Despite evidence that discrimination within the health care system may play an important role in perpetuating health disparities, instruments designed to measure discrimination within the health care setting have not been adequately tested or validated. Consequently, we sought to test the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Everyday Discrimination scale, adapted for medical settings.
Academic medical center in Chicago.
Seventy-four African American patients.
We measured factor analysis, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity.
Seventy-four participants completed the baseline interviews and 66 participants (89%) completed the follow-up interviews. Eighty percent were women. The Discrimination in Medical Settings (DMS) Scale had a single factor solution (eigenvalue of 4.36), a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.89 and test-retest reliability of .58 (P<.0001). The DMS was significantly correlated with an overall measure of societal discrimination (EOD) (r=.51, P<.001) as well as two of its three subscales (unfair: r=−.04, P=.76; discrimination: r=.45, P<0.001; worry: r=−.36, P=.002). The DMS was associated with the overall African American Trust in Health Care Scale (r=.27, P=.02) as well as two key subscales (racism: r=.31, P<.001; disrespect: r=.44, P<.001). The DMS scale was inversely associated with the Social Desirability Scale (r=.18, P=.13). The DMS scale was not correlated with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (r=.03, P=.80).
The Discrimination in Medical Settings Scale has excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity among our sample of African American patients. Further testing is warranted among other racial/ethnic groups.
Health Care Discrimination; Health Care Delivery; Health Disparities; Race/ethnicity; Survey Research
Body checking may be an important behavioral consequence of body image disturbance. Despite the importance of body checking, few measurements of this construct exist, particularly for males. This study describes the development and validation of the Male Body Checking Questionnaire (MBCQ).
Convergent and divergent validity, factor structure, and reliability were tested in three separate samples of men and women.
Factor analyses suggested a reliable four-factor structure with evidence of a higher order global checking factor for men, but not women. The MBCQ demonstrated good concurrent and divergent validity. Short-term test-retest reliability was good with high internal consistency across time.
Interpretation of psychometrics and recommendations for subsequent research are discussed. The MBCQ is likely to be an appropriate tool for investigating body image-based pathology in males.
Male Body Checking Questionnaire; confirmatory factor analysis; psychometrics; body image disturbance; muscle dysmorphia; gender differences; exploratory factor analysis
Although the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) was a potential instrument for cross cultural research of midlife women, little information is available on its reliability and validity among multi-ethnic groups of midlife women. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the KPAS in estimating physical activity among 341 diverse ethnic women. Internal consistency was adequate for all ethnic groups except N-H African Americans. The construct validity was identified through group comparisons and factor analysis. In group comparisons, physical activity differences among diverse ethnic groups were similar to results of previous studies using the KPAS. Eight factors were extracted among all ethnic groups except N-H Asian Americans. In the convergent validity test, N-H African Americans and N-H Asian Americans showed particular patterns. Overall, the KPAS was a reliable instrument and was reasonably accurate in assessing physical activities for any multi-ethnic groups of midlife women. However, cultural sensitivity among N-H African Americans and N-H Asian Americans need to be further examined.
Internal consistency; construct validity; convergent validity; physical activity; ethnicity; midlife; women
Racial differences in men’s preferences for African-American and Caucasian women’s body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive.
African-Americans; Caucasians; Waist-to-hip ratio
The Borderline Symptom List-23 (BSL-23) is a reliable and valid self-report instrument for assessing Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) severity. The psychometric properties of the original version have proven to be adequate. The aim of the present study was to validate the Spanish language version of the BSL-23.
The BSL-23 was administered to 240 subjects with BPD diagnosis. Factor structure, reliability, test-retest stability, convergent validity, and sensitivity to change were analyzed.
The Spanish version of the BSL-23 replicates the one-factor structure of the original version. The scale has high reliability (Cronbach’s alpha=.949), as well as good test-retest stability, which was checked in a subsample (n=74; r=.734; p<.01). The Spanish BSL-23 shows moderate to high correlations with depressive symptomatology, state and trait anxiety, hostility and impulsivity scores and BPD measures. The Spanish BSL-23 is able to discriminate among different levels of BPD severity and shows satisfactory sensitivity to change after treatment, which was verified by assessing change before and after 12 group sessions of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy in a subgroup of 31 subjects.
Similar to the original BSL-23, the Spanish BSL-23 is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing BPD severity and sensitivity to change.
Borderline personality disorder; Borderline symptom list; Instrumental study; BPD severity
This study examined whether rural adolescents would report gender and ethnic differences in body image similar to those that have been observed in urban samples. Data were analyzed for 384 rural adolescents (57% African American, 43% Caucasian, mean age 13 yr) to determine gender and ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction, body size discrepancy, and current and ideal figure ratings. Females wanted to be smaller and reported more body dissatisfaction than did males. Caucasian females reported the most body dissatisfaction. African Americans reported larger current and ideal figure ratings than did Caucasians. African Americans preferred larger opposite sex figures than did Caucasians. Both African American and Caucasian males selected a larger female figure as ideal than was selected by females. Results demonstrated that gender and ethnic differences exist in body image for rural adolescents. This frequently overlooked population may benefit from further study. Implications of findings and limitations of the study are also discussed.
Gender differences; Ethnic differences; Body Image; Rural; Adolescents
Appearance-and-performance enhancing drug (APED) use is a form of drug use that includes use of a wide range of substances such as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and associated behaviors including intense exercise and dietary control. To date, there are no reliable or valid measures of the core features of APED use. The present study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Appearance and Performance Enhancing Drug Use Schedule (APEDUS) which is a semi-structured interview designed to assess the spectrum of drug use and related features of APED use. Eighty-five current APED using men and women (having used an illicit APED in the past year and planning to use an illicit APED in the future) completed the APEDUS and measures of convergent and divergent validity. Inter-rater agreement, scale reliability, one-week test-retest reliability, convergent and divergent validity, and construct validity were evaluated for each of the APEDUS scales. The APEDUS is a modular interview with 10 sections designed to assess the core drug and non-drug phenomena associated with APED use. All scales and individual items demonstrated high inter-rater agreement and reliability. Individual scales significantly correlated with convergent measures (DSM-IV diagnoses, aggression, impulsivity, eating disorder pathology) and were uncorrelated with a measure of social desirability. APEDUS subscale scores were also accurate measures of AAS dependence. The APEDUS is a reliable and valid measure of APED phenomena and an accurate measure of the core pathology associated with APED use. Issues with assessing APED use are considered and future research considered.
ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROID; POLYSUBSTANCE USE; BODY IMAGE DISTURBANCE; COMPULSIVE EXERCISE; PSYCHOMETRICS; RELIABILITY; VALIDY; APPEARANCE AND PERORMANCE ENHANCING DRUG USE
To examine whether a multidimensional social support instrument can be used for comparative research in four diverse ethnic groups of women (African American, Latina, Chinese, non-Latina White). The social support instrument was administered as part of a larger survey to 1,137 women. We tested the reliability and validity of this instrument. A confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) framework was used to test for the invariance of the instrument’s psychometric properties across ethnic groups. We used multitrait scaling to eliminate items that did not meet the item-convergence criterion (r > 0.30) and where items were non-convergent items in at least three groups. A series of nested CFA models assessed the level of factorial invariance. One thousand seventy-four women completed the survey; Their mean age was 61 years with Chinese and Latinas reporting lower education compared to non-Latino Whites (p <. 001). A four-factor model (Tangible, Informational, Financial, Emotional/Companionship) fit within each ethnic group separately, suggested good fit. Multi-group CFA supported configural and metric invariance across all ethnic groups. Only partial scalar invariance was supported. This 8-item instrument is a reliable and valid tool that can be used as a multidimensional measure of social support. It can used to examine social support within one ethnic group and for comparative research across diverse ethnic groups of women.
African American; Latino; Asian; Chinese; Language; Spanish; Confirmatory factor analysis; Psychometric analysis
The self-report version of the Royal Free Interview for Religious and Spiritual Beliefs has been confirmed as a valid and reliable scale, assessing the manner and nature in which spiritual beliefs are expressed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability and psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Royal Free Interview for Religious and Spiritual Beliefs.
A total of 209 persons (77 men and 132 women) with a mean age of 28.33 ± 9.44 years participated in the study (test group). We subsequently approached 139 participants of the test group with a mean age of 28.93 ± 9.60 years, who were asked to complete the Royal Free Questionnaire a second time two weeks later (retest group).
The vast majority of participants (58.9%) reported both a religious and a spiritual belief, compared to 52 (25.1%) who told of a religious belief only. The internal consistency of the spiritual scale for the test group proved to be good, as standardized inter-item reliability / Cronbach's alpha was 0.83. Item-total correlations ranged from 0.51 to 0.73. They indicated very good levels of differentiation, thus showing that the questions were appropriate. Internal consistency of the spiritual scale for the retest group proved as good as for the test group. Standardized inter-item reliability / Cronbach's alpha was 0.84. Item-total correlations ranged from 0.52 to 0.75. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the total test-retest score of the spiritual scale was 0.754 (p < 0.001).
The Greek version of the Royal Free Interview for Religious and Spiritual Beliefs is reliable and thus suitable for use in Greece.
The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV (GAD-Q-IV) is a self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder. Previous studies have established the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV revealing excellent diagnostic specificity and sensitivity as well as good test-retest reliability and convergent and discriminant validity (Newman et al., 2002). Recent analyses with other measures of anxiety symptoms have revealed differences across racial or national groups. Given that the GAD-Q-IV was tested primarily on Caucasian (78%) participants, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV across four racial groups: African American, Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian. A student sample of 585 undergraduate psychology students completed the GAD-Q-IV as well as other measures of anxiety symptoms. A clinical replication sample was obtained from 188 clinical participants who completed the GAD-Q-IV as part of a larger psychotherapy study. Results indicated excellent and very similar factor structures in the student sample, and similar psychometric properties across both samples across the racial groups. Implications for the use of the GAD-Q-IV across racial groups are discussed.
Anxiety; Assessment; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Psychometric Analyses; GAD-Q-IV
To assess the gender and ethnic differences in arterial compliance in patients with intermittent claudication.
A total of 114 patients participated, including 38 Caucasian men, 32 Caucasian women, 16 African-American men, and 28 African-American women. Patients were assessed on large artery elasticity index (LAEI), small artery elasticity index (SAEI), age, weight, body mass index, ankle-brachial index (ABI), smoking status, and metabolic syndrome components.
Group differences were found for LAEI (p = 0.042), SAEI (p = 0.019), body mass index (p = 0.020), prevalence of elevated fasting glucose (p = 0.001), and prevalence of abdominal obesity (p = 0.025). Significant covariates for LAEI included age (p = 0.0002) and elevated triglycerides (p = 0.0719). LAEI (units = 10 ml × mmHg) adjusted for age and triglycerides was 39% lower (p = 0.0005) in African-Americans (11.4 ± 0.90; mean ± SE) than in Caucasians (15.8 ± 0.72), whereas no significant difference (p = 0.7904) existed between men (13.8 ± 0.81) and women (13.5 ± 0.79). Significant covariates for SAEI included age (p = 0.0001), abdominal obesity (p = 0.0030), and elevated blood pressure (p = 0.0067). SAEI (units = 100 ml × mmHg) adjusted for age, abdominal obesity, and elevated blood pressure was 32% lower (p = 0.0007) in African-Americans (2.8 ± 0.3) than in Caucasians 4.1 ± 0.2), and was 18% lower (p = 0.0442) in women (3.1 ± 0.2) than in men (3.8 ± 0.2).
African-American patients with intermittent claudication have more impaired macrovacular and microvascular function than Caucasian patients, and women have more impaired microvascular function than men. These ethnic and gender differences in arterial compliance are evident even though ABI was similar among groups, suggesting that arterial compliance provides unique information to quantify vascular impairment in patients with intermittent claudication.
The aims of the present study were to develop and validate a new obesity-specific, parent-proxy measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), Sizing Them Up. Participants included 220 obese youth (Mage = 11.6 years, 68% female, 53% African American, MBMI = 36.7) and their primary caregivers (88% mothers). Primary caregivers completed a demographics questionnaire and two HRQOL measures: Sizing Them Up (obesity-specific) and PedsQL (generic). Youth height and weight were measured. Psychometric evaluation of Sizing Them Up was completed by conducting a factor analysis and determining internal consistency coefficients, test–retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, predictive validity, responsiveness to change, and minimal clinically important difference (MCID) scores. Sizing Them Up is a 22-item measure with six scales (i.e., Emotional Functioning, Physical Functioning, Teasing/Marginalization, Positive Social Attributes, Mealtime Challenges, and School Functioning) that account for 66% of the variance. The measure also includes an Adolescent Developmental Adaptation module. Sizing Them Up had internal consistency coefficients ranging from 0.59 to 0.91 and test–retest reliabilities ranging from 0.57 to 0.80. Validity was demonstrated by significant relations between a majority of Sizing Them Up scales and BMI z-scores. Sizing Them Up also demonstrated good convergent validity with other HRQOL measures and responsiveness to change related to weight loss for adolescents who had undergone bariatric surgery. Overall, Sizing Them Up is a reliable and valid parent-proxy measure of obesity-specific HRQOL that can be used in both clinical and research settings.
This study examines the basic psychometric properties of the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham Scale (SKAMP), a measure intended to assess functional impairment related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, in a sample of 1,205 elementary students. Reliability, factor structure, and convergent, discriminant and predictive validity are evaluated. Results provide support for two separate but related subscales, Attention and Deportment, and provide evidence that the SKAMP predicts school functioning above and beyond symptoms alone. Boys, African American children, and children living in poverty are rated as having higher impairment scores than girls, Caucasian children, and more advantaged peers. Norm-referenced data are provided by gender, race, and parental concern level. This study supports the reliability and validity of the SKAMP in a large, diverse community sample and broadens its clinical utility.
ADHD; teacher ratings; impairment; psychometrics
This study assesses the psychometric properties of the Condom Barriers Scale (CBS), an instrument originally designed to measure women’s perceptions and attitudes regarding male condom use, with a sample of men at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Participants include 590 male patients in drug abuse treatment involved in a gender-specific HIV prevention intervention for teaching safer sex skills. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis generally supported the underlying four-factor subscale structure of the CBS. However, exploratory factor analysis revealed a few specific discrepancies in the factor structure between men and women. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates were moderate to high in value. CBS scores correlated with use of condoms for men with high-risk sexual partners, supporting criterion-related validity. Overall, the analysis indicates that the CBS is a potentially valid and reliable instrument and has utility for assessing barriers to condom use with men, but may need some item content modifications to allow appropriate assessment of gender differences and comparisons across studies.
Condom Barriers Scale; confirmatory factor analysis; exploratory factor analysis; factor congruence; test-retest reliability
To evaluate the reliability and validity of the English and Spanish versions of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptom and Normal-behavior (SWAN) rating scale.
Parents of preschoolers completed both a SWAN and the well-established Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) on two separate occasions over a span of 3 months; instruments were in the primary language of the family (English or Spanish).
Psychometric properties for the English and Spanish versions of the SWAN were adequate, with high internal consistency and moderate test–retest reliability. Skewness and kurtosis statistics for the SWAN were within the range expected for a normally distributed population. The SWAN also demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validity in correlations with the various subscales of the SDQ.
Psychometric properties of both the English and Spanish versions of the SWAN indicate that it is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring child attention and hyperactivity. The stability of ratings over time in this preschool sample was moderate, which may reflect the relative instability of these characteristics in preschool children.
ADHD; rating scale; SWAN; Spanish
To evaluate the reliability and validity of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (a U.K.-developed measure of pregnancy intention), in English and Spanish translation, in a U.S. population of women.
A psychometric evaluation study of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP), a six-item, self-completion paper measure was conducted with 346 women aged 15–45 who presented to San Francisco General Hospital for termination of pregnancy or antenatal care. Analyses of the two language versions were carried out separately. Reliability (internal consistency) was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlations. Test-retest reliability (stability) was assessed using weighted Kappa. Construct validity was assessed using principal components analysis and hypothesis testing.
Psychometric testing demonstrated that the LMUP was reliable and valid in both U.S. English (alpha = 0.78, all item-total correlations >0.20, weighted Kappa = 0.72, unidimensionality confirmed, hypotheses met) and Spanish translation (alpha = 0.84, all item-total correlations >0.20, weighted Kappa = 0.77, unidimensionality confirmed, hypotheses met).
The LMUP was reliable and valid in U.S. English and Spanish translation and therefore may now be used with U.S. women.
The Body Image Scale (BIS) developed in collaboration with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Study Group is a brief questionnaire for measuring body image concerns in patients with cancer. This study sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Body Image Scale (K-BIS).
The participants consisted of 155 postoperative breast cancer patients (56 breast conserving surgery, 56 mastectomy, and 43 oncoplastic surgery). Subjects were evaluated using the K-BIS, the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version (WHOQOL-BREF). Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were examined as a measure of reliability and validity was evaluated by convergent validity, discriminant validity and factor analysis.
Cronbach's α value was 0.943. The total score of the K-BIS was negatively correlated with the BESAA (r=0.301, p<0.001) and the body image facet in the WHOQOL-BREF (r=0.315, p<0.001). The total score of K-BIS positively correlated with the HADS (HAD-A: r=0.501, p<0.001, HAD-D: r=0.466, p<0.001). As for determining discriminant validity, scores were compared between the BCS subgroup, mastectomy subgroup, and oncoplastic surgery subgroup. Difference between the mastectomy subgroup and oncoplastic surgery subgroup was statistically significant (p=0.017). Factor analysis resulted in a single factor solution in three out of four anlyses, accounting for >59% variance.
The K-BIS showed good reliability and validity for assessment of body image in Korean breast cancer patients.
Body image; Breast cancer; Quality of life; Reliability; Validity; Korean
This study sought to establish the psychometric properties of a Coping Strategies Inventory Short Form (CSI-SF) by examining coping skills in the Jackson Heart Study cohort. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson’s correlation, and Cronbach Alpha to examine reliability and validity in the CSI-SF that solicited responses from 5302 African American men and women between the ages of 35 and 84. One item was dropped from the 16-item CSI-SF, making it a 15-item survey. No significant effects were found for age and gender, strengthening the generalizability of the CSI-SF. The internal consistency reliability analysis revealed reliability between alpha = 0.58–0.72 for all of the scales, and all of the fit indices used to examine the CSI-SF provided support for its use as an adequate measure of coping. This study provides empirical support for utilizing this instrument in future efforts to understand the role of coping in moderating health outcomes.
Measurement; psychometric analysis; coping; African Americans
Despite the documented benefits of physical activity, many adults do not obtain the recommended amounts. Barriers to physical activity occur at multiple levels, including at the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels. Only until more recently has there been a concerted focus on how the physical environment might affect physical activity behavior. With this new area of study, self-report measures should be psychometrically tested before use in research studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess physical environmental factors that might be associated with physical activity in a diverse adult population.
Test and retest surveys were conducted over the telephone with 106 African American and White women and men living in either Forsyth County, North Carolina or Jackson, Mississippi. Reliability of self-reported environmental factors across four domains (e.g., access to facilities and destinations, functionality and safety, aesthetics, natural environment) was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) overall and separately by gender and race.
Generally items displayed moderate and sometimes substantial reliability (ICC between 0.4 to 0.8), with a few differences by gender or race, across each of the domains.
This study provides some psychometric evidence for the use of many of these questions in studies examining the effect of self-reported physical environmental measures on physical activity behaviors, among African American and White women and men.
environment; exercise; leisure activities; questionnaires; reproducibility of results
This study aimed to test the preliminary psychometric properties of the Scale of Body Connection (SBC), a 20-item self-report measure, designed to assess body awareness and bodily dissociation in mind–body intervention research.
The SBC items were based on common expressions of awareness in body therapy. Content validity was established by a panel of experts. The validity and reliability of the scale was examined with an undergraduate sample. To assess the scale’s discriminant validity, the respondents were asked to indicate exposure to specific traumas.
Confirmatory factor analysis, used to examine the scale’s construct validity, indicated acceptable goodness-of-fit indices, and revealed uncorrelated subscales, reflecting independent dimensions. Cronbach’s alpha revealed equal internal consistency reliability for each subscale for both men and women. Body awareness scores did not differ between individuals with and without reported trauma exposure. Bodily dissociation scores differed between individuals with and without past experience with physical trauma, suggesting the applicability of this subscale for use with populations with trauma histories.
The results provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the SBC.
The BMI cut-score used to define overweight and obesity was derived primarily using data from Caucasian men and women. The present study evaluated the racial/ethnic bias of BMI to estimate the adiposity of young men and women (aged 17–35 years) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) determination of percentage body fat (DXA-BF%) as the referent standard. The samples were 806 women and 509 men who were tested from one to three times over 9 months providing 1300 observations for women and 820 observations for men. Linear mixed models (LMM) regression showed that with age and BMI controlled, DXA-BF% of African-American (AA) men and women, Asian-Indian men and women, Hispanic women and Asian women significantly differed from non-Hispanic white (NHW) men and women. For the same BMI of NHW women, the DXA-BF% of AA women was 1.76 % lower, but higher for Hispanic (1.65 %), Asian (2.65%) and Asian-Indian (5.98%) women. For the same BMI of NHW men, DXA-BF% of AA men was 4.59 % lower and 4.29 % higher for Asian-Indian men. Using the recommended BMI cut-scores to define overweight and obesity systematically overestimated overweight and obesity prevalence for AA men and women, and underestimated prevalence for Asian-Indian men and women, Asian women and Hispanic women. The present study extends the generalisability of research documenting the racial/ethnic bias of the universal overweight and obesity BMI cut-scores.
Percentage body fat: BMI; Overweight; Obesity; Diversity
This study compared general weight concerns (Drive for Thinness, Body Dissatisfaction, and Cognitive Restraint) and smoking-specific weight concerns among adult African American and Caucasian women and men smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation clinical trial. Participants were 119 African Americans (73 female) and 182 Caucasians (90 female). Results revealed that general weight concerns were higher in Caucasians versus African Americans, and in women compared with men but there were no race by sex interactions. Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction were higher in women compared with men, and Cognitive Restraint was highest in Caucasian women. Finally, smoking-specific weight concerns were higher in Caucasian women than both Caucasian and African American men, with African American women intermediate. Results indicate that while Caucasian women preparing to quit smoking exhibited the highest levels of concern about weight, smoking-specific weight concerns, and certain sub-components of general weight concerns were also prevalent among African Americans and Caucasians. Future research is needed to elucidate how race and sex differences in weight concerns may impact smoking cessation.
African Americans; Weight Concerns; Smoking
The aim of the present study was to conduct a psychometric validation of the Japanese version of the FIQL (JFIQL).
A retrospective analysis of data from the JFIQL was conducted. Wexner scores and Faecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) scores were collected prospectively in patients with faecal incontinence who visited our centre between 2008 and 2009. For convergent validity, the JFIQL scores were compared with stages on the Wexner scale for lifestyle alteration. To evaluate reliability, Cronbach's alpha was calculated for internal consistency, whereas a test–retest study was performed to evaluate reproducibility. In assessing responsiveness, JFIQL scores before and after treatments were compared in patients whose FISI scores decreased by ≥ 50%.
Convergent validity and internal consistency were determined in 70 patients (49 women; median age 68.5 years). The JFIQL scores were significantly associated with lifestyle alteration stages on the Wexner scale, demonstrating convergent validity in all four domains and the generic score. Cronbach's alpha was > 0.7 for generic scores and all domains except Embarrassment. The intraclass correlations for the 27 patients available for the test–retest study were > 0.7 for generic scores and all domains except Embarrassment. The median JFIQL score improved significantly after treatment in the 23 patients whose FISI scores decreased ≥ 50%, indicating good responsiveness in all four domains and the generic score.
The JFIQL has been validated and is now ready for use in evaluating the symptom-specific quality of life in Japanese patients with faecal incontinence.
What is new in this paper
This is the first study validating the Japanese version of the FIQL (JFIQL). The JFIQL was validated not only for convergent validity and reliability, but also for responsiveness, which has never been addressed before. We also validated a generic JFIQL score in addition to scores for four specific domains.
Faecal incontinence; quality of life; faecal incontinence quality of life; scale; validity; reliability
The present study assessed the factor structure, reliability, test retest, convergent validity, and predictive validity of the Obsessive Compulsive Cocaine Scale (OCCS), a newly developed questionnaire adapted from the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). The questionnaire was administered to 189 cocaine-dependent individuals participating in two medication treatment trials for cocaine dependence. Confirmatory factor analysis of this measure revealed that it primarily assesses two factors, obsessions and compulsions. In addition, the data provided strong support for the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, predictive validity, and convergent validity of this two-factor measure. Overall, the data provide support for the psychometric strength of a modified version of the OCDS specifically designed to assess obsessive and compulsive cocaine use among those with cocaine dependence.
Obsessive Compulsive Cocaine Scale; Cocaine; Confirmatory factor analysis; Psychometric properties
To translate long form, interview-administered International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) from English to Persian and evaluate its validity, reliability and reproducibility.
A forward-backward translation procedure was followed to develop the Persian version of the IPAQ. A total of 218 respondents (53.7% women, aged 22–76 yr) completed the Persian version in Tehran, Iran. To examine the test–retest reliability, 48 healthy volunteers completed the IPAQ twice during a 7-day period.. The PA indicators derived from the IPAQ were assessed for reliability and were compared with aerobic fitness and body mass index (BMI) for construct validity.
In general, the questionnaire was received well and all domains met the minimum reliability standards (intra-class correlation [ICC]>0.7), except for Leisure-time physical activity (PA). Aerobic fitness showed a weak positive correlation with all of the PA results derived from the IPAQ. A significant correlation was observed between the IPAQ data for total PA and both aerobic fitness (r=0.33, P<0.001) and BMI (r=0.26, P<0.001). Performing a known group comparison analysis, the results indicated that the questionnaire was discriminated well between the subgroups of the study samples expected to be different in their physical activity.
The Persian version of the long form, interview-administered IPAQ had an acceptable reliability and validity for assessing total PA in our Iranian sample of individuals. It may be a useful instrument for generating internationally comparable data on PA.
Metabolic equivalent; Physical Activity; Questionnaire; Reliability and Validity; IPAQ