A mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) was developed for identification of point mutations in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA at codons 91 and 95. MAMA PCR was used to detect mutations at codons 91 and 95 of gyrA in 117 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates (with ciprofloxacin MICs of 0.004 to >32 μg/ml) from Bangladesh during 1997 to 2001. The QRDR regions of the gyrA genes from 31 randomly selected isolates were sequenced, and the results were compared with those of MAMA PCR. Using mismatch PCR, a mutation at Ser91 could be detected in all 27 (resistant and intermediate) isolates, and an Asp95-to-Gly95 mutation could be detected in all 15 isolates, as detected by sequencing. MAMA PCR offers a simple, inexpensive, rapid, and easier alternative for detection of point mutations in fluoroquinolone resistance in N. gonorrhoeae.
An oligonucleotide biochip that specifically detects point mutations in the gyrA and parC genes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was designed and subsequently evaluated with 87 untreated clinical specimens. The susceptibilities of the N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested to determine the prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant strains in Anhui Province, People's Republic of China. Conventional DNA sequencing was also performed to identify mutations in gyrA and parC and to confirm the biochip data. The study demonstrates that all of the point mutations in the gyrA and parC genes of N. gonorrhoeae were easily discriminated by use of the oligonucleotide biochip. Fifteen different alteration patterns involved in the formation of ciprofloxacin resistance were identified by the biochip assay. Double mutations in both Ser91 and Asp95 of the GyrA protein were seen in all nonsensitive isolates. Double mutations in Ser91 and Asp95 of GyrA plus mutation of Glu91 or Ser87 of the ParC protein lead to significant high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin in N. gonorrhoeae isolates. The results obtained by use of the oligonucleotide biochip were identical to those obtained by use of DNA sequencing. In conclusion, the oligonucleotide biochip technology has potential utility for the rapid and reliable identification of point mutations in the drug resistance genes of N. gonorrhoeae.
Aim: To analyse mutations in the gyrA and parC genes leading to possible increase in ciprofloxacin resistance (high MIC values for ciprofloxacin) in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Delhi, India.
Method: MIC of ciprofloxacin for 63 clinical isolates of N gonorrhoeae were examined by the Etest method. Subsequently, gyrA and parC genes of these isolates were amplified and sequenced for possible mutations.
Results: Out of the 63 clinical isolates tested, only five (8%) isolates were found to be susceptible to ciprofloxacin (MIC <0.06 µg/ml). DNA sequence analysis of the gyrA and the parC genes of all these isolates (n = 63) revealed that all isolates which were not susceptible to ciprofloxacin (n=58) had mutation(s) in gyrA and parC genes. 12 isolates (19%) exhibited high resistance with an MIC for ciprofloxacin of 32 µg/ml. Two out of these 12 isolates (UD62 and UD63), harboured triple mutations (Ser-91 to Phe, Asp-95 to Asn and Val-120 to Leu) in the gyrA gene. The third mutation of Val-120 to Leu, lies downstream of the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA and has not been described before in gonococcus. In addition, both these isolates had a Phe-100 to Tyr substitution in the parC, a hitherto unknown mutation.
Conclusions: Emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance with high levels of MIC values (up to 32 µg/ml) in India is alarming. Double and triple mutations in gyrA alone or together in gyrA and parC could be responsible for such a high resistance.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recently a rapid decrease in the susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates to fluoroquinolones has occurred and gonococcal fluoroquinolone resistance is now a significant problem in the treatment of gonorrhoea in Japan. Thus, in order to investigate the quinolone resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of N gonorrhoeae we studied an alteration in the DNA gyrase subunit A (GyrA) which is well-known as a common mechanism of bacterial quinolone resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four clinical isolates of N gonorrhoeae resistant to norfloxacin and 5 strains susceptible to norfloxacin, including 2 clinical isolates and 3 WHO reference strains, were tested in this study. To identify mutations in the GyrA genes of gonococcal strains, polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing were performed. RESULTS: A single base change (serine codon TCC changed to phenylalanine codon TTC), which resulted in an amino acid change in GyrA at position 91, was identified in all 4 norfloxacin-resistant strains for which the MICs of norfloxacin ranged from 1.0 to 8.0 micrograms/ml, while no mutation within GyrA was detected in 5 norfloxacin-susceptible strains for which the MICs of norfloxacin ranged from 0.004 to 0.063 microgram/ml. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study suggest that the serine-91 to phenylalanine substitution in GyrA is probably an essential mutation in fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of N gonorrhoeae.
We have developed a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assay to detect ciprofloxacin resistant (Cpr) mutants of the biothreat agent Yersinia pestis. We selected spontaneous mutants of the attenuated Y. pestis KIM 5 strain that were resistant to a ciprofloxacin (CIP) concentration of at least 1 μg/ml. DNA sequencing of gyrA encoded by 65 of these mutants revealed that all isolates contained one of four different point mutations within the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA. We developed a FRET-based assay that detected all of these mutations by using a single pair of fluorescent probes with sequences complementary to the wild-type Y. pestis gyrA sequence. Melting peak analysis revealed that the probe-PCR product hybrid was less stable when amplification occurred from any of the four mutant templates. This instability resulted in the PCR product obtained from the Cpr Y. pestis strains displaying a 4 to 11°C shift in probe melting temperature. Following optimization of the reaction conditions, we were able to detect approximately 10 pg of purified wild-type template DNA or the presence of approximately 4 CFU of wild-type Y. pestis KIM 5 or Cpr mutants in crude lysates. Taken together, our results demonstrate the utility of FRET-based assays for detection of Cpr mutants of Y. pestis. This method is both sensitive and rapid.
The quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene in ciprofloxacin-susceptible strains (n=53) and strains of Neisseria spp. with reduced susceptibility (n=70) was determined by the pyrosequencing method. Results showed that the QRDR of the gyrA gene is an effective molecular indicator of resistance to ciprofloxacin in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and presumably in Neisseria meningitidis, but not in all other Neisseria spp. This sequence was not unique for N. gonorrhoeae and seems unsuitable for species verification of N. gonorrhoeae. However, whether it is also possible to use this region for verification depends on the specificity of the primary screening method used.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Neisseria species; ciprofloxacin; gyrA; species verification
Despite the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance among gonococci worldwide, limited reports are available from Brazilian locations. In the present study, 25 quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (QRNG) strains isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were characterized by phenotypic and molecular methods, including analysis of mutations in the gyrA and parC genes. They represented 16.5% of the N. gonorrhoeae isolates obtained during a survey performed from 2006 to 2010. A trend for increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in the period investigated. The most prevalent pattern of mutation observed among QRNG isolates, Ser-91 to Phe and Asp-95 to Gly in gyrA and Ser-87 to Arg in parC, was detected in 40% of the isolates exhibiting MICs ranging from 4 to >32 μg/ml. Rare types of mutations were found in the gyrA gene (Gln-102 to His [12%] and Asp-95 to Tyr [4%]) and in the parC gene (Ser-88 to Thr [4%]). The genetic relationship of the QRNG isolates, evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggested that the increase in the frequencies of the QRNG isolates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, may have arisen as a result of simultaneous spread of two clonal groups. The results also indicate that fluoroquinolones may no longer be used as first line antibiotics for the treatment of gonorrhea in Rio de Janeiro, and that programs for antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance of N. gonorrhoeae should also be implemented in other regions of Brazil.
A need exists for the development of applicable surveillance tools to detect fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (QRNG) in urine samples. We describe here a real-time PCR assay for detecting mutations in the Ser91 codon of the gyrA gene of N. gonorrhoeae in urine specimens. We tested 96 urine samples collected along with Gonorrhea Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) urethral swab samples and compared the results with matched MICs of ciprofloxacin, as reported by the regional GISP laboratory. We then tested 100 urine specimens, known to be gonorrhea positive by nucleic acid amplification testing, provided by females to challenge the real-time PCR assay with urine specimens containing potentially less target DNA content than specimens from symptomatic males. With an MIC threshold of 0.125 μg of ciprofloxacin/ml, our assay correctly identified resistance in 41 of 44 (93.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 81.3 to 98.6%) corresponding resistant culture specimens and correctly identified 51 of 51 (100%; 95% CI = 93.0 to 100%) susceptible specimens. One specimen did not amplify. The assay successfully amplified the gyrA amplicon and determined a susceptibility genotype in 72 of 100 (72%) urine specimens collected from female patients. We developed an assay for detecting QRNG in urine specimens that correlated well with MIC results of cultured specimens and had moderate sensitivity with urine specimens. This methodology might fulfill the need for a QRNG detection system for urine specimens, a useful characteristic in the age of nucleic acid amplification testing for gonococcal infection.
The gyrA quinolone resistance determining region was sequenced from 13 ciprofloxacin-resistant and 20 ciprofloxacin-susceptible Campylobacter jejuni isolates. All isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin had Thr-86-to-Ile mutations, a mutation frequently associated with the acquisition of resistance to fluoroquinolones. A mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR protocol was developed that detects this gyrA mutation in quinolone-resistant isolates. The MAMA PCR provides a means for routine detection of the gyrA mutation without the need for sequencing the gyrA gene.
In Denmark surveillance of the in vitro susceptibility to ciprofloxacin of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was established in 1990. The proportion of N. gonorrhoeae strains with decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 0.06 μg/ml) was low (0.3 to 2.3%) up to 1995. Between 1995 and 1998 the rate of less-susceptible and resistant strains rose from 6.9 to 13.2%. Among ciprofloxacin-resistant strains (MIC ≥ 1 μg/ml), 81% were highly resistant (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml). Thirty-five N. gonorrhoeae strains (40 isolates) for which ciprofloxacin MICs were 4 to 32 μg/ml were investigated for the frequency and patterns of mutations within the gyrA and parC genes. The quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA and parC genes were amplified by PCR, and the amplicons were directly sequenced. Alterations at Ser-91 and Asp-95 in GyrA and a single or double alteration in ParC were identified in 32 strains (91%). Ser-91-to-Phe and Asp-95-to-Gly alterations in GyrA were detected in 28 strains (80%). The most common ParC alteration, Asp-86 to Asn, was found in 19 strains (54%). The strains were analyzed for genetic relationship by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The analysis showed that nine strains with the same mutation pattern in the gyrA and parC genes, originating from different geographical areas over 3 years, had the same PFGE patterns after SpeI as well as NheI digestion (only one strain with one band difference in the NheI pattern), suggesting that a resistant clone had spread worldwide. The results from this study strongly suggest that double gyrA mutations plus a parC mutation(s) play an important role in the development of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in N. gonorrhoeae.
The in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin, moxifloxacin, and grepafloxacin against 174 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Sydney, Australia, were determined. The strains included 84 quinolone-less-sensitive and -resistant N. gonorrhoeae (QRNG) strains for which ciprofloxacin MICs were in the range of 0.12 to 16 μg/ml. The QRNG included strains isolated from patients whose infections were acquired in a number of countries, mostly in Southeast Asia. The gyrA and parC quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of 18 selected QRNG strains were sequenced, and the amino acid mutations observed were related to the MICs obtained. The activities of moxifloxacin and grepafloxacin against QRNG were comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. Trovafloxacin was more active than the other quinolones against some but not all of the QRNG strains. Increments in ciprofloxacin resistance occurred in a step-wise manner with point mutations initiated in gyrA resulting in amino acid alterations Ser91-to-Phe, Ser91-to-Tyr, Asp95-to-Gly, and Asp95-to-Asn. Single gyrA changes correlated with ciprofloxacin MICs in the range 0.12 to 1 μg/ml. The Ser91 changes in GyrA were associated with higher MICs and further QRDR changes. QRNG strains for which ciprofloxacin MICs were greater than 1 μg/ml had both gyrA and parC QRDR point mutations. ParC alterations were seen in these isolates only in the presence of GyrA changes and comprised amino acid changes Asp86-to-Asn, Ser87-to-Asn, Ser87-to-Arg, Ser88-to-Pro, Glu91-to-Lys, and Glu91-to-Gln. QRNG strains for which MICs were in the higher ranges had double GyrA mutations, but again only with accompanying ParC alterations. Not only did the nature and combination of GyrA and ParC changes influence the incremental increases in ciprofloxacin MICs, but they seemingly also altered the differential activity of trovafloxacin. Our findings suggest that the newer quinolones of the type examined are unlikely to be useful replacements for ciprofloxacin in the treatment of gonorrhea, particularly where ciprofloxacin MICs are high or where resistance is widespread.
A PCR-sequencing assay was evaluated for direct detection of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrase A (gyrA) gene in fluoroquinolone-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory specimens. As determined by gyrA QRDR analysis, complete concordance of genotypic and phenotypic fluoroquinolone resistance was demonstrated. Our results indicate that the assay is a rapid and reliable method for the diagnosis of fluoroquinolone-resistant tuberculosis, facilitating timely clinical management and public health control. Using the assay, we detected a novel gyrA Ala74Ser mutation in M. tuberculosis directly from sputum specimens. The functional effect of the Ala74Ser mutant was verified through the study of the DNA supercoiling inhibitory activity of fluoroquinolones against the recombinant gyrase. The drug-mediated gyrase-DNA cleavage complex model suggests perturbation of the gyrA-gyrA dimer interface caused by the Ala74Ser mutation probably disturbs the putative quinolone binding pocket and leads to the reduction of the drug binding affinity. A number of gyrA mutations (Glu21Gln, Ser95Thr, and Gly668Asp) were also characterized to be natural polymorphisms not associated with fluoroquinolone resistance.
Mutations in the gyrA gene resulting in amino acid changes at Ser-91 and Asp-95 are significantly associated with decreased susceptibilities to quinolones in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. To detect these mutations, we developed a rapid and simple assay based on amplification of the region of the gyrA gene containing the mutation sites by PCR and digestion of the PCR product with a restriction enzyme. A naturally occurring HinfI restriction site was present in the region containing the Ser-91 codon, and an artificial HinfI restriction site was created in the region containing the Asp-95 codon by the method of primer-specified restriction site modification. The mutations generating alterations at Ser-91 and Asp-95 were detected as restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the PCR products digested with HinfI. Fifty-five clinical strains of N. gonorrhoeae were examined for mutations in the gyrA gene by this method. Mutations at Ser-91 and/or Asp-95 were detected in all the 31 strains in which the mutations had been confirmed by DNA sequencing. Our method allows simultaneous testing of a large number of strains and provides results within 8 h. This rapid and simple assay could be a useful screening device for genetic alterations associated with decreased susceptibilities to quinolones in N. gonorrhoeae and could facilitate epidemiological studies on clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibilities to quinolones.
Ciprofloxacin, 500 mg, was introduced as the first-line therapy for gonorrhea at St. Mary’s Hospital, London, in 1989, when a surveillance program was initiated to detect the emergence of resistance. Isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from consecutive patients attending the Jefferiss Wing, Genitourinary Medicine Clinic at St. Mary’s Hospital, between 1989 and 1997 have been tested for susceptibility to ciprofloxacin by using an agar dilution breakpoint technique. Isolates considered potentially resistant (MIC, >0.12 μg/ml) were further characterized by determination of the MICs of ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and penicillin, auxotyped and serotyped, and screened for mutations in the DNA gyrase gene, gyrA, and the topoisomerase IV gene, parC. A total of 4,875 isolates were tested. While the majority of isolates were highly susceptible (MIC, ≤0.008 μg of ciprofloxacin/ml), there was a drift toward reduced susceptibility in N. gonorrhoeae isolated between 1993 and 1996 (P < 0.001). In 1997 this drift was reduced but remained above pre-1993 levels. Isolates from 18 patients were classed as potentially resistant (MIC, >0.12 μg/ml); all of these belonged to serogroup B, and NR/IB-1 was the most common auxotype/serovar class. The infections in 14 of the 18 patients were known to be acquired abroad, and 5 were known to result in therapeutic failure. The surveillance program has established that ciprofloxacin is still a highly effective antibiotic against N. gonorrhoeae in this population. However, it has identified a drift in susceptibility which may have resulted from increased usage of ciprofloxacin. High-level resistance has now emerged, although treatment failure is still uncommon.
The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has resulted in increased interest in the fluoroquinolones (FQs) as antituberculosis agents. To investigate the frequency and mechanisms of FQ resistance in M. tuberculosis, we cloned and sequenced the wild-type gyrA and gyrB genes, which encode the A and B subunits of the DNA gyrase, respectively; DNA gyrase is the main target of the FQs. On the basis of the sequence information, we performed DNA amplification for sequencing and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis to examine the presumed quinolone resistance regions of gyrA and gyrB from reference strains (n = 4) and clinical isolates (n = 55). Mutations in codons of gyrA analogous to those described in other FQ-resistant bacteria were identified in all isolates (n = 14) for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was > 2 micrograms/ml. In addition, we selected ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants of Mycobacterium bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis Erdman and H37ra. Spontaneously resistant mutants developed at a frequency of 1 in 10(7) to 10(8) at ciprofloxacin concentrations of 2 micrograms/ml, but no primary resistant colonies were selected at higher ciprofloxacin concentrations. Replating of those first-step mutants selected for mutants with high levels of resistance which harbored gyrA mutations similar to those found among clinical FQ-resistant isolates. The gyrA and gyrB sequence information will facilitate analysis of the mechanisms of resistance to drugs which target the gyrase and the implementation of rapid strategies for the estimation of FQ susceptibility in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.
Fluoroquinolones are one class of antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat severe Campylobacter jejuni infection. C. jejuni strains resistant to high levels of the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥16 μg/ml) have been predominantly characterized with a C→T transition in codon 86 of gyrA. The gyrA gene encodes one subunit of DNA gyrase, which is a primary target for fluoroquinolone antibiotics. This study establishes a rapid PCR-based TaqMan method for identifying ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni strains that carry the C→T transition in codon 86 of gyrA. The assay uses real-time detection, eliminating the need for gel electrophoresis. Optimization of the assay parameters using purified Campylobacter DNA resulted in the ability to detect femtogram levels of DNA. The method should be useful for monitoring the development of ciprofloxacin resistance in C. jejuni. Compiled nucleotide sequence data on the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA in Campylobacter indicate that sequence comparison of this region is a useful method for tentative identification of Campylobacter isolates at the species level.
We examined the potential for the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Neisseria meningitidis by cultivating two clinical isolates of meningococci in the presence of concentrations of ciprofloxacin at and about the predetermined MIC. The quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC of 50 stable quinolone-resistant mutants derived in vitro were sequenced and compared with QRDR alterations reported in clinical isolates of quinolone-resistant meningococci and gonococci. MICs to ciprofloxacin and trovafloxacin were determined and sequence changes were correlated with quinolone MICs. Ciprofloxacin and trovafloxacin MICs of the in vitro-derived quinolone-resistant mutants ranged up to 16 mg/liter. Single GyrA alterations were the first change detected and were accompanied by raised MICs, followed by double GyrA changes and still higher MICs. MICs increased further as single ParC substitutions appeared and these were always in the presence of a single or double GyrA change. GyrA changes occurred at positions 91 and 95 with substitutions of Asp-95→Asn and Thr-91→Ala and Ile. Changes in the parC QRDR occurred at positions 85, 86, and 91 with four substitutions, Gly-85→Asp, Asp-86→Asn, Glu-91→Gly, and Glu-91→Lys, detected. The nature of the individual QRDR substitution appeared to influence the level of quinolone resistance expressed, and this varied with the quinolone agent examined. Close similarities occurred between the sequence and nature of QRDR changes in clinical and in vitro-generated quinolone-resistant mutants and with those previously reported for clinical and in vitro-generated quinolone-resistant gonococci. This suggests that quinolone resistance in meningococci may arise in the same manner and reach similar levels in vivo to those seen in quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been used extensively to detect genetic variation. We used this method to detect and identify Yersinia pestis KIM5 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates by analyzing the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the gyrase A gene. Sequencing of the Y. pestis KIM5 strain gyrA QRDR from 55 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates revealed five mutation types. We analyzed the gyrA QRDR by DHPLC to assess its ability to detect point mutations and to determine whether DHPLC peak profile analysis could be used as a molecular fingerprint. In addition to the five mutation types found in our ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, several mutations in the QRDR were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and analyzed to further evaluate this method for the ability to detect QRDR mutations. Furthermore, a blind panel of 42 samples was analyzed by screening for two mutant types to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of this method. Our results showed that DHPLC is an efficient method for detecting mutations in genes that confer antibiotic resistance.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gonococcal fluoroquinolone resistance is now a significant problem in Japan. We generated gonococcal mutants resistant to norfloxacin in vitro from norfloxacin sensitive isolates and analysed the contribution of three known mechanisms of quinolone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three clinical isolates of N gonorrhoeae susceptible to norfloxacin were exposed to increasing concentrations of norfloxacin. To identify mutations in the gyrA and parC genes of the gonococcal mutants, the quinolone resistance determining regions of the gyrA and parC genes were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified and the PCR products were directly sequenced. Norfloxacin accumulation in the gonococcal cells was also measured. RESULTS: The MICs of norfloxacin for three variants containing a single GyrA mutation were 16-fold higher than that for their parent isolates. A variant showing reduced norfloxacin accumulation in the cells, without mutations in the GyrA or ParC proteins, was also less sensitive to norfloxacin, with a 16-fold increase in the MIC, compared with the parent strain. The MIC of norfloxacin for a variant which contained a single GyrA mutation with reduced norfloxacin accumulation in the cells was 128-fold higher than for the parent strain. A variant containing mutations in both GyrA and ParC proteins with reduced accumulation of norfloxacin in the cells showed a 256-fold increase in the norfloxacin MIC compared with the parent strain. There was no variant containing a ParC mutation without the simultaneous presence of a GyrA mutation. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study suggest that not only a mutation in the gyrA gene but also reduced drug accumulation in cells contributes to the development of fluoroquinolone a mutation in the gyrA gene contributes to a high level of fluoroquinolone resistance in gonococci with decreases in accumulation in cells having an additional but lesser effect.
A highly discriminative and objective genetic characterization of N. gonorrhoeae, which increases our knowledge of strain populations in different geographic areas, is crucial for the development of improved control measures. In the present study, conventional phenotypic characterization and genetic characterization by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), sequencing of the entire porB gene, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and pyrosequencing of a quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene of Swedish ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae serovar IB-10 isolates (n=45) were performed. The genetic characterization identified one widely spread ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae ST147 strain. In addition, isolates with slightly different genetic characteristics, which presumably reflect the ongoing evolution only, were also identified. All the isolates contained single nucleotide polymorphisms in QRDR of the gyrA gene that are highly correlated with ciprofloxacin resistance. Consequently, comprehensive characterization identified the first confirmed large domestic transmission, mainly among young heterosexuals, of one ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strain in Swedish society during 2002–2003. In conclusion, a precise, i.e. genetic, characterization for identification of individual strains is a very valuable support to the crucial active surveillance of the epidemiological characteristics and the antibiotic susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae in the effective treatment of gonorrhoea.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae; ciprofloxacin resistance; molecular epidemiology; porB gene; NG-MAST
Wide use of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin has often led to increased resistance. The resistance rate to these two agents varies in different clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. Mutations of GyrA within the quinolone resistance-determining regions have been found to be the main mechanism for quinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. It has been shown that only some of the mutations in the gyrA gene identified from clinical sources were involved in fluoroquinolone resistance. Whether different patterns of gyrA mutation are related to antimicrobial resistance against ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin is unclear.
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were determined by the agar dilution method followed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the quinolone resistance determining region of gyrA to identify all the mutation types. The correlation between fluoroquinolone resistance and the individual mutation type was analyzed.
Resistance differences between ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were found in 327 isolates of K. pneumoniae and E. coli in Harbin, China and in the isolates reported in PubMed publications. GyrA mutations were found in both susceptible and resistant isolates. For the isolates with QRDR mutations, the resistance rates to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were also statistically different. Among the 14 patterns of alterations, two single mutations (Ser83Tyr and Ser83Ile), and three double mutations (Ser83Leu+Asp87Asn, Ser83Leu+Asp87Tyr and Ser83Phe+Asp87Asn) were associated with both ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistance. Two single mutations (Ser83Phe and Ser83Leu) were related with ciprofloxacin resistance but not to levofloxacin. Resistance difference between ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin in isolates harboring mutation Ser83Leu+Asp87Asn were of statistical significance among all Enterobacteriaceae (P<0.001).
Resistance rate to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were statistically different among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae harboring GyrA mutations. Ser83Leu+Asp87Asn may account for the antimicrobial resistance difference between ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin.
Enterobacteriaceae; Fluoroquinolone resistance; GyrA
Forty-two men with gonococcal urethritis were treated with an oral dosage of 200 mg of pazufloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone, three times daily for 3 days. Only 28 of the 42 men (66.7%) had negative culture results for Neisseria gonorrhoeae during follow-up. Of the 42 isolates, 41 could be recultured for antibiotic susceptibility testing and DNA sequencing. In 26 of the 41 isolates (63.4%), GyrA mutations with or without ParC mutations were identified. Among the 26 isolates, 23 contained a single GyrA mutation, 1 contained two GyrA mutations, and 2 contained three mutations including double GyrA and single ParC mutations. A single Ser-91-to-Phe mutation, which was detected in 14 of the 26 isolates, was the most common GyrA mutation, followed by an Ala-75 to Ser mutation and an Asp-95 to Asn or Gly mutation in GyrA. All three isolates with two or three mutations contained the Ser-91-to-Phe GyrA mutation. Eleven of the 14 isolates with the single Ser-91-to-Phe mutation within GyrA and all 3 isolates with two or three mutations persisted after pazufloxacin treatment. On the other hand, all 15 wild-type and 9 mutant isolates with a substitution at codon Ala-75 or Asp-95 were eradicated. The mean MIC of pazufloxacin for mutants with the single Ser-91-to-Phe mutation in GyrA was 66-fold higher than that for the wild type. The results obtained in this study suggest that a high prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant gonococcal isolates with the Ser-91-to-Phe mutation in GyrA reduced the efficacy of pazufloxacin as treatment for gonococcal urethritis.
gyrA mutations in quinolone-resistant pathogenic isolates of Staphylococcus spp. have been detected by the direct HinfI digestion of polymerase chain reaction products. Homology among gyrA genes allowed rapid examination of both coagulase-positive and -negative isolates. DNA sequence analysis revealed that ciprofloxacin resistance in Staphylococcus epidermidis is associated with a novel Ser-84----Phe mutation in the DNA gyrase A protein, analogous to Ser-84----Leu changes observed in Staphylococcus aureus.
Background. Quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (QRNG) arise from mutations in gyrA (intermediate resistance) or gyrA and parC (resistance). Here we tested the consequence of commonly isolated gyrA91/95 and parC86 mutations on gonococcal fitness.
Methods. Mutant gyrA91/95 and parC86 alleles were introduced into wild-type gonococci or an isogenic mutant that is resistant to macrolides due to an mtrR−79 mutation. Wild-type and mutant bacteria were compared for growth in vitro and in competitive murine infection.
Results. In vitro growth was reduced with increasing numbers of mutations. Interestingly, the gyrA91/95 mutation conferred an in vivo fitness benefit to wild-type and mtrR−79 mutant gonococci. The gyrA91/95, parC86 mutant, in contrast, showed a slight fitness defect in vivo, and the gyrA91/95, parC86, mtrR−79 mutant was markedly less fit relative to the parent strains. A ciprofloxacin-resistant (CipR) mutant was selected during infection with the gyrA91/95, parC86, mtrR−79 mutant in which the mtrR−79 mutation was repaired and the gyrA91 mutation was altered. This in vivo–selected mutant grew as well as the wild-type strain in vitro.
Conclusions. gyrA91/95 mutations may contribute to the spread of QRNG. Further acquisition of a parC86 mutation abrogates this fitness advantage; however, compensatory mutations can occur that restore in vivo fitness and maintain CipR.
The mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA and gyrB genes from 27 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli with a range of MICs of ciprofloxacin from 0.007 to 128 micrograms/ml and of nalidixic acid from 2 to > 2,000 micrograms/ml were determined by DNA sequencing. All 15 isolates with ciprofloxacin MICs of > or = 1 micrograms/ml showed a change in Ser-83 to Leu of GyrA protein, whereas in clinical isolates with a MIC of > or = 8 micrograms/ml (11 strains), a double change in Ser-83 and Asp-87 was found. All isolates with a MIC of nalidixic acid of > or = 128 micrograms/ml showed a mutation at amino acid codon Ser-83. Only 1 of the 27 clinical isolates of E. coli analyzed showed a change in Lys-447 of the B subunit of DNA gyrase. A change in Ser-83 is sufficient to generate a high level of resistance to nalidixic acid, whereas a second mutation at Asp-87 in the A subunit of DNA gyrase may play a complementary role in developing the strain's high levels of ciprofloxacin resistance.