Ischemic postconditioning initially referred to a stuttering reperfusion performed immediately after reperfusion, for preventing ischemia/reperfusion injury in both myocardial and cerebral infarction. It has evolved into a concept that can be induced by a broad range of stimuli or triggers, and may even be performed as late as 6 h after focal ischemia and 2 days after transient global ischemia. The concept is thought to be derived from ischemic preconditioning or partial/gradual reperfusion, but in fact the first experiment for postconditioning was carried out much earlier than that of preconditioning or partial/gradual reperfusion, in the research on myocardial ischemia. This review first examines the protective effects and parameters of postconditioning in various cerebral ischemic models. Thereafter, it provides insights into the protective mechanisms of postconditioning associated with reperfusion injury and the Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase C (PKC), and ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel cell signaling pathways. Finally, some open issues and future challenges regarding clinical translation of postconditioning are discussed.
cerebral ischemia; focal ischemia; neuroprotection; preconditioning; postconditioning; stroke
Sevoflurane postconditioning reduces myocardial infarct size. The objective of this study was to examine the role of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in anesthetic postconditioning and to determine whether PI3K/Akt signaling modulates the expression of pro- and antiapoptotic proteins in sevoflurane postconditioning. Isolated and perfused rat hearts were prepared first, and then randomly assigned to the following groups: Sham-operation (Sham), ischemia/reperfusion (Con), sevoflurane postconditioning (SPC), Sham plus 100 nmol/L wortmannin (Sham+Wort), Con+Wort, SPC+Wort, and Con+dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). Sevoflurane postconditioning was induced by administration of sevoflurane (2.5%, v/v) for 10 min from the onset of reperfusion. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), maximum increase in rate of LVDP (+dP/dt), maximum decrease in rate of LVDP (−dP/dt), heart rate (HR), and coronary flow (CF) were measured at baseline, R30 min (30 min of reperfusion), R60 min, R90 min, and R120 min. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured after 5 min and 10 min reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining at the end of reperfusion. Total Akt and phosphorylated Akt (phospho-Akt), Bax, Bcl-2, Bad, and phospho-Bad were determined by Western blot analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls’ test were used to investigate the significance of differences between groups. The LVDP, ±dP/dt, and CF were higher and LVEDP was lower in the SPC group than in the Con group at all points of reperfusion (P<0.05). The SPC group had significantly reduced CK and LDH release and decreased infarct size compared with the Con group [(22.9±8)% vs. (42.4±9.4)%, respectively; P<0.05]. The SPC group also had increased the expression of phosphor-Akt, Bcl-2, and phospho-Bad, and decreased the expression of Bax. Wortmannin abolished the cardioprotection of sevoflurane postconditioning. Sevoflurane postconditioning may protect the isolated rat heart. Activation of PI3K and modulation of the expression of pro- and antiapoptotic proteins may play an important role in sevoflurane-induced myocardial protection.
Sevoflurane; Postconditioning; Cardioprotection; Akt; Bcl-2; Bad
Ischemic postconditioning is a concept originally defined to contrast with that of ischemic preconditioning. While both preconditioning and postconditioning confer a neuroprotective effect on brain ischemia, preconditioning is a sublethal insult performed in advance of brain ischemia, and postconditioning, which conventionally refers to a series of brief occlusions and reperfusions of the blood vessels, is conducted after ischemia/reperfusion. In this article, we first briefly review the history of preconditioning, including the experimentation that initially uncovered its neuroprotective effects and later revealed its underlying mechanisms-of-action. We then discuss how preconditioning research evolved into that of postconditioning – a concept that now represents a broad range of stimuli or triggers, including delayed postconditioning, pharmacological postconditioning, remote postconditioning – and its underlying protective mechanisms involving the Akt, MAPK, PKC and KATP channel cell-signaling pathways. Because the concept of postconditioning is so closely associated with that of preconditioning, and both share some common protective mechanisms, we also discuss whether a combination of preconditioning and postconditioning offers greater protection than preconditioning or postconditioning alone.
postconditioning; preconditioning; stroke; cerebral ischemia; focal ischemia; neuroprotection
The author reviews the protective effects of ischemic postconditioning, a recently emerging strategy with broad implications in the search for new treatments in stroke and myocardial ischemic injury. Ischemic postconditioning, which refers to a series of brief ischemia and reperfusion cycles applied immediately at the site of the ischemic organ after reperfusion, results in reduced infarction in both cerebral and myocardial ischemia. Conventional postconditioning induced within a few minutes after reperfusion is arbitrarily defined as rapid postconditioning. In contrast, postconditioning performed hours to days after stroke is defined as delayed postconditioning. In addition, postconditioning can be mimicked using anesthetics or other pharmacological agents as stimuli to protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury or performed in a distant organ, which is known as remote postconditioning. In this article, the author discusses the conceptual origin of classical rapid ischemic postconditioning and its evolution into a term that represents a broad range of stimuli or triggers, including delayed postconditioning, pharmacological postconditioning, and remote postconditioning. Thereafter, various in vivo and in vitro models of postconditioning and its potential protective mechanisms are discussed. Since the concept of postconditioning is so closely associated with that of preconditioning and both share some common protective mechanisms, whether a combination of preconditioning and postconditioning offers greater protection than preconditioning or postconditioning alone is also discussed.
Postconditioning; preconditioning; stroke; cerebral ischemia; focal ischemia; neuroprotection
Although the protective mechanisms of delayed ischemic preconditioning have received extensive studies, few have addressed the mechanisms associated with rapid ischemic postconditioning. We investigated whether ischemic tolerance induced by rapid preconditioning is regulated by the Akt survival signaling pathway. Stroke was generated by permanent occlusion of the left distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) plus 30 min or 1 h occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) in male rats. Rapid preconditioning performed 1h before stroke onset reduced infarct size by 69% in rats with 30 min CCA occlusion, but by only 19% with 1 h occlusion. After control ischemia with 30 min CCA occlusion, Western Blot showed that P-Akt was transiently increased while Akt kinase assay showed that Akt activity was decreased. Although preconditioning did not change P-Akt levels at 1h and 5h compared with control ischemia, it attenuated reduction in Akt activity at 5h in the penumbra. However, preconditioning did not change the levels of P-PDK1, P-PTEN, and P-GSK3β in the Akt pathway, all of which were decreased after stroke. At last, the PI3K kinase inhibitor, LY294002, completely reversed the protection from ischemic preconditioning. In conclusion, Akt contributes to the protection of rapid preconditionin against stroke.
rapid preconditioning; ischemic tolerance; cerebral ischemia; focal ischemia; neuroprotection; Akt
We and others have reported that rapid ischemic postconditioning, interrupting early reperfusion after stroke, reduces infarction in rats. However, its extremely short therapeutic time windows, from a few seconds to minutes after reperfusion, may hinder its clinical translation. Thus, in this study we explored if delayed postconditioning, which is conducted a few hours after reperfusion, offers protection against stroke.
Methods and Results
Focal ischemia was generated by 30 min occlusion of bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) combined with permanent occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCA); delayed postconditioning was performed by repetitive, brief occlusion and release of the bilateral CCAs, or of the ipsilateral CCA alone. As a result, delayed postconditioning performed at 3h and 6h after stroke robustly reduced infarct size, with the strongest protection achieved by delayed postconditioning with 6 cycles of 15 min occlusion/15 min release of the ipsilateral CCA executed from 6h. We found that this delayed postconditioning provided long-term protection for up to two months by reducing infarction and improving outcomes of the behavioral tests; it also attenuated reduction in 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-uptake therefore improving metabolism, and reduced edema and blood brain barrier leakage. Reperfusion in ischemic stroke patients is usually achieved by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) application, however, t-PA's side effect may worsen ischemic injury. Thus, we tested whether delayed postconditioning counteracts the exacerbating effect of t-PA. The results showed that delayed postconditioning mitigated the worsening effect of t-PA on infarction.
Delayed postconditioning reduced ischemic injury after focal ischemia, which opens a new research avenue for stroke therapy and its underlying protective mechanisms.
We have shown that isoflurane application at the onset of reperfusion (postconditioning) reduces brain ischemic injury in rats. This study was designed to determine whether this protection involved activation of prosurvival protein kinases and maintenance of normal mitochondrial membrane permeability. Two-month old male rats were subjected to a 90-min middle cerebral arterial occlusion. They then were exposed or were not exposed to 2% isoflurane for 1 h. Ischemic penumbral cerebral cortex was harvested immediately and separated into the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions. We showed that the mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide content in the ischemic penumbral cortex was significantly reduced, suggesting an increased mitochondrial membrane permeability. This increase was partly attenuated by isoflurane postconditioning. The mitochondrial adenosine diphosphate content in the penumbral cortex was reduced no matter whether the animals were postconditioned with isoflurane. The mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate concentration was not different among various experimental conditions. The phospho-Akt in the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of the ischemic penumbral cortex was higher than that in the control cortex. This increase trended to be higher in animals with isoflurane postconditioning. A similar change pattern was observed in the mitochondrial phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3β, an Akt substrate that can regulate the mitochondrial membrane permeability. Isoflurane postconditioning reduced oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury of rat cortical neuronal cultures and increased phospho-Akt in these cells. The isoflurane postconditioning-induced protection in the neuronal cultures was decreased by the Akt inhibitor LY294002. These results suggest that isoflurane postconditioning effects may be mediated by Akt and involve reduced mitochondrial membrane permeability.
Akt; glycogen synthase kinase 3β; isoflurane; neuroprotection; mitochondrial membrane permeability; postconditioning
Activation of sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (SK/S1P)-mediated signalling has been recognized as critical for cardioprotection in response to acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Incubation of S1P with cultured cardiac myocytes subjected to hypoxia or treatment of isolated hearts either before ischaemia or at the onset of reperfusion (pharmacologic pre- or postconditioning) results in reduced myocyte injury. Synthetic agonists active at S1P receptors mimic these responses. Gene-targeted mice null for the SK1 isoform whose hearts are subjected to ischaemia/reperfusion injury exhibit increased infarct size and respond poorly either to ischaemic pre- or postconditioning. Measurements of cardiac SK activity and S1P parallel these observations. Ischaemic postconditioning combined with sphingosine and S1P rescues the heart from prolonged ischaemia. These observations may have considerable relevance for future therapeutic approaches to acute and chronic myocardial injury.
Sphingosine kinase; Cardioprotection; Ischaemic preconditioning; Ischaemic postconditioning; Sphingosine-1-phosphate; Ischaemia/reperfusion injury; Enzyme regulation
Both sphingosine and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) were able to protect the ex vivo rat heart from ischemia reperfusion injury when added to the perfusion medium at the time of reperfusion after a 40 min ischemia (postconditioning). Inhibitor studies revealed distinct mechanisms of protection, with S1P employing a G-protein coupled receptor pathway and sphingosine a cyclic nucleotide dependent protein kinase pathway. However, both restored ischemia-induced depletion of phospho-AKT. Extending the ischemia to 75 min reduced protection by both S1P and sphingosine, but protection could be enhanced by employing them in combination. Extending the time of ischemia further to 90 min almost eliminated cardioprotection by S1P or sphingosine; and their combination gave only modest protection. However, when S1P plus sphingosine was combined with a novel ramped ischemic postconditioning regimen, left ventricle developed pressure recovered by 66% and there was only a 6% infarct size. The data indicate that detrimental changes are accumulating during protracted ischemia but for up to 90 min this damage is not irreversible and hearts can still recover with proper treatment.
Cardioprotection; Ischemia; Postconditioning; Sphingosine; Sphingosine 1-phosphate
The volatile anesthetic isoflurane is capable of inducing preconditioning and postconditioning effects in the brain. However, the mechanisms for these neuroprotective effects are not fully understood. Here, we showed that rat hippocampal neuronal cultures exposed to 2% isoflurane for 30 min at 24 h before a 1-h oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and a 24-h simulated reperfusion had a reduced lactate dehydrogenase release. Similarly, this OGD and simulated reperfusion-induced lactate dehydrogenase release was attenuated by exposing the neuronal cultures to 2% isoflurane for 1 h at various times after the onset of the simulated reperfusion (isoflurane postconditioning). The combination of isoflurane preconditioning and postconditioning induced a better neuroprotection than either alone. Inhibition of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), inhibition of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, or activation of adenosine A2A receptors resulted in reduction of the OGD and simulated reperfusion-induced cell injury. The combination of CaMKII inhibition and isoflurane preconditioning or postconditioning did not provide better protection than CaMKII inhibition, isoflurane preconditioning, or isoflurane postconditioning alone. The combination of NMDA receptor inhibition and isoflurane postconditioning was not better than NMDA receptor inhibition or isoflurane postconditioning alone for neuroprotection. However, the combination of adenosine A2A receptor activation with either isoflurane preconditioning or isoflurane postconditioning induced a better neuroprotective effect than adenosine A2A receptor activation, isoflurane preconditioning, or isoflurane postconditioning alone. The combination of NMDA receptor inhibition and isoflurane preconditioning caused a better neuroprotective effect than NMDA receptor inhibition or isoflurane preconditioning alone. These results suggest that isoflurane preconditioning- and postconditioning-induced neuroprotection can be additive. Isoflurane preconditioning and isoflurane postconditioning may involve CaMKII inhibition, but may not involve adenosine A2A receptor activation. Inhibition of NMDA receptors may mediate the effects of isoflurane postconditioning, but not isoflurane preconditioning.
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II; isoflurane; neuron; preconditioning; postconditioning
We recently showed that intraischemic moderate hypothermia (30°C) reduces ischemic damage through the Akt pathway after permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. The only Akt pathway component preserved by hypothermia is phosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (p-PTEN), which suggests that p-PTEN may have a central role in neuroprotection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critically involved in mediating ischemic damage after stroke by interacting with signaling molecules, including Akt, PTEN, and δ-protein kinase C (PKC). We investigated the protective mechanisms of moderate hypothermia on these signaling proteins after transient focal ischemia in rats. Early moderate hypothermia (3 h) was administered 15 mins before reperfusion, and delayed moderate hypothermia (3 h) was applied 15 mins after reperfusion. Our results indicate that early hypothermia reduced infarction, whereas delayed hypothermia did not. However, both early and delayed hypothermia maintained levels of Mn-SOD (superoxide dismutase) and phosphorylated Akt and blocked δ-PKC cleavage, suggesting that these factors may not be critical to the protection of hypothermia. Nevertheless, early hypothermia preserved p-PTEN levels after reperfusion, whereas delayed hypothermia did not. Furthermore, ROS inhibition maintained levels of p-PTEN after stroke. Together, these findings suggest that phosphorylation levels of PTEN are closely associated with the protective effect of early hypothermia against stroke.
focal ischemia; hypothermia; neuroprotection; stroke
Experimental studies have shown that ischemic postconditioning can reduce neuronal injury in the setting of cerebral ischemia, but the mechanisms are not yet clearly elucidated. This study was conducted to determine whether ischemic postconditioning can alter expression of heat shock protein 70 and reduce acute phase neuronal injury in rats subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.
Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion for 60 min in twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g). Rats were randomized into control group and an ischemic postconditioning group (10 rats per group). The animals of control group had no intervention either before or after MCA occlusion. Ischemic postconditioning was elicited by 3 cycles of 30 s reperfusion interspersed by 10 s ischemia immediately after onset of reperfusion. The infarct ratios, brain edema ratios and motor behavior deficits were analyzed 24 hrs after ischemic insult. Caspase-3 reactive cells and cells showing heat shock protein 70 activity were counted in the caudoputamen and frontoparietal cortex.
Ischemic postconditiong did not reduce infarct size and brain edema ratios compared to control group. Neurologic scores were not significantly different between groups. The number of caspase-3 reactive cells in the ischemic postconditioning group was not significantly different than the value of the control group in the caudoputamen and frontoparietal cortex. The number of cells showing heat shock protein 70 activity was not significantly different than the control group, as well.
These results suggest that ischemic postconditioning may not influence the early brain damage induced by focal cerebral ischemia in rats.
Focal cerebral ischemia; Neuroproctection; Postconditioning; Rat
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) signaling plays a crucial role in neuronal growth and plasticity. Recently, we demonstrated that suicide brain is associated with decreased activation and expression of selective catalytic and regulatory subunits of PI 3-K. The present investigation examined the regulation and functional significance of compromised PI 3-K in suicide brain at the level of upstream phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) and downstream substrates 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and Akt.
mRNA expression of Akt1, Akt3, PTEN, and PDK1 by competitive RT-PCR; protein expression of Akt1, Akt3, PTEN, PDK1, phosphorylated-Akt1 (Ser473), phosphorylated-Akt1(Thr308), phosphorylated-PDK1, and phosphorylated-PTEN by Western blot; and catalytic activities of Akt1, Akt3, and PDK1 by enzymatic assays were determined in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus obtained from suicide subjects and nonpsychiatric controls.
No significant changes in the expression of Akt1 or Akt3 were observed; however, catalytic activity of Akt1, but not of Akt3, was decreased in PFC and hippocampus of suicide subjects, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473 and Thr308. The catalytic activity of PDK1 and the level of phosphorylated-PDK1 were also decreased in both brain areas without any change in expression levels of PDK1. On the other hand, mRNA and protein expression of PTEN was increased, whereas the level of phosphorylated-PTEN was decreased.
Our study demonstrates abnormalities in PI 3-K signaling at several levels in brain of suicide subjects and suggests the possible involvement of aberrant PI 3-K/Akt signaling in the pathogenic mechanisms of suicide.
Akt; PDK1; PTEN; suicide; depression; prefrontal cortex; hippocampus
Akt signaling plays a central role in T cell functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and regulatory T cell development. Phosphorylation at Ser473 in the hydrophobic motif, along with Thr308 in its activation loop, is considered necessary for Akt function. It is widely accepted that Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1) phosphorylates Akt at Thr308, but the kinase(s) responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser473 (PDK-2) remains elusive. The existence of PDK-2 is considered to be specific to cell type and stimulus. PDK-2 in T cells in response to TCR stimulation has not been clearly defined. In this study, we found that conventional PKC positively regulated TCR-induced Akt Ser473 phosphorylation. PKC-alpha purified from T cells can phosphorylate Akt at Ser473 in vitro upon TCR stimulation. Knockdown of PKC-alpha in T cell line Jurkat cells reduced TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt as well as its downstream targets. Thus our results suggest that PKC-alpha is a candidate for PDK-2 in T cells upon TCR stimulation.
Akt; PKC-alpha; TCR; PDK-2
Activated protein C (APC) is known to be beneficial on ischemia reperfusion injury in myocardium. However, the protection mechanism of APC is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of APC on myocardial ischemic damage. Artificially ventilated anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a 30 min of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by 2 hr of reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into four groups; Sham, I/R, APC preconditioning and postconditioning group. Myocardial infarct size, apoptosis index, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome c genes and proteins were assessed. In APC-administrated rat hearts, regardless of the timing of administration, infarct size was consistently reduced compared to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rats. APC improved the expression of ERK1/2 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 which were significantly reduced in the I/R rats. APC reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic genes, Bax and cytochrome c. These findings suggest that APC produces cardioprotective effect by preserving the expression of proteins and genes involved in anti-apoptotic pathways, regardless of the timing of administration.
Activated Protein C; Cardioprotection; Reperfusion Injury, ERK1/2; bcl-2-Associated X Protein
Activation of sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate– mediated signaling has emerged as a critical cardioprotective pathway in response to acute ischemia/reperfusion injury. Application of exogenous sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in cultured cardiac myocytes subjected to hypoxia or treatment of isolated hearts either before ischemia or at the onset of reperfusion (pharmacologic preconditioning or postconditioning) exerts prosurvival effects. Synthetic congeners of S1P mimic these responses. Gene-targeted mice null for the sphingosine kinase 1 isoform whose hearts are subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury exhibit increased infarct size and respond poorly either to ischemic preconditioning or to ischemic postconditioning. Measurements of cardiac sphingosine kinase activity and S1P parallel these observations. High-density lipoprotein is a major carrier of S1P, and studies of hearts in which selected S1P receptors have been deleted implicate the S1P cargo of high-density lipoprotein in cardioprotection. These observations have considerable relevance for future therapeutic approaches to acute and chronic myocardial injury.
cardioprotection; cell signaling; dimethylsphingosine; high-density lipoprotein; sphingosine kinase; sphingosine 1-phosphate; S1P receptors
Internalization of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine endothelial cells (BEC) is increased by tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulation and NF-κB activation. Because the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt signaling pathway also modulates NF-κB activity, we considered whether the internalization of S. aureus by BEC is associated with the activity of PI3K and Akt. We found a time- and multiplicity of infection-dependent phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 in BEC infected with S. aureus. This phosphorylation was inhibited by LY294002 (LY), indicating the participation of PI3K. Inhibition of either PI3K with LY or wortmannin, or Akt with SH-5, strongly reduced the internalization of S. aureus. Transfection of BEC with a dominant-negative form of the Akt gene significantly decreased S. aureus internalization, whereas transfection with the constitutively active mutant increased the number of internalized bacterium. Inhibition of PDK1 activity with OSU-03012 did not affect the level of S. aureus internalization, demonstrating that phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 is not important for this process. Compared to the untreated control, the adherence of S. aureus to the surface of BEC was unaltered when cells were transfected or incubated with the pharmacological inhibitors. Furthermore, Akt activation by internalized S. aureus triggered a time-dependent phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3α (GSK-3α) on Ser21 and GSK-3β on Ser9 that was partially inhibited with SH-5. Finally, treatment of BEC with LY prior to S. aureus infection inhibited the NF-κB p65 subunit phosphorylation on Ser536, indicating the involvement of PI3K. These results suggest that PI3K-Akt activity is important for the internalization of S. aureus and phosphorylation of GSK-3α, GSK-3β, and NF-κB.
In solid organ transplantation, ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury during organ procurement, storage and reperfusion is an unavoidable detrimental event for the graft, as it amplifies graft inflammation and rejection. Intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways regulate inflammation and cell survival during IR injury. The four best-characterized MAPK subfamilies are the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal- regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and big MAPK-1 (BMK1/ERK5). Here, we review the role of MAPK activation during myocardial IR injury as it occurs during heart transplantation. Most of our current knowledge regarding MAPK activation and cardioprotection comes from studies of preconditioning and postconditioning in nontransplanted hearts. JNK and p38 MAPK activation contributes to myocardial IR injury after prolonged hypothermic storage. p38 MAPK inhibition improves cardiac function after cold storage, rewarming and reperfusion. Small-molecule p38 MAPK inhibitors have been tested clinically in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, but not in transplanted patients, so far. Organ transplantation offers the opportunity of starting a preconditioning treatment before organ procurement or during cold storage, thus modulating early events in IR injury. Future studies will need to evaluate combined strategies including p38 MAPK and/or JNK inhibition, ERK1/2 activation, pre- or postconditioning protocols, new storage solutions, and gentle reperfusion.
Transient forebrain or global ischemia induces neuronal death in vulnerable CA1 pyramidal cells with many features. A brief period of ischemia, i.e., ischemic preconditioning, or a modified reperfusion such as ischemic postconditioning, can afford robust protection of CA1 neurons against ischemic challenge. Therefore, we investigated the effect of ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning on neural cell apoptosis in rats. The result showed that both ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning may attenuate the neural cell death and DNA fragment in the hippocampal CA1 region. Further western blot study suggested that ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning down-regulates the protein of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-9 and Bax, but up-regulates the protein Bcl-2. These findings suggest that ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning have a neuroprotective role on global brain ischemia in rats through the same effect on inhibition of apoptosis.
brain ischemic injury; ischemic preconditioning; ischemic postconditioning; apoptosis; neuroprotection
Hepatic Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury (IRI) is a major cause of liver damage during liver surgery and transplantation. Ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning are strategies that can reduce IRI. In this study, different combined types of pre- and postconditioning procedures were tested in a murine warm hepatic IRI model to evaluate their protective effects. Proanthocyanidins derived from grape seed was used before ischemia process as pharmacological preconditioning to combine with technical preconditioning and postconditioning. Three pathways related to IRI, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, pro-inflammatory cytokines release and hypoxia responses were examined in hepatic IRI model. Individual and combined pre- and postconditioning protocols significantly reduce liver injury by decreasing the liver ROS and cytokine levels, as well as enhancing the hypoxia tolerance response. Our data also suggested that in addition to individual preconditioning or postconditioning, the combination of these two treatments could reduce liver ischemia/reperfusion injury more effectively by increasing the activity of ROS scavengers and antioxidants. The utilization of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) could improve the oxidation resistance in combined pre- and postconditioning groups. The combined protocol also further increased the liver HIF-1 alpha protein level, but had no effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines release compared to solo treatment.
Preconditioning; Postconditioning; Ischemia; Reperfusion Injury; Proanthocyanidins
During the past few decades, a large number of animal studies demonstrated that commonly used opioids could provide cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Opioid-induced preconditioning or postconditioning mimics ischemic preconditioning (I-Pre) or ischemic postconditioning (I-Post). Both δ- and κ-opioid receptors (OPRs) play a crucial role in opioid-induced cardioprotection (OIC). Down stream signaling effectors of OIC include ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, protein kinase C (PKC), tyrosine kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-kinase), extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), among others. Recently, various reports also suggest that opioids could provide cardioprotection in humans. This review will discuss OIC using mostly morphine and remifentanil which are widely used during cardiac anesthesia in addition to the clinical implications of OIC.
Ischemic postconditioning; Ischemic preconditioning; Morphine; Myocardial ischemia; Myocardial reperfusion; Remifentanil
Short non-lethal ischemic episodes administered to hearts prior to (ischemic preconditioning, IPC) or directly after (ischemic postconditioning, IPost) ischemic events facilitate myocardial protection. Transferring coronary effluent collected during IPC treatment to un-preconditioned recipient hearts protects from lethal ischemic insults. We propose that coronary IPC effluent contains hydrophobic cytoprotective mediators acting via PI3K/Akt-dependent pro-survival signaling at ischemic reperfusion. Ex vivo rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of regional ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. IPC effluent administered for 10 min prior to index ischemia attenuated infarct size by ≥55% versus control hearts (P < 0.05). Effluent administration for 10 min at immediate reperfusion (reperfusion therapy) or as a mimetic of pharmacological postconditioning (remote postconditioning, RIPost) significantly reduced infarct size compared to control (P < 0.05). The IPC effluent significantly increased Akt phosphorylation in un-preconditioned hearts when administered before ischemia or at reperfusion, while pharmacological inhibition of PI3K/Akt-signaling at reperfusion completely abrogated the cardioprotection offered by effluent administration. Fractionation of coronary IPC effluent revealed that cytoprotective humoral mediator(s) released during the conditioning phase were of hydrophobic nature as all hydrophobic fractions with molecules under 30 kDa significantly reduced infarct size versus the control and hydrophilic fraction-treated hearts (P < 0.05). The total hydrophobic effluent fraction significantly reduced infarct size independently of temporal administration (before ischemia, at reperfusion or as remote postconditioning). In conclusion, the IPC effluent retains strong cardioprotective properties, containing hydrophobic mediator(s) < 30 kDa offering cytoprotection via PI3K/Akt-dependent signaling at ischemic reperfusion.
Postconditioning; Preconditioning; Cardioprotection; Ischemia; Reperfusion; Akt
The Akt pathway is very important in both development and cancer. Here we show that expression of Casein kinase I epsilon (CKIε) causes up-regulation of the Akt pathway despite normal protein expression of the pathway inhibitor Phosphata and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN). Conversly we show that a CKIε/δ-specific inhibitor can inhibit Akt phosphorylation at both Thr308 and Ser473 and drastically reduce phosphorylation of the Akt target Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β (GSK3β). These conclusions were confirmed between MCF7 cells transiently transfected with CKIε and Hs578T cells which already express endogenous CKIε. The results suggest that CKIε is a new positive regulator of the Akt pathway. Here we propose that, rather than inhibiting PTEN function, CKIε positively regulates Akt possibly by inhibiting Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A).
Activation of either the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/Akt or the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways accelerates myogenesis but only when the reciprocal pathway is functional. We therefore examined the hypothesis that cross-activation between these signaling cascades occurs to orchestrate myogenesis. We reveal a novel and reciprocal cross-talk and activation between the PI 3-kinase/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways that is essential for efficient myoblast differentiation. During myoblast differentiation, Akt kinase activity correlated with S473 but not T308 phosphorylation and occurred 24 h after p38 activation. Inhibition or activation of p38 with SB203580, dominant-negative p38, or MKK6EE regulated Akt kinase activity. Analysis of Akt isoforms revealed a specific increase in Akt2 protein levels that coincided with AktS473 phosphorylation during myogenesis and an enrichment of S473-phosphorylated Akt2. Akt2 promoter activity and protein levels were regulated by p38 activation, thus providing a mechanism for communication. Subsequent Akt activation by S473 phosphorylation was PI 3-kinase dependent and specific for Akt2 rather than Akt1. Complementary to p38-mediated transactivation of Akt, activation or inhibition of PI 3-kinase regulated p38 activity upstream of MKK6, demonstrating reciprocal communication and positive feedback characteristic of myogenic regulation. Our findings have identified novel communication between p38 MAPK and PI 3-kinase/Akt via Akt2.
AKT is a serine/threonine protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B, which regulates cardiac growth, myocardial angiogenesis, glucose metabolism, and cell death in cardiac myocytes. AKT is activated by its phosphorylation at Thr 308 and ser 473 by PDK1 and mTORC2, respectively, in response to trophic stimuli such as insulin and insulin growth factor. c-Jun N-Terminal Kinases (JNKs) phosphorylate AKT at Thr 450 and potentiate its interaction with its downstream effectors. The short-term activation of AKT promotes physiological hypertrophy and protection from myocardial injury; whereas, its long-term activation causes pathological hypertrophy and heart failure. In this review we will discuss the role of AKT in regulating signalling pathways in the heart with special emphasis on the role of AKT in modulating stress induced autophagic cell death in cardiomyocytes in vitro.
Protein kinase; AKT; Signaling pathways