Increasing evidence has shown the potential of neuronal plasticity in adult brain after injury. Neural proliferation can be triggered by a focal sublethal ischemic preconditioning event; whether mild global ischemia could cause neurogenesis has been not clear. The present study investigated stimulating effects of sublethal transient global ischemia (TGI) on endogenous neurogenesis and neuroblast migration in the subventricular zone (SVZ), dentate gyrus, and peri-infarct areas of the adult cortex. Adult mice of 129S2/Sv strain were subjected to 8-min bilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) administration every day until being sacrificed at 1–21 days after reperfusion. The mild TGI did not induce neuronal cell death for up to 7 days after TGI, as evidenced by negative terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining among NeuN-positive cells in the hippocampus and neocortex. In TGI animals, BrdU staining revealed enhanced proliferation of neuroblasts and their migration track from the SVZ into the striatum and neocortex. In the corpus callosum, there were more BrdU-positive cells in the TGI group in the first 2 days. Increasing numbers of BrdU-positive cells were seen 7–21 days later in the striatum and cortex of TGI mice. The cortex of TGI animals showed increased expression of erythropoietin, erythropoietin receptor, fibroblast growth factor 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and phosphorylated Jun N-terminal kinase; the expression was peaked 2 to 3 days after reperfusion. BrdU and NeuN double staining in the dentate gyrus, striatum, and cortex implied increased neurogenesis induced by the TGI preconditioning. Doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells increased in the cortex of TGI mice, localized to cortical layers II, III, and V, and many stained positive for the mature neuronal markers NeuN, neurofilament, N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor subunit gene NR1, or the gamma-aminobutyric-acid-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67). The atypical localization of DCX-positive cells and the colabeling with mature neuronal markers suggested that, in addition to indentifying migrating neuroblasts, DCX might also be a stress marker in the cortex. It is suggested that the sublethal TGI-induced regenerative responses may contribute to the beneficial effects of ischemic preconditioning.
Transient global ischemia; Neuroblasts; Neurogenesis; Cell migration; Doublecortin (DCX); Subventricular zone (SVZ)
Neurogenesis increases in the adult rodent forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) after experimental stroke. Newborn neurons migrate to the injured striatum, but few survive long-term and little evidence exists to suggest that they integrate or contribute to functional recovery. One potential strategy to improve stroke recovery is to stimulate neurogenesis and integration of adult-born neurons by using treatments that enhance neurogenesis. We examined the influence of retinoic acid (RA), which stimulates neonatal SVZ and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and environmental enrichment (EE), which enhances survival of adult-born hippocampal neurons. We hypothesized that the combination of RA and EE would promote survival of adult-generated SVZ-derived neurons and improve functional recovery after stroke. Adult rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion, received BrdU on days 5–11 after stroke and were treated with RA/EE, RA alone, EE/vehicle or vehicle alone and were killed 61 days after stroke. Rats underwent repeated MRI and behavioral testing. We found that RA/EE treatment preserved striatal and hemisphere tissue and increased SVZ neurogenesis as demonstrated by Ki67 and doublecortin (DCx) immunolabeling. All treatments influenced the location of BrdU- and DCx-positive cells in the post-stroke striatum. RA/EE increased the number of BrdU/NeuN-positive cells in the injured striatum but did not lead to improvements in behavioral function. These results demonstrate that combined pharmacotherapy and behavioral manipulation enhances post-stroke striatal neurogenesis and decreases infarct volume without promoting detectable functional recovery. Further study of the integration of adult-born neurons in the ischemic striatum is necessary to determine their restorative potential.
subventricular zone; neurogenesis; stroke; focal ischemia; regeneration; doublecortin; retinoic acid; environmental enrichment; striatum; neural cell proliferation
The effect of neurotrophic factors in enhancing stroke-induced neurogenesis in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) is limited by their poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability.
Intranasal administration is a noninvasive and valid method for delivery of neuropeptides into the brain, to bypass the BBB. We investigated the effect of treatment with intranasal transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) on neurogenesis in the adult mouse SVZ following focal ischemia. The modified Neurological Severity Scores (NSS) test was used to evaluate neurological function, and infarct volumes were determined from hematoxylin-stained sections. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) labeling was performed at 7 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and neuron- or glia-specific markers for identifying neurogenesis in the SVZ at 7, 14, 21, 28 days after MCAO.
Intranasal treatment of TGF-β1 shows significant improvement in neurological function and reduction of infarct volume compared with control animals. TGF-β1 treated mice had significantly less TUNEL-positive cells in the ipsilateral striatum than that in control groups. The number of BrdU-incorporated cells in the SVZ and striatum was significantly increased in the TGF-β1 treated group compared with control animals at each time point. In addition, numbers of BrdU- labeled cells coexpressed with the migrating neuroblast marker doublecortin (DCX) and the mature neuronal marker neuronal nuclei (NeuN) were significantly increased after intranasal delivery of TGF-β1, while only a few BrdU labeled cells co-stained with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).
Intranasal administration of TGF-β1 reduces infarct volume, improves functional recovery and enhances neurogenesis in mice after stroke. Intranasal TGF-β1 may have therapeutic potential for cerebrovascular disorders.
Cerebrolysin is a peptide preparation mimicking the action of neurotrophic factors and has beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. The present study investigated the effect of Cerebrolysin on neurogenesis in a rat model of embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Treatment with Cerebrolysin at doses of 2.5 and 5 ml/kg significantly increased the number of bromodeoxyuridine positive (BrdU+) subventricular zone (SVZ) neural progenitor cells and doublecortin (DCX) immunoreactivity (migrating neuroblasts) in the ipsilateral SVZ and striatal ischemic boundary 28 days after stroke when the treatment was initiated 24h after stroke. The treatment also reduced TUNEL+ cells by ~50% in the ischemic boundary. However, treatment with Cerebrolysin at a dose of 2.5 ml/kg initiated at 24 and 48h did not significantly reduce infarct volume, but substantially improved neurological outcomes measured by an array of behavioral tests 21 and 28 days after stroke. Incubation of SVZ neural progenitor cells from ischemic rats with Cerebrolysin dose dependently augmented BrdU+ cells and increased the number of Tuj1+ cells (a marker of immature neurons). Blockage of the PI3K/Akt pathway abolished Cerebrolysin-increased BrdU+ cells. Moreover, Cerebrolysin treatment promoted neural progenitor cell migration. Collectively, these data indicate that Cerebrolysin treatment when initiated 24 and 48h after stroke enhances neurogenesis in the ischemic brain and improves functional outcome and that Cerebrolysin-augmented proliferation, differentiation, and migration of adult SVZ neural progenitor cells contribute to Cerebrolysin-induced neurogenesis, which may be related to improvement of neurological outcome. The PI3K/Akt pathway mediates Cerebrolysin-induced progenitor cell proliferation.
Cerebrolysin; neurogenesis; MCAO; rats
To investigate the effect of electrical stimulation (ES) on the recovery of motor skill and neuronal cell proliferation.
The male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with an epidural electrode over the peri-ischemic area after photothrombotic stroke in the dominant sensorimotor cortex. All rats were randomly assigned into the ES group and control group. The behavioral test of a single pellet reaching task (SPRT) and neurological examinations including the Schabitz's photothrombotic neurological score and the Menzies test were conducted for 2 weeks. After 14 days, coronal sections were obtained and immunostained for neuronal cell differentiation markers including bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN), and doublecortin (DCX).
On the SPRT, the motor function in paralytic forelimbs of the ES group was significantly improved. There were no significant differences in neurological examinations and neuronal cell differentiation markers except for the significantly increased number of DCX+ cells in the corpus callosum of the ES group (p<0.05). But in the ES group, the number of NeuN+ cells in the ischemic cortex and the number of NeuN+ cells and DCX+ cells in the ischemic striatum tended to increase. In the ES group, NeuN+ cells in the ischemic hemisphere and DCX+ cells and BrdU+ cells in the opposite hemisphere tended to increase compared to those in the contralateral.
The continuous epidural ES of the ischemic sensorimotor cortex induced a significant improvement in the motor function and tended to increase neural cell proliferation in the ischemic hemisphere and the neural regeneration in the opposite hemisphere.
Cerebral ischemia; Electrical stimulation; Stroke; Cell proliferation; Motor skills
Stroke potently stimulates cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles with subsequent neuroblast migration to the injured striatum and cortex. However, most of the cells do not survive and mature. Extracellular Wnt proteins promote adult neurogenesis in the neurogenic niches. The aim of the study was to examine the efficacy of Wnt signaling on neurogenesis and functional outcome after focal ischemic injury. Lentivirus expressing Wnt3a-HA (LV-Wnt3a-HA) or GFP (LV-GFP) was injected into the striatum or subventricular zone of mice. Five days later, focal ischemic injury was induced by injection of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 into the striatum of the same hemisphere. Treatment with LV-Wnt3a-HA into the striatum significantly enhanced functional recovery after ischemic injury and increased the number of BrdU-positive cells that differentiated into mature neurons in the ischemic striatum by day 28. Treatment with LV-Wnt3a-HA into the subventricular zone significantly enhanced functional recovery from the second day after injury and increased the number of immature neurons in the striatum and subventricular zone. This was accompanied by reduced dissemination of the neuronal injury. Our data indicate that Wnt signaling appears to contribute to functional recovery after ischemic injury by increasing neurogenesis or neuronal survival in the striatum.
Background and Purpose
Using a rodent model of ischemia (permanent middle cerebral artery occlsion; pMCAO), our lab previously demonstrated that 4.27 minutes of patterned single whisker stimulation delivered over 120 minutes can fully protect from impending damage when initiated within two hours of pMCAO (“early”). When initiated three hours post-pMCAO (“late”), stimulation resulted in irreversible damage. Here we investigate the effect of altering pattern, distribution, or amount of stimulation in this model.
We assessed the cortex using functional imaging and histological analysis with altered stimulation treatment protocols. In two groups of animals we administered the same number of whisker deflections but in a random rather than patterned fashion, distributed either over 120 minutes or condensed into 10 minutes post-pMCAO. We also tested increased (full whisker array versus single whisker) stimulation.
Early random whisker stimulation (condensed or dispersed) resulted in protection equivalent to early patterned stimulation. Early full whisker array patterned stimulation also resulted in complete protection, but promoted faster recovery. Late full whisker array patterned stimulation however, resulted in loss of evoked function and infarct volumes larger than those sustained by single whisker counterparts.
When induced early on after ischemic insult, stimulus-evoked cortical activity, irrespective of the parameters of peripheral stimulation that induced it, seems to be the important variable for neuroprotection.
neuroprotection; brain ischemia; brain recovery; basic science; animal models; imaging
Stroke is a major neurovascular disorder threatening human life and health. Very limited clinical treatments are currently available for stroke patients. Stem cell transplantation has shown promising potential as a regenerative treatment after ischemic stroke. The present investigation explores a new concept of mobilizing endogenous stem cells/progenitor cells from the bone marrow using a parathyroid hormone (PTH) therapy after ischemic stroke in adult mice. PTH 1-34 (80 µg/kg, i.p.) was administered 1 hour after focal ischemia and then daily for 6 consecutive days. After 6 days of PTH treatment, there was a significant increase in bone marrow derived CD-34/Fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1) positive endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the peripheral blood. PTH treatment significantly increased the expression of trophic/regenerative factors including VEGF, SDF-1, BDNF and Tie-1 in the brain peri-infarct region. Angiogenesis, assessed by co-labeled Glut-1 and BrdU vessels, was significantly increased in PTH-treated ischemic brain compared to vehicle controls. PTH treatment also promoted neuroblast migration from the subventricular zone (SVZ) and increased the number of newly formed neurons in the peri-infarct cortex. PTH-treated mice showed significantly better sensorimotor functional recovery compared to stroke controls. Our data suggests that PTH therapy improves endogenous repair mechanisms after ischemic stroke with functional benefits. Mobilizing endogenous bone marrow-derived stem cells/progenitor cells using PTH and other mobilizers appears an effective and feasible regenerative treatment after ischemic stroke.
Increased production of new neurons in the adult dentate gyrus (DG) by neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) following acute seizures or status epilepticus (SE) is a well known phenomenon. However, it is unknown whether NSCs in the aged DG have similar ability to upregulate neurogenesis in response to SE. We examined DG neurogenesis after the induction of continuous stages III-V seizures (SE) for over 4 h in both young adult (5-months old) and aged (24-months old) F344 rats. The seizures were induced through 2–4 graded intraperitoneal injections of the excitotoxin kainic acid (KA). Newly born cells in the DG were labeled via daily intraperitoneal injections of the 5′-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for 12 days, which commenced shortly after the induction of SE in KA-treated rats. New cells and neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and the granule cell layer (GCL) were analyzed at 24 h after the last BrdU injection using BrdU and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining, BrdU-DCX and BrdU-NeuN dual immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and stereological cell counting. Status epilepticus enhanced the numbers of newly born cells (BrdU+ cells) and neurons (DCX+ neurons) in young adult rats. In contrast, similar seizures in aged rats, though greatly increased the number of newly born cells in the SGZ/GCL, failed to increase neurogenesis due to a greatly declined neuronal fate-choice decision of newly born cells. Only 9% of newly born cells in the SGZ/GCL differentiated into neurons in aged rats that underwent SE, in comparison to the 76% neuronal differentiation observed in age-matched control rats. Moreover, the number of newly born cells that migrate abnormally into the dentate hilus (i.e., ectopic granule cells) after SE in the aged hippocampus is 92% less than that observed in the young adult hippocampus after similar SE. Thus, SE fails to increase the addition of new granule cells to the GCL in the aged DG, despite a considerable upregulation in the production of new cells, and SE during old age leads to much fewer ectopic granule cells. These results have clinical relevance because earlier studies have implied that both increased and abnormal neurogenesis occurring after SE in young animals contributes to chronic epilepsy development.
adult neurogenesis; aging; 5′-bromodeoxyuridine; DG; dentate neurogenesis; doublecortin; kainic acid; neural stem cells; rat; stem cell proliferation; stem cell differentiation
Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) after stroke enhances motor functional recovery; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. We hypothesized that daily administration of the clinical drug citalopram would produce these functional benefits via enhancing neurovascular repair in the ischemic peri-infarct region. To test this hypothesis, focal ischemic stroke was induced in male C57/B6 mice by permanent ligation of distal branches of the middle cerebral artery to the barrel cortex and 7-min occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries. Citalopram (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected 24 hrs after stroke and daily thereafter. To label proliferating cells, bromo-deoxyuridine was injected daily beginning 3 days after stroke. Immunohistochemical and functional assays were performed to elucidate citalopram-mediated cellular and sensorimotor changes after stroke. Citalopram treatment had no significant effect on infarct formation or edema 3 days after stroke; however, citalopram-treated mice had better functional recovery than saline-treated controls 3 and 14 days after stroke in the adhesive removal test. Increased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor was detected in the peri-infarct region 7 days after stroke in citalopram-treated animals. The number of proliferating neural progenitor cells and the distance of neuroblast migration from the sub-ventricular zone towards the ischemic cortex were significantly greater in citalopram-treated mice at 7 days after stroke. Immunohistochemical staining and co-localization analysis showed that citalopram-treated animals generated more new neurons and microvessels in the peri-infarct region 21 and 28 days after stroke. Taken together, these results suggest that citalopram promotes post-stroke sensorimotor recovery likely via enhancing neurogenesis, neural cell migration and the microvessel support in the peri-infarct region of the ischemic brain.
Ischemic stroke; SSRI; Citalopram; Neurogenesis; Angiogenesis
Studies have linked neurogenesis to the beneficial actions of specific antidepressants. However, whether 17β-estradiol (E2), an antidepressant, can ameliorate poststroke depression (PSD) and whether E2-mediated improvement of PSD is associated with neurogenesis are largely unexplored. In the present study, we found that depressive-like behaviors were observed at the first week after focal ischemic stroke in female ovariectomized (OVX) rats, as measured by sucrose preference and open field test, suggesting that focal cerebral ischemia could induce PSD. Three weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), rats were treated with E2 for consecutive 14 days. We found that E2-treated rats had significantly improving ischemia-induced depression-like behaviors in the forced-swimming test and sucrose preference test, compared to vehicle-treated group. In addition, we also found that BrdU- and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) were significantly increased in ischemic rats after E2 treatment, compared to vehicle-treated group. Our data suggest that focal cerebral ischemia can induce PSD, and E2 can ameliorate PSD. In addition, newborn neurons in the hippocampus may play an important role in E2-mediated antidepressant like effect after ischemic stroke.
Neurogenesis in the adult rodent brain is largely restricted to the subependymal zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG). We examined whether cholecystokinin (CCK) through actions mediated by CCK1 receptors (CCK1R) is involved in regulating neurogenesis. Proliferating cells in the SVZ, measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) injected 2 h prior to death or by immunoreactivity against Ki67, were reduced by 37 and 42%, respectively, in female (but not male) mice lacking CCK1Rs (CCK1R−/−) compared to wild-type (WT). Generation of neuroblasts in the SVZ and rostral migratory stream (RMS) was also affected, since the number of doublecortin (DCX)-immunoreactive (ir) neuroblasts in these regions decreased by 29%. In the SGZ of female CCK1R−/− mice, BrdU-positive (+), and Ki67-ir cells were reduced by 38 and 56%, respectively, while DCX-ir neuroblasts were down 80%. Subsequently, the effect of reduced SVZ/SGZ proliferation on the generation and survival of mature adult-born cells in female CCK1R−/− mice was examined. In the OB granule cell layer (GCL), the number of neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-ir and calretinin-ir cells was stable compared to WT, and 42 days after BrdU injections, the number of BrdU+ cells co-expressing GABA- or NeuN-like immunoreactivity (LI) was similar. Compared to WT, the granule cell layer of the DG in female CCK1R−/− mice had a similar number of calbindin-ir cells and BrdU+ cells co-expressing calbindin-LI 42 days after BrdU injections. However, the OB glomerular layer (GL) of CCK1R−/− female mice had 11% fewer NeuN-ir cells, 23% less TH-ir cells, and a 38% and 29% reduction in BrdU+ cells that co-expressed TH-LI or GABA-LI, respectively. We conclude that CCK, via CCK1Rs, is involved in regulating the generation of proliferating cells and neuroblasts in the adult female mouse brain, and mechanisms are in place to maintain steady neuronal populations in the OB and DG when the rate of proliferation is altered.
cholecystokinin 1 receptor; neurogenesis; subventricular zone; rostral migratory stream; olfactory bulb; subgranular zone; interneurons; survival
Previous studies have demonstrated that moderate hypothermia reduces histopathological damage and improves behavioral outcome after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Further investigations have clarified the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of hypothermia by showing that cooling reduces multiple cell injury cascades. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hypothermia could also enhance endogenous reparative processes following TBI such as neurogenesis and the replacement of lost neurons. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent moderate fluid-percussion brain injury and then were randomized into normothermia (37°C) or hypothermia (33°C) treatment. Animals received injections of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to detect mitotic cells after brain injury. After 3 or 7 days, animals were perfusion-fixed and processed for immunocytochemistry and confocal analysis. Sections were stained for markers selective for cell proliferation (BrdU), neuroblasts and immature neurons (doublecortin), and mature neurons (NeuN) and then analyzed using non-biased stereology to quantify neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG). At 7 days after TBI, both normothermic and hypothermic TBI animals demonstrated a significant increase in the number of BrdU-immunoreactive cells in the DG as compared to sham-operated controls. At 7 days post-injury, hypothermia animals had a greater number of BrdU (ipsilateral cortex) and doublecortin (ipsilateral and contralateral cortex) immunoreactive cells in the DG as compared to normothermia animals. Because adult neurogenesis following injury may be associated with enhanced functional recovery, these data demonstrate that therapeutic hypothermia sustains the increase in neurogenesis induced by TBI and this may one of the mechanisms by which hypothermia promotes reparative strategies in the injured nervous system.
Dentate gyrus; Doublecortin; Fluid-percussion; Hypothermia; Neurogenesis; Traumatic brain injury
It is well known that focal ischemia increases neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation but the cellular mechanisms underlying this proliferative response are only poorly understood. We here investigated whether precursor cells which constitutively proliferate before the ischemic infarct contribute to post-ischemic neurogenesis. To this purpose, transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the nestin promoter received repetitive injections of the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) prior to induction of cortical infarcts. We then immunocytochemically analyzed the fate of these BrdU-positive precursor cell subtypes from day 4 to day 28 after the lesion.
Quantification of BrdU-expressing precursor cell populations revealed no alteration in number of radial glia-like type 1 cells but a sequential increase of later precursor cell subtypes in lesioned animals (type 2a cells at day 7, type 3 cells/immature neurons at day 14). These alterations result in an enhanced survival of mature neurons 4 weeks postinfarct.
Focal cortical infarcts recruit dentate precursor cells generated already before the infarct and significantly contribute to an enhanced neurogenesis. Our findings thereby increase our understanding of the complex cellular mechanisms of postlesional neurogenesis.
Cortical reorganization following sensory deprivation is characterized by alterations in the connectivity between neurons encoding spared and deprived cortical inputs. The extent to which this alteration depends on Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP), however, is largely unknown. We quantified changes in the functional connectivity between layer V neurons in the vibrissal primary somatosensory cortex (vSI) (barrel cortex) of rats following sensory deprivation. One week after chronic implantation of a microelectrode array in vSI, sensory-evoked activity resulting from mechanical deflections of individual whiskers was recorded (control data) after which two whiskers on the contralateral side were paired by sparing them while trimming all other whiskers on the rat's mystacial pad. The rats' environment was then enriched by placing novel objects in the cages to encourage exploratory behavior with the spared whiskers. Sensory-evoked activity in response to individual stimulation of spared whiskers and adjacent re-grown whiskers was then recorded under anesthesia 1–2 days and 6–7 days post-trimming (plasticity data). We analyzed spike trains within 100 ms of stimulus onset and confirmed previously published reports documenting changes in receptive field sizes in the spared whisker barrels. We analyzed the same data using Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) to infer the functional connectivity between the recorded neurons. We found that DBNs inferred from population responses to stimulation of each of the spared whiskers exhibited graded increase in similarity that was proportional to the pairing duration. A significant early increase in network similarity in the spared-whisker barrels was detected 1–2 days post pairing, but not when single neuron responses were examined during the same period. These results suggest that rapid reorganization of cortical neurons following sensory deprivation may be mediated by an STDP mechanism.
effective connectivity; whisker pairing; barrel cortex; experience-dependent plasticity; Dynamic Bayesian Network
The acute phase protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a new biomarker of stroke severity and is a key regulator of oedema resolution and glial responses after cerebral ischaemia, emerging as a possible target for brain repair after stroke. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis are essential events in post-stroke recovery. Here, we investigated for the first time the role of PTX3 in neurogenesis and angiogenesis after stroke.
PTX3 knockout (KO) or wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to experimental cerebral ischaemia (induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)). Poststroke neurogenesis was assessed by nestin, doublecortin (DCX) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining, whereas angiogenesis was assessed by BrdU, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and PECAM-1 immunostaining. In vitro neurogenesis and angiogenesis assays were carried out on neurospheres derived from WT or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) KO mice, and mouse endothelial cell line bEnd.5 respectively. Behavioural function was assessed in WT and PTX3 KO mice using open-field, motor and Y-maze tests.
Neurogenesis was significantly reduced in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus of PTX3 KO mice, compared to WT mice, 6 days after MCAo. In addition, recombinant PTX3 was neurogenic in vitro when added to neurospheres, which was mediated by IL-1β. In vivo poststroke angiogenesis was significantly reduced in PTX3 KO mice compared to WT mice 14 days after MCAo, as revealed by reduced vascular density, less newly formed blood vessels and decreased expression of VEGFR2. In vitro, recombinant PTX3 induced marked endothelial cellular proliferation and promoted formation of tube-like structures of endothelial cell line bEnd.5. Finally, a lack of PTX3 potentiated motor deficits 14 days after MCAo.
These results indicate that PTX3 mediates neurogenesis and angiogenesis and contributes to functional recovery after stroke, highlighting a key role of PTX3 as a mediator of brain repair and suggesting that PTX3 could be used as a new target for stroke therapy.
Stroke; Inflammation; Pentraxin-3; Interleukin-1; Neurogenesis; Angiogenesis; Brain repair; Post-stroke recovery
Neurogenesis diminishes with aging and ischemia-induced neurogenesis also
occurs, but reduced in aged brain. Currently, the cellular and molecular
pathways mediating these effects remain largely unknown. Our previous study has
shown that Notch1 signaling regulates neurogenesis in subventricular zone (SVZ)
of young-adult brain after focal ischemia, but whether a similar effect occurs
in aged normal and ischemic animals is unknown. Here, we used normal and
ischemic aged rat brains to investigate whether Notch1 signaling was involved
in the reduction of neurogenesis in response to aging and modulates neurogenesis
in aged brains after focal ischemia. By Western blot, we found that Notch1 and
Jagged1 expression in the SVZ of aged brain was significantly reduced compared
with young-adult brain. Consistently, the activated form of Notch1(Notch
intracellular domain;NICD) expression was also declined. Immunohistochemistry
confirmed that expression and activation of Notch1 signaling in the SVZ of aged
brain were reduced. Double or triple immunostaining showed that that Notch1 was
mainly expressed in DCX-positive cells, whereas Jagged1 was predominantly
expressed in astroglial cells in the SVZ of normal aged rat brain. In addition,
disruption or activation of Notch1 signaling altered the number of proliferating
cells labeled by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and doublecortin (DCX) in the SVZ of
aged brain. Moreover, ischemia-induced cell proliferation in the SVZ of aged
brain was enhanced by activating the Notch1 pathway, and was suppressed by
inhibiting the Notch1 signaling. Reduced infarct volume and improved motor
deficits were also observed in Notch1 activator-treated aged ischemic rats. Our
data suggest that Notch1 signaling modulates the SVZ neurogenesis in aged brain
in normal and ischemic conditions.
Notch1 signaling pathway; aged rat brain; neurogenesis; focal cerebral ischemia
In response to injury, endogenous precursors in the adult brain can proliferate and generate new neurons, which may have the capacity to replace dysfunctional or dead cells. Although injury-induced neurogenesis has been demonstrated in animal models of stroke, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Huntington’s disease (HD), studies of Parkinson’s disease (PD) have produced conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the ability of adult mice to generate new neurons in response to the parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which causes selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. MPTP lesions increased the incorporation of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine-5′-monophosphate (BrdU), as well as the number of cells that co-expressed BrdU and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX), in two neuroproliferative regions—the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the rostral subventricular zone (SVZ). BrdU-labeled, DCX-expressing cells were not found in the substantia nigra (SN) of MPTP-treated mice, where neuronal cell bodies are destroyed, but were present in increased numbers in the striatum, where SN neurons lost in PD normally project. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), which enhances neurogenesis in a mouse model of HD, also increased the number of BrdU/DCX-immunopositive cells in the SN of MPTP-treated mice. Thus, MPTP-induced brain injury increases striatal neurogenesis and, in combination with FGF-2 treatment, also stimulates neurogenesis in SN.
fibroblast growth factor; Parkinson’s disease; proliferation; progenitor; striatum; substantia nigra
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic protein with therapeutic potential in ischemic disorders, including stroke. VEGF confers neuroprotection and promotes neurogenesis and cerebral angiogenesis, but the manner in which these effects may interact in the ischemic brain is poorly understood. We produced focal cerebral ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes in the adult rat brain and measured infarct size, neurological function, BrdU labeling of neuroproliferative zones, and vWF-immunoreactive vascular profiles, without and with intracerebroventricular administration of VEGF on days 1–3 of reperfusion. VEGF reduced infarct size, improved neurological performance, enhanced the delayed survival of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone, and stimulated angiogenesis in the striatal ischemic penumbra, but not the dentate gyrus. We conclude that in the ischemic brain VEGF exerts an acute neuroprotective effect, as well as longer latency effects on survival of new neurons and on angiogenesis, and that these effects appear to operate independently. VEGF may, therefore, improve histological and functional outcome from stroke through multiple mechanisms.
Lack of appropriate tools and techniques to study fate and functional integration of newly generated neurons has so far hindered understanding of neurogenesis' relevance under physiological and pathological conditions. Current analyses are either dependent on mitotic labeling, for example BrdU-incorporation or retroviral infection, or on the detection of transient immature neuronal markers. Here, we report a transgenic mouse model (DCX-CreERT2) for time-resolved fate analysis of newly generated neurons. This model is based on the expression of a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under the control of a doublecortin (DCX) promoter, which is specific for immature neuronal cells in the CNS.
In the DCX-CreERT2 transgenic mice, expression of CreERT2 was restricted to DCX+ cells. In the CNS of transgenic embryos and adult DCX-CreERT2 mice, tamoxifen administration caused the transient translocation of CreERT2 to the nucleus, allowing for the recombination of loxP-flanked sequences. In our system, tamoxifen administration at E14.5 resulted in reporter gene activation throughout the developing CNS of transgenic embryos. In the adult CNS, neurogenic regions were the primary sites of tamoxifen-induced reporter gene activation. In addition, reporter expression could also be detected outside of neurogenic regions in cells physiologically expressing DCX (e.g. piriform cortex, corpus callosum, hypothalamus). Four weeks after recombination, the vast majority of reporter-expressing cells were found to co-express NeuN, revealing the neuronal fate of DCX+ cells upon maturation.
This first validation demonstrates that our new DCX-CreERT2 transgenic mouse model constitutes a powerful tool to investigate neurogenesis, migration and their long-term fate of neuronal precursors. Moreover, it allows for a targeted activation or deletion of specific genes in neuronal precursors and will thereby contribute to unravel the molecular mechanisms controlling neurogenesis.
Autophagy may contribute to ischemia-induced cell death in the brain, but the regulation of autophagic cell death is largely unknown. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a regulator of apoptosis in cerebral ischemia. We examined the hypothesis that autophagy-like cell death could contribute to ischemia-induced brain damage and the process was regulated by NF-κB. In adult wild-type (WT) and NF-κB p50 knockout (p50−/−) mice, focal ischemia in the barrel cortex was induced by ligation of distal branches of the middle cerebral artery. Twelve to 24 h later, autophagic activity increased as indicated by enhanced expression of Beclin-1 and LC3 in the ischemic core and/or penumbra regions. This increased autophagy contributed to cell injury, evidenced by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) co-staining and a protective effect achieved by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The number of Beclin-1/TUNEL-positive cells was significantly more in p50−/− mice than in WT mice. Neuronal and vascular cell death, as determined by TUNEL-positive cells co-staining with NeuN or Collagen IV, was more abundant in p50−/− mice. Immunostaining of the endothelial cell tight junction marker occludin revealed more damage to the blood–brain barrier in p50−/− mice. Western blotting of the peri-infarct tissue showed a reduction of Akt-the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in p50−/− mice after ischemia. These findings provide the first evidence that cerebral ischemia induced autophagy-like injury is regulated by the NF-κB pathway, which may suggest potential treatments for ischemic stroke.
autophagy; cerebral ischemia; NF-kappaB; neurovascular unit; blood-brain barrier; Akt; the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)
Astroglial cells are activated following injury and up-regulate the expression of the intermediate filament proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. Adult mice lacking the intermediate filament proteins GFAP and vimentin (GFAP−/−Vim−/−) show attenuated reactive gliosis, reduced glial scar formation and improved regeneration of neuronal synapses after neurotrauma. GFAP−/−Vim−/− mice exhibit larger brain infarcts after middle cerebral artery occlusion suggesting protective role of reactive gliosis after adult focal brain ischemia. However, the role of astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis in the injured developing brain is unknown.
We subjected GFAP−/−Vim−/− and wild-type mice to unilateral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) at postnatal day 9 (P9). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 25 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally twice daily from P9 to P12. On P12 and P31, the animals were perfused intracardially. Immunohistochemistry with MAP-2, BrdU, NeuN, and S100 antibodies was performed on coronal sections. We found no difference in the hemisphere or infarct volume between GFAP−/−Vim−/− and wild-type mice at P12 and P31, i.e. 3 and 22 days after HI. At P31, the number of NeuN+ neurons in the ischemic and contralateral hemisphere was comparable between GFAP−/−Vim−/− and wild-type mice. In wild-type mice, the number of S100+ astrocytes was lower in the ipsilateral compared to contralateral hemisphere (65.0±50.1 vs. 85.6±34.0, p<0.05). In the GFAP−/−Vim−/− mice, the number of S100+ astrocytes did not differ between the ischemic and contralateral hemisphere at P31. At P31, GFAP−/−Vim−/− mice showed an increase in NeuN+BrdU+ (surviving newly born) neurons in the ischemic cortex compared to wild-type mice (6.7±7.7; n = 29 versus 2.9±3.6; n = 28, respectively, p<0.05), but a comparable number of S100+BrdU+ (surviving newly born) astrocytes.
Our results suggest that attenuation of reactive gliosis in the developing brain does not affect the hemisphere or infarct volume after HI, but increases the number of surviving newborn neurons.
Adderall is widely prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) though long term neurological effects of the main ingredient d-amphetamine are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of clinically prescribed doses of d-amphetamine and one abuse dose administered from childhood to adulthood on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of the granule layer of the dentate gyrus. Beginning in early adolescence (age 28 days) to adulthood (age 71), male C57BL/6J mice were administered twice daily i.p. injections of vehicle, 0.25, 0.5 or 2 mg/kg d-amphetamine. Locomotor activity was measured in home cages by video tracking. At age 53–56, mice received BrdU injections to label dividing cells. Immunohistochemical detection of BrdU, NeuN, Doublecortin (Dcx) and Ki67 was used to measure neurogenesis and cell proliferation at age 71. ΔFosB was measured as an indicator of repeated neuronal activation. An additional cohort of mice was treated similarly except euthanized at age 58 to measure activation of granule neurons from d-amphetamine (by detection of c-Fos) and cell proliferation (ki67) at a time when the fate of BrdU cells would have been determined in the first cohort. D-amphetamine dose-dependently increased survival and differentiation of BrdU cells into neurons and increased number of Dcx cells without affecting number of Ki67 cells. Low doses of d-amphetamine decreased c-Fos and ΔFosB in the granule layer. Only the high dose induced substantial locomotor stimulation and sensitization. Results suggest both therapeutic and abuse doses of d-amphetamine increase number of new neurons in the hippocampus when administered from adolescence to adulthood by increasing survival and differentiation of cells into neurons not by increasing progenitor cell proliferation. Mechanisms for amphetamine-induced neurogenesis are unknown but appear activity-independent. Results suggest part of the beneficial effects of therapeutic doses of d-amphetamine for ADHD could be via increased hippocampal neurogenesis.
neurogenesis; hippocampus; mouse; drugs; psychostimulant; ADHD
Electrophysiology-delivery of fluorescent viral vectors-and two-photon microscopy were used to demonstrate the rapidity of axonal restructuring of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons in rodent cortical layer II/III following alterations in sensory experience.
Cortical topography can be remapped as a consequence of sensory deprivation, suggesting that cortical circuits are continually modified by experience. To see the effect of altered sensory experience on specific components of cortical circuits, we imaged neurons, labeled with a genetically modified adeno-associated virus, in the intact mouse somatosensory cortex before and after whisker plucking. Following whisker plucking we observed massive and rapid reorganization of the axons of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons, accompanied by a transient increase in bouton density. For horizontally projecting axons of excitatory neurons there was a net increase in axonal projections from the non-deprived whisker barrel columns into the deprived barrel columns. The axon collaterals of inhibitory neurons located in the deprived whisker barrel columns retracted in the vicinity of their somata and sprouted long-range projections beyond their normal reach towards the non-deprived whisker barrel columns. These results suggest that alterations in the balance of excitation and inhibition in deprived and non-deprived barrel columns underlie the topographic remapping associated with sensory deprivation.
The adult brain is capable of learning new tasks and being shaped by new experiences. Evidence for experience-dependent plasticity of the adult cerebral cortex is seen in the functional rearrangement of cortical maps of sensory input and in the formation of new connections following alteration of sensory experience. The barrel cortex of the rodent receives sensory input from the whiskers and is an ideal model for examining the influence of experience on cortical function and circuitry. In the current study, we asked how experience alters cortical circuitry by examining excitatory and inhibitory axons within the adult whisker barrel cortex before and after plucking of a whisker and hence removal of its sensory input. By combining delivery of genes encoding fluorescent proteins, under the control of cell-type specific promoters, with two-photon imaging, we were able to directly examine subpopulations of axons and to determine when and to what extent experience altered specific connections in the adult living brain. Following whisker plucking we observed both the retraction of existing connections and an exuberant amount of growth of new axons. Axonal restructuring occurred rapidly and continued to undergo changes over the following weeks, with reciprocal sprouting of axons of excitatory neurons located in non-deprived cortex and of inhibitory neurons located in deprived cortex. The changes in the inhibitory circuits preceded those seen for excitatory connections.
Neurogenesis occurs continually throughout life in all mammals and the extent of neurogenesis is influenced by many factors including gonadal hormones. Most research regarding hormones and neurogenesis has been performed on non-primate species. To determine whether gonadal hormones can modulate endogenous neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus in non-human primates, ovariectomized (OVX) female rhesus monkeys received continuous, unopposed β-estradiol (OVX-E-Con), cyclic unopposed β-estradiol (OVX-E-Cyc), continuous β-estradiol + cyclic progesterone (OVX-E-Con+P-Cyc), or control (OVX-Veh) treatments. At week 29, all monkeys received BrdU injections for four consecutive days, in addition to the ongoing treatment. Twenty days after the last BrdU injection, all animals were sacrificed for tissue collection. In DG of hippocampus, scattered BrdU-ir cells were observed mainly in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and in the granule cell layer and occasionally these BrdU-ir cells in the SGZ formed clusters containing between 2–5 cells. In the granule cell layer and SGZ, virtually none of the BrdU-ir cells were either Dcx, a marker of immature neurons, or GFAP positive. However, an occasional BrdU-ir cell was positive for both neuronal marker NeuN or β III-tubulin. Unbiased stereological analysis of BrdU-ir cells within the SGZ and the granule cell layer of DG revealed that among the experimental groups, there was no significant difference in number of BrdU-ir cells within the SGZ and the granule cell layer of the DG: OVX-E-Con (1801+218.7), OVX-E-Cyc (1783+415.6), OVX-E-Con+P-Cyc (1721+229.6), and OVX-Veh (1263+106.3), but a trend towards increased BrdU-ir cells was observed in all the experimental groups.
monkey; hippocampal neurogenesis; dentate gyrus; estrogen