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1.  Public Health Works: Blood Donation in Urban China 
Social science & medicine (1982)  2008;68(3):410-418.
Recent shifts in the global health infrastructure warrant consideration of the value and effectiveness of national public health campaigns. These shifts include the globalization of pharmaceutical research, the rise of NGO-funded health interventions, and the rise of biosecurity models of international health. We argue that although these trends have arisen as worthwhile responses to actual health needs, it is important to remember the key role that public health campaigns can play in the promotion of national health, especially in developing nations. Focusing on an example set by China in response to a public health crisis surrounding the national need for a clean and adequate blood supply and the inadvertent spread of HIV by way of blood donation in the early 19902, we argue that there is an important role for strong national public health programs. We also identify the key factors that enabled China’s response to this bourgeoning epidemic to be, in the end, largely successful.
doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.11.006
PMCID: PMC2770237  PMID: 19058887
China; Public Health; Blood Donation; interventions; HIV
2.  Elimination of Leprosy as a public health problem by 2000 AD: an epidemiological perspective 
Introduction
Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae and manifests as damage to the skin and peripheral nerves. The disease is dreaded because it causes deformities, blindness and disfigurement. Worldwide, 2 million people are estimated to be disabled by leprosy. Multidrug therapy is highly effective in curing leprosy, but treating the nerve damage is much more difficult. The World Health Assembly targeted to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem from the world by 2000. The objective of the review was to assess the successes of the leprosy elimination strategy, elimination hurdles and the way forward for leprosy eradication.
Methods
A structured search was used to identify publications on the elimination strategy. The keywords used were leprosy, elimination and 2000. To identify potential publications, we included papers on leprosy elimination monitoring, special action projects for the elimination of leprosy, modified leprosy elimination campaigns, and the Global Alliance to eliminate leprosy from the following principal data bases: Cochrane data base of systematic reviews, PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and the Leprosy data base. We also scanned reference lists for important citations. Key leprosy journals including WHO publications were also reviewed.
Results
The search identified 63 journal publications on leprosy-related terms that included a form of elimination of which 19 comprehensively tackled the keywords including a book on leprosy elimination. In 1991, the 44th World Health Assembly called for the elimination of leprosy as a public health problem in the world by 2000. Elimination was defined as less than one case of leprosy per 10000-population. Elimination has been made possible by a confluence of several orders of opportunities: the scientific (the natural history of leprosy at the present state of knowledge), technological (multi-drug therapy and the blister pack); political (commitment of governments) and financial (support from NGOs for example the Nippon Foundation that supplies free multi-drug therapy) opportunities. Elimination created the unrealistic expectation that the leprosy problem could be solved by 2000. First, the elimination goal was not feasible in several areas which had high incidence of leprosy. Even if elimination was to be attained, significant numbers of new cases of leprosy would continue to occur and many people with physical imperfections, severe psychological, economic and social problems caused by leprosy would need continuous assistance. Extra-human reservoirs of Mycobacterium leprae, the relationship between leprosy and poverty, prevention of disabilities, lack of a reliable laboratory test to detect subclinical infection and a vaccine are also challenging issues.
Conclusion
The evidence base available to inform on leprosy elimination is highly positive with the availability of multi-drug therapy blister packs. There are concerns that leprosy was not the right disease to be targeted for elimination as there are no reliable diagnostic tests to detect subclinical infection including the lack of a vaccine, extra-human reservoirs (monkeys and armadillos), increase in the burden of child cases, no good epidemiological indicator as prevalence instead of incidence is used to measure elimination. Multi-drug therapy treats leprosy very well but there is no proof that it concurrently interrupts transmission. The high social stigma, prevention of disabilities, and the relationship between leprosy and poverty are still major concerns.
PMCID: PMC3215526  PMID: 22145052
Leprosy; elimination; multi-drug therapy; public health; eradication; epidemiology
3.  The World Health Organization and global smallpox eradication 
Background:
This article examines the multifaceted structures and complex operations of the World Health Organization and its regional offices; it also reassesses the form and the workings of the global smallpox eradication programme with which these bodies were closely linked in the 1960s and 1970s.
Methods:
Using the case study of South Asia, it seeks to highlight the importance of writing nuanced histories of international health campaigns through an assessment of differences between official rhetoric and practice.
Results and conclusion:
The article argues that the detailed examination of the implementation of policy in a variety of localities, within and across national borders, allows us to recognise the importance of the agency of field managers and workers. This analytical approach also helps us acknowledge that communities were able to influence the shape and the timing of completion of public health campaigns in myriad ways. This, in turn, can provide useful pointers for the design and management of health programmes in the contemporary world.
doi:10.1136/jech.2006.055590
PMCID: PMC2602749  PMID: 18791049
4.  Decreasing the incidence of osteoporosis-related injuries through diet and exercise. 
Public Health Reports  1984;99(6):609-613.
Osteoporosis is the most common systemic bone disorder in the United States. It affects 15 million people--primarily women--causing thousands of injuries and deaths per year at a cost estimated at +3.8 billion annually. Two important factors in preventing osteoporosis are regular exercise and adequate calcium intake throughout life. Studies have shown that the average daily consumption of calcium by premenopausal and postmenopausal American women is between one-third and one-half that needed to maintain a positive calcium balance and prevent the loss of bone mass. This proposal elaborates the following specific ways that our health care and educational institutions can change these prospects: a screening program for women of all ages, to identify those most at risk for developing osteoporosis; an increase in the recommended daily dietary allowance for calcium; a public information campaign about osteoporosis, using television and radio; an investigation of the feasibility of calcium additives in the American diet; and the establishment of an organization to develop educational programs and monitor research in osteoporosis prevention. Now is the time to make the appropriate efforts to better the prospects for millions to enjoy a long and healthier life.
PMCID: PMC1424638  PMID: 6440206
5.  Public health 2020. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6962):1147-1149.
The aim of public health is to improve the health of people in communities and in populations (protection from environmental hazards and provision for health needs). The challenge for public health doctors is to re-establish public health leadership of communities, address social and environmental causes of ill health, and link with primary care (a) to improve the health of neighbourhoods and (b) to combine perspectives in commissioning services. Current threats derive from organisational philosophies. For example, focusing on market development does not allow for population based functions and so neglects the main influences on health. The way forward is a network model of organisation in which small teams collaborate with each other to the common good. For example, successful commissioning authorities would have the public health leadership of the director of public health and the support of the chief executive, treasurer, and representatives of primary care, including a medical adviser from the family health services authority.
PMCID: PMC2541941  PMID: 7987113
6.  Participatory and Social Media to Engage Youth: From the Obama Campaign to Public Health Practice 
Ethnicity & disease  2011;21(3 0 1):S1-94-9.
Barack Obama’s successful campaign for the presidency has been widely attributed to the use of social networking sites, mobile devices, and interactive websites to engage previously hard-to-reach populations in political activity. Campaign communication strategies may be applicable for youth health promotion efforts, particularly for the highly stigmatized issue of mental health. In this article, we examine elements of the 2008 Obama presidential campaign’s use of social media technologies and content designed to foster effective political participation among youth. We outline how the same social media technologies may be applied to public health efforts focused on reaching and providing services to the 20% of young people who have a diagnosable mental disorder. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the application of these media to date, and raise questions about the future use of these media for engaging hard-to-reach populations in addressing stigmatized public health issues.
PMCID: PMC3719417  PMID: 22352086
Social Media; Mental Health; Youth; Health Communication; Community Outreach
7.  A Visual Dashboard for Moving Health Technologies From “Lab to Village” 
New technologies are an important way of addressing global health challenges and human development. However, the road for new technologies from “lab to village” is neither simple nor straightforward. Until recently, there has been no conceptual framework for analyzing and addressing the myriad forces and issues involved in moving health technologies from the lab to those who need them. Recently, based on empirical research, we published such a model. In this paper, we focus on extending the model into a dashboard and examine how this dashboard can be used to manage the information related to the path from lab to village. The next step will be for groups interested in global health, and even the public via the Internet, to use the tool to help guide technologies down this tricky path to improve global health and foster human development.
doi:10.2196/jmir.9.4.e32
PMCID: PMC2223189  PMID: 17951216
Public health; data visualization; Grand Challenges; global health; information dashboard; technology adoption; biotechnology; collaboration; bioethics; lab to village
8.  Recommendations for headache service organisation and delivery in Europe 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(4):419-426.
Headache disorders are a major public-health priority, and there is pressing need for effective solutions to them. Better health care for headache—and ready access to it—are central to these solutions; therefore, the organisation of headache-related services within the health systems of Europe becomes an important focus. These recommendations are the result of collaboration between the European Headache Federation and Lifting The Burden: the Global Campaign against Headache. The process of development included wide consultation. To meet the very high level of need for headache care both effectively and efficiently, the recommendations formulate a basic three-level model of health-care organisation rationally spread across primary and secondary health-care sectors, taking account of the different skills and expertise in these sectors. They recognise that health services are differently structured in countries throughout Europe, and not always adequately resourced. Therefore, they aim to be adaptable to suit these differences. They are set out in five sections: needs assessment, description of the model, adaptation, standards and educational implications.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0320-x
PMCID: PMC3139057  PMID: 21380555
European Headache Federation; Global Campaign against Headache; Guidelines; Headache disorders; Service delivery and organisation
9.  Recommendations for headache service organisation and delivery in Europe 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(4):419-426.
Headache disorders are a major public-health priority, and there is pressing need for effective solutions to them. Better health care for headache—and ready access to it—are central to these solutions; therefore, the organisation of headache-related services within the health systems of Europe becomes an important focus. These recommendations are the result of collaboration between the European Headache Federation and Lifting The Burden: the Global Campaign against Headache. The process of development included wide consultation. To meet the very high level of need for headache care both effectively and efficiently, the recommendations formulate a basic three-level model of health-care organisation rationally spread across primary and secondary health-care sectors, taking account of the different skills and expertise in these sectors. They recognise that health services are differently structured in countries throughout Europe, and not always adequately resourced. Therefore, they aim to be adaptable to suit these differences. They are set out in five sections: needs assessment, description of the model, adaptation, standards and educational implications.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0320-x
PMCID: PMC3139057  PMID: 21380555
European Headache Federation; Global Campaign against Headache; Guidelines; Headache disorders; Service delivery and organisation
10.  Conceptualizing a Human Right to Prevention in Global HIV/AIDS Policy 
Public Health Ethics  2012;5(3):263-282.
Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—human rights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that human rights have shifted from collective public health to individual treatment access. While the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic gave meaning to rights in framing global health policy, the application of rights in treatment access litigation came at the expense of public health prevention efforts. Where the human rights framework remains limited to individual rights enforced against a state duty bearer, such rights have faced constrained application in framing population-level policy to realize the public good of HIV prevention. Concluding that human rights frameworks must be developed to reflect the complementarity of individual treatment and collective prevention, this article conceptualizes collective rights to public health, structuring collective combination prevention to alleviate limitations on individual rights frameworks and frame rights-based global HIV/AIDS policy to assure research expansion, prevention access and health system integration.
doi:10.1093/phe/phs034
PMCID: PMC3515946  PMID: 23226723
11.  Opportunities for improving the nation's health through collaboration with the mass media. 
Public Health Reports  1990;105(3):219-223.
Understanding the mass media is a prerequisite to gaining the cooperation of those who control access to media time and space to improve the coverage of health issues about which the public needs, and often wants, to know. To address the complexities of the mass media and how they influence the public's health, a group of Public Health Service agencies, foundations, and research institutions collaborated to review recent changes in the mass media and public health sectors and to recommend steps for increased interaction. These included broadening strategies to include paid advertising, media advocacy, and other tactics beyond public service campaigns; increasing awareness within the public health sector of the media's perspective on health; working collaboratively with media professionals and organizations, including the minority media; and developing guidelines for public-private sector partnerships. These recommendations, and factors affecting the roles of the media and public health communities in informing the public about health, are described in this paper. A complete discussion of these recommendations and related issues can be found in "Mass Media and Health," edited by Caroline McNeil and Elaine Bratic Arkin, a forthcoming publication of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Public Health Service.
PMCID: PMC1579999  PMID: 2113678
12.  The Global Campaign (GC) to Reduce the Burden of Headache Worldwide. The International Team for Specialist Education (ITSE) 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2005;6(4):261-263.
The social perception of headache, everywhere at low levels in industrialised countries, becomes totally absent in developing ones. Headache disorders came into the World Health Organization’s strategic priorities after publication of the 2001 World Health Report. Among the leading causes of disability, migraine was ranked 19th for adults of both sexes together and 12th for females. The Global Campaign (GC) to Reduce the Burden of Headache Worldwide was planned by the major international headache organizations together with WHO in order to identify and remove those cultural, social and educational barriers recognised as responsible factors for the inadequate treatment of headache disorders worldwide. Within the GC activities, the education of the medical body will represents a central pillar. An International Team for Specialist Education (ITSE) has been created to train physicians from all over the world through the acquisition of a university level Master Degree in Headache Medicine. Once trained as headache specialists, physicians will become trainers, offering education in this field to other health care providers in their own countries. In this way they will give life to a cultural chain raising awareness locally of headache, its burden and its medical control.
doi:10.1007/s10194-005-0202-1
PMCID: PMC3452013  PMID: 16362681
Academic formation; Master in Headache Medicine; Global Campaign Against Headache; Headache specialist education
13.  A new governance space for health 
Global Health Action  2014;7:10.3402/gha.v7.23507.
Global health refers to ‘those health issues which transcend national boundaries and governments and call for actions on the global forces and global flows that determine the health of people’. (Kickbusch 2006) Governance in this trans-national and cross-cutting arena can be analyzed along three political spaces: global health governance, global governance for health, and governance for global health. It is argued that the management of the interface between these three political spaces of governance in the global public health domain is becoming increasingly important in order to move the global health agenda forward. Global health governance refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate, such as the World Health Organization; global governance for health refers mainly to those institutions and processes of global governance which have a direct and indirect health impact, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization or the Human Rights Council; governance for global health refers to the institutions and mechanisms established at the national and regional level to contribute to global health governance and/or to governance for global health – such as national global health strategies or regional strategies for global health. It can also refer to club strategies, such as agreements by a group of countries such as the BRICS. In all three political spaces, the involvement of a multitude of state and non-state actors has become the norm – that is why issues of legitimacy, accountability and transparency have moved to the fore. The transnational nature of global health will require the engagement of all actors to produce global public goods for health (GPGH) and to ensure a rules-based and reliably financed global public health domain.
doi:10.3402/gha.v7.23507
PMCID: PMC3925805  PMID: 24560259
global health; governance; diplomacy; global public goods for health
14.  Addressing substance abuse and violence in substance use disorder treatment and batterer intervention programs 
Background
Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) are interrelated, major public health problems.
Methods
We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241) and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235) in California (70% response rate) to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse.
Results
Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a formal and comprehensive way. Few had a policy requiring assessment of potential clients, or monitoring of admitted clients, for violence perpetration; almost one-quarter did not admit potential clients who had perpetrated IPV, and only 20% had a component or track to address violence. About one-third suspended or terminated clients engaging in violence. The most common barriers to SUDPs providing IPV services were that violence prevention was not part of the program’s mission, staff lacked training in violence, and the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for such services. In contrast, BIPs tended to address substance abuse in a more formal and comprehensive way; e.g., one-half had a policy requiring potential clients to be assessed, two-thirds required monitoring of substance abuse among admitted clients, and almost one-half had a component or track to address substance abuse. SUDPs had clients with fewer resources (marriage, employment, income, housing), and more severe problems (both alcohol and drug use disorders, dual substance use and other mental health disorders, HIV + status). We found little evidence that services are centralized for individuals with both substance abuse and violence problems, even though most SUDP and BIP directors agreed that help for both problems should be obtained simultaneously in separate programs.
Conclusions
SUDPs may have difficulty addressing violence because they have a clientele with relatively few resources and more complex psychological and medical needs. However, policy change can modify barriers to treatment integration and service linkage, such as reimbursement restrictions and lack of staff training.
doi:10.1186/1747-597X-7-37
PMCID: PMC3489609  PMID: 22958624
Substance use disorder; Substance abuse treatment policy; Batterer intervention; Intimate partner violence; Treatment integration; Service centralization
15.  Overcoming gaps to advance global health equity: a symposium on new directions for research 
The 20th anniversary of the groundbreaking report of the Commission on Health Research for Development inspired a Symposium to assess progress made in strengthening essential national health research capacity in developing countries and in global research partnerships. Significant aspects of the health gains achieved in the 20th century can be attributed to the advancement and translation of knowledge, and knowledge continues to occupy center stage amidst growing complexity that characterizes the global health field. The way forward will entail a reinvigoration of research-generated knowledge as a crucial ingredient for global cooperation and global health advances. To do this we will need to overcome daunting gaps, including the divides between domestic and global health, among the disciplines of research (biomedical, clinical, epidemiological, health systems), between clinical and public health approaches, public and private investments, and between knowledge gained and action implemented. Overcoming systematically these obstacles can accelerate progress towards research for equity in health and development.
doi:10.1186/1478-4505-9-11
PMCID: PMC3058103  PMID: 21342523
16.  Rethinking the 'global' in global health: a dialectic approach 
Background
Current definitions of 'global health' lack specificity about the term 'global'. This debate presents and discusses existing definitions of 'global health' and a common problem inherent therein. It aims to provide a way forward towards an understanding of 'global health' while avoiding redundancy. The attention is concentrated on the dialectics of different concepts of 'global' in their application to malnutrition; HIV, tuberculosis & malaria; and maternal mortality. Further attention is payed to normative objectives attached to 'global health' definitions and to paradoxes involved in attempts to define the field.
Discussion
The manuscript identifies denotations of 'global' as 'worldwide', as 'transcending national boundaries' and as 'holistic'. A fourth concept of 'global' as 'supraterritorial' is presented and defined as 'links between the social determinants of health anywhere in the world'. The rhetorical power of the denotations impacts considerably on the object of 'global health', exemplified in the context of malnutrition; HIV, tuberculosis & malaria; and maternal mortality. The 'global' as 'worldwide', as 'transcending national boundaries' and as 'holistic' house contradictions which can be overcome by the fourth concept of 'global' as 'supraterritorial'. The 'global-local-relationship' inherent in the proposed concept coheres with influential anthropological and sociological views despite the use of different terminology. At the same time, it may be assembled with other views on 'global' or amend apparently conflicting ones. The author argues for detaching normative objectives from 'global health' definitions to avoid so called 'entanglement-problems'. Instead, it is argued that the proposed concept constitutes an un-euphemistical approach to describe the inherently politicised field of 'global health'.
Summary
While global-as-worldwide and global-as-transcending-national-boundaries are misleading and produce redundancy with public and international health, global-as-supraterritorial provides 'new' objects for research, education and practice while avoiding redundancy. Linked with 'health' as a human right, this concept preserves the rhetorical power of the term 'global health' for more innovative forms of study, research and practice. The dialectic approach reveals that the contradictions involved in the different notions of the term 'global' are only of apparent nature and not exclusive, but have to be seen as complementary to each other if expected to be useful in the final step.
doi:10.1186/1744-8603-6-19
PMCID: PMC2987787  PMID: 21029401
17.  Public health measures for prevention and control of AIDS. 
Public Health Reports  1987;102(5):463-467.
The grave challenge posed by the recent pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is not the first time mankind has faced such a threat. Useful lessons may be drawn from the successful global Smallpox Eradication Program and applied to the current campaign in the areas of surveillance, strategy, operations, and evaluation. The most important epidemiologic characteristic of this new infection is the unprecedented observation that virtually all asymptomatic infected persons are infectious and will remain so indefinitely. In combatting this infection we should concentrate our efforts in the United States on preventing transmission from the estimated 1.5 million persons who are already infected. We must make the best use we can of all the tools we already have: public information, health education, counseling and serologic testing of persons at high risk, treatment and prevention of intravenous drug abuse, and serologic screening of organ and tissue donors. Adequate confidentiality of test results needs to be secured in order to promote voluntary testing as an important means of achieving behavorial change among persons who are most likely to have been exposed to the infections. Persons whose sexual or drug abuse behavior puts them at higher risk of infection are the highest priority target group. They should be sought at every opportunity, whether seen in public clinics or private practice, and advised to be tested. In order to focus on preventing sexual, parenteral, and perinatal transmission of the virus we must avoid numerous potential distractions and irrelevant issues: we don't have time for them.
PMCID: PMC1477889  PMID: 3116575
18.  The Yekaterinburg headache initiative: an interventional project, within the Global Campaign against Headache, to reduce the burden of headache in Russia 
Background
As major causes of global public ill-health and disability, headache disorders are paradoxically ignored in health policy and in planning, resourcing and implementing health services. This is true worldwide. Russia, where the prevalence of headache disorders and levels of attributed disability are well in excess of the global and European averages, is no exception, while arcane diagnoses and treatment preferences are an aggravating factor. Urgent remedial action, with political support, is called for.
Methods
Yekaterinburg, in Sverdlovsk Oblast, is the chosen centre for a demonstrational interventional project in Russia, undertaken within the Global Campaign against Headache. The initiative proposes three actions: 1) raise awareness of need for improvement; 2) design and implement a three-tier model (from primary care to a single highly specialized centre with academic affiliation) for efficient and equitable delivery of headache-related health care; 3) develop a range of educational initiatives aimed at primary-care physicians, non-specialist neurologists, pharmacists and the general public to support the second action.
Results and conclusion
We set these proposals in a context of a health-care needs assessment, and as a model for all Russia. We present and discuss early progress of the initiative, justify the investment of resources required for implementation and call for the political support that full implementation requires. The more that the Yekaterinburg headache initiative can achieve, the more likely it is that this support will be forthcoming.
doi:10.1186/1129-2377-14-101
PMCID: PMC3880007  PMID: 24367919
Action research; Burden of headache; Health care; Service delivery and organization; Russia; Global campaign against headache
19.  Turning negative into positive: public health mass media campaigns and negative advertising 
Health Education Research  2008;24(3):483-495.
Literature suggests that ‘negative advertising’ is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation’s “truth” campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy’s “truth” campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry’s own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of ‘vilifying’ it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the “truth” campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion.
doi:10.1093/her/cyn046
PMCID: PMC2682642  PMID: 18948569
20.  The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:131.
Background
Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention.
Methods
A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States.
Results
Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation.
Conclusion
The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-131
PMCID: PMC3931350  PMID: 24507086
Hand hygiene; Healthcare associated infections; Evaluation; Evidence-based public health
21.  COMMUNITY REACTIONS TO CAMPAIGNS ADDRESSING CRYSTAL METHAMPHETAMINE USE AMONG GAY AND BISEXUAL MEN IN NEW YORK CITY* 
Journal of drug education  2006;36(4):297-315.
Crystal methamphetamine (aka “crystal meth”) use with high-risk sex has become an emerging health problem for gay and bisexual men in New York City since the late 1990s. Public health campaigns were eventually developed to encourage gay and bisexual men to avoid or reconsider using crystal meth. Reactions to three campaigns were measured with a cross-sectional survey administered in 2004. Among an ethnically-diverse sample of 971 gay and bisexual men, 61.8% reported seeing the campaigns. Those who reported ever using crystal meth, recent use, and recent use with sex were significantly more likely to have seen the campaigns. In general, white men, HIV-negative men, and men not currently using crystal meth responded more positively to the campaigns than their counterparts; yet, more men of color reported having discussions with partners and friends about their crystal use as a result of these campaigns. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1885400  PMID: 17533803
22.  Messages that increase women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: results from quantitative testing of advertising concepts 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:30.
Background
Public awareness-raising campaigns targeting alcohol use during pregnancy are an important part of preventing prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Despite this, there is little evidence on what specific elements contribute to campaign message effectiveness. This research evaluated three different advertising concepts addressing alcohol and pregnancy: a threat appeal, a positive appeal promoting a self-efficacy message, and a concept that combined the two appeals. The primary aim was to determine the effectiveness of these concepts in increasing women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy.
Methods
Women of childbearing age and pregnant women residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in a computer-based questionnaire where they viewed either a control or one of the three experimental concepts. Following exposure, participants’ intentions to abstain from and reduce alcohol intake during pregnancy were measured. Other measures assessed included perceived main message, message diagnostics, and potential to promote defensive responses or unintended consequences.
Results
The concepts containing a threat appeal were significantly more effective at increasing women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy than the self-efficacy message and the control. The concept that combined threat and self-efficacy is recommended for development as part of a mass-media campaign as it has good persuasive potential, provides a balance of positive and negative emotional responses, and is unlikely to result in defensive or unintended consequences.
Conclusions
This study provides important insights into the components that enhance the persuasiveness and effectiveness of messages aimed at preventing prenatal alcohol exposure. The recommended concept has good potential for use in a future campaign aimed at promoting women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-30
PMCID: PMC3903031  PMID: 24410764
Alcohol; Advertising; Pregnancy; Messages; Campaigns; Threat; Self-efficacy; Fear; FASD
23.  The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination 
Parasites & Vectors  2012;5:240.
Background
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward.
Results
This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway.
Conclusion
Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping, rapid scale up of interventions and operational research into co implementation of intervention packages will be crucial.
doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-240
PMCID: PMC3551690  PMID: 23095679
Names of WHO listed neglected tropical disease; Integration; Elimination; Ethiopia
24.  World Hypertension Day and global awareness 
The World Health Organization attributes hypertension, or high blood pressure, as the leading cause of cardiovascular mortality. The World Hypertension League (WHL), an umbrella organization of 85 national hypertension societies and leagues, recognized that more than 50% of the hypertensive population worldwide are unaware of their condition. To address this problem, the WHL initiated a global awareness campaign on hypertension in 2005 and dedicated May 17 of each year as World Hypertension Day (WHD). Over the past three years, more national societies have been engaging in WHD and have been innovative in their activities to get the message to the public. In 2007, there was record participation from 47 member countries of the WHL. During the week of WHD, all these countries – in partnership with their local governments, professional societies, nongovernmental organizations and private industries – promoted hypertension awareness among the public through several media and public rallies. Using mass media such as Internet and television, the message reached more than 250 million people. As the momentum picks up year after year, the WHL is confident that almost all the estimated 1.5 billion people affected by elevated blood pressure can be reached. The success of WHD is due to the enthusiasm and voluntary action of multiple stakeholders from every member country.
PMCID: PMC2643187  PMID: 18548140
Activities; Awareness; Hypertension; Media; World Hypertension Day
25.  The global burden of migraine: measuring disability in headache disorders with WHO's Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2005;6(6):429-440.
This overview of the published epidemiological evidence of migraine helps to identify the size of the public–health problem that migraine represents. It also highlights the need for further epidemiological studies in many parts of the world to gain full understanding of the scale of clinical, economic and humanistic burdens attributable to it. This paper presents some of the work on migraine undertaken by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Global Burden of Disease study conducted in 2000 and reported in the World Health Report 2001. Migraine was not included in the first Global Burden of Disease 1990. The paper also discussed the measurement of disability attributable to headache disorders using WHO ICF Classification. Using disabilityadjusted life years (DALYs) as a summary measure of population health (which adds disability to mortality), WHO have shown that mental and neurological disorders collectively account for 30.8% of all years of healthy life lost to disability (YLDs) whilst migraine, one amongst these, alone accounts for 1.4% and is in the top 20 causes of disability worldwide. This information is combined with the increasingly widely accepted belief that disability and functioning are relevant parameters for monitoring the health of nations and that there is an increasing need to measure them. WHO's Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a model of human functioning and disability, as well as a classification system, that allows us to highlight and measure all dimensions of disability. ICF applied to headache disorders allows comparability with other health conditions as well as evaluation of the role of the environment as a cause of disability amongst people with headache. Migraine causes a large propotion of the non–fatal disease–related burden worldwide.Our kowledge of headache related burden is incomplete and it is necessary to add to it epidemiological studies in many parts of the world and to combine this with measurements of disability using both DALYs and WHO ‘s ICF Classification. The work described here has been the base for the Global Campaign against Headache disorders: "Lifting the Burden", launched in 2004 jointly by WHO, IHS (International Headache Society), WHA (World Headache Alliance) and EHF (European Headache Federation).
doi:10.1007/s10194-005-0252-4
PMCID: PMC3452308  PMID: 16388337
Burden; Disability; Migraine; DALY; Epidemiology; ICF

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