Hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and pulmonary arterial hypertension are known complications of advanced COPD. We sought to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with these traits in a population of patients with severe COPD from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT).
In 389 participants from the NETT Genetics Ancillary Study, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in five candidate genes previously associated with COPD susceptibility (EPHX1, SERPINE2, SFTPB, TGFB1, and GSTP1). Linear regression models were used to test for associations among these SNPs and three quantitative COPD-related traits (Pao2, Paco2, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure). Genes associated with hypoxemia were tested for replication in probands from the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study.
In the NETT Genetics Ancillary Study population, SNPs in microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) [p = 0.01 to 0.04] and serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2) [p = 0.04 to 0.008] were associated with hypoxemia. One SNP within surfactant protein B (SFTPB) was associated with pulmonary artery systolic pressure (p = 0.01). In probands from the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study, SNPs in EPHX1 and in SERPINE2 were associated with the requirement for supplemental oxygen.
In participants with severe COPD, SNPs in EPHX1 and SERPINE2 were associated with hypoxemia in two separate study populations, and SNPs from SFTPB were associated with pulmonary artery pressure in the NETT participants.
case-control studies; COPD; genetics; phenotype; single-nucleotide polymorphism
Airflow limitation in COPD patients is not fully reversible. However, there may be large variability in bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) among COPD patients, and familial aggregation of BDR suggests a genetic component. Therefore we investigated the association between six candidate genes and BDR in subjects with severe COPD. A total of 389 subjects from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) were analyzed. Bronchodilator responsiveness to albuterol was expressed in three ways: absolute change in FEV1, change in FEV1 as a percent of baseline FEV1, and change in FEV1 as a percent of predicted FEV1. Genotyping was completed for 122 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes (EPHX1, SFTPB, TGFB1, SERPINE2, GSTP1, ADRB2). Associations between BDR phenotypes and SNP genotypes were tested using linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, pack-years of smoking, and height. Genes associated with BDR phenotypes in the NETT subjects were assessed for replication in 127 pedigrees from the Boston Early-Onset COPD (EOCOPD) Study. Three SNPs in EPHX1 (p = 0.009 – 0.04), three SNPs in SERPINE2 (p = 0.004 – 0.05) and two SNPs in ADRB2 (0.04 – 0.05) were significantly associated with BDR phenotypes in NETT subjects. BDR. One SNP in EPHX1 (rs1009668, p = 0.04) was significantly replicated in EOCOPD subjects. SNPs in SFTPB, TGFB1, and GSTP1 genes were not associated with BDR. In conclusion, a polymorphism of EPHX1 was associated with bronchodilator responsiveness phenotypes in subjects with severe COPD.
bronchodilator responsiveness; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; genetics; association analysis
smoking is the major causal factor in the development of chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), only 10-20% of chronic heavy
cigarette smokers develop symptomatic COPD which suggests the presence
of genetic susceptibility. This genetic susceptibility to COPD might
depend on variations in enzyme activities that detoxify cigarette smoke
products such as microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEPHX) and glutathione-S
transferase (GST). As there is increasing evidence that several genes
influence the development of COPD, multiple gene polymorphisms should
be investigated to find out the genetic susceptibility to COPD.
of 83 patients with COPD and 76 healthy smoking control subjects were
determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction
fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the mEPHX gene, and
multiplex PCR for GST M1 and GST T1 genes. The frequencies of
polymorphic genotypes of mEPHX, GST M1, and GST T1 genes were compared
both individually and in combination in patients with COPD and healthy smokers.
were observed in the frequency of polymorphic genotypes in exons 3 and
4 of mEPHX, GST M1, and GST T1 genes between patients with COPD and
healthy smokers. The frequencies of any combination of these genotypes
also showed no differences between the COPD group and the control group.
polymorphisms in mEPHX, GST M1, and GST T1 genes are not associated
with the development of COPD in Koreans.
To determine the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, GST T1, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) genes in a cohort of Slovak population.
Two hundred and seventeen patients with the diagnosis of COPD and 160 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected from all subjects and the DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes was used for subsequent genotyping assays, using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment-length polymorphism methods.
In an unadjusted model, an increased risk for COPD was observed in subjects with EPHX1 His113-His113 genotype (odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.69; P = 0.008), compared with the carriers of the Tyr113 allele. However, after the adjustments for age, sex, and smoking status, the risk was not significant (adjusted OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 0.91-3.53; P = 0.093). In a combined analysis of gene polymorphisms, the genotype combination EPHX1 His113-His113/GSTM1 null significantly increased the risk of COPD in both, unadjusted (OR, 5.08; 95% CI, 1.70-20.43; P = 0.001) and adjusted model (OR, 4.87; 95% CI, 1.57-15.13; P = 0.006).
Although none of the tested gene polymorphisms was significantly related to an increased risk of COPD alone, our results suggest that the homozygous exon 3 mutant variant of EPHX1 gene in the combination with GSTM1 null genotype is a significant predictor of increased susceptibility to COPD in the Slovak population. The findings of the present study emphasize the importance of detoxifying and antioxidant pathways in the pathogenesis of COPD.
The principal determining factors influencing the development of the airway disease and emphysema components of COPD have not been clearly defined. Genetic variability in COPD patients might influence the varying degrees of involvement of airway disease and emphysema. Therefore, we investigated genetic association of SNPs in COPD candidate genes for association with emphysema severity and airway wall thickness phenotypes.
Polymorphisms in six candidate genes were analyzed in 379 subjects of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) Genetics Ancillary Study with quantitative chest CT data. Genetic association with percent of lung below −950 hounsfield units (LAA950), airway wall thickness (WT), and derived square root wall area of 10 mm internal perimeter airways (SRWA) were investigated.
Three SNPs in EPHX1, five SNPs in SERPINE2, and one SNP in GSTP1 were significantly associated with LAA950. Five SNPs in TGFB1, two SNPs in EPHX1, one SNP in SERPINE2, and two SNPs in ADRB2 were associated with airway wall phenotypes in NETT.
In conclusion, several COPD candidate genes showed evidence for association with airway wall thickness and emphysema severity using CT in a severe COPD population. Further investigation will be required to replicate these genetic associations for emphysema and airway wall phenotypes.
Airway; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; computed tomography; emphysema; genetic association
In addition to smoking, genetic predisposition is believed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Genetic association studies of new candidate genes in COPD may lead to improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease.
Two proposed casual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (rs1051740, rs2234922) in microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) and three SNPs (rs1801282, rs1800571, rs3856806) in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), a new candidate gene, were genotyped in a case-control study (272 COPD patients and 301 controls subjects) in Hungary. Allele frequencies and genotype distributions were compared between the two cohorts and trend test was also used to evaluate association between SNPs and COPD. To estimate the strength of association, odds ratios (OR) (with 95% CI) were calculated and potential confounding variables were tested in logistic regression analysis. Association between haplotypes and COPD outcome was also assessed.
The distribution of imputed EPHX1 phenotypes was significantly different between the COPD and the control group (P = 0.041), OR for the slow activity phenotype was 1.639 (95% CI = 1.08- 2.49; P = 0.021) in our study. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for both variants, also age and pack-year, the rare allele of His447His of PPARG showed significant association with COPD outcome (OR = 1.853, 95% CI = 1.09-3.14, P = 0.0218). In haplotype analysis the GC haplotype of PPARG (OR = 0.512, 95% CI = 0.27-0.96, P = 0.035) conferred reduced risk for COPD.
The "slow" activity-associated genotypes of EPHX1 were associated with increased risk of COPD. The minor His447His allele of PPARG significantly increased; and the haplotype containing the minor Pro12Ala and the major His447His polymorphisms of PPARG decreased the risk of COPD.
Severe α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a proven genetic risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially in individuals who smoke. There is marked variability in the development of lung disease in individuals homozygous (PI ZZ) for this autosomal recessive condition, suggesting that modifier genes could be important. We hypothesized that genetic determinants of obstructive lung disease may be modifiers of airflow obstruction in individuals with severe AAT deficiency. To identify modifier genes, we performed family-based association analyses for 10 genes previously associated with asthma and/or COPD, including IL10, TNF, GSTP1, NOS1, NOS3, SERPINA3, SERPINE2, SFTPB, TGFB1, and EPHX1. All analyses were performed in a cohort of 378 PI ZZ individuals from 167 families. Quantitative spirometric phenotypes included forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC). A qualitative phenotype of moderate-to-severe COPD was defined for individuals with FEV1 ⩽ 50 percent predicted. Six of 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL10 (P = 0.0005–0.05) and 3 of 5 SNPs in TNF (P = 0.01–0.05) were associated with FEV1 and/or FEV1/FVC. IL10 SNPs also demonstrated association with the qualitative COPD phenotype. When phenotypes of individuals with a physician's diagnosis of asthma were excluded, IL10 SNPs remained significantly associated, suggesting that the association with airflow obstruction was independent of an association with asthma. Haplotype analysis of IL10 SNPs suggested the strongest association with IL10 promoter SNPs. IL10 is likely an important modifier gene for the development of COPD in individuals with severe AAT deficiency.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; genetic modifiers; interleukin 10; family-based association analysis
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) is an enzyme involved in the detoxification the products of smoking and is proposed to be a genetic factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two functional polymorphisms of EPHX1, T113C and A139G, have been analyzed in numerous studies to assess the COPD risk attributed to these variants. However, the conclusions were controversial. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to clarify these findings. A total of 24 studies comprising 8,259 COPD patients and 42,883 controls were included. The overall results showed that the EPHX1 113 mutant homozygote was significantly associated with an increased risk of COPD (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06–1.69). The subgroup analyses demonstrated this association in Caucasian individuals (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.12–2.31) but not in Asian individuals. The 139 mutant heterozygote was significantly associated with a decreased risk of COPD in Asian populations (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68–0.99) but not in Caucasian populations. Pooled analyses revealed that the extremely slow (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.23–2.55) and slow EPHX1 enzyme activity (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.13–1.85) were associated with an increased risk of COPD, while the fast enzyme activity was not associated with a decreased risk of COPD. The stratified analysis demonstrated this association in Caucasian but not in Asian individuals. Furthermore, a modest difference in the risk of COPD was observed between the subgroups by using the cigarette smokers or the non-smokers as controls. A significant correlation between the two functional polymorphisms, T113C and A139G, of the EPHX1 gene and the enzyme activity and the individual’s susceptibility to COPD was noted. In addition, the results supported a contribution of EPHX1 to the aetiology of COPD.
microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; polymorphism; meta-analysis
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by alveolar destruction and abnormal inflammatory responses to noxious stimuli. Surfactant protein–D (SFTPD) is immunomodulatory and essential to host defense. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in SFTPD could influence the susceptibility to COPD. We genotyped six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in surfactant protein D in 389 patients with COPD in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) and 472 smoking control subjects from the Normative Aging Study (NAS). Case-control association analysis was performed using Cochran–Armitage trend tests and multivariate logistic regression. The replication of significant associations was attempted in the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study, the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) Study, and the Bergen Cohort. We also correlated SFTPD genotypes with serum concentrations of surfactant protein–D (SP-D) in the ECLIPSE Study. In the NETT–NAS case-control analysis, four SFTPD SNPs were associated with susceptibility to COPD: rs2245121 (P = 0.01), rs911887 (P = 0.006), rs6413520 (P = 0.004), and rs721917 (P = 0.006). In the family-based analysis of the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study, rs911887 was associated with prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FEV1 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.02, respectively). An intronic SNP in SFTPD, rs7078012, was associated with COPD in the ECLIPSE Study and the Bergen Cohort. Multiple SFTPD SNPs were associated with serum SP-D concentrations in the ECLIPSE Study. We demonstrated an association of polymorphisms in SFTPD with COPD in multiple populations. We demonstrated a correlation between SFTPD SNPs and SP-D protein concentrations. The SNPs associated with COPD and SP-D concentrations differed, suggesting distinct genetic influences on susceptibility to COPD and SP-D concentrations.
COPD; surfactant protein–D; single-nucleotide polymorphisms; genetics
Rationale: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has been demonstrated to provide a functional and mortality benefit to a select group of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effect of LVRS on COPD exacerbations has not been as extensively studied, and whether improvement in postoperative lung function alters the risk of disease exacerbations is not known.
Objectives: To examine the effect, and mechanism of potential benefit, of LVRS on COPD exacerbations by comparing the medical and surgical cohorts of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT).
Methods: A COPD exacerbation was defined using Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, discharge diagnosis.
Measurements and Main Results: There was no difference in exacerbation rate or time to first exacerbation between the medical and surgical cohorts during the year before study randomization (P = 0.58 and 0.85, respectively). Postrandomization, the surgical cohort experienced an approximate 30% reduction in exacerbation frequency (P = 0.0005). This effect was greatest in those subjects with the largest postoperative improvement in FEV1 (P = 0.04) when controlling for changes in other spirometric measures of lung function, lung capacities, and room air arterial blood gas tensions. Finally, LVRS increased the time to first exacerbation in both those subjects with and those without a prior history of exacerbations (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.0001, respectively).
Conclusions: LVRS reduces the frequency of COPD exacerbations and increases the time to first exacerbation. One explanation for this benefit may be the postoperative improvement in lung function.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00000606).
COPD; LVRS; exacerbation
Surfactant protein D (SFTPD) induces emphysema in knockout mice, but the association of SFTPD with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema in humans is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association between genetic variations in SFTPD and susceptibility to COPD and emphysema.
Two populations were studied: population A comprised 270 smokers, including 188 COPD and 82 at-risk subjects, and population B comprised 1131 autopsy cases including 160 cases with emphysema. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that tagged the linkage disequilibrium blocks on the entire SFTPD gene were genotyped; the associations of the genotypes with COPD, pulmonary function, percentage of the low-attenuation area (LAA%), and percentage of the airway wall area (WA%) were determined in population A. In population B, the associations of the genotypes with emphysema were assessed.
A C allele at SNP rs721917 that results in the replacement of Met with Thr at position 11 in SFTPD was positively correlated with the LAA% in the upper lung (P=1.1 × 10−5) and overall LAA% (P=1.0 × 10−4), and negatively correlated with the serum concentration of SFTPD (P=7 × 10−11) in the population A. The C/C (rs721917/rs10887199) haplotype was associated with emphysema in both the populations.
Subjects with a C allele at rs721917 have a lower serum SFTPD concentration and are more susceptible to emphysema. This suggests a protective effect of SFTPD against COPD and emphysema.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; emphysema; genetic variation; pulmonary surfactant-associated protein D
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) metabolises xenobiotics including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Functional variants at this locus have been associated with respiratory diseases. The effects of EPHX1 variants may depend upon exposures from tobacco smoke and traffic emissions that contain PAHs as well as variants in other enzymes in the PAH metabolic pathway such as glutathione S‐transferase (GST) genes. A study was undertaken to investigate associations of variants in EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 with asthma and the relationships between asthma, EPHX1 metabolic phenotypes and exposure to sources of PAHs.
Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed to estimate the associations of genetic variants and exposures with asthma phenotypes using data from 3124 children from the Children's Health Study.
High EPHX1 activity was associated with an increased risk for lifetime asthma (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.98) which varied by GSTP1 Ile105Val genotype and by residential proximity to major roads (p for interaction = 0.006 and 0.03, respectively). Among children with GSTP1 105Val/Val genotype, those who had high EPHX1 phenotype had a fourfold (95% CI 1.97 to 8.16) increased risk of lifetime asthma than children with low/intermediate EPHX1 phenotype. Among children living within 75 metres of a major road, those with high EPHX1 activity had a 3.2‐fold (95% CI 1.75 to 6.00) higher lifetime asthma risk than those with low/intermediate activity. The results were similar for current, early persistent and late onset asthma. Children with high EPHX1 phenotype, GSTP1 Val/Val genotype who lived <75 metres from a major road were at the highest asthma risk.
EPHX1 and GSTP1 variants contribute to the occurrence of childhood asthma and increase asthma susceptibility to exposures from major roads.
Although smoking is the major causal factor in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), only 10–20% of chronic heavy cigarette smokers develop symptomatic COPD, which suggests the presence of genetic susceptibility. The human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EH) is a metabolizing enzyme which involves the process of numerous reactive epoxide intermediates and contains polymorphic alleles which are associated with altered EH activity and may be linked to increased risk for COPD. To determine whether the EH polymorphisms contributed to increased risk for COPD, prevalence of the EH codons 113 and 139 polymorphisms were compared between COPD patients and controls using a PCR-RFLP analysis using genomic DNA isolated from 131 COPD patients and 262 individually matched controls by age (± 5 years) among Caucasians with 1:2 ratio. Significantly increased risk for COPD was observed for subjects with the EH113His/His genotypes (OR =2.4, 95% CI=1.1–5.1). These results were consistent with the fact that a significant trend towards increased risk was observed with predicted less protective EH codon 113 genotypes (p = 0.03, trend test). A similar association was not observed for EH codon139 polymorphism. As expected, a significant correlation between smoking dose and severity of COPD was observed (p<0.001). These results suggest that EH codon 113 polymorphism may modify risk for COPD.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; epoxide hydrolase; genetic polymorphism; genetic susceptibility
There are limited data describing patients with moderate COPD exacerbations and evaluating comparative effectiveness of maintenance treatments in this patient population. The study examined COPD patients with moderate COPD exacerbations. COPD-related outcomes were compared between patients initiating fluticasone propionate-salmeterol 250/50 mcg (FSC) vs anticholinergics (ACs) following a moderate COPD exacerbation.
This retrospective observational study used a large administrative claims database (study period: 2003–2009) to identify and describe patients with an initial, moderate COPD exacerbation. A descriptive analysis of patients with moderate COPD exacerbations was done evaluating maintenance treatment rates, subsequent COPD exacerbation rates, and COPD-related costs during a 1-year period. A cohort analysis compared COPD exacerbation rates and associated costs during a variable-length follow-up period between patients initiating maintenance therapy with FSC or ACs. COPD exacerbations were reported as rate per 100 patient-years, and monthly costs were reported (standardized to USD 2009). COPD exacerbation rates between cohorts were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models, and costs were analyzed using generalized linear models with log-link and gamma distribution.
21,524 patients with a moderate COPD exacerbation were identified. Only 25% initiated maintenance therapy, and 13% had a subsequent exacerbation. Annual costs averaged $594 per patient. A total of 2,849 treated patients (FSC = 925; AC = 1,924) were eligible for the cohort analysis. The FSC cohort had a significantly lower rate of COPD exacerbations compared to the AC cohort (20.8 vs 32.8; P = 0.04). After adjusting for differences in baseline covariates, the FSC cohort had a 42% significantly lower risk of a COPD exacerbation (HR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.91). The FSC cohort incurred significantly higher adjusted pharmacy costs per patient per month by $37 (95% CI: $19, $72) for COPD-related medications vs the AC cohort. However, this increase was offset by a significant reduction in adjusted monthly medical costs per patient for the FSC vs the AC cohort ($82 vs $112; P < 0.05). Total monthly COPD-related costs, as a result, did not differ between cohorts.
Only a quarter of patients with a moderate COPD exacerbation were subsequently treated with maintenance therapy. Initiation of FSC among those treated was associated with better clinical and economic outcomes compared to AC.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Moderate COPD exacerbations; Costs; Anticholinergics; Fluticasone propionate-salmeterol combination
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease with multifactorial background, based on the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. Environmental factors are clearly related to the development of the disease. However, family and twin studies suggested genetics factors to be one of the important determinants for the development of COPD. Different approaches have been used to identify genes of interest. Genomewide linkage analysis found areas of interest on different chromosomes, with some genes located in this regions being identified and replicated as susceptibility genes. Numerous of candidate genes that could be linked to disease pathogenesis have been implicated in COPD genetics. However, the candidate gene approach is often limited by inconsistent results in other study populations. Recently, a combination of different methods is used giving more evidence for some candidate genes, including TGFß-1, Surfactant, SERPINE2 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase. In the future ongoing exact phenotype definition, combination of several approaches, genome-wide association studies and animal model genetics will lead to new insights into the genetics of COPD, with epigenetic factors needs to be further investigated and considered in concert with genetic findings.
that contribute to the local detoxification in alveoli and bronchioles
have an important role in the defence mechanism against tobacco smoke.
It has been suggested that genetic susceptibility to smoking injury may
confer a risk for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease (COPD). The polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase P1
(GSTP1), a xenobiotic metabolising enzyme, were investigated in
patients with COPD.
chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism
(RFLP) were performed to genotype GSTP1 polymorphisms in exon 5 (Ile105Val) and exon 6 (Ala114Val). Blood samples were taken from 53 patients with COPD and 50 control subjects at the Tokyo University
Hospital, the Juntendo University Hospital, and the Tokyo Kenbikyoin
Clinic for use in the study.
proportion of GSTP1/Ile105 homozygotes was significantly higher in the
patients with COPD than in the control subjects (79% vs 52%). The
odds ratio for GSTP1/Ile105 homozygotes versus all other genotypes was
3.5 (95% CI 2.7 to 4.6) for COPD. Polymorphism at residue 114 of GSTP1
was not found in either group.
polymorphism of exon 5 of GSTP1 may be associated with COPD because the
GSTP1/Ile105 genotype is predominantly found in COPD. It is suggested
that the GSTP1/Ile105 genotype may be less protective against
xenobiotics in tobacco smoke.
Acrylamide (AA) is formed in heat treated carbohydrate rich foods in the so-called Maillard reaction. AA is readily absorbed in the body and converted to glycidamide (GA) by epoxidation by the CYP2E1 (cytochrome P450 2E) enzyme. Both AA and GA may be detoxified through direct conjunction to glutathione by glutathione-S-transferases and GA by hydrolysis to glyceramide. Recently, we reported that biomarkers of AA exposure reflect intake of major food sources of AA; there were large interindividual variations in the blood ratio of GA-Hb/AA-Hb (GA- and AA-hemoglobin adducts). In this study we investigated whether the ratio of GA-Hb/AA-Hb in subjects could be related to polymorphic differences in genes coding for metabolizing enzymes CYP2E1, EPHX1 (microsomal epoxide hydrolase), GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1, all being expected to be involved in the activation and detoxification of AA-associated adducts. We found significant associations between GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes and the ratio of GA-Hb/AA-Hb (p = 0.039 and p = 0.006, respectively). The ratio of GA-Hb/AA-Hb in individuals with the combined GSTM1- and GSTT1-null variants was significantly (p = 0.029) higher than those with the wild-type genotypes. Although the number of subjects was small, there were also significant associations with other combinations; CYP2E1 (Val179Val) plus GSTM1-null (p = 0.022); CYP2E1 (Val/Val), GSTM1-null plus GSTT1-null (p = 0.047); and CYP2E1 (Val/Val), GSTT1 null, EPHX1 (Tyr113Tyr) plus EPHX1 (His139Arg) (p = 0.018). Individuals with these combined genotypes had significantly higher blood ratio of GA-Hb/AA-Hb than other combinations. The observed associations correspond with what would be expected from the relative roles of these enzymes in activation and detoxification of AA, except for individuals with the EPHX1 (His139Arg) variant. The internal dose of genotoxic metabolite and also the concentration of AA in blood seem to be affected by these polymorphic genes. The genotypes and their combination may constitute useful biomarkers for the assessment of individual susceptibility to AA intake, and could add to the precision of epidemiological studies of dietary cancer.
cytochrome P450 2E1; glutathione-S-transferase; SNPs; polymorphisms; glycidamide; acrylamide; biotransformation
Although a hereditary contribution to emphysema has been long suspected, severe α1-antitrypsin deficiency remains the only conclusively proven genetic risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recently, genome-wide linkage analysis has led to the identification of two promising candidate genes for COPD: TGFB1 and SERPINE2. Like multiple other COPD candidate gene associations, even these positionally identified genes have not been universally replicated across all studies. Differences in phenotype definition may contribute to nonreplication in genetic studies of heterogeneous disorders such as COPD. The use of precisely measured phenotypes, including emphysema quantification on high-resolution chest computed tomography scans, has aided in the discovery of additional genes for clinically relevant COPD-related traits. The use of computed tomography scans to assess emphysema and airway disease as well as newer genetic technologies, including gene expression microarrays and genome-wide association studies, has great potential to detect novel genes affecting COPD susceptibility, severity, and response to treatment.
α1-antitrypsin deficiency; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; genetic linkage; single-nucleotide polymorphism
Rationale: Respiratory virus infections are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, but a causative relationship has not been proven. Studies of naturally occurring exacerbations are difficult and the mechanisms linking virus infection to exacerbations are poorly understood. We hypothesized that experimental rhinovirus infection in subjects with COPD would reproduce the features of naturally occurring COPD exacerbations and is a valid model of COPD exacerbations.
Objectives: To evaluate experimental rhinovirus infection as a model of COPD exacerbation and to investigate the mechanisms of virus-induced exacerbations.
Methods: We used experimental rhinovirus infection in 13 subjects with COPD and 13 nonobstructed control subjects to investigate clinical, physiologic, pathologic, and antiviral responses and relationships between virus load and these outcomes.
Measurements and Main Results: Clinical data; inflammatory mediators in blood, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage; and viral load in nasal lavage, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage were measured at baseline and after infection with rhinovirus 16. After rhinovirus infection subjects with COPD developed lower respiratory symptoms, airflow obstruction, and systemic and airway inflammation that were greater and more prolonged compared with the control group. Neutrophil markers in sputum related to clinical outcomes and virus load correlated with inflammatory markers. Virus load was higher and IFN production by bronchoalveolar lavage cells was impaired in the subjects with COPD.
Conclusions: We have developed a new model of COPD exacerbation that strongly supports a causal relationship between rhinovirus infection and COPD exacerbations. Impaired IFN production and neutrophilic inflammation may be important mechanisms in virus-induced COPD exacerbations.
disease exacerbation; respiratory tract infections; COPD; rhinovirus
The percentage of neutrophils in sputum are increased in COPD patients, and may therefore be a biomarker of airway inflammation. We studied the relationships between sputum neutrophils and FEV1, health status, exacerbation rates, systemic inflammation and emphysema, and long term variability at 1 year.
Sputum samples were obtained from 488 COPD patients within the ECLIPSE cohort. 359 samples were obtained at baseline, and 297 after 1 year. 168 subjects provided samples at both visits. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, surfactant protein D and C-reactive protein levels were measured by immunoassays. Low-dose CT scans evaluated emphysema.
Sputum neutrophil % increased with GOLD stage. There was a weak association between % sputum neutrophils and FEV1 % predicted (univariate r2 = 0.025 and 0.094 at baseline and year 1 respectively, p < 0.05 after multivariate regression). Similar weak but significant associations were observed between neutrophil % and health status measured using the St Georges Respiratory Questionairre. There were no associations between neutrophils and exacerbation rates or emphysema. Associations between sputum neutrophils and systemic biomarkers were non-significant or similarly weak. The mean change over 1 year in neutrophil % was an increase of 3.5%.
Sputum neutrophil measurements in COPD are associated weakly with FEV1 % predicted and health status. Sputum neutrophil measurements were dissociated from exacerbation rates, emphysema and systemic inflammation.
There is considerable variability in the susceptibility of smokers to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The only known genetic risk factor is severe deficiency of α1-antitrypsin, which is present in 1–2% of individuals with COPD. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a homogenous case-control cohort from Bergen, Norway (823 COPD cases and 810 smoking controls) and evaluated the top 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the family-based International COPD Genetics Network (ICGN; 1891 Caucasian individuals from 606 pedigrees) study. The polymorphisms that showed replication were further evaluated in 389 subjects from the US National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) and 472 controls from the Normative Aging Study (NAS) and then in a fourth cohort of 949 individuals from 127 extended pedigrees from the Boston Early-Onset COPD population. Logistic regression models with adjustments of covariates were used to analyze the case-control populations. Family-based association analyses were conducted for a diagnosis of COPD and lung function in the family populations. Two SNPs at the α-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA 3/5) locus were identified in the genome-wide association study. They showed unambiguous replication in the ICGN family-based analysis and in the NETT case-control analysis with combined p-values of 1.48×10−10, (rs8034191) and 5.74×10−10 (rs1051730). Furthermore, these SNPs were significantly associated with lung function in both the ICGN and Boston Early-Onset COPD populations. The C allele of the rs8034191 SNP was estimated to have a population attributable risk for COPD of 12.2%. The association of hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) locus on chromosome 4 was also consistently replicated, but did not reach genome-wide significance levels. Genome-wide significant association of the HHIP locus with lung function was identified in the Framingham Heart study (Wilk et al., companion article in this issue of PLoS Genetics; doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000429). The CHRNA 3/5 and the HHIP loci make a significant contribution to the risk of COPD. CHRNA3/5 is the same locus that has been implicated in the risk of lung cancer.
There is considerable variability in the susceptibility of smokers to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is a heritable multi-factorial trait. Identifying the genetic determinants of COPD risk will have tremendous public health importance. This study describes the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) in COPD. We conducted a GWAS in a homogenous case-control cohort from Norway and evaluated the top 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the family-based International COPD Genetics Network. The polymorphisms that showed replication were further evaluated in subjects from the US National Emphysema Treatment Trial and controls from the Normative Aging Study and then in a fourth cohort of extended pedigrees from the Boston Early-Onset COPD population. Two polymorphisms in the α-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor 3/5 locus on chromosome 15 showed unambiguous evidence of association with COPD. This locus has previously been implicated in both smoking behavior and risk of lung cancer, suggesting the possibility of multiple functional polymorphisms in the region or a single polymorphism with wide phenotypic consequences. The hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) locus on chromosome 4, which is associated with COPD, is also a significant risk locus for COPD.
Rationale & Aim
Pulmonary surfactants are essential components of lung homeostasis. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), surfactant expression decreases in lungs whereas, there is a paradoxical increase in protein expression in plasma. The latter has been associated with poor health outcomes in COPD. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of surfactants and other pneumoproteins in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and plasma to airflow limitation and the effects of budesonide/formoterol on this relationship.
We recruited (clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT00569712) 7 smokers without COPD and 30 ex and current smokers with COPD who were free of exacerbations for at least 4 weeks. All subjects were treated with budesonide/formoterol 400/12 µg twice a day for 4 weeks. BAL fluid and plasma samples were obtained at baseline and the end of the 4 weeks. We measured lung-predominant pneumoproteins: pro-Surfactant Protein-B (pro-SFTPB), Surfactant Protein-D (SP-D), Club Cell Secretory Protein-16 (CCSP-16) and Pulmonary and Activation-Regulated Chemokine (PARC/CCL-18) in BAL fluid and plasma.
BAL Pro-SFTPB concentrations had the strongest relationship with airflow limitation as measured by FEV1/FVC (Spearman rho = 0.509; p = 0.001) and FEV1% of predicted (Spearman rho = 0.362; p = 0.028). Plasma CCSP-16 concentrations were also significantly related to airflow limitation (Spearman rho = 0.362; p = 0.028 for FEV1% of predicted). The other biomarkers in BAL fluid or plasma were not significantly associated with airflow limitation. In COPD subjects, budesonide/formoterol significantly increased the BAL concentrations of pro-SFTPB by a median of 62.46 ng/ml (p = 0.022) or 48.7% from baseline median value.
Increased severity of COPD is associated with reduced Pro-SFTPB levels in BAL fluid. Short-term treatment with budesonide/formoterol increases these levels in BAL fluid. Long term studies will be needed to determine the clinical relevance of this observation.
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) plays an important role in both the activation and detoxification of PAHs, which are carcinogens found in cooked meat and tobacco smoking. Polymorphisms at exons 3 and 4 of the EPHX1 gene have been reported to be associated with variations in EPHX1 activity. The aim of this study is to quantitatively summarize the relationship between EPHX1 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk.
Two investigators independently searched the Medline, Embase, CNKI, and Chinese Biomedicine Databases for studies published before June 2012. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for EPHX1 Tyr113His (rs1051740) and His139Arg (rs2234922) polymorphisms and CRC were calculated in a fixed-effects model and a random-effects model when appropriate.
This meta-analysis yielded 14 case-control studies, which included 13 studies for Tyr113His (6395 cases and 7893 controls) and 13 studies for His139Arg polymorphisms (5375 cases and 6962 controls). Overall, the pooled results indicated that EPHX1 Tyr113His polymorphism was not associated with CRC risk; while the His139Arg polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased CRC risk (Arg/His vs. His/His, OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.83–0.98; dominant model, OR = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85–0.99). The statistically significant association between EPHX1 His139Arg polymorphism and CRC was observed among Caucasians and population-based case-control studies. This association showed little heterogeneity and remained consistently strong when analyses were limited to studies in which genotype frequencies were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, or limited to studies with matched controls. When cumulative meta-analyses of the two associations were conducted by studies’ publication time, the results were persistent and robust.
This meta-analysis suggests that EPHX1 Tyr113His polymorphism may be not associated with CRC development; while the EPHX1 His139Arg polymorphism may have a potential protective effect on CRC.
Rationale: Computed tomography (CT) scanning of the lung may reduce phenotypic heterogeneity in defining subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and allow identification of genetic determinants of emphysema severity and distribution.
Objectives: We sought to identify genes associated with CT scan distribution of emphysema in individuals without α1-antitrypsin deficiency but with severe COPD.
Methods: We evaluated baseline CT densitometry phenotypes in 282 individuals with emphysema enrolled in the Genetics Ancillary Study of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial, and used regression models to identify genetic variants associated with emphysema distribution.
Measurements and Main Results: Emphysema distribution was assessed by two methods—assessment by radiologists and by computerized density mask quantitation, using a threshold of −950 Hounsfield units. A total of 77 polymorphisms in 20 candidate genes were analyzed for association with distribution of emphysema. GSTP1, EPHX1, and MMP1 polymorphisms were associated with the densitometric, apical-predominant distribution of emphysema (p value range = 0.001–0.050). When an apical-predominant phenotype was defined by the radiologist scoring method, GSTP1 and EPHX1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated. In a case–control analysis of COPD susceptibility limited to cases with densitometric upper-lobe–predominant cases, the EPHX1 His139Arg single-nucleotide polymorphism was associated with COPD (p = 0.005).
Conclusions: Apical and basal emphysematous destruction appears to be influenced by different genes. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic enzymes, GSTP1 and EPHX1, are associated with apical-predominant emphysema. Altered detoxification of cigarette smoke metabolites may contribute to emphysema distribution, and these findings may lead to further insight into genetic determinants of emphysema.
COPD; genetics; association analysis; computed tomography; emphysema
The epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been dominated by one hypothesis stating that cigarette smoking and chronic bronchitis were the key to pathogenesis and another that asthma, chronic bronchitis, and even emphysema are related to different expressions of a primary airway abnormality. The first hypothesis was rejected in the late 1960s based on a longitudinal study of working men where only a fraction of smokers developed COPD and where development of COPD was independent of the absence or presence of chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis in more advanced COPD was subsequently associated with a more rapid decline in lung function and more frequent exacerbations. The second hypothesis is more difficult to test but longitudinal studies have shown that the presence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness may predict the subjects who go on to develop COPD. This brief review attempts to reconcile these findings with the pathology found in the lung.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; pathology; epidemiology; smoking; pathogenesis