium volume: non-calcified plaque (NCP) group (calcium volume (%) = 0), moderate calcified plaque (MCP) group (0 < calcium volume (%) < 1), and calcified plaque (CP) group (calcium volume (%) ≥ 1).
MPs procoagulant activity and CML levels were higher in MCP group than in CP or NCP group (P = 0.009 and P = 0.027, respectively). MPs procoagulant activity was positively associated with CML (r = 0.317, P < 0.0001) and sLOX-1 levels (r = 0.216, P = 0.0025).
MPs procoagulant activity was higher in the MCP patient group and correlated positively with sLOX-1 and CML levels, suggesting that it may characterize a state of blood vulnerability that may locally precipitate plaque instability and increase the risk of subsequent major cardiovascular events.
PMCID: PMC3981978  PMID: 24748876
Computed tomography; Microparticles; Low density lipoprotein; Lysine; Coronary artery disease
6.  Cutaneous microvascular dysfunction correlates with serum LDL and sLOX-1 receptor concentrations 
Microvascular research  2012;85:112-117.
The human cutaneous circulation is an accessible and representative regional circulation for investigating mechanisms of microvascular dysfunction, a systemic disease process occurring early in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Elevated concentrations of low-density lipoproteins ([LDL]) are highly atherogenic and independently associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis through their actions on the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptors (LOX-1). We hypothesized that cutaneous microvascular dysfunction, as measured by a decrement in endothelial nitric oxide- (NO-) dependent vasodilation during local heating, would be correlated with serum [LDL], oxidized [LDL], and soluble LOX-1 receptors [sLOX-1]. Intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of 53 otherwise healthy men and women (aged 52±8 years) whose serum [LDL] ranged from 72 to 233 mg/dL. Skin blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry over a local forearm skin site as it was heated (42 °C) to induce sustained local vasodilation. After flux plateaued, L-NAME was infused to block endothelial NO synthase in order to determine the NO-dependent portion of the vasodilatory response. Data were normalized to maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). NO-dependent vasodilation was reduced as a linear function of [LDL] (R2=0.303, p<0.001), oxidized [LDL] (R2=0.214, p<0.001), and [sLOX-1] (R2=0.259, p=0.026) but was unrelated to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration (R2=0.003, p=0.68). Hypercholesterolemia-induced microvascular dysfunction is related to various LDL markers and involves a reduction in NO-dependent vasodilation that appears to be a progressive process measurable in the skin microcirculation.
PMCID: PMC3757520  PMID: 23137925
7.  Protective Effects of Let-7a and Let-7b on Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Induced Endothelial Cell Injuries 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e106540.
Lectin-like low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1) is a receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in endothelial cells. The activation of LOX-1 by oxLDL stimulates the apoptosis and dysfunction of endothelial cells, and contributes to atherogenesis. However, the regulatory factors for LOX-1 are still unclear. MicroRNAs are small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expressions at a post-transcriptional level. The let-7 family is the second microRNA been discovered, which plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases. Let-7a and let-7b were predicted to target LOX-1 3′-UTR and be highly expressed in endothelial cells. The present study demonstrated that LOX-1 was a target of let-7a and let-7b. They inhibited the expression of LOX-1 by targeting the positions of 310-316 in LOX-1 3′-UTR. Over-expression of let-7a and let-7b inhibited the oxLDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, NO deficiency, ROS over-production, LOX-1 upregulation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) downregulation. Moreover, we found that oxLDL treatment induced p38MAPK phosphorylation, NF-κB nuclear translocation, IκB degradation and PKB dephosphorylation. Let-7a or let-7b over-expression attenuated these alterations significantly. The present study may provide a new insight into the protective properties of let-7a and let-7b in preventing the endothelial dysfunction associated with cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC4172475  PMID: 25247304
8.  Electronegative Low-Density Lipoprotein Increases C-Reactive Protein Expression in Vascular Endothelial Cells through the LOX-1 Receptor 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e70533.
Increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with the occurrence and severity of acute coronary syndrome. We investigated whether CRP can be generated in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) after exposure to the most electronegative subfraction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), L5, which is atherogenic to ECs. Because L5 and CRP are both ligands for the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), we also examined the role of LOX-1.
Methods and Results
Plasma LDL samples isolated from asymptomatic hypercholesterolemic (LDL cholesterol [LDL-C] levels, 154.6±20 mg/dL; n = 7) patients and normocholesterolemic (LDL-C levels, 86.1±21 mg/dL; P<0.001; n = 7) control individuals were chromatographically resolved into 5 subfractions, L1-L5. The L5 percentage (L5%) and the plasma L5 concentration ([L5]  =  L5% × LDL-C) in the patient and control groups were 8.1±2% vs. 2.3±1% (P<0.001) and 12.6±4 mg/dL vs. 1.9±1 mg/dL (P<0.001), respectively. In hypercholesterolemic patients treated with atorvastatin for 6 months (10 mg/day), [L5] decreased from 12.6±4 mg/dL to 4.5±1.1 mg/dL (P = 0.011; n = 5), whereas both [L5] and L5% returned to baseline levels in 2 noncompliant patients 3 months after discontinuation. In cultured human aortic ECs (HAECs), L5 upregulated CRP expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner up to 2.5-fold (P<0.01), whereas the least electronegative subfraction, L1, had no effect. DiI-labeled L1, internalized through the LDL receptor, became visible inside HAECs within 30 seconds. In contrast, DiI-labeled L5, internalized through LOX-1, became apparent after 5 minutes. L5-induced CRP expression manifested at 30 minutes and was attenuated by neutralizing LOX-1. After 30 minutes, L5 but not L1 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both L5-induced ROS and CRP production were attenuated by ROS inhibitor N-acetyl cysteine.
Our results suggest that CRP, L5, and LOX-1 form a cyclic mechanism in atherogenesis and that reducing plasma L5 levels with atorvastatin disrupts the vascular toxicity of L5.
PMCID: PMC3738565  PMID: 23950953
9.  Association of LOX-1 gene polymorphisms with cerebral infarction in northern Chinese Han population 
Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. This study is aimed at evaluating the potential association of 3’-UTR-C188T and G501C in LOX-1 gene with cerebral infarction.
A total of 386 patients with cerebral infarction and 386 healthy controls were included in the study, which were unrelated Chinese Han population in the Liaoning Province of northern China. The single nucleotide polymorphisms, 3’-UTR-C188T and G501C, were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction–ligation detection reaction method.
The frequencies of CC + GC genotype, GC genotype and C allele of G501C in the patients with cerebral infarction were significantly higher than those in the controls (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P = 0.04, respectively). The correlation still remained after adjusting for confounding risk factors of cerebral infarction. In addition, no significant association was observed between 3’-UTR-C188T and cerebral infarction.
The study indicated that the G501C variant in LOX-1 gene may be associated with susceptibility to cerebral infarction, independent of other common risk factors, in northern Chinese Han population.
PMCID: PMC3994314  PMID: 24661313
LOX-1; Ox-LDL; Polymorphisms; Cerebral infarction; Atherosclerosis
10.  Significance of Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized LDL Receptor-1 Levels in Systemic and Coronary Circulation in Acute Coronary Syndrome 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:649185.
Background. Soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) level is a novel biomarker for diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however, this level in the coronary circulation has yet to be examined. Methods. Twenty-seven consecutive patients with ACS and 40 patients with effort angina pectoris (EAP) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) had levels of soluble LOX-1 and LOX-1 index measured in paired blood samples from aorta (Ao) and coronary sinus (CS) just prior to the PCI. Results. We found positive correlations between soluble LOX-1 levels in the Ao and CS in both ACS and EAP patients (P < 0.01, for both). The soluble LOX-1 levels in the Ao and CS were higher in ACS than in EAP patients (P < 0.01, for both). The levels of soluble LOX-1 and LOX-1 index of the CS were significantly greater than those of the Ao in both ACS and EAP patients (P < 0.01, for both). Receiver operating characteristic curves for ACS detection demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for the soluble LOX-1 and LOX-1 index with no differences between the Ao and CS. Conclusions. The present study showed that circulating soluble LOX-1 originates from coronary circulation and soluble LOX-1 and LOX-1 index are useful biomarkers for ACS.
PMCID: PMC4033395  PMID: 24895597
11.  LOX-1, OxLDL, and Atherosclerosis 
Mediators of Inflammation  2013;2013:152786.
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) contributes to the atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression by several mechanisms, including the induction of endothelial cell activation and dysfunction, macrophage foam cell formation, and smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. Vascular wall cells express on their surface several scavenger receptors that mediate the cellular effects of OxLDL. The lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is the main OxLDL receptor of endothelial cells, and it is expressed also in macrophages and smooth muscle cells. LOX-1 is almost undetectable under physiological conditions, but it is upregulated following the exposure to several proinflammatory and proatherogenic stimuli and can be detected in animal and human atherosclerotic lesions. The key contribution of LOX-1 to the atherogenic process has been confirmed in animal models; LOX-1 knockout mice exhibit reduced intima thickness and inflammation and increased expression of protective factors; on the contrary, LOX-1 overexpressing mice present an accelerated atherosclerotic lesion formation which is associated with increased inflammation. In humans, LOX-1 gene polymorphisms were associated with increased susceptibility to myocardial infarction. Inhibition of the LOX-1 receptor with chemicals or antisense nucleotides is currently being investigated and represents an emerging approach for controlling OxLDL-LOX-1 mediated proatherogenic effects.
PMCID: PMC3723318  PMID: 23935243
12.  The Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Mediates Vascular Effects of Inhaled Vehicle Emissions 
Rationale: To determine vascular signaling pathways involved in inhaled air pollution (vehicular engine emission) exposure–induced exacerbation of atherosclerosis that are associated with onset of clinical cardiovascular events.
Objectives: To elucidate the role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and its primary receptor on endothelial cells, the lectin-like oxLDL receptor (LOX-1), in regulation of endothelin-1 expression and matrix metalloproteinase activity associated with inhalational exposure to vehicular engine emissions.
Methods: Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E knockout mice were exposed by inhalation to filtered air or mixed whole engine emissions (250 μg particulate matter [PM]/m3 diesel + 50 μg PM/m3 gasoline exhausts) 6 h/d for 7 days. Concurrently, mice were treated with either mouse IgG or neutralizing antibodies to LOX-1 every other day. Vascular and plasma markers of oxidative stress and expression proatherogenic factors were assessed. In a parallel study, healthy human subjects were exposed to either 100 μg PM/m3 diesel whole exhaust or high-efficiency particulate air and charcoal-filtered “clean” air (control subjects) for 2 hours, on separate occasions.
Measurements and Main Results: Mixed emissions exposure increased oxLDL and vascular reactive oxygen species, as well as LOX-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and endothelin-1 mRNA expression and also monocyte/macrophage infiltration, each of which was attenuated with LOX-1 antibody treatment. In a parallel study, diesel exhaust exposure in volunteer human subjects induced significant increases in plasma-soluble LOX-1.
Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that acute exposure to vehicular source pollutants results in up-regulation of vascular factors associated with progression of atherosclerosis, endothelin-1, and matrix metalloproteinase-9, mediated through oxLDL–LOX-1 receptor signaling, which may serve as a novel target for future therapy.
PMCID: PMC3172889  PMID: 21493736
atherosclerosis; particulate matter; endothelin-1; matrix metalloproteinase; oxidized low-density lipoprotein
13.  Critical Role of 15-Lipoxygenase-1 in Colorectal Epithelial Cell Terminal Differentiation and Tumorigenesis 
Cancer research  2005;65(24):11486-11492.
Terminal differentiation is an important event for maintaining normal homeostasis in the colorectal epithelium, and the loss of apoptosis is an important mechanism underlying colorectal tumorigenesis. The very limited current data on the role of lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolism in tumorigenesis suggest that the oxidative metabolism of linoleic and arachidonic acid possibly shifts from producing antitumorigenic 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2 products to producing pro-tumorigenic 5-LOX and 12-LOX products. We examined whether this shift occurs in vitro in the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2 in association with the loss of terminal differentiation and apoptosis or in vivo during the formation of colorectal adenomas in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Restoring terminal differentiation and apoptosis of Caco-2 cells increased mRNA levels of 5-LOX, 15-LOX-2 and 15-LOX-1, but the only significant increases in protein expression and enzymatic activity were of 15-LOX-1. In FAP patients, 15-LOX-1 expression and activity were significantly down-regulated in adenomas (versus in paired non-neoplastic epithelial mucosa), whereas 5-LOX and 15-LOX-2 protein expressions and enzymatic activities were not. We conducted a validation study with immunohistochemical testing in a second group of FAP patients; 15-LOX-1 expression was down-regulated in colorectal adenomas (versus in non-neoplastic epithelial mucosa) in 87% (13/15) of this group. We confirmed the mechanistic relevance of these findings by demonstrating that ectopically restoring 15-LOX-1 expression re-established apoptosis in Caco-2 cells. Therefore, 15-LOX-1 down-regulation rather than a shift in the balance of LOXs is likely the dominant alteration in LOX metabolism that contributes to colorectal tumorigenesis through repressing apoptosis.
PMCID: PMC1564070  PMID: 16357157
Lipoxygenases; colon cancer; apoptosis
14.  LOX-1 Plays an Important Role in Ischemia-Induced Angiogenesis of Limbs 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114542.
LOX-1, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1, is a single transmembrane receptor mainly expressed on endothelial cells. LOX-1 mediates the uptake of oxidized LDL, an early step in atherosclerosis; however, little is known about whether LOX-1 is involved in angiogenesis during tissue ischemia. Therefore, we examined the role of LOX-1 in ischemia-induced angiogenesis in the hindlimbs of LOX-1 knockout (KO) mice. Angiogenesis was evaluated in a surgically induced hindlimb ischemia model using laser Doppler blood flowmetry (LDBF) and histological capillary density (CD) and arteriole density (AD). After right hindlimb ischemia, the ischemic/nonischemic hindlimb blood flow ratio was persistently lower in LOX-1 KO mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. CD and AD were significantly smaller in LOX-1 KO mice than in WT mice on postoperative day 14. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the number of macrophages infiltrating ischemic tissues was significantly smaller in LOX-1 KO mice than in WT mice. The number of infiltrated macrophages expressing VEGF was also significantly smaller in LOX-1 KO mice than in WT mice. Western blot analysis and ROS production assay revealed that LOX- KO mice show significant decrease in Nox2 expression, ROS production and HIF-1α expression, the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 subunit as well as expression of redox-sensitive vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and LOX-1 itself in ischemic muscles, which is supposed to be required for macrophage infiltration expressing angiogenic factor VEGF. Reduction of VEGF expression successively suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS, which accelerated angiogenesis, in the ischemic leg of LOX-1 KO mice. Our findings indicate that LOX-1 plays an important role in ischemia-induced angiogenesis by 1) Nox2-ROS-NF-κB activation, 2) upregulated expression of adhesion molecules: VCAM-1 and LOX-1 and 3) promoting macrophage infiltration, which expresses angiogenic factor VEGF.
PMCID: PMC4267738  PMID: 25514797
15.  Inhibition of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 reduces leukocyte adhesion within the intestinal microcirculation in experimental endotoxemia in rats 
Critical Care  2010;14(6):R223.
Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), the major endothelial receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein, is also involved in leukocyte recruitment. Systemic leukocyte activation in sepsis represents a crucial factor in the impairment of the microcirculation of different tissues, causing multiple organ failure and subsequently death. The aim of our experimental study was to evaluate the effects of LOX-1 inhibition on the endotoxin-induced leukocyte adherence and capillary perfusion within the intestinal microcirculation by using intravital microscopy (IVM).
We used 40 male Lewis rats for the experiments. Ten placebo-treated animals served as a control. Thirty animals received 5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intravenously. Ten endotoxemic rats remained untreated. In 10 LPS animals, we administered additionally 10 mg/kg LOX-1 antibodies. Ten further LPS animals received a nonspecific immunoglobulin (rat IgG) intravenously. After 2 hours of observation, intestinal microcirculation was evaluated by using IVM; the plasma levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined; and LOX-1 expression was quantified in intestinal tissue with Western blot and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
LOX-1 inhibition significantly reduced LPS-induced leukocyte adhesion in intestinal submucosal venules (P < 0.05). At the protein and mRNA levels, LOX-1 expression was significantly increased in untreated LPS animals (P < 0.05), whereas in animals treated with LOX-1 antibody, expression of LOX-1 was reduced (P < 0.05). MCP-1 plasma level was reduced after LOX-1 antibody administration.
Inhibition of LOX-1 reduced leukocyte activation in experimental endotoxemia. LOX-1 represents a novel target for the modulation of the inflammatory response within the microcirculation in sepsis.
PMCID: PMC3220004  PMID: 21143965
16.  Sleeve gastrectomy prevents lipoprotein receptor-1 expression in aortas of obese rats 
AIM: To investigate the effects of sleeve gastrectomy on adipose tissue infiltration and lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) expression in rat aortas.
METHODS: Twenty-four rats were randomized into three groups: normal chow (control), high fat diet (HD) and high fat diet with sleeve gastrectomy (SG). After surgery, the HD and SG groups were fed a high fat diet. Animals were sacrificed and plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were determined. LOX-1 protein and LOX-1 mRNA expression was also measured. Aortas were stained with Nile red to visualize adipose tissue.
RESULT: Body weights were higher in the HD group compared to the other groups. HDL levels in control, HD, and SG groups were 32.9 ± 6.2 mg/dL, 43.4 ± 4.0 mg/dL and 37.5 ± 4.3 mg/dL, respectively. LDL levels in control, HD, and SG groups were 31.8 ± 4.5 mg/dL, 53.3 ± 5.1 mg/dL and 40.5 ± 3.7 mg/dL, respectively. LOX-1 protein and LOX-1 mRNA expression was greater in the HD group versus the other groups. Staining for adipose tissue in aortas was greater in the HD group in comparison to the other groups. Thus, a high fat diet elevates LOX-1 protein and mRNA expression in aorta.
CONCLUSION: Sleeve gastrectomy decreases plasma LDL levels, and downregulates LOX-1 protein and mRNA expression.
PMCID: PMC3181460  PMID: 21990956
Sleeve gastrectomy; Morbid obesity; High fat diet; Aorta; Lipoprotein receptor-1 expression
17.  Activated Human Mast Cells Induce LOX-1-Specific Scavenger Receptor Expression in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e108352.
Activated mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions degranulate and release bioactive compounds capable of regulating atherogenesis. Here we examined the ability of activated human primary mast cells to regulate the expression of the major scavenger receptors in cultured human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs).
Components released by immunologically activated human primary mast cells induced a transient expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1) mRNA in HMDMs, while the expression of two other scavenger receptors, MSR1 and CD36, remained unaffected. The LOX-1-inducing secretory components were identified as histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1), which exhibited a synergistic effect on LOX-1 mRNA expression. Histamine induced a transient expression of LOX-1 protein. Mast cell –induced increase in LOX-1 expression was not associated with increased uptake of oxidized LDL by the macrophages.
Mast cell-derived histamine, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 act in concert to induce a transient increase in LOX-1 expression in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The LOX-1-inducing activity potentially endows mast cells a hitherto unrecognized role in the regulation of innate immune reactions in atherogenesis.
PMCID: PMC4176973  PMID: 25250731
18.  Pyridine and pyrimidine analogs of acetaminophen as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase catalysis† 
Organic & biomolecular chemistry  2009;7(24):5103-5112.
Herein we report an investigation of the efficacy of pyridine and pyrimidine analogs of acetaminophen (ApAP) as peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidants and inhibitors of enzyme-catalyzed lipid peroxidation by cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases (LOX). In inhibited autoxidations we find that ApAP, the common analgesic and antipyretic agent, is a very good antioxidant with a rate constant for reaction with peroxyl radicals (kinh = 5 × 105 M−1 s−1) that is higher than many widely-used phenolic antioxidants, such as the ubiquitous butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). This reactivity is reduced substantially upon incorporation of nitrogen into the phenolic ring, owing to an increase in the O–H bond dissociation enthalpy of pyridinols and pyrimidinols with respect to phenols. Incorporation of nitrogen into the phenolic ring of ApAP was also found to decrease its efficacy as an inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis by ovine COX-1 (oCOX-1). This is explained on the basis of an increase in its oxidation potential and its reduced reactivity as a reducing co-substrate of the peroxidase protoporphyrin. In contrast, the efficacy of ApAP as an inhibitor of lipid hydroperoxide biosynthesis by soybean LOX-1 (sLOX-1) increased upon incorporation of nitrogen into the ring, suggesting a different mechanism of inhibition dependent on the acidity of the phenolic O–H which may involve chelation of the catalytic non-heme iron atom. The greater stability of the 3-pyridinols and 5-pyrimidinols to air oxidation as compared to phenols allowed us to evaluate some electron-rich pyridinols and pyrimidinols as inhibitors of oCOX-1 and sLOX-1. While the pyridinols had the best combination of activities as antioxidants and inhibitors of oCOX-1 and sLOX-1, they were found to be more toxic than ApAP in preliminary assays in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell culture. The pyrimidinols, however, were up to 17-fold more reactive to peroxyl radicals and up to 25-fold better inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis than ApAP, with similar cytotoxicities to HepG2 cells at high levels of exposure.
PMCID: PMC2873786  PMID: 20024105
19.  Functional Analysis and Molecular Dynamics Simulation of LOX-1 K167N Polymorphism Reveal Alteration of Receptor Activity 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(2):e4648.
The human lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 LOX-1, encoded by the ORL1 gene, is the major scavenger receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein in endothelial cells. Here we report on the functional effects of a coding SNP, c.501G>C, which produces a single amino acid change (K>N at codon 167). Our study was aimed at elucidating whether the c.501G>C polymorphism changes the binding affinity of LOX-1 receptor altering its function. The presence of p.K167N mutation reduces ox-LDL binding and uptake. Ox-LDL activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2) is inhibited. Furthermore, ox-LDL induced biosynthesis of LOX-1 receptors is dependent on the p.K167N variation. In human macrophages, derived from c.501G>C heterozygous individuals, the ox-LDL induced LOX-1 46 kDa band is markedly lower than in induced macrophages derived from c.501G>C controls. Investigation of p.K167N mutation through molecular dynamics simulation and electrostatic analysis suggests that the ox-LDL binding may be attributed to the coupling between the electrostatic potential distribution and the asymmetric flexibility of the basic spine residues. The N/N-LOX-1 mutant has either interrupted electrostatic potential and asymmetric fluctuations of the basic spine arginines.
PMCID: PMC2645694  PMID: 19247493
20.  Chlamydia pneumoniae induces expression of proatherogenic factors through activation of the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 
Pathogens and disease  2013;10.1111/2049-632X.12058.
Several lines of evidence have associated Chlamydia pneumoniae with cardiovascular disease including acceleration of atherosclerotic lesion progression in hyperlipidemic animal models by infection. Many of the proatherogenic effects of oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) occur through the activation of the lectin-like ox-LDL receptor (LOX-1). C. pneumoniae upregulates expression of the LOX-1mRNA, promotes uptake of ox-LDL, and utilizes the LOX-1 receptor for infectivity. The overall goal of this study was to determine if C. pneumoniae organisms upregulated LOX-1 protein expression in vascular cells and whether up-regulation of pro-atherogenic factors by C. pneumoniae occurred through LOX-1. C. pneumoniae induced LOX-1 protein expression in both endothelial cells and RAW macrophages. Upregulation was prevented by preincubation of cells with LOX-1 antibody prior to infection. Similarly, C. pneumoniae upregulated protein expression of adhesion molecules, MMP-1, and MMP-3, which was mitigated by anti-LOX-1 antibody. Prior treatment of organisms with PNGase, which removes the chlamydial glycan that is N-linked to the major outer membrane, abolished C. pneumoniae up-regulation of LOX-1. These studies suggest that activation of LOX-1 expression occurs through binding of the chlamydial glycan and provide one mechanism by which C. pneumoniae infection could play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC3871974  PMID: 23821487
Chlamydia; LOX-1 receptor; atherosclerosis; adhesion molecules; glycan
21.  Role of LOX-1 and ROS in oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of NRK52E 
To investigate the effect of oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) on tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (TEMT) induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and its mechanism.
NRK-52E cells were incubated with ox-LDL (0, 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml) for 24 hours or pre-treated with the chemical inhibitor of the LOX-1 receptor polyinosinic acid (poly I) and carrageenan or the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the cells were then exposed to 50 μg/ml of ox-LDL.The expression of LOX-I, E-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by real-time PCR, western blotting analysis, immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy.
Ox-LDL increased the expression of LOX-1 mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner from 0 to 100 μg/ml (P < 0.05). Following the increase in the LOX-1 protein level, the lipid intake, ROS generation and α-SMA expression increased; however, the E-cadherin level decreased. The pre-treatment with poly I or carrageenan or NAC significantly inhibited the LOX-1 expression, α-SMA expression, the lipid intake and ROS generation and reversed decrease of E-cadherin expression induced by ox-LDL. Meanwhile, the ROS generation were associated with a increase in the LOX-1 expression. The α-SMA expression was positively correlated with the ROS generation and LOX-1 expression, and the E-cadherin expression was negatively correlated with the ROS generation and LOX-1 expression.
LOX-1 and ROS may play a important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of NRK52E induced by OX-LDL.
PMCID: PMC2978210  PMID: 20958994
22.  Association of the G473A Polymorphism and Expression of Lysyl Oxidase with Breast Cancer Risk and Survival in European Women: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105579.
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular enzyme essential for the covalent crosslinking of extracellular matrix proteins and may also have additional functions. LOX expression can be both up- and downregulated in cancer and is associated both with tumour suppression and metastasis progression. The G473A polymorphism (rs1800449) results in the Arg158Gln amino acid substitution in the LOX propeptide, compromises its tumour suppressive activity, and was associated with an increased breast cancer risk in a Chinese Han population. In the first hospital-based case-control study in European women, we aimed at investigating the association of LOX expression and the G473A polymorphism with breast cancer risk and survival in unselected and estrogen receptor (ER) negative patients.
Methodology/Principal Findings
The G473A polymorphism was genotyped in 386 breast cancer patients and 243 female controls. Moreover, LOX mRNA expression was quantified in the tumors of 105 patients by qRT-PCR. We found that the minor A-allele of this polymorphism is associated with a later age at breast cancer onset, a trend towards a decreased disease-free and metastasis-free survival, but not with an increased breast cancer risk. LOX mRNA expression was significantly elevated in tumours of patients older than 55 years, postmenopausal patients, estrogen receptor positive tumours, and p53 negative tumours, but was unaffected by G473A genotype in tumours and breast cancer cell lines. High LOX expression was associated with a poor disease-free and metastasis-free survival in ER negative but not ER positive patients. LOX expression was an independent prognostic parameter in multivariate analysis, whereas G473A genotype was not. A small, distinct subgroup of the ER negative patients was identified which exhibited a considerably elevated LOX expression and a very poor disease-free (p = 0.001) and metastasis-free survival (p = 0.0003).
This newly identified ER negative/LOX high subgroup may be a suitable collective for future individualized breast cancer diagnosis and therapy.
PMCID: PMC4139364  PMID: 25141126
23.  Lectin-Like Oxidized LDL Receptor-1 Is an Enhancer of Tumor Angiogenesis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e106219.
Altered expression and function of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) has been associated with several diseases such as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and obesity. In these pathologies, oxLDL/LOX-1 activates signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, cell motility and angiogenesis. Recent studies have indicated that olr1 mRNA is over-expressed in stage III and IV of human prostatic adenocarcinomas. However, the function of LOX-1 in prostate cancer angiogenesis remains to be determined. Our aim was to analyze the contribution of oxLDL and LOX-1 to tumor angiogenesis using C4-2 prostate cancer cells. We analyzed the expression of pro-angiogenic molecules and angiogenesis on prostate cancer tumor xenografts, using prostate cancer cell models with overexpression or knockdown of LOX-1 receptor. Our results demonstrate that the activation of LOX-1 using oxLDL increases cell proliferation, and the expression of the pro-angiogenic molecules VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in a dose-dependent manner. Noticeably, these effects were prevented in the C4-2 prostate cancer model when LOX-1 expression was knocked down. The angiogenic effect of LOX-1 activated with oxLDL was further demonstrated using the aortic ring assay and the xenograft model of tumor growth on chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryos. Consequently, we propose that LOX-1 activation by oxLDL is an important event that enhances tumor angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells.
PMCID: PMC4149537  PMID: 25170920
24.  Generation and characterization of chicken monoclonal antibodies against human LOX-1 
mAbs  2009;1(4):357-363.
Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1 (LOX-1) is the major receptor for oxidized LDL (oxLDL), and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for human LOX-1 (hLOX-1) were generated by a phage display technique using chickens immunized with recombinant hLOX-1 (rhLOX-1). A total of 53 independent scFv clones reactive for rhLOX-1 were obtained. Of the 53 clones, 49 recognized the C-type lectin-like domain (CTL domain), which contributes to the binding of oxLDL. Of these, 45 clones inhibited oxLDL-binding with LOX-1. Furthermore, some of these clones cross-reacted with rabbit, pig and/or mouse LOX-1. For possible application as therapeutic agents in the future, two cross-reactive mAbs were re-constructed as chicken-human chimeric antibodies. The chimeric antibodies showed similar characteristics compared to the original antibodies, and inhibited oxLDL binding to LOX-1 expressed on CHO cells. The results obtained in this study indicate that anti-LOX-1 mAbs might be useful tools for functional analyses and development of therapeutic agents for cardiovascular indications such as atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC2726600  PMID: 20073134
LOX-1; oxLDL; chicken monoclonal antibody; chimeric antibody; neutralizing antibody
25.  LOX-1 abrogation reduces cardiac hypertrophy and collagen accumulation following chronic ischemia in the mouse 
Gene therapy  2011;19(5):522-531.
We hypothesized that lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) deletion may inhibit oxidative stress signals, reduce collagen accumulation and attenuate cardiac remodeling after chronic ischemia. Activation of LOX-1 plays a significant role in the development of inflammation, apoptosis and collagen signals during acute ischemia. Wild-type and LOX-1 knockout (KO) mice were subjected to occlusion of left coronary artery for 3 weeks. Markers of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis-related signals (collagen IV, collagen-1 and fibronectin) and oxidant load (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase expression, activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases and left ventricular (LV) tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were analyzed. In in vitro experiments, HL-1 cardiomyocytes were transfected with angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) or type 2 receptor (AT2R) genes to determine their role in the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. LOX-1 KO mice had 25% improvement in survival over the 3-week period of chronic ischemia. LOX-1 deletion reduced collagen deposition and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (~75%) in association with a decrease in oxidant load and AT1R upregulation (all P<0.05). The LOX-1 KO mice hearts exhibited a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) expression and matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity, and increased AT2R expression (P<0.05). Attenuation of cardiac remodeling was associated with improved cardiac hemodynamics (LV ±dp/dt and cardiac ejection fraction). In vitro studies showed that it is AT1R, and not AT2R overexpression that induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We demonstrate for the first time that LOX-1 deletion reduces oxidative stress and related intracellular signaling, which leads to attenuation of the positive feedback loop involving AT1R and LOX-1. This results in reduced chronic cardiac remodeling.
PMCID: PMC4045006  PMID: 21938018
cardiac remodeling; chronic ischemia; LOX-1

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